NGC 7000 = LBN 373 = Sh 2-117 = Ced 183d = North American Nebula

20 59 18 +44 31; Cyg

Size 120'x100'

 

18" (7/16/07): superb view of the entire North American nebula in the 80mm finder at 12.5x and at 73x in the 18-inch with UHC filters in both.  The entire outline of the U.S., Mexico and Central America was well-defined and very high contrast with the surrounding dark fields particularly around the Gulf of Mexico region (LDN 935) and the West Coast.  A 7th magnitude star is at the edge of the center of the gulf (Texas area) and another 7th magnitude star is at the south tip of Florida.  The "Baja peninsula" and Central American extension jut out very prominently from the gulf region. The edge of the northern Canadian region is less well defined.  Open cluster NGC 6997 was very prominent on the East Coast (west side of the nebula).  It was breathtaking to scan around the entire outline, though it overfilled the 67' field.

 

17.5" (7/17/93): at 100x and OIII filter appears very bright, extremely large (fills several fields), amazingly high contrast around the "Gulf" of Mexico and "Baja" region (LDN 935) and to a lesser extent along the west and east coasts.  I traced around the entire border except for the "Canada" region, which consists mostly of scattered star fields with weak nebulosity.  The open cluster NGC 6997 is easily picked out in the NE section.

 

8" (5/26/84): bright, very large, sharp border and details around the "Gulf" section, "Southwest border" and "Baja region".  Rich with faint stars.  Viewed with a Rich Field adapter at 33x-50x.

 

80mm (8/23/84): striking contrast at 16x using a filter at Mt. Rose.

 

80mm (5/26/84): bright with a well-defined "Gulf" region at 13x using a narrowband filter.

 

Naked-eye: Easy naked-eye glow in a dark sky, though this is mostly from the rich Milky Way star cloud and not the involved nebulosity.  The contrast is highest on the southwest side where the star cloud and nebulosity is adjacent to the dark "Gulf of Mexico" region.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7000 = H V-37 = h2096 on 24 Oct 1786 (sweep 620) and recorded "vL. Diffused nebulosity plainly visible, bM, 7 or 8' length, 6' broad and losing itself gradually."  In the next few minutes of the sweep he also commented, "All this time suspected diffuse nebulosity through the whole breadth of the sweep."  He gave two positions at the east and southwest coast of the North American nebula, which became numbers 44 (Southeast US) and 46 (Central America region) in his list of 52 regions with "extensive diffused nebulosity."  Arthur Auwers wrote (in a review of the General Catalogue) that JH omitted this large object, but NGC 7000 = GC 4621.

 

German Astronomer Max Wolf referred to this HII region as "The 'America' Nebula" in a 1902 German paper based on an image taken in 1901.  In the 1903 paper "Diffused nebulosities in the heavens", Barnard refers to the object photographed by Wolf and states "The "North America Nebula" would perhaps be more definite, for it is North America to which Dr. Max Wolf intends the compliment."  Agnes Mary Clerke refered to it as the "America" Nebula in the caption of Wolf's photograph in her 1905 second edition of "The System of the Stars"

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NGC 7001 = UGC 11663 = MCG +00-53-016 = CGCG 374-037 = PGC 65905

21 01 07.7 -00 11 43; Aqr

V = 12.9;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 162¡

 

17.5" (8/31/86): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated, weak concentration.  Located between a mag 14 star 1.0' N and a mag 13 star 1.4' SSE.  Similar notes on 6/20/87.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7001 = h2095 on 21 Jul 1827 and noted "eF; S; E in the meridian [north-south]."  His position and description matches UGC 11663.  Rudolph Spitaler called this galaxy "pB" (IC 1 Notes), using the 27" refractor at the Vienna Observatory in 1891.

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NGC 7002 = ESO 235-043 = PGC 66009

21 03 44.9 -49 01 47; Ind

V = 12.4;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 3¡

 

30" (11/5/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): brighter of a pair with NGC 7004 5.8' SE.  NGC 7002 appears fairly bright, moderately large, round, 1.2' diameter, well concentrated to a bright core that increases down to a bright stellar nucleus.  A mag 15 star lies 0.9' SE.  2MASX J21034127-4902128, an extremely faint companion, is just 45" SW of center.  It appeared as a very small glow, ~10" diameter, no details.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7002 = h3848 on 30 Sep 1834 and logged "F; S; R; smbM; 15"."  A couple of nights later, he noted "pF; pL; R; glbM."

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NGC 7003 = UGC 11662 = MCG +03-53-008 = CGCG 448-027 = PGC 65887

21 00 42.4 +17 48 18; Del

V = 13.0;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 120¡

 

13.1" (7/27/84): very faint, small, low even surface brightness, almost round.  A faint star is at the NE edge.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 7003 on 26 Aug 1864 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  He noted a mag 15 or 16 star follows the center by 2 seconds of time.  His RA (measured on two sweeps) is ~4 seconds too small.  MCG fails to label this galaxy NGC 7003.

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NGC 7004 = ESO 235-046 = PGC 66019

21 04 02.2 -49 06 52; Ind

V = 13.8;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 73¡

 

30" (11/5/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, 1.0'x0.3', contains a bright, elongated core.  A mag 13 star lies 1.3' E and a 16th magnitude star is barely off the WSW tip.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 7002 5.8' NW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7004 = h3849 on 2 Oct 1834 and recorded "eF; R; lbM; has a * 11m 60 seconds following on parallel."  His position and description matches ESO 235-046 = PGC 66019.

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NGC 7005

21 01 57.3 -12 52 53; Aqr

 

17.5" (7/24/95): small very unimpressive asterism of five stars including three mag 12 stars in a 1.5' right triangle and three additional mag 14 stars.  Only noticeable at all due to the three brighter stars in a small group.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 7005 on 23 Aug 1855 with an 4.5-inch Fraunhofer refractor at Leipzig and noted a "nebulous star cluster".  His position is 45' southeast of M73.  This was the first object discovered by d'Arrest (along with the double star NGC 607).  According to Wolfgang Steinicke, Arthur Auwers observed it on 9 Sep 1861 at Kšnigsberg and logged "not a nebula, but only a triangle of three stars."  Herbert Howe called it "simply a coarse cluster, the 3 brightest stars being 9th mag.  No nebulosity discernable."  Reinmuth gave a similar description based on its appearance on a Heidelberg plate.  Also see Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 7006

21 01 29.3 +16 11 15; Del

V = 10.6;  Size 2.8';  Surf Br = 0.1

 

24" (7/11/18): at 375x; bright, very bright mottled core with half-dozen very faint stars resolved around the edges of the halo.  Three very faint to extremely faint galaxies lies to the southwest; CGCG 448-030 3.6' WSW, LEDA 1501723 6' WSW and CGCG 448-029 7.4' SW.

 

18" (7/24/06): this small globular was viewed at 435x and 565x and it appeared very mottled and lively in excellent seeing.  Two or three very faint stars were visible pretty steadily and a number of extremely faint mag 16 stars appeared to sharpen up and momentarily sparkle, particularly in the 1.5' to 2' halo.  Perhaps a total of a dozen stars, sparkled or popped in and out of view.

 

CGCG 448-030 is located just 3.6' SW of the core of NGC 7006!  It appeared extremely faint and small, round, 10" diameter.  Requires averted and cannot hold steadily but repeatedly reacquired.  There is an extremely faint star at the northeast edge which was sometimes noticed instead of the galaxy.  Forms the south vertex of a small triangle with two mag 12.7/13.5 stars ~0.6' N and NE. It is nearly on a line between the globular and mag 7.3 HD 200079 10' SW.

 

CGCG 448-028 is 11.6' NW of NGC 7006.  It appeared faint, small, round, 20" diameter, even surface brightness.  Visible with direct vision.  A wide pair of mag 11.5 stars lies 2.5' NNW.  This is the brighter of the two galaxies observed near NGC 7006.

 

17.5" (8/5/94): moderately bright, small, 1.5' diameter containing a 1' core and a small halo.  The core has a broad weak concentration with no nucleus.  The halo is mottled but difficult to achieve clear resolution.  Around the edges of the halo four or five mag 15.5 stars or fainter pop in and out of view.  The easiest resolved star is just at the north edge of the halo, a close pair is at the east edge and a single star is at the southeast side.  An easy pair of mag 14 foreground stars at 20" separation is off the south side 1.6' from the center.  The interacting system UGC 11672 lies 43' E.

 

13.1" (6/29/84): fairly faint, small, small bright nucleus, small fainter halo.  Mottled and clumpy but not resolved at 360x.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7006 = H I-52 = h2097 on 21 Aug 1784 (sweep 253) and recorded "pB, iR, easily resolvable, about 1' diam.  Hazy, otherwise I suppose I might see the stars in it."  On 16 Oct 1784 (sweep 294), he logged "vB, R, mbM, the brightness extending a good way, resolvable (see 253 sweep)."  John Herschel made the single observation "B; R; gbM; 60".  RA from working list, no transit being procured."

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NGC 7007 = ESO 187-048 = PGC 66069

21 05 27.9 -52 33 07; Ind

V = 12.0;  Size 1.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 2¡

 

30" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 394x; bright, moderately large, elongated 5:3 N-S, ~1.25'x0.75', sharply concentrated with a very bright core that increases to a stellar nucleus.  A string of 5 mag 12-13 stars (oriented E-W) passes to the south and a mag 15.6 star is 0.8' W of center.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7007 = h3850 on 8 Jul 1834 and recorded "pB; vS; R; pslbM; 12"."  His mean position (3 observations) is accurate.  Joseph Turner observed it on 5 Sep 1877 with the 48" Melbourne Telescope and notes it was suddently brighter in the middle to a nucleus.(p. 142 of logbook).

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NGC 7008 = PK 93+5.2 = PN G093.4+05.4 = Ced 186 = Fetus Nebula

21 00 32.8 +54 32 36; Cyg

V = 11.0;  Size 98"x75"

 

48" (10/24/14): We had a superb view of NGC 7008 unfiltered at 488x and 610x. This irregular, annular planetary extended ~1.5'x1.2' SSW-NNE with a roughly oval outline, except on the southwest end.  Several stars are involved or just off the edge, including h1606 = 9.6/11.7 at 19Ó separation, which is just off the SSE edge.  A very bright, elongated knot is at the NNE edge of the rim. A larger elongated knot is just on its inside (towards the central star), with the pair of close knots virtually attached.  On the opposite SSW end is the next brightest region, extending nearly 45¡ along the rim.  This larger glow spreads irregularly into the darker center and dims.  Another brighter knot is on the WNW edge of the rim (probably K 4-44), just northeast of a mag 14 star that is close off the west edge.  Finally, another slightly brighter knot is at the east edge of the rim, close south of a mag 14 star on the northeast side.  The entire southwest side appears as if it was "nibbled" around the edges, as part of the outer edge is missing.  A mag 13.5 star sits in the center of the darker interior with the central "hole" darkest immediately east of the central star. Another darker region is in the southeast quadrant just north of h1606.

 

18" (9/10/07): The "Fetus Nebula" is a fascinating annular planetary, best viewed at high power.  Using 452x the oval halo is elongated SSW-NNE, ~85"x65".  The most striking feature is a bright, 25" knot on the NNE end that is irregular in surface brightness with a very small brighter condensation near its south end.  The SW quadrant of the planetary is also brighter in an elongated region and it is weakest on the east and SE edge facing the wide double star off the south edge.  In the darker center, a mag 13.5 central star is visible and a second fainter mag 14 star is near the NE edge.  Also a mag 14 star is just off the west edge.  NGC 7008 is situated just north of h1606, a mag 9.3/10.2 pair at 18" oriented N-S.

 

17.5" (6/28/00): this beautiful, highly structured PN is situated just north of a wide double star (9.2/10.5 at 18"). At 280x, the annular oval is elongated SSW-NNE, ~90"x65".  A bright 30" irregular knot is prominent at the NE end.  The SW end of the major axis has a fainter condensation and the rim is clearly dimmest near the double star.  The mag 14 central star shines steadily as does a slightly fainter mag 14.5 on the NE edge.  Just off the west edge is another 14th magnitude star.  The darker center is faintly luminous and the surface brightness is irregular over the entire oval giving a mottled, wispy appearance.

 

13" (9/11/82): bright planetary with unusual structure and several stars involved.  The striking complete annular ring is elongated SW-NE.  A mag 14 central star mag is visible as well as a mag 14 star at the NE edge and a faint star is off the west edge.  A small brighter knot marks the NE end.  The planetary is located just north of h1606 = 9.3/10.5 at 18" separation.

 

8" (9/11/82): unusual structure, curves and extends further south on the west side.  A faint star is embedded.

 

80mm (9/10/07):  the planetary was faintly visible in the finder at 25x using an OIII filter.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7008 = H I-192 = h2099 on 14 Oct 1787 (sweep 765) and recorded "cB, strong nebulosity of an irregular square figure.  Seems to contain faint large stars, about 3' l and 2 1/2' broad."  Two nights later (sweep 768) he noted "the stars which are visible in it, do not seem to belong to it."  On sweep 211, JH logged "L; E; r; has an appearance of two nuclei or points of greatest condensation; it touches a fine double star [h1606 = 9.3/10.2 at 18"]."  R.J. Mitchell, LdR's assistant on 19 Aug 1855, recorded "seen as in sketch [PT 1861, pl XXX, fig 37].  3 st in it, F neby reaches nearly up to the star sf; B knots in it, the nf one seems triangular in shape and sometimes I thought it split up by a dark line from sf to np."

 

Based on Crossley photographs taken at Lick, Heber Curtis (1918) reported "irregular ring structure indicated; the dimensions are 86"x69" in p.a. 20¡.  The two brightest patches are at the north.. three stars lie in roughly circular gaps in the nebulosity..."

 

In a 2001 issue of Amateur Astronomy magazine, Eric Honeycutt called NGC 7008 the "Fetus Nebula" due to its appearance in his 22-inch telescope.

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NGC 7009 = PK 37-34.1 = PN G037.7-34.5 = Saturn Nebula

21 04 10.7 -11 21 49; Aqr

V = 7.8;  Size 30"x26"

 

48" (10/29/16): the remarkable Saturn Nebula was viewed at 1084x.  The intense, inner "ring" is very elongated (~25"x10") with an unusual warped appearance.  The inner ring is brighter on the west end.  The rounder shell extends ~30"x25", slightly elongated WSW-ENE and contains an obvious "knot" on the north side of the shell.  The ansae ("handles" at the end of the jets) varied in size and orientation, with the western ansae larger, brighter and angled outward on the north end.  The central star was easily visible.

 

48" (10/24/14): at 610x; the western ansae or "handle" at the end of the jet appeared as a small, narrow bar, roughly perpendicular to the extension, but slightly tilted, so the north end was pointing outward (west).  The eastern ansae was much smaller but with careful viewing was slightly elongated and tilted in a mirrored orientation.  Also, a very small, low contrast knot was noted on the north end of the outer shell.  Otherwise, the details mentioned in the observation from last November were all noted.

 

48" (11/1/13): the double-shell structure was fascinating at 813x. The bright, inner ring was surprisingly elongated WSW-ENE, ~30"x10", with an irregular surface brightness and uneven thickness.  The inner darker hole was also elongated, extending nearly the length of the nebula and was punctuated by a fairly easy central star.  This annulus is encased in a rounder, outer shell, ~30"x25" diameter, with a slightly irregular rim (brighter at the north edge).  Extending from the main body were the two easily visible "jets" extending WSW-ENE with prominent "ansae" (handles) at each tip [separation 44"] with the western tip slightly brighter.  The color was generally greenish, though the outer halo had a salmon-colored tinge.

 

24" (7/25/14): viewed at 1000x in good seeing at Lassen National Park (elevation 8200 ft).  The intense, inner annulus is 30"x18" with a bright, moderately thick green rim and darker center.  The central star was nearly visible steadily within the darker center.  The oval annulus was slightly irregular in surface brightness.  It was surrounded by a rounder, fainter envelope, which varied slightly in brightness, particularly on the north side, which contained a noticeable knot.  The fairly narrow jets were readily visible, though brighter on the west side.  An obvious knot ("ansa") that was slightly elongated was visible at the tip of the western jet.  The eastern extension only had a weak brightening at the tip.

 

18" (7/28/03): Viewed at 1087x in very good seeing.  The 30" brighter inner oval is elongated WSW-ENE and has a noticeable irregular surface brightness (first time this was noted) with a brighter, thick rim and darker center (partially annular).  Surrounding the high surface oval is a fainter, outer shell although interestingly, the transition appeared more gradual than at lower power.  The extensions or jets were easily visible with very small knots ("ansae") occasionally visible at the tips.

 

17.5" (8/10/91): extremely bright, fairly small, very high surface brightness, blue-green color, about 30" diameter to the main oval body.  At 412x, the two famous extensions or "jets" are easily visible extending WSW-ENE from the oval disc using direct vision.  The western extension is brighter and a very small knot (ansae) is visible at moments with concentration at the tip of the west extension. A faint outer shell surrounds the bright disc.  Numerous additional observations made since 9/14/85.

 

13.1" (9/3/83): similar view to 17.5", but the eastern extension was more difficult to view.

 

8" (10/13/81): bright, small, blue-green, high surface brightness.  Rays extending outward are suspected, particularly on the western side in excellent seeing at 200x.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7009 = H IV-1 on 7 Sep 1782, over a year before he began his sweeps, while still reviewing naed-eye stars and discovering double stars. This was Herschel's first documented deep sky discovery (Wolfgang Steinicke found an unpublished discovery of NGC 6535 on 24 Aug 1780 while he inspected the Flamsteed stars).  It was found with either his 6.2-inch or his 12-inch f/20 reflector ("small 20-foot") built in 1776 to survey the Messier objects. He described "a curious nebula, or what else to call it I do not know. It is of a shape somewhat oval, nearly circular, and with this power [460] appears to be about 10 or 15" diameter.  It is of the same shape with 278 but much less in appearance.  With 932 it is still the same shape but much larger.  So that its appearance seems to follow the law of magnifying, from whence it is clear that it is of some real magnitude in the heavens and not a glare of light.  The brightness in all the powers does not differ so much as if it were of a planetary nature but seems to be of the starry kind, tho' no star is visible with any power.  It is all over of nearly the same brightness.  The compound eyepiece will not distinguish it from a fixt star, at least not sensibly...".  He observed the planetary during 6 sweeps with his 18.7" and on 2 Aug 1788 (sweep 851) logged, "The planetary nebula, considerably oval, in the direction of the parallel nearly.  Of a bluish light, but not very well defined."

 

Wilhelm Struve independently found NGC 7009 (· 8) in 1825 or 1826 with the 9.6-inch Great Dorpat refractor.  It was included in his list of 9 "Nebulae dectae" in an appendix to his main catalogue of double stars. Auwers and d'Arrest measured accurate positions.  Lord Rosse, Romney Robinson and George Johnstone Stoney observed the planetary on 23 Oct 1848 resulting in a sketch (by Stoney) and description, "we have not detected any perforation, but it has ansae, which probably indicate a surrounding nebulous ring seen edgeways".

 

Stoney or Rosse made another observation on 16 Aug 1849 and measured the "position of ring taken with an eyepiece furnished with a level and a position circle.  Inclination of ring to horizon 9¡."  Although the nickname "Saturn Nebula" was not mentioned in Robinson's report to the Royal Irish Academy, the description in the 1880 publication (given as 16 Sep 1849) states, "Saturn neb. Pos of ring 81 deg".

 

Using a 9.5" refractor in 1856, Father Secchi sketched NGC 7009 and noted the nebula was fainter at the ends of the major axis and brighter along the north and south sides (AN 43, 157).

 

In 1867 Lassell reported his "Observations with the Four-foot Equatoreal at Malta" and his description from 23 Aug 1862 begins "My first impression of this Nebula was that it was a sky-blue likeness of Saturn".  In a letter dated 26 Sep 1862, he goes into much more detail:  In directing my large equatoreal upon the well-known planetary nebula situated in AR 20h 56m N.P.D. 101¡ 56' (1862), it has revealed so marvellous a conformation of this object that I cannot forbear to send you a drawing of it [see www.docdb.net/history/texts/display.php?article=1863rsps___12__269l], with some description of its appearance. With comparatively low powers, e.g. 231and 285, it appears at first sight as a vividly light-blue elliptic nebula, with a slight prolongation of the nebula, or a very faint star, at or near the ends of the transverse axis. In this aspect the nebula resembles in form the planet Saturn when the ring is seen nearly edgewise. Attentively viewing it with higher powers, magnifying respectively 760, 1060, and 1480 times, and under the most favourable circumstances which have presented themselves, I have discovered within the nebula a brilliant elliptic ring, extremely well defined, and apparently having no connexion with the surrounding nebula, which indeed has the appearance of a gaseous or gauze-like envelope, scarcely interfering with the sharpness of the ring, and only diminishing somewhat its brightness. This nebulous envelope extends a little further from the ends of the conjugate than from the ends of the transverse axis; indeed, it is but very faintly prolonged, and only just traceable towards the preceding and following stars....

 

Lassell's sketch shows the two ansae or handles as faint stars but the outer halo does not extend as far as the ansae. Hermann Vogel produced an excellent sketch on 20 Sep 1883 using the 27" refractor at Vienna.  Besides the prominent inner elliptical ring and an oval darker central hole, the outer halo extends ENE-WSW and tapers on the ends with a star-like knot on the WSW end.

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NGC 7010 = IC 5082 = MCG -02-53-024 = PGC 66039

21 04 39.5 -12 20 18; Aqr

V = 13.5;  Size 2.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.5;  PA = 30¡

 

17.5" (7/1/89): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, weakly concentrated.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7010 = h2100 on 6 Aug 1823 (sweep 48).  This galaxy was the first deep sky object Herschel discovered during his early "practice" sweeps.  He recorded it as "a round, excessively faint nebula, 1' in diameter, resolvable, scarcely (?) perceptible, bM, found in looking vainly for M72."

 

His practice sweep, along with 6 others in May to September of 1823, were mislaid and later found after he started numbering his sweeps.  For completeness, he sequenced these initial sweeps as numbers 43 to 49.  His position for NGC 7010 was 10' too far south but Herbert Howe measured an accurate position at the turn of the century.  Herschel's first astronomical notebook entries date back to Nov 1816 and include some double stars as well as M31, M32 and M36.

 

Harold Corwin writes that Guillaume Bigourdan misidentified NGC 7010 with a star and rediscovered the galaxy (at the correct position).  Dreyer didn't realize the equivalence, so NGC 7010 was catalogued again as IC 5082.  MCG (-02-53-024) labels this galaxy as IC 5082.

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NGC 7011

21 01 49.7 +47 21 15; Cyg

 

17.5" (9/23/95): at the NGC position are just some scattered faint stars near a mag 9.5 star located at 21 01 52 +47 24.9.  These do not appear to be worth noting at all by John Herschel.  About 15' NE, though, is a fairly bright scattered group located to the southeast of mag 7.5 SAO 50376.  This group is about 5' in length and elongated NW-SE.  Near the center is the brightest star (mag 10) at 21 02 34 +47 32.7.  Also of interest is the Milky Way, which abruptly begins off the southeast side of the low power field and is magnificent to sweep around in this region.  Listed as nonexistent in RNGC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7011 = h2101 on 19 Sep 1829 and simply noted "A cluster.  No further description."  There are only weak concentrations near his position and Karl Reinmuth concludes "no cluster", based on a Heidelberg plate.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.

 

A small group of 8 mag 13-14 stars in a 3' region lies 2' north of JH's position, and Harold Corwin lists this asterism as the most likely candidate.  But I didn't feel it stood out visually.  Another candidate is ~15' northeast (see visual description).  Brent Archinal was unable to visually identify a candidate.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for the full story.

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NGC 7012 = ESO 286-051 = PGC 66116

21 06 45.5 -44 48 53; Mic

V = 12.7;  Size 2.5'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 100¡

 

30" (11/5/10 - Coonabarabran, 429x): brightest galaxy in the core of ACO S921.  I quickly took notes on 10 galaxies within a 10' circle including four small companions of NGC 7012 within 2'!  NGC 7012 appeared fairly bright, moderately large, round, 50" diameter, well concentrated with a small bright core.  The brightest nearby companion is ESO-LV 2860520 situated 1.3' SE but two fainter, very small companions (not included in Megastar) are just off the east and NE edge of the halo.  ESO 286-048, a nice edge-on, lies 3.4' NW.  A mag 12 star lies 1' SW and a mag 15 star is 27" SE of center.  The cluster is centered roughly 14' NE of mag 6.9 HD 200554.  The following are some of the nearby galaxies.

 

Anon J2106481-444853

Situated just 32" NE of the center of NGC 7012 in a tight group of 5 galaxies within 2'.  Appeared as a very faint knot, round, 10" diameter.  LCRS B210329.4-450104, a similar faint knot, is just 25" SE.  There is no listing for this galaxy in NED, HyperLeda or SIMBAD.

 

LCRS B210329.4-450104

Situated just 40" E of the center of NGC 7012.  Appeared as a very faint knot, round, 10" diameter with a similar galaxy (uncatalogued) 25" NW.  A very faint star is just off the SW edge, 17" from center, sandwiched between this galaxy and NGC 7012.

 

ESO-LV 2860520 = 2MASX J21065143-4449340 = PGC 66118

This galaxy is situated 1.3' SE of NGC 7012.  It appeared fairly faint, small, round, 20" diameter, small brighter core.  2MASX J21065660-4449137 lies 1' NE.

 

2MASX J21065660-4449137 = MAC 2106-4449 = PGC 533284

Picked up 2' ESE of NGC 7012 in the core of galaxy cluster.  Appeared very faint, very small, 15"x10".  This is the last of four galaxies that follow within 2' of NGC 7012!

 

ESO 286-048

Fairly faint, very elongated 7:2 SW-NE, 0.9'x0.25', brighter core.  Located 3.4' NW of NGC 7012 in the central part of the cluster.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7012 = h3851 on 1 Jul 1834 and recorded "A nebulous looking but doubtful object following a star 10 mag.  My eye is too much fatigued to be able to decide on its nature."  On a later sweep, he added "F; E; vgvlbM; 60" l; 30" br; near a star."

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NGC 7013 = UGC 11670 = MCG +05-49-001 = CGCG 491-002 = PGC 66003

21 03 33.3 +29 53 49; Cyg

V = 11.3;  Size 4.0'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 157¡

 

13.1" (7/20/85): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated NNW-SSE, dominated by a bright core containing a faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 9.5 star (BD+29 4291) lies just off the north edge 1.8' from center.  Located less than 2¡ SE of the bright eastern section of the Veil nebula!

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7013 = H II-203 = h2102 on 17 Jul 1784 (sweep 239) and noted "pB, bM, irregularly E, resolvable.  Near a bright star."  His position is nearly a minute of time too large.  On 11 Sep 1784 (sweep 265) he noted "F, pL, lE, bM, south following a pB star." JH made two observations, recording (sweep 177) "pB; S; psbM; 12"; has a * 10m, pos 345¡ by micrometer; field full of stars."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7014 = ESO 286-057 = LGG 441-010 = PGC 66153

21 07 52.2 -47 10 44; Ind

V = 12.4;  Size 1.9'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 130¡

 

30" (10/10/15 - OzSky): this galaxy is the brightest member of AGC 3742 = ACO S924 = Indus Group (part of the Pavo-Indus Supercluster). At 394x it appeared fairly bright, moderately large, sharply concentrated with an intense core, slightly elongated halo ~1.2'x1.0'.  Two mag 13.5 stars oriented E-W are 1.2' N.

 

ESO 286-049, situated 11' W, is the second brightest cluster member or equal in visibility to NGC 7014.  It was noted as fairly bright, fairly small, very small and very bright core, halo elongated 3:2 N-S, 0.6'x0.4'.  A mag 10.8 star lies 2.5' NE. The general field is fairly well populated with stars.  

 

LEDA 506328 is 3.7' N and appeared faint to fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated ~E-W, 18"x12".

 

LEDA 101199 is 8' ENE and noted as faint, small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, low surface brightness.  A mag 16 star is situated at the NNW tip.

 

LEDA 130607, located just 1.5' SW of ESO 286-049 and 12' SW of NGC 7014, appeared very faint, very small, round, 10" diameter.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7014 = h3852 on 2 Oct 1834 and recorded "pF; S; R: bM; has 2 st 12th mag north."  His position is at the south edge of ESO 286-057  = PGC 66153 and the two stars are 1.2' north of center.

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NGC 7015 = UGC 11674 = MCG +02-53-012 = CGCG 425-040 = LGG 442-004 = PGC 66076

21 05 37.4 +11 24 51; Equ

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 165¡

 

13.1" (6/29/84): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, diffuse, weak concentration.  A mag 15 star is at the south edge 40" from the center.

 

8" (7/24/82): very faint, small, slightly elongated N-S.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7015 = St IX-26 = Sw. II-87 on 29 Sep 1878.  His micrometric position is very accurate.  Lewis Swift independently rediscovered this galaxy on 11 Sep 1885 and logged "pF, pS, R, lbM." His position is 3.5' too far north.

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NGC 7016 = ESO 529-025 = MCG -04-49-013 = VV 764 = AM 2104-254 NED1 = PGC 66136

21 07 16.3 -25 28 08; Cap

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

24" (9/26/19): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, ~25" diameter, very small brighter nucleus.

 

24" (8/14/15): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, ~20" diameter, contains a brighter core. In a group with NGC 7018 3.2' NE and NGC 7017 1.5' SE.

 

24" (9/27/14): faint, very small, round, 18" diameter.  Brighter NGC 7017 (double system) is just 1.5' SE with NGC 7018 (also a double system) 3.2' NE.

 

18" (8/25/06): faint, small, round, 25" diameter, weak even concentration to a very small brighter nucleus that is occasionally stellar.  Located 3' SW of NGC 7108 in the core of AGC 3744.

 

17.5" (8/21/98): first of trio with NGC 7017 and NGC 7018 within AGC 3744. Appears very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, very small brighter core.  Forms a close pair with NGC 7017 1.5' SE.

 

17.5" (7/21/90): faint, small, round, bright core.  Forms a close similar pair with NGC 7017 1' SE with brighter NGC 7018 3' NNE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7016 = LM 1-237, along with NGC 7017 and NGC 7018, on 8 Jul 1885.  He noted "mag 14.0, eS, R, bMN, 1st of 3."  These three the brightest galaxies in the core of AGC 3744.  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is about 1.5' south of ESO 529-025.  Herbert Howe's corrected position is accurate.

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NGC 7017 = ESO 529-026 = MCG -04-49-014 = VV 764 = AM 2104-254 NED2 = PGC 66137

21 07 20.6 -25 29 16; Cap

V = 14.4;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 90¡

 

24" (9/26/19): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, ~0.5'x0.4', increases gradually to a brighter core.

 

24" (8/14/15): at 375x; moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:3 E-W, ~30"x18", bright core.  Although sometimes it appeared roundish, occasionally the elongated glow just resolved into a very close pair [separation 12" between centers] with the smaller (barely nonstellar) and fainter component on the east side.

 

24" (9/27/14): at 375x appeared fairly faint, small, slightly elongated E-W, 25"x20".  Occasionally a very faint "knot" was attached at the east end, ~6" diameter.  This is a merged double system with the east "knot" listed in NED as NGC 7017 NED2.

 

18" (8/25/06): faint, small, elongated 4:3 ~E-W, brighter core.  Similar brightness to nearby NGC 7016 but contains a more condensed core.  Located 3.7' SSW of NGC 7018 in the core of AGC 3744.

 

17.5" (8/21/98): very faint, very small, ~30"x20".  Similar to NGC 7016 just 1.5' NW within AGC 3744.

 

17.5" (7/21/90): faint, small, round, bright core.  Forms a close similar pair with NGC 7016 1' NW.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7017 = LM 1-238, along with NGC 7016 and NGC 7018, on 8 Jul 1885.  He noted "mag 15.0, vS, R, bMN, 2nd of 3."  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) essentially matches ESO 529-026 = PGC 66137, though Herbert Howe measured an accurate position with the 20-inch refractor at Denver.

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NGC 7018 = ESO 529-027 = MCG -04-49-015 = VV 764 NED1 = AM 2104-253 NED1 = PGC 66141 = PGC 93985

21 07 25.4 -25 25 44; Cap

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 86¡

 

24" (9/26/19): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 E-W, ~0.6'x0.4', broad concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is close north [1' from center].

 

24" (8/14/15): at 225x; moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:3 E-W, ~30"x18".  At 375x, resolved into a very close pair of galaxies [just 10" between centers!] oriented E-W.  The western component is slightly smaller and fainter, with the brighter 15" component is on the east side.  A mag 13.5 star lies 1' N.

 

24" (9/27/14): at 375x, the brightest member in AGC 3744 appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 ~E-W.  This double system often resolves into two tangent components; the eastern member (NGC 7018 NED02 = 2MASX J21072565-2525430) is slightly larger and brighter (18" diameter) and the western component (NGC 7018 NED01 = 2MASX J21072463-2525569) is very compact (12" diameter).

 

Nearby are NGC 7016 3.2' SW, NGC 7017 3.7' SSW and MCG -04-49-016 2.6' ENE.  The MCG appeared very faint, extremely small, round, 12" diameter.  A mag 15 star is 0.6' SW.

 

18" (8/25/06): brightest in the AGC 3744 cluster.  At 220x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~E-W, 45"x30", gradually brighter core and slightly brighter along the major axis.  A mag 12.5 star lies 1' N.  Located 10' NE of an 8th magnitude star and 25' S of 4.5-magnitiude 24 Capricorni.

 

17.5" (8/21/98): the brightest member of AGC 3744 appeared faint, small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 30"x20", weak concentration.  A mag 13 star lies 1' N.  Brightest in a quartet with NGC 7016 3.2' SW and NGC 7017 3.7' SSW.

 

17.5" (7/21/90): faint, small, slightly elongated E-W, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is 1.0' N.  Brightest in a trio with NGC 7016 and NGC 7017 3' SW.  Located 30' SSE of 24 Capricorni (V = 4.5).

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7018 = LM 1-239, along with NGC 7016 and NGC 7017, on 8 Jul 1885.  He noted "vF, vS, vlE, glbMN, 3rd and brightest of 3."  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is 2' south of ESO 529-027 = PGC 66141 = PGC 93985.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position with the 20-inch refractor at Denver.

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NGC 7019 = ESO 529-022 = PGC 66107

21 06 25.7 -24 24 46; Cap

V = 14.2;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 137¡

 

17.5" (7/26/95): very faint, small, round, 40" diameter, low even surface brightness, can just hold steadily with averted vision.  Follows a very distinctive "V" shaped asterism of six equal mag 13-13.5 stars with the vertex at the west end.  This vertex star is 3.4' due west of center.

 

17.5" (8/7/91): very faint, very small, round.  Located 3' E of a striking line of four mag 13 stars oriented SW-NE which are equally spaced and part of a larger string.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7019 = LM 1-240 in 1886 and noted mag 15.0, vS, sbMN.  His rough position (nearest minute of RA, which itself is marked as uncertain) is 1 minute of RA east of ESO 529-022 = PGC 66107 and matches in declination.

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NGC 7020 = NGC 7021 = ESO 107-013 = AM 2106-641 = LGG 443-002 = PGC 66291

21 11 19.9 -64 01 27; Pav

V = 11.8;  Size 3.7'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 165¡

 

30" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 394x; bright, fairly large, elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, ~2.5'x1.2', sharply concentrated with a very bright elongated core that increases to the center and a very low surface brightness halo.  Located 8' E of mag 6.9 HD 201020.  Brightest in a small group with IC 5092 41' SE and IC 5096 49' NE.  Structurally, NGC 7020 is one of the most prominent outer-ringed (detached) galaxies in the sky.

 

John Herschel found NGC 7020 = h3853 on 31 Aug 1836 and recorded "pB; lE; pgbM; 30" long."  He had discovered this galaxy earlier on 22 Jun 1835, but made a 30' error in declination (too far north) and it was catalogued separately as h3854 (later NGC 7021).  The error was noted by Lauberts (1980) in ESO. So, NGC 7020 = NGC 7021.

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NGC 7021 = NGC 7020 = ESO 107-013 = AM 2106-641 = PGC 66291

21 11 19.9 -64 01 27; Pav

V = 11.8;  Size 3.7'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 165¡

 

See observing notes for NGC 7020.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7021 = h3854 on 22 Jun 1835 and recorded "pF; R; psbM; 25"; has a * 7-8m 10' preceding, exactly in the parallel.  There is nothing at his position, but 30' south is ESO 107-013 = PGC 66291 and the comment about the bright star to the west clinches this identification.  JH rediscovered this galaxy on 31 Aug 1836, measured an accurate position, and listed it as h3853 (later NGC 7020).  So, NGC 7021 = NGC 7020.  Both DeLisle Stewart and Royal Frost reported not finding NGC 7021 at JH's (erroneous) position (IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 7022 = ESO 235-065 = PGC 66224

21 09 35.2 -49 18 13; Ind

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 16¡

 

30" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 394x, moderately bright and large, elongated 2:1 N-S, ~45"x20", irregular surface brightness with slightly brighter middle and major axis but no distinct core.  A mag 16 star is at or just off the north tip.  A string of 3 mag 11.5-13 stars oriented NNW-SSE lies 5' SE.  NGC 7029 lies 22' E.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7022 = h3855, along with NGC 7029, on 2 Oct 1834 and recorded "eeF; S; R; on a delicately and uniformly stipled ground; a bright triple star 6' or 7' sf nearly points to it."

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NGC 7023 = LBN 487 = Ced 187 = vdB 139 = Iris Nebula

21 01 36 +68 10; Cep

Size 18'x18'

 

18" (7/24/06): viewed at 160x, this detailed reflection nebula displayed a great deal of interesting structure!  Surrounding the mag 7.4 illuminating star HD 200775 (pre-main-sequence Herbig Be star) is a bright halo of nebulosity extending mostly north of the star and ending just south of the star in a well-defined slightly curving border.  A wide absorption lane cuts into the nebulosity from the southwest towards the bright star.  To the south of the star is a triangular region of haze (brightest just south of the central star) roughly filling in the region defined by a mag 13.5 star 5.5' SSE and a fainter star a similar distance southwest.  A larger section of faint haze extending N-S is seemingly detached at the periphery on the east side of the nebula (this is an outer "wing" on photographs) and a more vaguely defined region of low surface brightness haze is detached on the western side (also oriented N-S).  These two detached wings give a diameter of at least 7'.

 

17.5" (8/13/88): very prominent unusual nebulosity surrounding mag 7.4 SAO 19158.  A dark lane oriented SSW-NNE is following the bright star.  Nebulosity may extend to a star 3' SSE that also has a halo.

 

13.1" (9/22/84): the dark lane appears to be following the central star and oriented ~N-S.

 

13.1" (9/11/82): bright, large nebulosity surrounding a mag 7 star.  There is a sharp light cut-off on the east side near the bright star, although nebulosity extends beyond.

 

8" (8/28/81): nebulosity extends south of the mag 7.5 star with averted vision using 100-125x. A very faint star is at the south edge.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7023 = H IV-74 on 18 Oct 1794 (sweep 1063) and recorded "7m.  A star very much affected with nebulosity that more than fills the field, it seemed to extend to at least a degree all round; small stars such as 9 or 10m of which there are a great number, are perfectly free from this appearance, but everything about the telescope being very damp, I have suspicion of a deception."  Per Collinder mistakenly equated a cluster (Cr 429) with NGC 7023.  Cr 427 is a very faint cluster close west, though Archinal and Hynes noted "His position for Cr 429 fall precisely on the actual location for the real cluster here, Cr 427.  And Collinder's position for the real cluster falls 1 minute to the west of it on comparitively empty sky."

 

In 1907 Max Wolf photographed the nebula with the 28" reflector of the Konigstuhl Observatory and found the nebula was encircled by a lacuna or ring 0.5¡ in diameter, which is "absolutely empty of faint stars" [dubbed a "Hohlennebel" or "cave-nebula"] .  He noted "In spite of the small field of the reflector-plate, there was evidence that the cavity was the end of a channel entering the picture almost exactly from the south...The nebula itself is a very remarkable object.  In many respects it resembles in form the Pi2 Cygni nebula [IC 5146 = Cocoon Nebula]."  The surrounding void was first photographed by Dr. Roberts.  The reflection nebula vdB 152, also in Cepheus, is another example.

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NGC 7024

21 06 09.1 +41 29 22; Cyg

Size 8'

 

17.5" (10/21/95): this fairly rich Milky Way field shows up reasonably distinctly at low power with a 20 Nagler.  The densest part consists of 30 mag 12-14 stars in a 6' irregular outline.  There is also a looser group of stars attached to the NE extending the diameter to 15'.  The group on the NE side appears part of the same stream and includes several mag 11 stars.  Listed as nonexistent in RNGC.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7024 = H VIII-57 = h2103 on 17 Oct 1786 (sweep 612) and recorded "A cluster of coarsely scattered pS stars of several sizes, not rich."  On 1 Oct 1828 (sweep 183), JH logged "A loose struggling coarse cl.  Stars 10...11m, place that of 3 *s 10m in a triangle in the closest part.  Several st precede the cl, which seems to be an outlier of the second branch of the Milky Way."

 

Karl Reinmuth reported its photographic appearance as "an irregular loose clustering of st 10..."   Although it may not be a true cluster, RNGC misclassifies the number as nonexistent.

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NGC 7025 = UGC 11681 = MCG +03-54-001 = CGCG 449-003 = LGG 442-008 = PGC 66151

21 07 47.3 +16 20 09; Del

V = 12.8;  Size 1.9'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 33¡

 

18" (10/8/05): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 0.8'x0.6', sharply concentrated with a well-defined bright core and a faint halo.  The core brightness somewhat to the center.  Located 40" E of a mag 9.7 star, which is on the east edge of a bright, scattered group of stars ("Toadstool" or French 1).

 

13.1" (9/29/84): fairly faint, very small, almost round, small bright nucleus.  Located close following a large, scattered group of bright mag 8-10 stars (dubbed the "Toadstool" by Sue French) and just 0.7' E of a mag 9.5 star!

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7025 = m 433 on 17 Sep 1863 and noted "vF, vS, R, stell."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7026 = PK 89+0.1 = PN G089.0+00.3 = Cheeseburger Nebula

21 06 18.6 +47 51 08; Cyg

V = 10.9;  Size 29"x13"

 

18" (9/10/07): at 565x the "Cheeseburger Nebula' was easily resolved into two small, elongated knots oriented ~E-W and with both lobes slightly extended ~N-S.  Both knots are lively or mottled and slightly tapered in shape.  They both contain stellar or quasi-stellar points near their centers with the western nucleus slightly easier.  The eastern lobe is barely larger and brighter.  The lobes are nearly tangent [6" apart between centers] but just separated by a darker lane and both lobes are encased in a common halo.  At 807x, the two lobes were clearly separated by a dark lane (the Cheeseburger's "patty"!) oriented SSW to NNE.  A central star was not seen. A mag 10.5 star is off the NE side, less than 30" from the center.  Located 13' NNW of mag 4.6 73 Cyg.

 

17.5" (7/9/99): fascinating object at 380x both with and without a UHC filter.  The double-lobed structure is clearly visible with the western lobe slightly elongated N-S and containing a brighter center.  The eastern knot also has a quasi-stellar center at moments using direct vision and the knot has an irregular outline.  Using the UHC, the lobes are more cleanly separated and the small fainter halo that encases the two bright lobes is more obvious.  A mag 11 star is just 0.5' NE of center.  Located 12.5' NNW of mag 4.7 63 Cygni.

 

13" (9/3/83): at 333x appears fairly bright, very small, elongated WSW-ENE.  Two brighter condensations at the opposite ends are possibly barely detached at the center.  Forms a double at low power with a comparable mag 11 star 27" NE of center.

 

Sherburne Burnham discovered NGC 7026 on 6 Jul 1873 with his personal 6-inch Clark refractor at his home in Chicago (Memoirs of the RAS, Vol 44, p295).  It was described in his "Third Catalogue of Double Stars (1873) as "a very remarkable and curious double, or elongated planetary (?) nebula.  It is close to a 9.3m star.  This may have been noted before, but it is not in Herschel's General Catalogue, or Lassell's Catalogue of New Nebulae."  It was also included in his 1879 "Double Star Observations made in 1877-8 at Chicago with the 18 1/2-inch Refractor of the Dearborn Observatory, comprising: I. A Catalogue of 251 New Double Stars with Measures; II. Micrometrical Measures of 500 Double Stars."  He noted the "distance between nuclei as 2.57".  Dreyer missed Burnham's two discovery notes, so NGC 7026 wasn't added to the General Catalog Supplement.

 

Ralph Copeland independently found this planetary on 18 Nov 1880 using a visual spectroscopic sweep and announced "a new planetary nebula has been found by Dr. Copeland at Dunecht, using Prof. Pickering's method of search."  Burnham caught Copeland's "discovery" note and claimed priority in another 1881 article ("The planetary nebula in Cygnus").  Burnham later studied NGC 7026 with the 36" Lick refractor.

 

In 1909, Rev. Thomas Espin wrote (1909MNRAS..70..184E), "This autumn I have observed the nebula on several occasions.  It consists of two elongated masses running N and small, each of which has a nucleus.  To my eye the preceding nucleus is slightly brighter, and I have estimated them as 11.2, 11.4 mag, respectively.  On Nov. 15 it seemed to me that the south part of the nebula ends more abruptly than the north.  On the same night a faint star was suspected at the south end, and attempts were made to measure it.  On all occasions the space between the two masses has seemed filled with nebulosity, and the object has appeared as one nebula with two nuclei."

 

Based on Crossley photographs taken at Lick, Heber Curtis (1918) reported "very irregular; there are two bright lobes 5" long in the shorter exposures symmetrically placed with regard to the central star, and about 6" apart from center to center.  A bright of nebulosity connects these and involves the central star, so that it resembles the letter H.  Irregular wisps extend from each end of this formation, making the total length about 25" in p.a. about 10¡.

 

Jay McNeil coined the nickname "Cheeseburger Nebula" in 1994 with a 10" f/5 Cave reflector.  "It very much so reminded me of a small, nebulous hamburger with two perfectly shaped "buns" separated by a long thin dark lane (the meat ;-)."

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NGC 7027 = PK 84-3.1 = PN G084.9-03.4

21 07 01.5 +42 14 10; Cyg

V = 8.5;  Size 18"x11"

 

48" (10/24/14): this fairly small, ultra-high surface brightness green planetary was observed at 610x.  Overall, the object extends ~18"x12" NW-SE, but split up into three distinct components.  The first and brightest component is an elongated glow (~10"x6" NW-SE) on the northwest side, which contains a very small, intensely bright knot at its western edge!  The second bright component is adjacent to its east and is separated by a thin, darker lane. This section has an elongated, irregular outline (~10"x6" NW-SE), and is slightly mottled with brighter spots.  A thin, high-contrast dark lane runs WSW-ENE at the south edge of these two sections. The third bright component, just southeast of this lane, appeared as an irregular, elongated bar, running 2:1 WSW-ENE, ~12"x6" and formed a "cap" on the southeast side.  The two ends of this cap are very slightly curved (concave to the northwest). 

 

18" (9/10/07): at 175x; appears as a small, very high surface brightness oval with a blue-green color.  At 450x, this planetary is elongated 3:2 NW-SE, ~18"x12" and has an unusual bipolar appearance with two lobes.  The 10" NW component has a very high surface brightness and contains a quasi-stellar brighter knot on its west edge.  A fainter lobe juts out towards the SE and is slightly smaller (~8").  At 565x the SE lobe seems incomplete as if it was partially obscured and the two lobes are encased in a thin outer envelope.  The view was fascinating at 807x with the sense of peering at a 3-dimensional object - the brighter NW lobe being closer and the partially overlapped SE lobe extending away in space.  At this power both lobes were clearly irregular in shape and surface brightness.

 

17.5" (10/2/99): At 100x, the small greenish disc is very prominent but at higher powers appears bluish.  Easily takes very high power and the view unfiltered at 380x and 500x was striking.  Appears elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 0.3'x0.2', with two distinct lobes.  The NW knot is slightly brighter and at times a stellar spot or star appears embedded at its SW tip.  At 500x, the two knots are encased in a very small common halo that extends further out on the north side.  The southern edge of both knots has a sharp, flat appearance.

 

13" (9/11/82): at 288x; small, bright, unusually high surface brightness, elongated NW-SE.  There are two distinct overlapping nuclei and a narrow dark lane possibly separates these two condensations.

 

80mm (9/10/07): visible as a mag 8.5-9 "star" at 12.5x in the 80mm finder and easily identified using an OIII blink.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7027 = St IX-27 in the fall of 1878 with the 31-inch Foucault reflector at Marseille. This planetary is probably the brightest object he discovered.  From some reason it was not included in Esmiol's 1916 re-reduction of Stephan's positions.

 

The following observational history is from Wolfgang Steinicke.  The Reverend Thomas Webb independently rediscovered NGC 7027 on 14 Nov 1879 using a 9-inch reflector.  He described it as an "object like a bluish 9 mag star, not quite of stellar character - a small pair, too close to be separated?"  At higher magnifications it was seen as "bright, very ill-defined, nebulous disk of about 4" diameter, surrounded probably by a little glow, and much resembling the planet Uranus."  Webb's announcement in several publications created a flurry of interest in late 1879 with spectroscopic observations by Knott, Copeland, Winnecke, Vogel.  In 1880, Dreyer noted Stephan's prior discovery, though it was still commonly assumed that Webb was the discoverer.  E.E. Barnard observed NGC 7027 in June of 1889 with the Lick 36-inch at 500x (with Burnham) and logged, "In the p part there is a small bluish -green star like object - shining through ? haze.  Occasionally a darkish space separates the condensations into two."

 

Based on Crossley photographs taken at Lick, Heber Curtis (1918) reported "the condensations are not stellar in the shortest exposures.  Quite irregular and roughly trinuclear, though the southern condsation is apparently two masses close together.  The southern condensation and the brighter at the north are 7.5" apart in p.a. 135¡."

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NGC 7028 = CGCG 448-039??

21 08 18 +18 29; Del

 

= Not found, Carlson.  = **?, Gottlieb.  Possibly CGCG 448-039, Corwin.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7028 = m 434 on 17 Sep 1863 and noted "vF, S, vlE."  Near his position are only stars and its possible he mistook some close pair of stars as a nebula, though the observation is marked as verified.  Harold Corwin found no systematic offset on the sweep that would point to a specific star(s).  Two possible candidates are UGC 11676 = CGCG 448-039 (mentioned by Corwin), which lies 2.4 minutes of RA to the west or CGCG 449-005, which lies 17' south.  Neither of these objects, though, are at a simple digit (clerical) offset, so would be simply guesses.  See Corwin's notes for more (unlikely) candidates.

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NGC 7029 = ESO 235-072 = PGC 66318

21 11 52.0 -49 17 01; Ind

V = 11.5;  Size 2.6'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 71¡

 

30" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 394x; fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 WSW-ENE, 1.8'x1.2', strong concentration with a very bright core, rounded ends to the major axis.  A mag 15.1 star is 50" WSW of center, just off the tip.  NGC 7022 lies 22' W.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7029 = h3856, along with NGC 7022, on 2 Oct 1834 and logged "B; R; gpmbM; 35"."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7030 = ESO 598-028 = PGC 66283

21 11 13.3 -20 29 09; Cap

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 70¡

 

17.5" (7/21/90): fairly faint, fairly small, round, bright core.  An anonymous galaxy is 13' WNW.  Located 25' E of 27 Capricorni (V = 6.2).

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7030 = LM 1-241 on 3 Sep 1885 and noted "mag 14.0, vS, iR, sbnMN."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 1 minute of time west of ESO 598-028 = PGC 66283.  Ormond Stone later measured an accurate position at the Leander McCormick Observatory (repeated in the IC 1 Notes).

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NGC 7031 = Cr 430 = Lund 979 = OCL-210

21 07 12 +50 52; Cyg

V = 9.1;  Size 5'

 

17.5" (8/10/91): at 220x, about two dozen stars mag 11-15 in a 6' diameter.  At the east edge is close double star 11.4/11.8 with a third mag 11.5 star close SW.  A nice string of stars is along the north side extending NW from the trio including a close double star 12/13 1' N.  A mag 11 star is on south side but the rest of the stars are mag 13-15.  Not very rich but stands out in a rich field.  The cluster is fairly scattered except for this region with brighter stars.  At 410x, I used the sequence of magnitudes in Clark's Visual Astronomy to positively identify a faint V = 16.1 star and suspected a V = 16.3 star.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7031 = H VIII-74 = h2105 on 21 Sep 1788 (sweep 860) and recorded "a coarsely sc cl of L stars, not very rich, about 5 or 6' diam."  JH made the single observation "a curious scattered cluster of triple stars; RA taken from the working list [of Caroline Herschel]."

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NGC 7032 = ESO 074-026 = PGC 66427

21 15 22.9 -68 17 16; Pav

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 85¡

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 244x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.6'x0.5', broad weak concentration.  A distinctive 7' group of mag 10.5 and fainter stars that is extended N-S lies ~6' W.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7032 = h3857 on 20 Jul 1835 and noted "vF; R; glbM; 25"."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7033 = MCG +02-54-002 = CGCG 426-006 = PGC 66228

21 09 36.2 +15 07 30; Peg

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 170¡

 

24" (6/30/16): at 322x; moderately bright, fairly small, round, 24" diameter, well concentrated with a small bright core.  A mag 10.8 star is 2.3' NNW.  Forms a similar pair with NGC 7034 1.6' NNE. 

 

17.5" (8/1/89): very faint, small, round, weak concentration, very faint stellar nucleus.  Close pair with NGC 7034 1.6' N.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7033 = m 435, along with NGC 7034, on 17 Sep 1863 and noted "vF, S, R."  His RA is 2 seconds too large.

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NGC 7034 = UGC 11687 = MCG +02-54-003 = CGCG 426-007 = PGC 66227

21 09 38.2 +15 09 02; Peg

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 125¡

 

24" (6/30/16): at 322x; moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, 30"x24", well concentrated with a small bright nucleus.  A mag 10.8 star is 1.4' NW.  NGC 7034 is the slightly larger of a similar pair with NGC 7033 1.6' SSW.  Located just east of the border of Delphinus into Pegasus.

 

17.5" (8/1/89): very faint, small, slightly elongated, weak concentration, very faint stellar nucleus.  Close pair with NGC 7033 1.6' S.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7034 = m 436, along with NGC 7033, on 17 Sep 1863 and noted "vF, vS, R."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7035 = ESO 530-15 = PGC 66258

21 10 46.3 -23 08 09; Cap

V = 14.4;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (8/2/97): brightest in a small group of galaxies - this object was quickly noticed to be double at 220x oriented WNW-ESE.  The very close components are just resolved, round, ~20" diameter each and very similar in brightness.  Several faint galaxies are in the field to the east including ESO 530-018, MCG +05-50-004 and ESO 530-020 (resolved triple galaxy).

 

ESO 530-018 is an extremely faint and small object in the NGC 7035 group. Located 8' ESE of NGC 7035 and 4' W of the ESO 530-020 triplet. It required concentration and extended viewing to glimpse this threshold object close (NE) of a mag 15 star.  Confusing the observation further is a second threshold galaxy (MCG +05-50-004) that was also glimpsed on a couple of occasions close southeast of the star.

 

MCG -04-50-007 is the middle in a close trio oriented SW to NE.  Although appearing very faint and small, this member is the largest and brightest of the trio (ESO 530-020), seems to have a brighter core and is slightly elongated ~SW-NE.  MCG -04-50-006 is the furthest southwest and appears extremely faint, very small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, but direction uncertain due to faintness. MCG -04-50-008 is the northeast member of the chain and appeared extremely faint, very small, round.  This galaxy is close SE [40"] of a mag 13 star and is just cleanly resolved from MCG -04-50-007 to the southwest.  The trio is situated 4' S of a striking double star h5251 = 8.5/8.7 at 9".

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 7035 = LM 2-460 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is 21h 11m -23d 05' and he only noted "iR" with a size of 0.5'.  ESO/Uppsala and Harold Corwin identify ESO 530-015 as NGC 7035 as the most likely candidate.  This is a close pair of interacting galaxies about 3' south and 34 second of RA west of Muller's position.  Corwin's Southern Galaxy Catalogue has listings for both components, identified as NGC 7035a and NGC 7035b. 

 

The RNGC identifies either edge-on ESO 530-018 or nearby MCG -04-50-004 as NGC 7035.  This pair lies 5' to 6' south of Muller's position, though happen to match in RA.  As the Leander McCormick positions tend to be fairly accurate in declination, this identification is less likely.  It is also possible that NGC 7035 refers to a close chain of three galaxies 4' east of the edge-on, though Muller would have probably resolved this trio.  There are a number of galaxies in the area, roughly matching Muller's declination, so if he was too far west in RA then there are several additional candidates!

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NGC 7036

21 10 12 +15 22 36; Peg

 

17.5" (10/21/95): very poor scattered asterism of 10 mag 11-13 stars in a 4' diameter.  This is totally unimpressive group and surprising it would be noted by John Herschel.  Most of the stars form an oval outline highlighted by a tighter group of four stars within 1' diameter at the south end of the oval.  There are no stars within the asterism's outline.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7036 = h2104 on 11 Oct 1825 and noted "A scattered cluster of small stars."  A scattered group of stars is centered about 5' south of JH's position, and this is likely the intended object.  Karl Reinmuth notes "no distinct Cl" and the RNGC misclassifies the number as nonexistent.

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NGC 7037

21 10 49 +33 44 48; Cyg

Size 8'x3'

 

17.5" (8/25/95): this asterism is elongated 8'x3' in a SW-NE orientation and is situated in a fairly rich field.  Consists of about 50 stars mag 11-14.5 with the brightest two mag 11/11.5 stars near the center at 50" separation.  The region northeast of this pair is fairly rich in mag 13 stars.  Appears best at 100x where it is detached in the field.  Listed as nonexistent in RNGC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7037 = h2106 on 5 Aug 1829 and recorded "a cluster, not very rich; irreg figure, 8' l, 5' br; stars 11...15m."  His position is very close to the brightest star (11th magnitude) near the center of this group.  At Birr Castle in 1876, Sir Robert Ball called it "Many st, but no remarkable cl."  Based on its photographic appearance at Heidelberg, Karl Reinmuth noted "Cl, pS, E, pP, st pF."  Though this group of stars may be an asterism, it stands out clearly on the DSS and the RNGC misclassifies it as nonexistent.

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NGC 7038 = ESO 286-079 = AM 2111-472 = LGG 441-011 = PGC 66414

21 15 07.5 -47 13 14; Ind

V = 11.8;  Size 3.2'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 127¡

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 244x; fairly bright, large, elongated nearly 2:1 NW-SE, 2.5'x1.4', broad concentration with a small brighter core.  Spiral structure is evident in the outer halo with two arms noted. One is attached on the northwest side of the middle region and curls to the south.  A second arm is attached on the south side and curls to the east and north.  A mag 14 star is 1.8' E.  A mag 11 star situated 2.6' NE is the brightest in a string oriented northwest to southeast.

 

NGC 7038 is an outlying member of AGC 3742 = ACO S924 = Indus Group of galaxies.  The cluster is roughly 200 million years distant.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7038 = h3858 on 30 Sep 1834 and recorded "B; L; pmE; gbM; 2' l; 90" br."  His position (also measured on the next sweep) is accurate.

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NGC 7039 = Cr 431 = Lund 981 = OCL-203

21 10 48 +45 37; Cyg

V = 7.6;  Size 25'

 

17.5" (9/7/91): about 125 stars in a 15'-20' diameter.  This is a very large, rich triangular group.  Two bright mag 7.5 stars are at the SSW and NNE ends.  Also two mag 9 stars are involved.  Very rich in mag 12-13 stars.  This is a pretty uniform cluster with a sprinkling of brighter stars.  Excellent low power Milky Way field using a 20mm Nagler.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7039 = h2107 on 19 Sep 1829 and recorded "a star 6-7m situated just beyond the nf edge of a L, p rich cluster, 11...15m, 20' long, 7' broad.  Extended from nf to sp."  His position matches mag 6.7 HD 201935 on the northeast side of the cluster.

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NGC 7040 = UGC 11701 = MCG +01-54-004 = CGCG 401-008 = PGC 66366

21 13 16.5 +08 51 54; Equ

V = 14.2;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 150¡

 

24" (8/31/16): fairly faint or moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, 25"x20", small brighter nucleus.  A mag 15 star is at the south edge of the halo.  The SDSS shows an E-W line of 3 faint stars on the south edge, though the middle "star" is classified as a galaxy.  CGCG 401-006, located 8.7' SW, appeared fairly faint, small, round, 18" diameter, small bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

17.5" (8/10/91): faint, fairly small, diffuse, oval 3:2 NNW-SSE, low almost even surface brightness.  A very faint mag 15.5 star superimposed at the south edge is identified in CGCG and UGC as an extremely compact companion with dimensions 15"x7" but NED notes this may be a close line of three stars.

 

Forms a pair with MCG +01-54-003 = CGCG 401-006 = PGC 66355 9' SW.  This galaxy appeared very faint, very small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Located almost at the center of a 3' square consisting of four mag 12.5-13.5 stars.  In the same 220x field with NGC 7040 9' NE.

 

17.5" (8/31/86): faint, diffuse, irregularly round, no noticeable core.  A faint "star" is embedded on the south edge.

 

Mark Harrington, director of the Detroit Observatory in Ann Arbor, discovered NGC 7040 on 18 Aug 1882 with a 12 5/8-inch Fitz refractor.  His discovery note in AN 2479 mentions "it is so faint that I can only see it after resting my eyes in the dark a few moments.  It is about 3' long by half that in breadth and is extended north and south, the northern end preceding a bit."  Although the size estimate is too large, his position is a good match with UGC 11701.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 7041 = ESO 235-082 = LGG 444-001 = PGC 66463

21 16 32.4 -48 21 49; Ind

V = 11.2;  Size 3.6'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 85¡

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 394x; extremely bright, very large, elongated nearly 3:1 E-W, ~2.8'x1.0', high surface brightness, very sharply concentrated with an intensely bright, very elongated core.  A mag 10.7 star is 2' SSE and a mag 10.4 star is 6' WNW.  NGC 7049 lies 27' SE.  These two galaxies are the brightest in a group including ESO 235-083 14' ENE and NGC 7014A/7041B 14' ESE.

 

ESO 235-083 is fairly faint, small, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, 24"x18", broad weak concentration.  A mag 15.6 star is 35" N of center.  NGC 7041A is moderately bright and large, oval 4:3 SSW-NNE, ~0.8'x0.6', slightly brighter nucleus.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7041 = h3859 on 7 Jul 1834 and recorded "B; pmE; psmbM; 40" l; has a * 11m sf."  His position (measured on 2 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 7042 = UGC 11702 = MCG +02-54-013 = CGCG 426-023 = LGG 442-001 = PGC 66378

21 13 45.8 +13 34 30; Peg

V = 12.0;  Size 2.0'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 140¡

 

17.5" (8/31/86): fairly faint, moderately large, round, bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 7043 5.4' NE.  A mag 12 star lies 2.3' NE between the galaxies.  Observed through haze.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7042 = H III-209 on 16 Oct 1784 (sweep 294) and recorded "vF, S, R."  CH's reduction is 12 seconds west and 1.5' north of UGC 11702.  Albert Marth discovery nearby NGC 7043.

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NGC 7043 = UGC 11704 = MCG +02-54-014 = CGCG 426-024 = LGG 442-002 = PGC 66385

21 14 04.2 +13 37 33; Peg

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 135¡

 

17.5" (8/31/86): very faint, small, round.  Located 5.4' NE of much brighter NGC 7042.  Observed through haze.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7043 = m 437 on 18 Aug 1863 and noted "vF, S, R."  His position is accurate (noted as verified).  Harold Corwin notes that Reinmuth reported NGC 7043 as "Not found" in his 1927 photographic survey "Die Herschel Nebel" based on Heidelberg plates, though his remark is in parenthesis indicating the plate was poor in some respect.

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NGC 7044 = Lund 984 = OCL-198

21 13 09.4 +42 29 46; Cyg

Size 3.5'

 

24" (7/30/16): at 375x and 500x; perhaps a total of 50 stars in a circular 4' region are resolved over a mottled, scraggly glow.  Several of the fainter stars were near my visual threshold, so popped in and out of view with the seeing.  In any case, the cluster is impressively rich at 375x.  A 20" pair of mag 11.5/13 stars is on the east side.  A rich but faint curving chain of stars oriented ~N-S is on the west side (open to the west).

 

17.5" (10/5/91): at 100x, faint, small, a few stars are resolved over a 4' glowing spot.  At 200x, about 20 faint stars are resolved over background haze, 4' diameter, irregular outline.  A wide pair of brighter mag 10.5/12.5 stars is at the east edge.  About 10 mag 12-13 stars are clearly visible and 10 additional mag 14-15 stars are visible with averted vision.  Appears like a partially resolved low surface brightness globular cluster in a rich field.

 

8" (8/12/83): about 10 faint mag 12/13 stars over unresolved haze, unimpressive.  Elongated N-S, small but not rich.  Some scattered bright stars are in field to the NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7044 = H VI-24 = h2110 on 17 Oct 1786 (sweep 612) and recorded "a very compressed and very rich cluster of extremely S stars, about 4' l and 3' br. Elongated nearly in the parallel."  On 24 Oct 1786 (sweep 620) he also logged "a cl. of extremely small stars, very compressed wand very rich, about 6' l and 4' br."  On 29 Aug 1829, JH reported "vF; L; irreg fig; p rich; not mbM; 2 or 3 pL stars, the rest 16...18m; 5' diam."

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NGC 7045

21 14 50.2 +04 30 24; Equ

 

= **, Corwin and Dreyer.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7045 = h2108 on 16 Jul 1827 and logged "eF; field feebly illuminated by moonlight, but I remained satisfied of its reality."  His position lies between mag 9.3 SAO 126648 and mag 9.6 SAO 126646 (10' south-southwest) and falls close to a 8" pair of faint stars (one is a blended double).  Heinrich d'Arrest was unsuccessful in finding h2108 at Copenhagen in 1864 and Rudolph Spitaler at Vienna reported NGC 7045 "is not a nebula, but only a couple of vF stars close together."  Harold Corwin also identifies NGC 7045 as this double star (see his identification notes).

 

RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent, although the "New Description" appears to describe a galaxy.

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NGC 7046 = UGC 11708 = MCG +00-54-009 = CGCG 375-020 = PGC 66407

21 14 56.0 +02 50 05; Equ

V = 13.1;  Size 1.9'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 115¡

 

17.5" (5/10/91): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~E-W, very diffuse, weak concentration.  Two mag 15 stars are off the north and south edges.  IC 1367 is 15' NW and IC 1365 20' SE.

 

13.1" (6/29/84): faint, very diffuse, irregularly round, even surface brightness.  A group of faint stars are off the SE edge.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7046 = H III-858 = h2109 on 10 Oct 1790 (sweep 973) and recorded "eF, pL, iR, vlbM, requires great attention to be seen." JH made two observations, first logging on sweep 94, "eF; R; barely visible; night exquisite."  His mean position is accurate.

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NGC 7047 = UGC 11712 = MCG +00-54-010 = CGCG 375-023 = PGC 66461

21 16 27.6 -00 49 35; Aqr

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 107¡

 

17.5" (10/12/85): fairly faint, elongated WNW-ESE, a very faint star is at the WNW end.  Appears like a small comet with a star for the head.  Located 13' S of mag 7.9 SAO 145257.  Similar notes on 8/1/86.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7047 = St V-5 on 20 Aug 1873 and recorded "eF, vS; two condensation points on the same parallel at 2 seconds [RA] interval."  His position is accurate.  One of the condensations points is probably the superimposed star at the west end.

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NGC 7048 = Hb 9 = PK 88-1.1 = PN G088.7-01.6

21 14 14.2 +46 17 28; Cyg

V = 12.1;  Size 62"x60"

 

48" (10/27/16): at 375x (unfiiltered); bright, fairly large, nearly round, irregular surface brightness.  The rim is slightly brighter along the west and northwest side in a thin strip and very weakly enhanced on the east edge.  A bright mag 10.5 star is just off the SSE edge and a mag 15.7 star is very near the NNW edge (180¡ opposite the bright star).  There is one brighter interior star on the northwest side [17" from center].  In addition a couple of very faint stars are superimposed.

 

24" (8/30/16): at 376x unfiltered; fairly bright, moderately large, very slightly elongated N-S, seen full size at ~60" diameter.  The rim is slightly brighter along and the western side and very weakly enhanced on the eastern edge.  On the northwest side is a brighter, circular region with a faint (interior) star embedded.  Overall the planetary has a very weak annular appearance.  A mag 8.3 star is 3.3' WSW, a mag 10.5 star is off the SSE edge [42" from center] and a faint star is barely off the NE edge [30" from center].

 

18" (9/10/07): at 280x unfiltered appears as a moderately bright disc that is slightly elongated ~N-S, ~65"x60".  A mag 10.5 star lies just off the south end (42" from center) and a mag 13 star is off the north end (60" from center).  Appears slightly brighter along the west edge and to a lesser extent along the east edge, giving a weak annular appearance.  A faint star is right at the northeast edge of the rim and an interior star is on the northwest side.  Also, an extremely faint star is sometimes visible at the north-northwest edge of the rim.  Located 3.3' ENE of mag 8.3 SAO 50601.

 

17.5" (8/7/91): bright, fairly large, slightly elongated N-S.  Extends between a mag 10.5 star just off the south end (46" from the center) and a mag 13 star off the north end (1.0' from center).  Extremely faint stars are superimposed at the west and NNE edge.  Appears slightly brighter along the west and east side of the disc and the planetary has a slightly darker center (weakly annular).  No central star was visible.  Located 3.3' ENE of mag 8 SAO 50601.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7048 = St IX-28 on 19 Oct 1878.  His micrometric position is very accurate.  At +46¡ declination, NGC 7048 is the most northerly object discovered by Stephan at Marseilles as he only searched up to the zenith.

 

In 1919, Heber Curtis reported it was undoubtedly a planetary nebula based on a Crossley photograph and described it as "A rather faint oval, with slight traces of ring structure. It is about 60" x 50" in p.a. 20¡±. The brightest portions are at the east end of the minor axis. There is a very faint central star."  In 1920, Francis Pease reported it was "a planetary resembling the Dumb-bell nebula, about 1' diameter, weak axis in p.a. 170¡.  The central star is very faint."

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NGC 7049 = ESO 236-001 = AM 2115-484 = LGG 444-003 = PGC 66549

21 19 00.3 -48 33 43; Ind

V = 10.7;  Size 4.3'x3.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 57¡

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 394x; extremely bright, large, oval 4:3 SW-NE, at least 2.0'x1.5', high surface brightness, very sharply concentrated with a blazing core that is mottled and increases to a stellar nucleus.  A faint star is embedded just west of the core (not visible on overexposed images).

 

Brightest in a group a (LGG 444), along with NGC 7041 27' NW.  ESO 235-85 lies 7.5' WNW.  NGC 7049A = ESO 235-84 + NGC 7041B lies 14' NW.  Also one of the brightest members of the Pavo-Indus Cloud along with NGCs 7041, 7083, 7144, 7205.

 

ESO 235-085 is fairly bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 24"x18", very high surface brightness.  A mag 15.6 star is 35" N of center.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 7049 = D 406 = h3860 on 4 Aug 1826 and recorded "a small round nebula, about 12 or 15 arcseconds diameter, very bright immediately at the centre, resembling a small star surrounded by an atmosphere. This is N.f. a star of the 6th magnitude."  His position is 4' ENE of center.  John Herschel observed the galaxy twice, improved the position, and logged on 30 Sep 1834, "vB, pS, pmE, psvmbM, 25" long, 15" broad."  Two nights later he noted "B, R, pgmbM, 1'."

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NGC 7050

21 15 08 +36 10 30; Cyg

Size 5'

 

17.5" (8/25/95): this interesting asterism consists of three distinct groups of stars each about 4' apart from the other two groups.  The south group has five stars including the brightest mag 10 star.  The west group has four stars in a small clump with a detached wide pair a couple of arc minutes south.  Finally, the richest group is on the east side with 15 stars mag 12.5-15 in a 2' circle.  Listed as nonexistent in RNGC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7050 = h2111 on 19 Aug 1828, though apparently didn't take any notes.  The Slough Catalogue reports "No description.  A cluster."  His position falls near the brightest mag 12 star in one of the northeast subgroup in my visual description.  Ld Rosse: " About a dozen B stars and a number of S ones scattered about."  On 5 Oct 1866, Sir Robert Ball logged at Birr Castle, "about a dozen B stars and a number of S stars scattered about it."  RNGC classifies this asterism as nonexistent, though it is pretty clearly JH's intended object.

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NGC 7051 = MCG -02-54-004 = PGC 66566

21 19 51.4 -08 46 53; Aqr

V = 12.8;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (7/1/89): moderately bright, fairly small, oval ~E-W, halo gradually increases to a small bright core containing a stellar nucleus.  An extremely faint star is possibly involved at the east side.  A wide double star is 2' W (mag 11/13.5 at 26").

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7051 = h2113 on 30 Jul 1827 and recorded "vF; R; gbM; near a double star."  There is nothing at his position and it was not found on 3 attempts at Birr Castle. On a 4th try (a bad night), a nebula was suspected near a faint double star but not confirmed.  Exactly two minutes of time west of JH's position is MCG -02-54-004 = PGC 66566 and it is preceded by an unequal double star.  Heinrich d'Arrest followed up at Copenhagen (based on the failure at Birr Castle) and measured an accurate position on 26 Aug 1864 and later noted the two minute discrepancy with Herschel's RA.  Dreyer used d'Arrest's corrected position in the NGC.

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NGC 7052 = UGC 11718 = MCG +04-50-006 = CGCG 471-005 = PGC 66537

21 18 33.0 +26 26 49; Vul

V = 12.4;  Size 2.5'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 64¡

 

13.1" (7/20/85): moderately bright, pretty edge-on WSW-ENE.  Bulging bright core contains a substellar nucleus, fainter extensions.  At 220x an extremely faint mag 15 star is visible off the NE edge.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7052 = H III-145 = h2112 on 10 Sep 1784 (sweep 263) and noted "vF, lE, stellar."   On 14 Oct 1786 (sweep 610), he reported "F, S, lE, bM.  I see it much clearer this way [using the "front-view" without a secondary], than I have formerly done (263 sweep) in the Newtonian construction."  Herschel reverted to the front-view method (first experimented with in May 1784) starting on 22 Sep 1786 (sweep 600).  John Herschel logged "F; R; 20"; the RA may be 2 or 3 seconds out."  His RA as 13 seconds of time too large.

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NGC 7053 = UGC 11727 = MCG +04-50-009 = CGCG 471-008 = II Zw 124 = PGC 66610

21 21 07.6 +23 05 05; Peg

V = 13.0;  Size 1.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (8/31/86): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, small bright core.  A mag 11 star is 45" SW.  Located 12' NNW of a mag 7.9 star.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7053 = m 438 on 2 Sep 1863 and noted "pB, S, vlE."  His position is off the southwest side of UGC 11727 = PGC 66610. Heinrich d'Arrest independently rediscovered this galaxy on 8 Oct 1865.  His accurate micrometric position (measured twice) was used in the NGC.

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NGC 7054 = NGC 7080 = UGC 11756 = MCG +04-50-012 = CGCG 471-011 = PGC 66861

21 30 01.9 +26 43 04; Vul

V = 12.3;  Size 1.8'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

See observing notes for NGC 7080.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7054 = St IV-4 on 31 August 1872. There is nothing at Stephan's position and there is no specific listing for NGC 7054 in Emmanuel Esmiol's 1916 re-reduction of Stephan's positions.  But Corwin noticed an "anonymous" object in Esmiol's table is listed with Stephan's original offset but from a different star.  This leads to a position near NGC 7080 (discovered earlier by Marth).  But apparently Esmiol, like Stephan, misidentified the offset star as PPM 113035 is exactly at Stephan's offset from NGC 7080.  NGC 7080 is listed independently in Esmiol's table based on an observation on 17 Aug 1873, so apparently Stephan revisited the field a year later, but this time the offset star was correctly identified.

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NGC 7055

21 19 25 +57 35 24; Cep

Size 3'

 

17.5" (8/25/95): this is a small, unimpressive group of just 10 mag 12-14.5 stars in a 3' region.  The group is only distinguishable because it is detached in the field.  There are some brighter scattered stars to the south, which John Herschel may have included in his 8' estimate.  The group of stars appears to be fully resolved and just an asterism.  Interestingly, there is a large, fairly bright and rich star field about 30' SW centered about 21 16.5 +57 28" (2000) which appears to be a cluster but is not listed in the Lynga catalogue.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7055 = h2114 on 25 Sep 1829 and recorded "a F, S, poor cluster, 8' dia."  His position corresponds with a very small group of 10 faint stars.  Based on a Heidelberg plate, Reinmuth noted "a few F st clustered very loosely."  RNGC classified this perfectly good asterism as nonexistent.

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NGC 7056 = IC 1382 = UGC 11734 = MCG +03-54-008 = CGCG 449-019 = PGC 66641

21 22 07.5 +18 39 56; Peg

V = 12.9;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (8/2/86): fairly faint, small, almost round.  A small brighter core appears offset to the west and gives the impression that the galaxy is slightly elongated.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7056 = m 439 on 17 Sep 1863 and noted "pF, S, R." His position matches UGC 11734 = PGC 66641.  Harold Corwin notes that Truman Safford independently rediscovered this galaxy on 29 Sep 1866 with the 18.5-inch refractor at the Dearborn Observatory and described Sf 55 (later IC 1382) as "pF, pS, iF."  His RA, though, is nearly five minutes too large, but a good match in declination.  So, NGC 7056 is probably equal to IC 1382.

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NGC 7057 = ESO 287-017 = MCG -07-44-004 = AM 2121-424 = LGG 445-003 = PGC 66708

21 24 59.0 -42 27 37; Mic

V = 12.6;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 132¡

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 394x; bright, moderately large, elongated 5:4 NW-SE, 0.9'x0.7', gradually brightens to a brighter core and stellar nucleus.  A mag 15 star is at the east edge [27" from center].  Second brightest in a trio with NGC 7060 10.5' ENE. AM 2122-424 lies 7.4' ESE and appeared very faint, small, round, 18" diameter.

 

18" (8/19/09): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 30"x20".  There appears to be an extremely faint star at the east edge.  First of two with NGC 7060 10' ENE.  Viewed at only 10¡ elevation.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7057 = h3861, along with NGC 7060, on 2 Sep 1836 and recorded "eF; vS; R; the preceding of 2 [with NGC 7060]."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7058

21 21 39.8 +50 50 17; Cyg

 

17.5" (8/25/95): bright, scattered group including mag 7.9 SAO 33352 and four other mag 9.5-10 stars in a 4'-5' region forming the borders of the group. There are roughly two dozen stars mag 13-14.5 in the immediate vicinity but the density of the fainter stars is actually lower than other rich regions in the same low power field.  So, only distinguishable because of the grouping of brighter stars which may form a physical group.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7058 = h2115 on 8 Sep 1829 and simply noted "the chief star of a coarse, poor cl."  There is no bright star near his position, but 40 tsec of RA following and 1.5' north is a bright, scattered group including 8th magnitude SAO 33352 at 21 21 39.8 +50 50 17.  Copeland, observing at Birr Castle in 1871, noted it was a "Cl, vP, in milky way." and Reinmuth called it simply "a few B st", based on a Heidelberg plate.  RNGC classifies this Milky Way asterism as nonexistent (Type 7) and Kharchenko et al, 2012, classifies it as a moving group so at least some of the stars may be related.

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NGC 7059 = ESO 145-005 = PGC 66784

21 27 21.5 -60 00 53; Pav

V = 11.9;  Size 3.5'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 98¡

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 394x; bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 E-W, ~2'x1', well concentrated with a round very bright core.  There is knot (in a spiral arm?) near the northwest end of the core.  A mag 10.6 star is 1.9' S of center.  This star is a fairly close, very unequal pair (not catalogued in the WDS) and was just resolved. Two additional equally spaced stars extend to the southwest.  Also, three collinear mag 13 stars extend to the west of the galaxy.  IC 5110 lies 25' E.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7059 = h3862 on 22 Jul 1835 and recorded "B; lE; gpmbM; 90" l, 40" br."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7060 = ESO 287-022 = MCG -07-44-006 = AM 2122-423 = LGG 445-009 = PGC 66732

21 25 53.5 -42 24 37; Mic

V = 12.9;  Size 1.7'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 124¡

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 303x; bright or very bright, fairly large, ~1.2'x1.0' diameter, sharply concentrated with a very bright core that increases to a stellar nucleus.  Two mag 13 stars are 2.0' NNW and 2.8' NW, a mag 14 star is 2' E, and a mag 16 star is 30" SSW.  Brighter in a trio with NGC 7057 10.5' WSW and much fainter AM 2122-424 5' SSW (logged as "very faint, small, round, 18" diameter).  The physical group includes NGC 7060, 7057, 7070, 7072 and 7072A.

 

MLO 6, a very bright mag 5.6/8.2 pair at 2.7" lies 15' SW.  The relatively faint companion in this large mag contrast pair appeared orange-red.

 

18" (8/19/09): faint, fairly small, orientation difficult to determine as sometimes appeared round (core?) and other times elongated 4:3 or 3:2, weak concentration, ~40"x30".  Two mag 14 stars lies 2' N and 3' NW.  Brighter of a pair with NGC 7057 10' WSW.  Located 18' NW of a mag 5.6/8.1 pair at 2.9".

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7060 = h3863, along with NGC 7057, on 2 Sep 1836 and recorded "vF; S; R; the following of 2 [with NGC 7057]."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7061 = ESO 236-013 = PGC 66785

21 27 26.9 -49 03 48; Ind

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 137¡

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 303x and 394x; moderately bright, elongated 2:1 or 5:2 NW-SE, ~36"x 18", small brighter core.  NGC 7061 is nearly collinear with three nearby stars; mag 15.5 star 45" SE of center), 14.5 star 2' SE and 13.5 star 3' SE.

 

NGC 7071 is the brightest in a small (physical) group including ESO 236-014 2.5' S and PGC 66775 4.6' SW.  ESO 236-014 appeared fairly faint, small, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, 20"x14".  A mag 13.5 star is 1.4' E.  PGC 66775 was moderately bright, fairly small, high surface brightness, very bright core, elongated halo WNW-ESE, 0.5'x0.25'.  A mag 16.2 star is just off the WNW end.  I was surprised that this galaxy was nearly as prominent as NGC 7061!

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7061 = h3864 on 30 Sep 1834 and recorded "eeF; vS; R; 10"; the feeblest object imaginable."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7062 = Cr 434 = Lund 988 = OCL-205

21 23 27 +46 22 42; Cyg

V = 8.3;  Size 7'

 

17.5" (8/7/91): about 30 stars mag 10 and fainter in a 5' diameter at 220x.  The brightest stars form a parallelogram enclosing the cluster.  A mag 10 star is at the east end and a mag 11 star is at the west end.  Most of the cluster stars in the interior are mag 12.5-14.

 

8" (7/16/82): rich, small.  Includes many mag 12-13 stars over haze, very mottled and dense.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7062 = H VII-51 = h2116 on 19 Oct 1788 (sweep 868) and recorded "a pretty compressed cl. of pS stars, considerably rich, 5 or 6' dia, iR."  JH made 3 observations, first recording (sweep 203), "a neat, pretty compact cluster of 50 or 60 stars 4' diam; irreg fig; a * 13m taken, the chief in the preceding part."

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NGC 7063 = Cr 435 = Lund 990 = OCL-192

21 24 21 +36 29 12; Cyg

V = 7.0;  Size 8'

 

17.5" (8/7/91): about 35 stars mag 9-15 in a 10' region.  Very bright, fairly large, elongated ~N-S.  Includes about ten bright stars mag 9-10.5.  This is a scattered group with no rich sections.  A line of four bright stars is at the west edge and a curving arc of bright stars is just following.  Includes a triple star (ES 2126) consisting of a close 4" well-matched mag 11 double star and a third member at 9".

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7063 = h2117 on 19 Aug 1828 and recorded "a poor cluster, stars 10m."  His position matches this bright, scattered cluster.

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NGC 7064 = ESO 188-009 = PGC 66836

21 29 03.0 -52 46 03; Ind

V = 12.5;  Size 3.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 91¡

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 394x; fairly bright, very large, thin edge-on 7:1 E-W, ~2.5'x0.35', no distinct core.  The surface is slightly mottled and two or three stellar or quasi-stellar knots were noted (probable HII regions); one near the west end, one east of center, and one near the center.  A mag 10 star is 1.3' SSW of center and a mag 14 star is 1' to its east.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7064 = h3865 on 8 Jul 1834 and recorded "eF; vmE; in pos = 90.8¡; vgbM; 80" l; has a star south."

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NGC 7065 = MCG -01-54-017 = PGC 66766

21 26 42.4 -06 59 43; Aqr

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 25¡

 

24" (9/27/19): at 225x and 375x; fairly faint, small, round, 24" diameter, dominated by a sharp stellar nucleus with a very low surface brightness halo.  Checking the SDSS, a star is superimposed very close west of the nucleus!

 

NGC 7065A, located 4' ESE, appeared 

 

17.5" (9/15/90): fairly faint, extremely small, round, bright stellar nucleus or star superimposed, just non-stellar (only core visible).  Located 4.7' WSW of mag 8.8 SAO 45403 and 10.3' W of mag 7.6 SAO 45409.  Forms a pair with NGC 7065A 4.2' ESE.

 

The companion appeared very faint, fairly small, weak concentration, very low surface brightness diffuse glow.  Collinear with mag 8.8 SAO 145403 2.7' N and a mag 11 star 6.0' N.  Also a mag 11 star is 3.1' E and mag 7.6 SAO 45409 is 6.3' E!  Close to the mag 11 star that follows are two fainter mag 13 and 14 stars.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 7065 = St VIII-12 (first list) on 24 and 25 Aug 1865 and his discovery positions match MCG -01-54-017 = PGC 66766.  Stephan independently discovered MCG -01-54-017 on 22 Sep 1876.  His micrometric position is very accurate.  Albert Marth first observed the field on 3 Aug 1864 and noted "eF, irr R." for m 440.  But Marth's position matches MCG -01-54-018 = PGC 66774, which is often identified as NGC 7065A.  Dreyer assumed d'Arrest's object was the same as Marth's and used d'Arrest's micrometric position in the NGC (Stephan was not credited).  He noted in the description, though, that Marth's RA was 13 seconds larger.  For comparison, here are the positions for 2000:

 

21 26 42.4 -06 59 43  NGC 7065 = MCG -01-54-017 = PGC 66766

21 26 45.7 -06 59 41  d'Arrest (mean of 2 positions)

21 26 43.3 -06 59 46  Stephan

21 26 42.9 -06 59 48  Esmiol's re-reduction

 

21 26 57.8 -07 01 18  NGC 7065A = MCG -01-54-018 = PGC 66774

21 26 58 -07 02     Marth

 

So, while d'Arrest and Stephan discovered NGC 7065, Marth apparently discovered NGC 7065A, a larger, lower surface brightness companion 4' southeast.  Interestingly, all three observers only found a single galaxy, though both MCG galaxies were observed in my 17.5" and fairly similar in ease of visibility.  So, NGC 7065A should have received a separate NGC number -- unless Marth's position was very poor, and coincidentally matches NGC 7065A.  The RNGC positions for both galaxies are 2' too far south (see my RNGC Corrections #4).  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for more.

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NGC 7066 = UGC 11741 = MCG +02-54-025 = CGCG 426-054 = II Zw 130 = PGC 66747

21 26 13.8 +14 10 57; Peg

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (8/2/86): fairly faint, very small, elongated, stellar nucleus.  A mag 12 star is just north.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7066 = Sw. IV-80 = Sw. V-92 on 31 Aug 1886 (included in both lists with the same dates) and recorded "eeeF; eee diff.; close sf of middle of 3 faint stars in a curve, middle star the brighter.  Nebula nearly on the same parallel as the south star of 4 in a row preceding."  His position and description matches except the last comment, which should read "Nebula nearly on the same parallel as the north star of 4 in a row preceding."

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NGC 7067 = Cr 436 = Lund 989 = OCL-208

21 24 12 +48 00 42; Cyg

V = 9.7;  Size 3'

 

17.5" (8/10/91): about 20 stars in a 3' field.  Faint but fairly rich, most stars very faint.  Superimposed over unresolved background haze.  The two brightest mag 12 stars are at the SW and NE corners.  A rich string of very faint mag 14-15 stars oriented NW-SE is in the center as well as two mag 13 stars.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7067 = H VII-50 = h2118 on 27 Sep 1788 (sweep 866) and recorded "a few small stars with suspected nebulosity.  300 shows a great many smaller stars intermixed with the former, in the shape of a cluster."  Although not visually distinctive, his position matches this small cluster.  JH made the single observation "A double star.  The chief of a poor cl."  His position matches HJ 1644 (SAO 5080), which is 4' east of the faint but rich section.  Perhaps he failed to resolve these stars?

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NGC 7068 = MCG +02-54-027 = CGCG 426-055 = PGC 66765

21 26 32.4 +12 11 03; Peg

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 165¡

 

17.5" (8/1/89): very faint, small, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE.  A mag 14 star is at the NNE edge 20" from center.  Located just 1.1' SSE of a mag 9.5 star.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7068 = m 441 on 7 Nov 1863 and noted "eF, close to a small *."  His position is 1' too far south and the small star is at the northeast edge.

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NGC 7069 = UGC 11747 = MCG +00-54-019 = CGCG 375-040 = PGC 66807

21 28 05.9 -01 38 49; Aqr

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 20¡

 

18" (8/14/07): fairly faint, small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 0.5'x0.25', very small bright core. Five faint IC galaxies lie within 35' to the north.

 

17.5" (7/16/88): faint, small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, weak concentration.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7069 = m 442 on 12 Oct 1863 and noted "vF, S, R, stell."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7070 = ESO 287-028 = MCG -07-44-016 = LGG 446-001 = PGC 66869

21 30 25.4 -43 05 14; Gru

V = 12.3;  Size 2.3'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 22¡

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 303x; fairly prominent due to large size but overall modest surface brightness.  Appears as a large cottony oval SSW-NNE, ~1.7'x1.4'.  There appeared to be a brighter bar in the center oriented E-W and a strong suggestion of structure in the outer halo.  Either a stellar knot or a star appeared superimposed just on the west side of the weak "bar" (Carnegie-Irvine image shows this to be a star) and the halo contained some slightly brighter regions or knots.  NGC 7072 lies 4.5' SSE and NGC 7072A is 7' due south.

 

18" (10/16/09): very faint, very low surface brightness patch with no concentration.  Requires averted to glimpse a 1' hazy glow with no definite edge.  First and largest in a trio with NGC 7072 4.5' SE and NGC 7070A 21' NE.  The observation was affected by the low elevation of this group, though this may be a very diffuse galaxy.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7070 = h3866, along with NGC 7072, on 5 Sep 1834 and recorded "F, L, vlE, vglbM, 2' broad, the preceding of two [with NGC 7072]." On a later sweep he called it "F, pL, lE, gvlbM, 1'."  His mean position is accurate.

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NGC 7071

21 26 39.7 +47 55 15; Cyg

Size 7'

 

18" (10/8/05): this "nonexistent cluster" is located in a glorious low power Milky Way field.  Several groupings (both large and small) caught my eye at 73x (67' field), but I was mostly drawn to a fairly distinctive 4' string of stars oriented NW-SE.  At 225x, ~15 stars were packed into the string, most stars being mag 13-14 with a few fainter stars, and possibly over unresolved Milky Way background glow.  This group would have likely caught John Herschel's eye as he swept the region, though it may be an asterism (not in Lynga).

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7071 = h2119 on 19 Sep 1829 and recorded "A very poor and small cluster of an oblong figure.  It is followed by a loosely scattered mass of stars."  His position corresponds with a 7' to 8' curving string of stars.  Surprising, Karl Reinmuth was unable to identify this group on a Heidelberg plate and noted "not found; = N7067?"  Dorothy Carlson repeated this comment in her 1940 NGC Correction paper as well as in the RNGC.

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NGC 7072 = ESO 287-031 = MCG -07-44-018 = LGG 445-010 = PGC 66874

21 30 37.1 -43 09 08; Gru

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 90¡

 

30" (10/12/15 - OzSky): at 303x; fairly faint to moderately bright, round, 30" diameter, weak concentration to the center.  Second brightest in trio with NGC 7070 4.5' NNW and NGC 7072A 3.7' SSW.  NGC 7072A appeared fairly faint, round, 35"-40" diameter, low even surface brightness, no core or zones.

 

18" (10/16/09): extremely faint, small, slightly elongated, 20"x15".  Forms a trio with NGC 7070 4.5' NNW and NGC 7072A 3.7' SW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7072 = h3867, along with NGC 7070, on 5 Sep 1834 and recorded "F; S; R; vglbM; 30"; the following of 2 [with NGC 7070]."  His position (measured on two sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 7073 = MCG -02-54-010 = Mrk 899 = PGC 66847

21 29 26.0 -11 29 17; Cap

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (9/15/90): very faint, small, round, very low even surface brightness.  A mag 14.5 star is off the SE end.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7073 = m 443 on 25 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, vS, irr R." His position is accurate.

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NGC 7074 = CGCG 401-027 = II Zw 133 = PGC 66854

21 29 38.8 +06 40 57; Peg

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  PA = 115¡

 

24" (9/7/13): at 375x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 0.5'x0.2'.  There was no noticeable core but seemed brighter along the NE edge.  Located 6' NNE of mag 6.4 HD 204603.  PGC 1307717, an extremely faint and small round glow, 12"-15" diameter, lies 7.5' NNW.

 

17.5" (10/17/98): faint, small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, very weak concentration.  A mag 13.5 star lies 1.4' NE.  Located 7' NNE of mag 6.6 SAO 126834.

 

17.5" (9/2/89): faint, small, round, weak concentration.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7074 = m 444 on 16 Oct 1863 and noted "vF, S, E."  Although marked as verified, his position is nearly 7' north of CGCG 401-027 = PGC 66854 (double galaxy).  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 31 Jul 1886 as well as Rudolph Spitaler in 1891 with the 27-inch refractor at the Vienna University Observatory.  CGCG fails to label this galaxy as NGC 7074.

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NGC 7075 = ESO 343-004 = MCG -07-44-020 = LGG 445-011 = PGC 66895

21 31 33.0 -38 37 05; Gru

V = 12.7;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 116¡

 

17.5" (10/5/91): very faint, small, round, small bright core.  Located 3.8' S of a mag 9.5 star (9.9/11.1 at 5") and 10' ENE of mag 7.5 SAO 213054 (wide pair) at the west edge of the 220x field.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7075 = h3868 on 4 Sep 1834 and recorded "pF; S; R; psbM; 15"."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7076 = Abell 75 = PK 101+8.1 = PN G101.8+08.7

21 26 23.6 +62 53 33; Cep

V = 14.5;  Size 67"x47"

 

24" (10/3/13): picked up unfiltered but very good contrast gain with a UHC filter at 225x.  Appeared moderately bright, slightly elongated ~48"x40".  Clearly brighter along the eastern side with the brightest portion directly east of center, giving a partially annular appearance.  Unfiltered a mag 14.5 star is at the east edge and a mag 15 star is involved at the north edge.  Two mag 13.5/14 stars just north are collinear with the planetary.  Located in a rich star field 16' SE of mag 7.4 HD 204211.

 

18" (10/9/04): picked up at 73x (31 Nagler) as a fairly small (for an Abell planetary), fairly faint disc, perhaps 35"-40" in diameter.  Appears evenly illuminated at low power.  Viewed unfiltered at 160x and a couple of faint stars are embedded, one at the east edge and another at the north.  Only a weak contrast gain using the OIII filter and easier to view unfiltered at 225x.  At this power the shape appears irregular and brighter along the east side.  Neither of the two stars appears to be the central star as they're situated near the edge of the halo.  A number of 13-15th magnitude stars are in the field including a couple of 14th mag stars 1' and 2' N and a small, fainter trio close west.  Located 56' ENE of mag 2.5 Alpha Cephei (Alderamin).

 

17.5" (7/5/86): fairly faint at 79x using an OIII filter, slightly elongated, moderately large, estimate V = 13.5-13.8.  Faintly visible unfiltered.  At 222x two stars are superimposed; a faint star east of center and one at the north edge.  The planetary is collinear with two mag 14 stars 1' N and 2' N.  Located 15' SE of mag 7.2 SAO 19386.  Not identified as NGC 7076 in CGPN and ESO-Strausberg catalogues.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7076 = H III-936 on 15 Oct 1794 (sweep 1062) and noted "vF, easily resolvable."  His position is 7 min 54 sec of RA east and 16' north of Alpha Cephei.  Just 2' further north is the planetary Abell 75, which was catalogued by Abell but not associated with the NGC number.  John Herschel did not make an observation of this planetary. It was not found during a single attempt on 15 Sep 1873 at Birr Castle.

 

The ESO-Strausberg planetary catalogue uses the Abell designation.  RNGC lists NGC 7076 as a diffuse nebula instead of a planetary and furthermore the declination is 6' too far south.  I found the equivalency between NGC 7076 and Abell 75 and listed it in RNGC Corrections #3.

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NGC 7077 = UGC 11755 = MCG +00-54-028 = CGCG 375-047 = Mrk 900 = PGC 66860

21 29 59.6 +02 24 51; Aqr

V = 13.1;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 160¡

 

17.5" (8/31/86): fairly faint, fairly small, diffuse, fainter than NGC 7081 21' ENE.  Located 4.5' SW of mag 8.2 SAO 126846 at the Pegasus border.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7077 = m 445 on 11 Aug 1863 and simply noted "F".  His position is fairly accurate, so the identification is certain.

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NGC 7078 = M15

21 29 58.3 +12 10 01; Peg

V = 6.3;  Size 12.3';  Surf Br = 0.3

 

17.5" (8/5/94): extremely bright with a halo extending to about 11' diameter and a 3' very bright core containing a 30" intense nucleus.  The halo is very highly resolved into fairly bright stars although the stars are irregularly scattered in the outer halo.  The halo extends 85% to mag 7.7 SAO 107179 just off the NNE edge of the halo and many stars in the halo appear to be arranged in loops and strings.  The core is extremely densely packed with stars down to a very small intense glow at the center.  This 30" nucleus is concentrated to the geometric center ("core collapse").  The faint planetary Pease 1 is situated just 30" NNE of center (see observation).

 

13.1": very bright, very large, very small intense nucleus surrounded by a bright core.  Superb resolution down to the center of core.

 

8": very bright, large, intense core is very compact and dense, surrounded by inner halo with many stars superimposed, outer halo well resolved into long distinct streamers.  A mag 7.6 star is at the NNE edge of the halo.

 

Naked-eye (7/11/07): easily visible naked-eye at Lassen National Park as a small, hazy spot just west of a 6th magnitude star.

 

Naked-eye (7/26/06): Located 17' W of a naked-eye mag 6.1 star.  The globular was sometimes visible naked-eye as a faint haze to the west of the star.

 

Jean-Dominique Maraldi discovered M15 = NGC 7078 = h2120 on 7 Sept 1746 at the Paris Observatory while tracking Comet de Cheseaux of 1746.  Four nights later he discovered M2.  Messier made an independent discovery on 3 Jan 1764, as well as Johann Bode on 23 Sep 1774.

 

William Herschel made an early observation using his 6-inch (10-ft focal length) on 31 May 1783 and commented, "all fairly resolved into stars."  On 19 Oct 1784, he described "a beautiful cl. of v compressed and numerous stars, the most compressed part about 2' dia, the next about 7 or 8'; and all the stars within about 15' seem still to belong to the same by the colour, the size, the regular scattering and the gradual accumulation.  The general figure is round; but within the space of 6 or 7' the stars are arranged in a sort of a square."

 

John Herschel reported "vB; vL; irreg. R; g b and v s m b M. A magnificent globular cluster; comes up to a perfect blaze in the centre, like a protuberance or nipple; not the condensation of a homogeneous globe; it has straggling streams of stars, as it were, drawing to a centre. It is not round. Has a * 8m, 30s following in parallel."

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NGC 7079 = ESO 287-036 = MCG -07-44-022 = AM 2129-441 = LGG 446-003 = PGC 66934

21 32 35.2 -44 04 03; Gru

V = 11.6;  Size 2.1'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 82¡

 

18" (10/16/09): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 0.8'x0.5', small bright core increases to center.  Two mag 12/13 stars lie 1' and 2' SW.  Brightest in a group including ESO 287-37 25' SE and NGC 7070/7072 1¡ NNW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7079 = h3869 on 6 Sep 1834 and recorded "B; R; psbM; 30"."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7080 = NGC 7054 = UGC 11756 = MCG +04-50-012 = CGCG 471-011 = PGC 66861

21 30 01.9 +26 43 04; Vul

V = 12.3;  Size 1.8'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

13.1" (7/20/85): fairly faint, fairly small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus or star superimposed, diffuse outer halo.  Two mag 14 stars are off the NE and east edges 52" and 66" from the center, respectively.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7080 = m 446 on 6 Sep 1863 and noted "vF, S, vlE."  His position is accurate.  ƒdouard Stephan independently rediscovered the galaxy on 31 Aug 1872 and reported it in list IV-4 (later catalogued as NGC 7054), but with an erroneous position due to an error with the offset star.  So, NGC 7080 = NGC 7054.  See NGC 7054 for the story.

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NGC 7081 = UGC 11759 = MCG +00-54-030 = CGCG 375-049 = PGC 66891

21 31 24.1 +02 29 29; Aqr

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (8/31/86): fairly faint, small, round, broad concentration.  A double star mag 13.5/15 at 16" separation is 1' SSE and is collinear with the galaxy.  Forms a pair (similar redshifts) with UGC 11760 4.6' SE and NGC 7077 is 21' W.  Located at the Pegasus border.

 

UGC 11760 appeared extremely faint and small, round, visible only with averted vision.  A wide pair of mag 11 stars at 1.0' separation lie 1.5' N.  I probably only viewed the inner core region as the listed dimensions are much larger.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7081 = H III-859 = h2121 on 10 Oct 1790 (sweep 973) and recorded "cF, vS, iR, mbM.  360 shewed it very plainly, near a very small star." JH made the single observation "vF; S; R; has a * 14m south.  Dist from centre = 1 diam (by diagram)."  His position is very accurate.

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NGC 7082 = Lund 992 = OCL-209

21 29 17 +47 07 36; Cyg

V = 7.2;  Size 25'

 

17.5" (9/7/91): fairly bright, large, 15' diameter, scattered, no distinct borders, situated in a very rich field.  Two mag 8.5 star are on the west side, a mag 9 star is on the north side and also a mag 9 star is off the east edge.  Not impressive and except for five or six brighter stars mag 8.5-9.5 at the edges this "cluster" would just be a weak field enhancement in the Milky Way.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7082 = H VII-52 = h2122 on 19 Oct 1788 (sweep 868) and recorded "an extensive cluster of L stars, considerably rich, above 20' diameter."  JH made the single observation "a * 10m, the chief of a p rich, fine, L, coarse cluster.  Stars 10...13m."

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NGC 7083 = ESO 107-036 = PGC 67023

21 35 45.0 -63 54 10; Ind

V = 11.2;  Size 3.9'x2.3';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 5¡

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 303x; very bright, large, oval nearly 2:1 N-S, 3.0'x1.7', strongly and sharply concentrated with an intense, slightly elongated core that gradually brightens to the center.  There was a strong hint of a spiral arm along the east side and another extending north on the west side, though they were not cleanly resolved from the general glow.  The halo is a little irregular in surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is just off the south end, 1.8' SSW of center.  NGC 7096 lies 37' E.

 

James Dunlop probably discovered NGC 7083 = D 263? = h3870 on 28 Aug 1826 and recorded "a small faint round nebula, 20 arcseconds diameter, a little brighter in the middle, following a group of pretty bright stars."  His position is ~20' west of ESO 107-036 = PGC 67023.  John Herschel found this galaxy on 22 Jun 1835 and logged "F; L; R of lE; vgpmbM; 60"; resolvable; with long attention it appears mottled. Perhaps Dunlop 263, with 3 minute correction in RA."  On a later sweep he noted "pB; pL; R; gbM; 60"."

 

NGC 7083 is one of the brightest members of the Pavo-Indus Cloud along with NGCs 7213, 7205, 7049 and 7144.

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NGC 7084

21 32 33 +17 30 30; Peg

Size 20'

 

17.5" (8/12/96): there is no clustering visible at JH's position but about 5' E is a mag 10 star that is within a 20' string of mag 10-13 stars oriented N-S.  At the north and south end of this long string are two additional rows of stars oriented NW to SE and SW to NE, respectively, which intersect 10' E of the mag 10 star and together form the outline of a large isosceles triangle. The star at the north tip is a close faint triple star.  Most of the stars in this scattered group form the triangle with very few in the central portion.  Does not appear to be a cluster but rather a unimpressive random grouping, noticeably aligned in lanes.  Listed as nonexistent in RNGC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7084 = h2123 on 11 Oct 1825 and simply noted "A coarse scattered cluster."  There is nothing at his position but 24 seconds of RA following is a 10th magnitude star, which is part of a 15' very scattered group.  Karl Reinmuth reported the photographic appearance as "a very loose clustering of pF st, no distinct Cl."   RNGC classifies it as a nonexistent cluster (Type 7), despite standing out reasonably well on the POSS.

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NGC 7085 = MCG +01-55-001 = CGCG 402-002 = PGC 66926

21 32 25.2 +06 34 53; Peg

V = 14.5;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 147¡

 

17.5" (8/31/86): extremely faint, small, slightly elongated.  Located just south of a 7' line of mag 11-13 stars.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7085 = m 447 on 3 Aug 1864 and noted "eF, S, E."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7086 = Cr 437 = Lund 993 = OCL-214

21 30 27 +51 36 00; Cyg

V = 8.4;  Size 9'

 

17.5" (9/7/91): about 75 stars mag 10-14 in a 10' diameter.  Fairly rich and contains six brighter stars.  Most stars are located in a compact, rich, 5' group.  A second group is to the north.  A straight line of stars trails off to the SE with a mag 9.5 star at the end of the string.  Includes several faint double stars.  There are two large dark voids to the NE.  This is a pretty cluster at low power using a 20mm Nagler.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7086 = H VI-32 = h2124 on 21 Sep 1788 (sweep 860) and recorded "a beautiful cl of pretty compressed stars, 8 or 9' diam, considerably rich; nearly round."  On sweep 384, JH logged "a rich fine cluster of st 11...16m; it fills field; but the most compressed part is about 6' in extent.  The middle of the cluster taken, but no particular star fixed upon."

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NGC 7087 = ESO 343-008 = MCG -07-44-025 = LGG 445-008 = PGC 66988

21 34 33.4 -40 49 07; Gru

V = 13.0;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 39¡

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 303x; moderately to fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, 40"x30", brighter along the central axis (appears to be a bar).

 

Brightest in a group with ESO 343-007 2.7' WSW and ESO 343-009 6.6' NNE.  ESO 343-007 appeared fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 or 5:2 ~E-W, weak concentration.  ESO 343-009 is fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, 0.4'x0.2'.  A mag 12.5 star is off the east side [25" from center] and a mag 11.5 star is 2.4' N.

 

17.5" (10/30/99): NGC 7087 was just picked up at the lower elevation limit of Ray's mount!  Appeared very faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, brighter core.  Seeing too mushy at low elevation for a good view and nearby ESO 343-007 to the west was not seen.  Located 35' NE of mag 5.3 Xi Gruis.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7087 = h3871 on 4 Sep 1834 and recorded "pF; S; R: gbM; 15"."  His position (measured on two sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 7088 = Ced 193 = Baxendell's Unphotographable Nebula

21 33 24 -00 23; Aqr

 

= Not found, Corwin and RNGC.

 

Joseph Baxendell discovered NGC 7088 on 28 Sept 1880 using a 6" refractor at his private observatory in Birkdale, England.  The discovery was announced in "A New Nebula", MNRAS 41, 48 (1880).  The following history is from Wolfgang Steinicke.

 

Baxendell contributed only one object to the NGC.  He published the discovery of a large faint nebula near M2 in Aquarius and described it being of "irregular oval form, its longer axis lying in a nearly east and west direction".  It is 30' north of M2 and has a size of 75' x 52'. He writes "It seems to be similar in character to the large nebula near the Pleiades [found by Tempel], but is slightly less bright. I have, however, seen it on several nights, and have no doubt of its existence."  But, its existence is the very problem!

 

NGC 7088 was seen visually by several observers, such as Dreyer in 1885 with a 10" refractor (mentioned in the notes section of the NGC), Bigourdan (1897, 12" refractor), Hagen (1915 and 1917, 16" refractor), Wolf (1927, 6" refractor), O'Connor (1929, 15" refractor), Becker (1930, 12" refractor) and Lehner (1930, 4" refractor). The crucial thing is that, apart from these sightings, the object could never be photographed (and was nicknamed "Baxendell's Unphotographable Nebula"). Many attempts were made (Wolf, Baade, Shapley, Strohmeier, GŸrtler, Helwan), using different emulsions and filters, but the result was always negative. The modern conclusion is: The object is not real and all visual observations are due to physiological delusions, maybe caused by reflections of the nearby bright cluster M 2. This is supported by sightings of O'Connor, reporting two other, and ever larger nebulae near M2, which are nonexistent too! The same might be true for the obscure "Hagen clouds".  See Harold Corwin's discussion, including Stephen Waldee's comments, for more on this object.

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NGC 7089 = M2

21 33 27.2 -00 49 23; Aqr

V = 6.6;  Size 16';  Surf Br = 0.2

 

48" (10/26/11): hundreds of relatively bright stars resolved in this large, beautifully symmetric globular.  The intensely bright core is overlaid with a mat of resolved stars.

 

18" (7/17/07): overfills the 8' field at 393x with resolved stars from edge to edge.  M2 contains a very bright 3' core that increases to a very intense 1' nucleus.  The halo is very symmetric and thins out fairly evenly.  A few hundred stars were resolved in the cluster with the central region extremely densely packed.

 

17.5" (8/2/86): over 100 stars resolved over the entire disc at 286x.  Superb view at this magnification.

 

13" (7/16/82): high resolution at edges, partially resolved core, symmetrical halo.

 

8" (10/4/80): intense core, faint halo.  Faint stars are resolved in the outer halo.

 

Jean-Dominique Maraldi discovered M2 = NGC 7089 = h2125 on 11 Sept 1746 at the Paris Observatory while tracking Comet de ChŽseaux of 1746.  Charles Messier made an independent discovery on 11 Sep 1760.  William Herschel observed the globular on 31 Jul 1783 with his 12-inch (small 20-foot) and commented "I can count 18 or 20 of the stars."  Using his 18.7" on 12 Aug 1785 (sweep 425), he recorded "an extremely rich, very compressed and very brilliant cluster of extremely small stars, 7 or 8' in diameter.  The stars are plainly to be seen, especially on the borders where they are not so condensed."  On 4 Sep 1799 he observed M2 with the 48-inch (40-foot), and logged "It appeared very brilliant and luminous.  The scattered stars were brought to a good, well determined focus, for which it appears that the central condensed light is owing to a multitude of stars that appeared at various distances behind and near each other.  I could actually see and distinguish the stars even in the central mass.  The Rev. Mr. Vince, Plumian Profession or Astronomy at Cambridge, saw it in the same telescope as described."

 

On 12 Sep 1830 (sweep 288), JH reported "A most superb cluster; round; stars eS; 12, 13, 14m; they are evidently globularly arranged, and not internally condensed towards the centre more than the spherical form would make them appear to be; but in the middle they blend into a blaze of light. It is like a heap of fine sand!  With 9 inches aperture I can just see the stars; with 6 it is resolvable."

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NGC 7090 = ESO 188-012 = AM 2133-544 = PGC 67045

21 36 28.9 -54 33 26; Ind

V = 10.7;  Size 7.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 127¡

 

25" (10/21/17 - OzSky): at 244x; bright, very large irregular edge-on ~7:1 NW-SE, ~5'x0.7'.  Overall the galaxy has a striking patchy appearance with an irregular surface brightness (somewhat similar to NGC 253).  It contains a very elongated, sightly brighter core region with a mag 14 star superimposed just southeast of the core.  The entire northern flank of the galaxy is very uneven or patchy due to dust patches or a dust lane.  The surface brightness of the galaxy drops significantly as it extends southeast of the star for ~2'.  The northwest wing beyond the core dims more gradually to the tip.  A mag 9 star (HD 205124) is located 12' W, a mag 9.3 star (HD 205308) is 8' N, and a 1.2' pair of mag 9.5/10 star is ~7' NE.

 

11" (8/8/04 - Haleakala Crater): moderately bright, fairly large, edge-on 5:1 NW-SE, 4.0'x0.8', broad concentration but with no distinct core.  Irregular surface brightness with a mottled appearance at 127x.  Appears to fade suddenly in a couple of spots (possibly due to dust) including just SE of a mag 14 star that is superimposed on the SE side.  Viewed at an elevation of 13¡.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7090 = h3872 on 4 Oct 1834 and recorded "pB; L; vmE in pos 127.1¡; first gradually, the pretty suddenly lbM to a v feeble nucleus; 4' l, 40" br; has a * 11m preceding.  In the foreground of the Pavo-Indus Cloud which includes NGCs 7213, 7205, 7049, 7083 and 7144.

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NGC 7091 = IC 5114 = ESO 403-008 = MCG -06-47-007 = PGC 66972

21 34 07.6 -36 39 12; Gru

V = 12.9;  Size 2.1'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 86¡

 

17.5" (9/7/96): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Requires averted vision and finder chart to pinpoint location but once identified could nearly hold continuously.  I probably only viewed the core as listed dimensions are much larger.  Located 7' W of mag 6.9 SAO 213103.  Not found on a previous attempt.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7091 = h3873 on 1 Sep 1834 and recorded "eF; pL; vgbM; 2'; place considerably uncertain [given to the nearest min of time and minute of dec], having been found when much past the meridian in searching in vain for Dunlop 561.  This nebula is much too faint to have seen with 9 inches aperture.  It precedes a * 6m nearly in parallel, about 40 seconds of time."  His position is poor, but the description most likely applies to ESO 403-008 = PGC 66972, which is 1.3 minutes of time west and 8' north of JH's position.  The bright star he mentions is mag 6.9 HD 205186.

 

Lewis Swift probably found this galaxy again on 9 Jul 1897 and described Sw. XI-206 (later IC 5114) as "eF, pS, R, e wide D* f 30 sec."  His RA, though, is nearly 2 minutes too small and his declination 3.5' too far south, though there is a wide 1.2' pair that is 30 seconds following.  So, despite his poor position (very common in his last two lists), IC 5114 is likely NGC 7091.

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NGC 7092 = M39 = Cr 438

21 31 42 +48 25; Cyg

V = 4.6;  Size 32'

 

17.5" (7/31/92): very bright, very large, about 30' diameter, scattered.  Includes 18 bright stars mag 7-8.  Most of the brighter stars form a triangular outline although a few bright stars are inside and outside.  The bright star at the SE corner has about six faint stars close following.  Includes several wide double stars.  The bright stars are superimposed on a background of 100-150 faint stars.  Fairly uniformly distributed though many stars are in short arcs and winding lanes.  The faint stars are no richer than the Milky Way concentration.  Best view with 20 Nagler at 100x.

 

13.1" (9/9/83): ~75 stars visible at 62x including 15 bright stars.

 

8": very bright, very large, 30' diameter, triangle shape, includes four bright stars mag 7 and ten fairly bright stars mag 8-9.  Large and scattered so needs very low power.  Partial resolution in 8x50 binoculars.  Naked-eye cluster in a dark sky.

 

15x50mm IS binoculars (6/19/09): excellent at 15x with 25-30 stars resolved in a triangular outline.  B68, a long dark streamer, is very prominent in the field to the southeast.

 

10x30 IS binoculars (6/13/07): naked-eye fuzzy patch is well resolved into ~15 stars in the 10x30 binoculars and approximately two dozen in the 15x50s. To the south of M39 begins the long dark streamer, Barnard 168, which is striking in 15x50 IS binoculars.  This dark lane leads to the Cocoon Nebula (IC 5146), which is not visible in binoculars.

 

Charles Messier discovered M39 = NGC 7092 = h2126 on 24 Oct 1764, although as a naked-eye object it was probably noticed much earlier. On 27 Sep 1788 (sweep 866), WH logged "consists of such large and straggling stars that I could not tell where it began nor where it ended.  It cannot be called a cluster."  JH recorded on 14 Sep 1829, "A * 7m, one of a large loose cluster of stars 7 .... 10m; very coarsely scattered, and filling many fields."

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NGC 7093

21 34 20 +45 59 42; Cyg

Size 5'

 

17.5" (8/25/95): fairly well detached but scattered group highlighted by mag 8.5 SAO 51043 at the west edge.  A mag 10 star is on the south side and a total of about two dozen stars in a 5' region.  Shows best at 100x. At 220x, the group does not look at all like a cluster and is only distinguished by the few brighter stars.  RNGC classifies it nonexistent.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7093 = h2127 on 19 Sep 1829 and recorded "The chief star (9m) in a cluster of 8th class.  The double star #1660 of my 4th catalogue belongs to this cluster."  His position corresponds with mag 8.7 SAO 51043.  R.J. Mitchell, observing with LdR's 72" on 6 Sep 1856, logged "a few B st, (not more than 10 or 12m), forming a very loose cluster."  Based on a Heidelberg plate, Reinmuth reported "one vB* and a few pB st in a dense region."  RNGC classifies NGC 7093 as nonexistent (Type 7 cluster).

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NGC 7094 = PK 66-28.1 = PN G066.7-28.2 = K 1-19

21 36 52.9 +12 47 19; Peg

V = 13.7;  Size 99"x91"

 

24" (8/31/16): excellent view at 200x using a NPB filter. The 90" disc was fairly crisply defined and contained a bright central star (mag 13.5), even through the filter.  Unfiltered, a mag 14.5-15 star was visible at the NE edge.  The planetary apppeared weakly annular and brighter in a 90¡ arc along the west side.  There appeared to be a knot or local brightening right at the west edge of the rim.  Located 1.8¡ NE of M15.

 

The compact galaxy II Zw 141 lies 6' WNW.  It appeared faint, very small, round, 12" diameter.  On the DSS a mag 15.2 star is at the southwest edge (6" separation from the center of II Zw 141) and probably the galaxy + star were merged visually.

 

18" (10/9/04): picked up at 73x using the OIII filter as a fairly faint, round, evenly lit 90" disc.  Good contrast gain with the filter.  Faintly visible unfiltered at 160x as a moderately large but low surface brightness halo surrounding the 13.5 magnitude central star.  A faint mag 14.5 star is at the NE edge of the halo.  A string of 3 mag 14-15 stars oriented NW to SE lies ~2' NE.  Images show the a complex multi-rim structure (brighter along the west side) with a darker center, but visually the planetary appeared pretty featureless.  Located 7' S of a mag 10 star (SAO 107277).

 

17.5" (10/2/99): at 100x and OIII filter appears fairly faint, round, moderately large, 1.5' diameter, even glow.  At 220x without filter, the central star is easily visible surrounded by a round, low surface brightness glow.  A very faint star is at the NE edge. No annularity seen.

 

13" (6/18/85): at 62x with filter appears faint, moderately large, round.  Without a filter the faint mag 13.7 central star is visible surrounded by a very low even surface brightness halo 1.5' in diameter.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7094 = Sw. II-88 on 10 Oct 1884 and recorded "nebulous star; B *; in eeF nebulosity; v diff.; nearly pointed to by 3 st. in a line."  His RA is 34 seconds too small.  He added in a footnote, "This is a prototype of GC 4634 [NGC 7023] and several others, and of No. 7 of my Catalogue No. 1 [NGC 2247], which differs from most nebulous stars by being exactly in the center of circular nebulous atmospheres of uniform brightness."  Wolfgang Steinicke mentions that Swift called this object "the most wonderful of all [nebulous stars] - in fact it is the only instance known to me - for instead of the central star being single, it is double."  There is a second star involved but it is not central, rather displaced to the northeast edge.

 

Lubos Kohoutek rediscovered NGC 7094 during a visual survey of the POSS and included it in a list of new PN (K 1-19) published in 1963.

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NGC 7095 = ESO 027-001 = AM 2145-814 = PGC 67546

21 52 26.4 -81 31 51; Oct

V = 11.5;  Size 2.8'x2.7';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

24" (4/12/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly large, 1.8'x1.5', slightly elongated ~E-W, weak concentration to the center.  A star is at the north edge of the halo.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7095 = h3875 on 21 Sep 1837 and recorded "F; pL; R; vglbM; 50"."  His mean position (2 observations) matches ESO 027-001 = PGC 67546.  Unfortunately, he miscopied his declination in the GC and Dreyer didn't catch the error in the NGC.  The mistake apparently was caused by using the north polar distance of NGC 7097 instead of NGC 7095.

 

Because of this error the RNGC, PGC and HyperLeda  has misidentified ESO 287-042 as NGC 7095.  ESO and modern Atlases such as Uranometria 2000 and the Pocket Sky Atlas doesn't label ESO 027-001 as NGC 7095.  The RNGC error is included in my RNGC Correction list #6.

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NGC 7096 = IC 5121 = ESO 107-046 = AM 2137-640 NED01 = PGC 67168

21 41 19.9 -63 54 29; Ind

V = 11.9;  Size 2.0'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 130¡

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 303x; bright, fairly large, oval 4:3, ~1.4'x1.1', sharply concentrated with a relatively large, very bright round core 0.4' diameter.  An 8" pair of mag 13.5/14 stars lies 1.4' NE and a mag 14-14.5 star is 1.5' S.  ESO 107-044 is 8.3' W and NGC 7083 lies 37' W.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7096 = h3874 on 31 Aug 1836 and recorded "vF; S; R; 12"; has a vS double * north-following, near."  His position and description is a perfect match with ESO 107-046 = PGC 67168.

 

Royal Frost's IC 5121 = F. 1221 (described as a "planetary, stellar, 13 magn"), found on 19 Sep 1903 on an Arequipa plate, is exactly 30' south of this galaxy. NED, SIMBAD, Southern Galaxy Catalogue, and ESO equate IC 5121 with NGC 7096.  Jenni Kay questions this identification (e-mail 20 Aug 1998 and in Deep Sky Observer #159 in 2012), noting the description for IC 5121 doesn't match this galaxy.  See Corwin's comments.

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NGC 7097 = ESO 287-048 = MCG -07-44-029 = AM 2137-424 = LGG 446-006 = PGC 67146

21 40 13.0 -42 32 14; Gru

V = 11.7;  Size 1.9'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 20¡

 

18" (10/16/09): moderately bright, moderately large, ~1' ill-defined halo, sharply concentrated with a bright core that increases to the center, occasional faint stellar nucleus, very faint halo extends to nearly 1'.  Located 8' SE of mag 6.9 HD 205913 and 5' N of a wide pair (52") of mag 10 stars.  NGC 7097A lies 6' NE but was not seen at a very low elevation.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7097 = h3877 on 5 Sep 1834 and recorded "B; S; R; psmbM; 15"; (fog)."  See notes for NGC 7095.

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NGC 7098 = ESO 048-005 = PGC 67266

21 44 16.1 -75 06 41; Oct

V = 11.3;  Size 4.1'x2.6';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 74¡

 

24" (4/12/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x appeared bright, large, sharply concentrated with a small, intense core ~20" in diameter.  Surrounding the core is a large, fainter halo, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, ~2.0'x1.4'.  This galaxy appears much brighter than NGC 7095, which was just previously observed, although the total B magnitudes are identical.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7098 = h3876 on 22 Sep 1835 and recorded "pF; R; first vg, the psbM; in a field with many large stars, and strongly stippled."  His position is 1.8 minutes of RA too large, though at this declination, the actual separation is 7'.

 

The RA in RC 2 is 2.5 minutes too large and this error is repeated in RNGC.  The correct position is given in ESO and RC3.

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NGC 7099 = M30 = ESO 531-21

21 40 22.2 -23 10 47; Cap

V = 7.4;  Size 12.0';  Surf Br = 0.1

 

48" (10/27/19 and 10/24/14): at 375x; several hundred stars were resolved right down to a small brighter nucleus.  Several very bright stars were in chains that emanated from the core. The halo seemed fully resolved with a very large range in magnitudes.  The outer halo was scraggly and contained some bright stars, but overall the halo was fairly symmetric. 

 

The first of three bright stars in a string directly to the north of the core (~40" N of center) was clearly orange (red-giant) as well as the first of a string of three bright stars starting at the west edge of the core (~55" W of center) extending northwest.  A few other brighter stars either appear yellow or very pale orange!

 

17.5" (8/17/01): viewed at 575x in excellent seeing.  Very irregular appearance with strings of stars emanating from an irregular bright, partially resolved core.  A prong off the west side heads northwest and includes three equally spaced similar stars along with a close triple.  Another bright line of three stars heads due north with a fainter bent elbow of stars angling towards the NE.  Roughly a dozen stars trail to the east with a large gap towards the edge of the halo.  A fairly well defined semi-circle of stars open to the north passes directly through the core and off the SE side.  The outer halo is peppered with dozens of faint stars over a dim background haze and with concentration the overall diameter increases significantly to at least 10'.

 

17.5" (7/5/86): the small bright core was not resolved but the halo was well resolved into 50-60 stars.  A small circular detached piece is east of the core with resolved stars.  Along the north side the resolved stars are brighter and arranged in lanes.

 

13.1" (9/29/84): fascinating view at 350x; ~25 stars resolved in the outer halo.  A few stars (half dozen) are bunched together near the bright, unresolved irregular core over a fainter diffuse halo.

 

13.1": three star lanes are obvious on the north side.  Good resolution in the halo and outer stragglers.  The core appears on the verge of resolution at 288x.

 

8" (10/4/80): two short straight star lanes to north and NW give a unique "prong" appearance.  A few faint stars are resolved southeast of the core but the core is unresolved.

 

Charles Messier discovered M30 = NGC 7099 = h2128 = h3878 on 3 Aug 1764.  WH first observed the globular on 31 Jul 1783 using his 12-inch (small 20-foot) and reported "Power 200; it consists of very small stars; with two rows of stars, 4 or 5 in a line."  He later wrote, "It is a difficult step i.e. if we divide the transition from the Pleiades down to the Nebula in Orion into six steps, this perhaps the 4th towards the real nebulas.  The stars in this seem to be of two different sizes for I perceive 3 or 4 very visible ones branching out towards the north and several more exceedingly small at the sides.  Towards the south in one place the light is very intense, but has all the appearance of crowded stars; so that there remains no doubt of the whole being stars."

 

In PT 1814, WH summarized his observations of M30 as a "brilliant cluster, the stars of which are gradually more compressed in the middle.  It is insulated, that is, none of the stars in the neighborhood are likely to be connected with it.  Its diameter is from 2' 40" to 3' 30".  Its figure is irregularly round.  The stars about the centre are so much compressed as to appear to run together.  Towards the north, are two rows of bright stars 4 or 5 in a line."  He speculated in his 1814 publication that the "lines of bright stars, although by a drawing made at the time of observation, one of them seems to pass through the center, are probably not connected with it."

 

JH made the following detailed observation on 23 Sep 1830: "Fine cluster; irreg R, with two projections A, B, at its northern side. (See fig. 90.) A is directed from the central brightness and consists of 3 or 4 bright stars 12 m; its position taken with microm = 350.4¡; B originates in the preceding side of the centre, and is directed in a position 331.7¡ in a line not passing the centre; diam = 6', stars = 12m; fine object; has a * 9 m preceding it (2 or 3 diameters by diagram)."  From the Cape of Good Hope, he logged "Globular, B; lE; bM; 4' l, 3' br; all resolved into st 16m, besides a few 12m.  Two lines of rather larger stars run out n[orth f[ollowing]."

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NGC 7100

21 39 06.9 +08 57 02; Peg

 

= *, Corwin.  =* or not found, Thomson.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 7100 = Big. 90 on 31 Aug 1886.  His position in the second Comptes Rendus list (used by Dreyer in the NGC) is poor, landing 3.7' west-northwest of CGCG 402-012 = PGC 67118. Bigourdan provided a corrected position in his 6 May 1901 Comptes Rendus paper and it matches a single star at the position given here.

 

Unfortunately, Albert Marth's discovery position for NGC 7101 (CGCG 402-012) was also poor and as a result the CGCG, RNGC and PGC misidentified CGCG 402-012 as NGC 7100 and the RNGC and PGC misidentify PGC 67112 as NGC 7101.  In the IC I Notes, Dreyer incorrectly suggests NGC 7101 = NGC 7100; "[NGC 7101 was] not seen by Spitaler; evidently = 7100" and this may have contributed to the modern misidentifications.  I botched the identifications in my RNGC Corrections #2.

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NGC 7101 = MCG +01-55-007 = CGCG 402-012 = PGC 67118

21 39 34.6 +08 52 37; Peg

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (8/2/86): fairly faint, very small, round, broad concentration.  Located 20' SSW of EE Pegasi.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7101 = m 448 on 3 Aug 1864 and noted "F, vS, R, stell."  There is nothing near his position, but 6' due south is CGCG 402-012 = PGC 67118.  This galaxy is the middle and easily the brightest of three on a line oriented northwest to southeast, so it's the most likely candidate.

 

RNGC, CGCG, PGC (and secondary sources such as Megastar) misidentify CGCG 402-012 as NGC 7100 (see that number for the identification) and the RNGC and PGC (as well as Megastar) misidentify PGC 67112 as NGC 7101.  PGC 67112 is the northwest galaxy in the trio (2.3' from NGC 7101).

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NGC 7102 = IC 5127 = UGC 11786 = MCG +01-55-008 = CGCG 402-013 = PGC 67120

21 39 44.7 +06 17 10; Peg

V = 13.5;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 153¡

 

24" (7/30/16): fairly faint, moderately large, roundish, fairly low overall surface brightness, broad weak concentration.  On images NGC 7102 appears to be interacting with PGC 214783, an edge-on 1.1' SSW.  At 220x, it was glimpsed several times in the same position.  It was too faint for any details, including elongation, but appeared very small.

 

24" (8/23/14): fairly faint, fairly large but diffuse, elongated 3:2 or 4:3 NNW-SSE, ~1.3'x0.9' but halo appears to alter its shape with averted vision (sometimes smaller) as fainter parts of the halo pop in and out of view.  A mag 10.2 star lies 3.5' SSE.

 

PGC 214783, an extremely faint edge-on, is just 1' SW.  With careful viewing I had 2 or 3 momentary "pops" at this position over a couple of minutes, too fleeting for any details.

 

17.5" (8/2/86): moderately large but very diffuse, gradually brightens in the middle, slightly elongated NW-SE.  A mag 10 star is 3.5' SSE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7102 = m 449 on 16 Oct 1863 and noted "F, pL, R."  His position is 1' northwest of UGC 11786.

 

Harold Corwin notes that IC 5127, found by Guillaume Bigourdan on 27 Oct 1894, is probably a duplicate observation as his re-reduced position is just 5 sec of RA too far east.  But his observation was made on the same night that NGC 7102 was also measured (though a different offset star was used), so this requires he measured the same galaxy twice, once assuming it was new!

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NGC 7103 = ESO 531-015 = MCG -04-51-006 = PGC 67124

21 39 51.4 -22 28 26; Cap

V = 13.8;  Size 1.4'x1.2'

 

18" (8/9/10): brightest of 10 galaxies viewed in cluster ACO S963 with IC 5122 4' NNW, NGC 7104 4' NE and IC 1393 6.5' NE.  At 225x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, irregularly round, 40"x35", weak concentration with no core or zones.  A mag 13.7 star lies 2' ENE.  The distance of the cluster is ~440 million l.y.

 

18" (8/12/07): largest and brightest of 6 members viewed in galaxy cluster ACO S963.  At 260x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, ~30"x25", broad weak concentration.  Occasionally I glimpsed a nearly stellar galaxy (2MASX J21394761-2228171) just 0.9' W.  Located 45' NNW of gc M30.

 

17.5" (10/13/90): faint, small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Brightest in cluster ACO S963 with NGC 7104 4.0' NE, IC 5122 4.2' NNW, and IC 1393 6.4' NE.  Globular cluster M30 lies 45' SSE.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 7103 = LM 2-461, along with NGC 7104, in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  He noted "mag 14.0; 0.3' diam; R; gbM; 1st of 2 [with NGC 7104]."  His position is 1.0 minute of RA too far east.  Ormond Stone measured an accurate micrometric position the following year (repeated in the IC 1 Notes).

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NGC 7104 = ESO 531-018 = MCG -04-51-008 = PGC 67137

21 40 03.2 -22 25 29; Cap

V = 14.2;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 51¡

 

18" (8/9/10): faint, small, irregularly round, 25"x20", very weak even concentration.  Located in the core of ACO S963 with NGC 7103, IC 5122 and IC 1393 all within 4'.

 

18" (8/12/07): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, even concentration to a very small bright nucleus.  Second brightest in ACO S963 with brightest member NGC 7103 4' SW.  IC 1393 lies 2.7' ENE.

 

17.5" (10/13/90): faint, very small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Second brightest of four in ACO S963 with NGC 7103 4.0' SW, IC 1393 2.7' ENE and IC 5122 4.2' WNW.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 7104 = LM 2-462, along with NGC 7103, in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  He noted "mag 14.3; 0.2' diam; iR; gbMN; 2nd of 2 [with NGC 7103]."  His position is 1.0 minute of RA too far east.  Ormond Stone measured an accurate micrometric position the following year (repeated in the IC 1 Notes).  ESO/Uppsala misidentifies ESO 531-017 as NGC 7104.

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NGC 7105 = MCG -02-55-001 = PGC 67181

21 41 41.3 -10 38 08; Cap

V = 13.0;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.0;  PA = 135¡

 

18" (7/30/03): at 257x appears faint, small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.4', contains a small brighter core.  Situated just 33" SE of a mag 10 star that detracts from viewing!  This galaxy is located 25' SE of Leavenworth's position but was positively identified as NGC 7105 using the Leander McCormick sketch.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7105 = LM 1-242 on 12 Sep 1885 and recorded "mag 11.0; vS; E; 310¡?; smbMN; star n, PA 310¡."  There is nothing near his very rough position (the RA is given to the nearest min of time and marked as approximate).  But based on his discovery sketch, Harold Corwin was able to identify MCG -02-55-001 = PGC 67181 as NGC 7105.  This galaxy is ~20' south, but less than 1 min of RA east of  Leavenworth's position.  A brighter star is just 33" northwest (PA ~310¡), matching his description.  Because of the poor position, Howe was unable to find it on 3 nights.  This galaxy is not labeled as NGC 7105 in most catalogues, though HyperLeda and NED makes this identification. RNGC misclassifies the number as nonexistent.

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NGC 7106 = ESO 188-017 = AM 2139-525 = PGC 67215

21 42 36.6 -52 41 58; Ind

V = 13.3;  Size 1.7'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 81¡

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 244x; moderately bright and large, slightly elongated ~E-W, diffuse with only a weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is 2' W, a mag 12 star is 1.8' N and a very faint mag 16 star is 0.6' E.. Brightest in a group with ESO 188-018 (close pair) at 4' ENE and IC 5125 at 8.3' SW.  ESO 188-018 (southeast component) appeared faint to fairly faint, small, elongated NW-SE, 20"x12", even surface brightness.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7106 = h3879 on 8 Jul 1834 and recorded "eF; lE; vglbM; 30"; makes an obtuse angled triangle, with 2 st 9 and 10m to north."  His position is on the south side of the galaxy, though I'm not sure which two stars he had in mind.

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NGC 7107 = ESO 287-052 = AM 2139-450 = LGG 446-007 = PGC 67209

21 42 26.5 -44 47 25; Gru

V = 12.8;  Size 2.0'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 128¡

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 303x; appears as a large diffuse glow, very weak central concentration, contains a very small, very slightly brighter nucleus and a subtle bar oriented NW-SE.  A group of 6 mag 11-14.5 stars is immediately to the west, the closest is a mag 13 star 1.7' W of center.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7107 = h3880 on 6 Sep 1834 and recorded "vF; pL; R; vglbM; 2' diam."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7108 = NGC 7111 = MCG -01-55-002 = PGC 67189

21 41 53.7 -06 42 32; Aqr

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 45¡

 

See observing notes for NGC 7111.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7108 = m 450 on 3 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, S, R, stell."  There is nothing near his position, but 1.0 min of RA following and 3' north is NGC 7111 = MCG -01-55-002, later found by Stephan on 30 Sep 1872 and correctly placed.

 

The RNGC misidentifies PGC 1028685  as NGC 7108.  This galaxy is 1.7 minutes of RA east of Marth's position near two mag 11/12 stars and is probably too faint to have been picked up, even in Marth's large reflector.  The simplest solution is to assume Marth made a 1.0 min error in RA and equate NGC 7108 = NGC 7111  Listed in my RNGC Corrections #5.

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NGC 7109 = ESO 403-015 = VV 376 = MCG -06-47-011 = PGC 67192

21 41 58.5 -34 26 45; PsA

V = 13.4;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (7/28/92): very faint, small, round, low even surface brightness.  An wide evenly matched double star (mag 13.5-14 at 36") is 4' E.  NGC 7110 is 17' NNE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7109 = h3881 on 25 Sep 1834 and logged "eF; vS; among stars."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7110 = ESO 403-016 = MCG -06-47-012 = LGG 445-016 = PGC 67199

21 42 12.1 -34 09 44; PsA

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 76¡

 

17.5" (7/28/92): faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 ~E-W, broad concentration, low surface brightness.  A wide double star 11.5/11.5 at 48" separation is 4' NNE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7110 = h3882 on 23 Sep 1834 and recorded "vF; S; R; bM."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7111 = NGC 7108 = MCG -01-55-002 = PGC 67189

21 41 53.7 -06 42 32; Aqr

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 45¡

 

17.5" (9/15/90): very faint, very small, slightly elongated SW-NE.  The nucleus appears offset to the NW side.  Member of AGC 2366.

 

ƒdouard Stephan found NGC 7111 = St IV-5 on 31 Sep 1872.  His micrometric position is a very accurate match with PGC 67189.  Albert Marth discovered this galaxy (m 450) on 3 Aug 1864 and it was catalogued as NGC 7108 but Marth's position was 1 minute of RA too small and Dreyer assumed they were different objects.  So, NGC 7111= NGC 7108.

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NGC 7112 = NGC 7113 = MCG +02-55-009 = CGCG 427-016 = PGC 67208

21 42 26.6 +12 34 07; Peg

 

See observing notes for NGC 7113.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 7112 = Sw. IV -81 on 12 Jul 1886 and recorded "eeF, S, R, pB * with distant companion close p; very difficult".  Swift's position is 7 seconds of RA west and 1' north (separation of 1.8') from CGCG 427-016 = PGC 67208.  Furthermore his description applies as mag 9.2 SAO 107337 is less than 1' west with a "distant companion" to the northeast.  This galaxy was discovered by Albert Marth 22 years earlier on 3 Aug 1864 and later catalogued as NGC 7113.  Marth's position was 3' too far north.  Assuming Swift was unaware of Marth's earlier discovery, NGC 7112 = NGC 7113.  Howe was unsuccessful in finding this object on two nights.

 

The RNGC, CGCG, UGC and PGC misidentify UGC 11794 = CGCG 427-014 as NGC 7112. This faint edge-on is located 4.4' south-southwest of NGC 7113 and does not match Swift's description.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for more.

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NGC 7113 = NGC 7112 = MCG +02-55-009 = CGCG 427-016 = PGC 67208

21 42 26.6 +12 34 07; Peg

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (9/2/89): faint, small, slightly elongated E-W, weak concentration, faint stellar nucleus.  Located 1' E of mag 8.7 SAO 107337.  A mag 13 star is 1' NW.  Forms a pair with NGC 7112 5' SSW.

 

17.5" (7/16/88): faint, small, round.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7113 = m 451 on 3 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, S, stell."  His position is 3' due north of CGCG 427-016 = PGC 67208.  Lewis Swift independently discovered the galaxy on 12 Jul 1886 and it was recatalogued as NGC 7112.  See notes for NGC 7112.

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NGC 7114 = Nova Cygni 1876 = Q Cyg

21 41 44.0 +42 50 30; Cyg

 

= Nova Cygni 1876 = Q Cygni, Dreyer.  Listed as nonexistent in RNGC.

 

Ralph Copeland discovered NGC 7114 on 2 Sep 1877 with a 15-inch Grubb refractor at Dunn Echt, Scotland while viewing Nova Cygni 1876 (discovered by Julius Schmidt on 24 Nov 1876).  Copeland reported "through a low power eye-piece and a powerful direct vision prism, held between the eye and the eye-piece, the light of the star was found to be absolutely monochromatic."  In Oct 1885, Lohse claimed the star was surrounded by a small nebulous disc (first reported in 1882).  In the NGC notes and correction section, Lohse is mentioned but not Copeland.  Sherburne Burnham observed the nebula in 1891 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick and noted "at times the new star did not seem to have a perfectly stellar appearance under moderately high powers, but rather to resemble an exceedingly minute nebula."  This was the first of 22 objects in the NGC that was discovered by visual spectroscopy.

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NGC 7115 = ESO 531-025 = MCG -04-51-011 = VV 800 = PGC 67248

21 43 39.3 -25 21 07; PsA

V = 13.7;  Size 1.5'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 66¡

 

17.5" (10/13/90): faint, fairly small, edge-on 4:1 WSW-ENE, 0.8'x0.2', brighter core.  A very faint mag 15 star is involved at the WSW end.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7115 = LM 1-243 on 9 Jul 1885 and recorded "vF; pS; vE 90"; like a comet with tail; 2 st inv."  His rough position is 39 seconds of RA too large and the description applies.  Herbert Howe made a detailed observation in 1897-98 with the 20" refractor in Denver: "The length of the nebula was estimated to be 45", and its breath 10".  There is a 13 mag star at the preceding end and a condensation at the following end; three or four other condensations were suspected lying along the axis.  The position angle of the elongation was estimated at 65¡."

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NGC 7116 = UGC 11796 = MCG +05-51-001 = CGCG 493-005 = PGC 67218

21 42 40.2 +28 56 48; Cyg

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 105¡

 

17.5" (7/5/86): fairly faint, thin edge-on WNW-ESE, small, weak concentration.  Located 24' NW of Mu 1 Cygni (V = 4.8).

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7116 = m 452 on 9 Sep 1863 and noted "vF, pL, mE."  His position is accurate (to within 30").  The UGC fails to label this galaxy as NGC 7116.

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NGC 7117 = ESO 236-040 = AM 2142-483 = PGC 67303

21 45 47.0 -48 25 14; Gru

V = 12.8;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 27¡

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 244x and 318x; moderately bright, elongated 4:3 SSW-NNE, 40"x30", weak concentration.  Forms the northeast vertex of a triangle with two mag 10 stars 3' SSW and 4' WSW.  Fainter of a pair with NGC 7118 5.5' NE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7117 = h3883, along with NGC 7118, on 30 Sep 1834 and recorded "pF; R; gbM; 15"."  His position (measured also the next sweep) is accurate.

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NGC 7118 = ESO 236-045 = AM 2142-483 = PGC 67318

21 46 09.7 -48 21 14; Gru

V = 12.6;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 50¡

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 244x and 318x; fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~0.9'x0.7', small bright core.  Brighter of a pair with NGC 7117 5.5' SW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7118 = h3884, along with NGC 7117, on 30 Sep 1834 and recorded "vF; R; gbM; 15"."  His position (measured also the next sweep) is accurate.

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NGC 7119 = ESO 288-002 = AM 2143-464 = PGC 67325

21 46 16.0 -46 30 58; Gru

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 130¡

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 318x; moderately bright, fairly small large, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, ~30"x20", weak concentration.  A mag 14.5 star is 0.8' SW.  On carefully viewing NGC 7119 I noticed there was a "bulge" extending out slightly on the southwest side of the galaxy and occasionally there appeared to be a very faint superimposed "star" within this glow.

 

The contact "bulge" is identified in NED as NGC 7119B = ESO 288-001, and is probably an interacting companion (same redshift).  The "star" that I noted is likely the brighter stellar nucleus of this galaxy.  NGC 7119 is the brightest member of the cluster ACO S971.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7119 = h3885 on 6 Sep 1834 and recorded "not vF; S; R; gbM; 20"."  His single position is accurate.  This is a contact double system (21" separation) consisting of NGC 7719A (northeast) and NGC 7719B (southwest), though it may be a line of sight superposition.  Gerard de Vaucouleurs first used the letter suffixes in the 1956 "Survey of Bright Galaxies South of -35¡ Declination", based on Mt Stromlo plates, and again in the 1964 "Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies".

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NGC 7120 = MCG -01-55-006 = PGC 67273

21 44 33.2 -06 31 23; Aqr

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 135¡

 

17.5" (9/15/90): very faint, small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, even surface brightness.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7120 = m 453 on 3 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, S, vlE."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7121 = MCG -01-55-008 = PGC 67287

21 44 52.6 -03 37 11; Aqr

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 165¡

 

17.5" (8/7/91): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 1.5'x0.75', weak concentration.  A mag 11.5 star is 1.5' ESE of center.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7121 = St IV-6 on 3 Sep 1872.  His position (Esmiol's re-reduction) matches MCG -01-55-008 = PGC 67287.

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NGC 7122

21 45 47.8 -08 49 47; Cap

 

= **, Corwin.

 

Edward Cooper discovered NGC 7122 = Au 47 on 24 Nov 1854 with the 13.3-inch refractor at the Markree Observatory in Ireland.  W hile compiling the comprehensive Markree ecliptic catalogue, Cooper or assistant Andrew Graham noted it as a nebulous star or possible cluster . At his position is an unequal double oriented northwest-southeast (nearly merged on the DSS), with separation ~7".  Auwers noted in his 1862 list of new nebulae that in the Heliometer it appeared as an "11th magnitude star, surrounded by some 12-13m stars, perhaps nebulous."  At Birr Castle, it was also found to be a double star.  In fact, all objects noted as nebulous in the Markree catalogue are stars except for a duplicate observation of NGC 4989, which did not receive a NGC number.  See Harold Corwin's comments.

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NGC 7123 = ESO 075-027 = LGG 447-003 = PGC 67466

21 50 46.4 -70 19 59; Ind

V = 12.2;  Size 3.0'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 146¡

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 171x, appears moderately bright and large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 2.2'x1.1', fairly sharply concentrated with a bright core and much fainter extensions.  Located 5.2' WNW of mag 7.8 SAO 257969.

 

This galaxy is an edge-on early-type spiral with a sharp, narrow dust lane (not seen) similar to NGC 7814.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7123 = h3886 on 24 Jul 1835 and recorded "pB; R; vgbM; 20"; a star 9m follows, 8' dist."

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NGC 7124 = ESO 237-002 = AM 2144-504 = PGC 67375

21 48 05.4 -50 33 55; Ind

V = 12.3;  Size 3.0'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 143¡

 

30" (10/9/15 - OzSky): at 303x; fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 2.0'x0.8'.  Contains a bright, elongated core that gradually increases to the center where there is a stellar nucleus.  A knot was seen near the southeast end of the galaxy.  Images reveal this is an HII complex in one of the main spiral arms of the galaxy.  A mag 15 star is 1.1' SSW of center of the galaxy.  Mag 9.8 HD 207042 lies.4.5' SW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7124 = h3888 on 8 Jul 1834 and recorded "eF; lE; glbM; 70" l, 60" br."  On 3 Oct 1834 (sweep 498) he logged "B; L; pmE; vgbM; 2' l, 80" br."  His mean position from 3 sweeps is accurate.

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NGC 7125 = ESO 145-017 = PGC 67417

21 49 15.5 -60 42 39; Ind

V = 12.4;  Size 3.1'x2.1';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 110¡

 

30" (10/9/15 - OzSky): at 303x; moderately bright, large, slightly elongated ~E-W, ~2'x1.5', broad concentration with a slightly brighter middle.  Two spiral arms are visible in the halo, though not detached from the general glow.  One arm curves along the south side of the halo towards the west and another curves to the east on the north side.  A mag 14-14.5 star is superimposed on the north edge [45" from center] and several mag 13-14 stars surround the galaxy off the entire southern half.  Forms a very nice pair with NGC 7126 6' N.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7125 = h3887, along with NGC 7126, on 22 Jul 1835 and recorded "eF; pL; R; 60"; the preceding of 2."

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NGC 7126 = ESO 145-018 = PGC 67418

21 49 18.6 -60 36 29; Ind

V = 12.2;  Size 2.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 80¡

 

30" (10/9/15 - OzSky): at 303x; fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 5:3 WSW-ENE, ~1.5'x0.9', faint outer halo, central region gradually brightens.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.5' SE and a mag 16 star is very close to the northwest edge, 0.7' from center.  Forms a very nice pair with NGC 7125 6' due south.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7126 = h3889, along with NGC 7125, on 22 Jul 1835 and recorded "pB; pL; lE; gbM; 40" l, 35" br; the following of 2."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7127 = Lund 997 = OCL-219

21 43 41 +54 37 42; Cyg

Size 3'

 

17.5" (7/30/92): at 220x, 15 stars mag 11-14 are visible in a 3' diameter.  Course but evenly spaced and doesn't stand out in the field, appears fully resolved.  The brightest mag 11 star forms the center of fairly striking "stick figure" with six stars or else a 5-pointed "star".  Mag 7 SAO 33682 lies 10' WSW.  About 4' NW is a more scattered group of 10 slightly brighter stars.

 

8" (10/31/81): compact, about 10 stars mag 10-13 but not rich.  Located 10' E of a mag 7 star.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7127 = h2129 on 25 Sep 1829 and recorded "A small, poor, but neatly defined cluster of stars 10...12 m; with appendages np at some distance."  The "appendages np at some distance" is probably the more scattered group in my description.

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NGC 7128 = Cr 440 = Lund 998 = OCL-218

21 43 57 +53 42 54; Cyg

V = 9.7;  Size 3'

 

17.5" (9/7/91): 22 stars mag 11-13 in rich and compact 2.5' region.  Most stars are arranged in oval ring NW-SE.  A mag 11.5 star at the east edge has several very faint companions.  Two mag 11 stars are on the south side.  A double star mag 12/12 is on the west side as well as a few other double stars.  A string of stars oriented SW-NE is just NW of the oval ring.

 

8" (10/13/81): 15 faint stars, small, rich, over background haze, two mag 11 stars are at the south edge.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7128 = H VII-40 = h2130 on 14 Oct 1787 (sweep 765) and recorded "a cl of small stars of several sizes, 3 or 4' in diam, pretty rich but like a forming one."  JH made the single observation "a star 9-10m of a ruby red color in an oval annulus of small stars, 4' diam."

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NGC 7129 = IC 5134 = LBN 497 = Ced 196

21 42 59 +66 06 48; Cep

Size 8'x7'

 

17.5" (10/17/98): fairly high surface brightness nebulosity ~3'x2', surrounding three mag 9.5-10.5 stars at 220x.  At 280x, the brightest region surrounds the southern star (IC 5134) and the star 1' to its northeast.  Just preceding this second star is a small knot that does not appear to be surrounding a star.  The third star is 1' northwest the southern star and has the weakest halo.  An additional pair of stars 1.5' and 2' southwest do not appear to be surrounded by halos.  The entire group is encased in a diffuse glow and the surrounding region appears to be dusty.  IC 5132/5133 are very weak nebulae surrounding two mag 12 stars ~5' NNW.

 

17.5" (9/23/89): fairly bright reflection nebula surrounded three bright stars.  The brightest portion includes the southern star.  Also a bright knot is at the north end and it does not appear to be surrounding a star (or the star is embedded).

 

13" (7/20/85): fairly bright with OIII filter but dims using a Daystar 300 filter.  This nebulous region includes four or five stars and appears brighter around these stars.  A small knot is at the north end and a second knot is at the south end.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7129 = H IV-75 on 18 Oct 1794 (sweep 1063) and recorded "3 stars about 9m involved in nebulosity. The whole takes up a space of about 1.5' diam, 2 other stars of the same size and very near are not enclosed in the nebulosity."  On 16 Sep 1798 (sweep 1079) he logged "3 stars about 9-10m involved in nebulosity; 2 sp stars very near them are free from that appearance.  The nebulosity is of the milky kind and considerably strong.  There is a small 4th stars in the nebulosity just north of the following one."  John Herschel's description is similar: "a very coarse triple star involved in a nebulous atmosphere."  On a second observation he gives the relative offsets for the 3 stars (A, B and C), which match my observation.  His mean position for star A (southern star) is: 21 42 59.0 +66 06 12 (2000).  Both father and son clearly refered only to nebulosity surrounding a few stars at the position given here.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan's position and description for IC 5134 = Big. 339, found on 15 Oct 1895, clearly applies to the nebulosity around star A only, as he thought NGC 7129 only applied to one of the northern patches.  So, IC 5134 is part of NGC 7129.  IC 5132 and IC 5133 refer to separate fainter reflection nebulae surrounding two mag 12 stars ~4' north-northwest, which were discovered by Isaac Roberts in 1895 on a photographic plate.  Bigourdan's NGC 7133 = Big. 91, placed ~10' northeast of NGC 7129, is free of nebulosity and Harold Corwin concludes does not exist.  The RNGC position for NGC 7129 is off by 1.7 minutes of RA and NGC 7133 is misidentified.

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NGC 7130 = IC 5135 = ESO 403-032 = AM 2145-351 = LGG 445-017 = PGC 67387

21 48 19.5 -34 57 06; PsA

V = 12.1;  Size 1.5'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (8/6/97): moderately bright, moderately large, round, ~1.5' diameter.  Well concentrated with a prominent core and much fainter halo.  NGC 7135 lies 19' ENE.

 

17.5" (7/16/93): moderately bright, moderately large, slightly elongated ~N-S, large bright core.  Appears to have a knot or star superimposed at the north edge.  Second of three with NGC 7135 19' ENE and IC 5131 11' NW.

 

13" (8/5/83): faint, small, round, NGC 7135 in field 19' ENE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7130 = h3890 on 25 Sep 1834 and recorded "pB; R; glbM; 20"."  There is nothing near his position, but exactly 30' south is ESO 403-032.  Lewis Swift independently discovered the galaxy again on 17 Sep 1897 and described Sw. XI-208 (later IC 5135) as "vF; pL; R; sp of 2 [with XI-209]; not 7130 or 7135."  His position is 4.5' too far southwest, close enough that Howe was able to find it in 1898-99 and measure an accurate position (used in the IC 2).  Swift's XI-209 ("3 B st form a triangle; nf of 2") is clearly NGC 7135.

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NGC 7131 = MCG -02-55-002 = PGC 67359

21 47 36.1 -13 10 57; Cap

V = 13.7;  Size 1.6'x1.0';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 115¡

 

17.5" (9/15/90): faint, small, almost round, bright core.  A mag 14.5 star is 35" SSE of center.  A bright pretty double star (·2826 = 8.3/9.0 at 4") is located 5' NNW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7131 = m 454 on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, S, vlE, vgbM."  His position is 3' too far south (matches in RA).

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NGC 7132 = MCG +02-55-013 = CGCG 427-024 = PGC 67349

21 47 16.6 +10 14 28; Peg

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 100¡

 

17.5" (7/16/88): very faint, very small, elongated E-W, small bright core.  An extremely faint star is possibly involved.  A mag 10.9 star is located 1.1' W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7132 = Sw. II-89 on 18 Oct 1884 and recorded "vF; pL; lE; bet 2 stars; 5 stars west? in form of a pyramid.  My memory locates the stars east of the nebula."  His position is 22 seconds of RA too large but the description pins down the identification (the stars are west).  Rudolph Spitaler measured an accurate position on 6 Nov 1891 with the 27" refractor in Vienna (corrected in IC 1 Notes) as well as Bigourdan on 3 Oct 1888.

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NGC 7133

21 44 26.7 +66 10 06; Cep

 

= Nonexistent, Corwin.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 7133 = Big. 91 on 18 Sep 1884 while observing the NGC 7129 complex.  According to Corwin, Bigourdan's offset is 1 min 26.8 seconds east and 3' 49.7" north of BD +65 1638.  He described a "pretty extended area, perhaps 2' across, in which I suspect some extremely faint nebulosity, at the extreme limit of visibility."  There isn't any visible nebulosity on the DSS at this offset and Harold Corwin classifies this number as non-existent.  See his identification notes.

 

The RNGC classification is a diffuse nebula but there is no description.  The RNGC position is 4' southwest of the center of NGC 7129, and it's not clear what object or section of the nebulosity the authors are referring to.  The RNGC error is mentioned in my RNGC Corrections #4 and by Gordon Bond in Deep Sky magazine.

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NGC 7134

21 48 55.8 -12 58 28; Cap

Size 0.5'

 

17.5" (7/20/96): interesting asterism consisting of a very tight group of four mag 14/15 stars in a 30" arc concave to the south.  Situated just 30" S of a mag 12 star.  The brightest star is 25" due south of the mag 12 star and the faintest mag 15 star is at the west end of the arc.  Nicely resolved at 280x and 410x.  NGC 7131 lies 23' SW.

 

Christian Peters discovered NGC 7134 around 1860 with the 13.5-inch refractor at the Hamilton College Observatory.  He described it as "very small, but not very faint; nearly S of a star 11m."   Herbert Howe, in his visual survey at Denver, reported "not a nebula; it simply a group of three or four stars of mag 13-14, which is about 40" south of a 10th mag star. A most careful scrutiny revealed no trace of nebulosity."  The DSS confirms there are four mag 14/15 stars in an arc, just 30" south of a mag 12 star.  Harold Corwin agrees with this identification.  RNGC classifies this asterism as nonexistent.

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NGC 7135 = ESO 403-035 = AM 2146-350 = MCG -06-48-001 = PGC 67425 = IC 5136?

21 49 45.6 -34 52 33; PsA

V = 11.7;  Size 3.0'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 47¡

 

17.5" (8/6/97): moderately bright, moderately large, ~2' diameter, irregularly shaped bright core.  The halo appears to have an uneven or mottled surface brightness. A mag 14-15 star is embedded at the west edge [34" from center]. Located just following a bright triangle of mag 9.5-10.5 stars.  NGC 7130 lies 19' WSW.

 

17.5" (7/16/93): fairly faint, fairly small, round, broad weak concentration, small bright core.  Follows an isosceles triangle of mag 9.5-10.5 stars including mag 9.4 SAO 213316 5' NW, a mag 10 star 3.3' SW and a mag 11 star 2' N.  Third of three with NGC 7130 19' WSW.

 

17.5" (7/30/92): fairly faint, fairly small, round, broad mild concentration.  Unusual as three stars mag 9-10 just west form a right triangle.  The galaxy is just east of a line connecting the two stars on the east side of the triangle. 

 

13" (8/5/83): faint, small, round, similar to NGC 7130 19' WSW.  A triangle of stars precedes the galaxy.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7135 = h3891 on 23 Sep 1834 and recorded "pB; R; bM; 20"; a * 14m precedes just out of neb."  On the next sweep he logged "pB; L; vgbM; has 5 st 8m in field surrounding it [the stars are 9th-11th mag]."

 

Lewis Swift found the galaxy again on 17 Sep 1897 at age 77 near the end of his observing career and assumed it was new.  His description of Sw. XI-209 reads "eeF; pL; R; 3 B st form a triangle; nf of 2 [with IC 5135 = NGC 7130]."  Herbert Howe reexamined the field in 1899 and realized Swift's #209 was identical to NGC 7135, so Dreyer didn't assign an IC desigation.  But IC 5136, also from Swift just 2 nights earlier, may be another observation of NGC 7135.  See Corwin's identification notes for that story.

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NGC 7136

21 49 43.3 -11 47 35; Cap

 

= **, Corwin.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 7136 = LM 2-463 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  He noted "mag 16.0; vS; R; neb?; *9.5m PA 95¡, separation 2'."  There is nothing near his rough position (nearest min of RA) except stars.  Herbert Howe searched for this object with the 20" at Denver and reported "this is a stellar object of mag 13, which Muller suspected to be a nebula.  At times it looked slightly nebulous, and at other times distinctly stellar.  Nothing is visible in the place give in the NGC."  Howe's position is less than 1 min of RA east of Muller's and corresponds with a faint pair of stars (about 10" separation).  A mag 11-12 star is 2' east, clinching this identification.

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NGC 7137 = UGC 11815 = MCG +04-51-005 = CGCG 472-008 = PGC 67379

21 48 13.0 +22 09 38; Peg

V = 12.4;  Size 1.6'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 36¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): moderately bright, moderately large, oval SSW-NNE.  Mottled appearance with an irregular surface brightness and an impression of knots involved.

 

13.1" (8/5/83): fairly faint, moderately large, round.  Fairly low surface brightness.

 

8" (8/5/83): very faint, small, round, diffuse.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7137 = H II-261 = h2132 on 17 Nov 1784 (sweep 319) and logged "F, iR, less than 1' dia."  JH made two observations, noting on sweep 166, "F; R; vglbM; 30"; r."  His mean position matches UGC 11815.

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NGC 7138 = UGC 11817 = MCG +02-55-014 = CGCG 427-025 = PGC 67406

21 49 01.1 +12 30 51; Peg

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 177¡

 

17.5" (7/16/88): very faint, very small, elongated NNW-SSE.  A mag 13.5 star is at the NW end 27" from the center.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7138 = m 455 on 3 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, vS, stell."  His position is 1' too far south.

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NGC 7139 = PK 104+7.1 = PN G104.1+07.9

21 46 08.6 +63 47 29; Cep

V = 13.4;  Size 86"x70"

 

24" (8/31/16): excellent contrast gain using a NPB filter at 200x.  With this combination NGC 7139 is fairly bright, round, crisp-edged, 1.2' diameter.  The rim is slightly brighter, particularly on the east and west sides and slightly weaker on part of the north and south rim, giving a subtle annularity.  The interior is unevenly lit, and a bit darker on the north-northeast side.  A mag 13.5 star is off the southeast end [0.9' from center] and a mag 15.5 star is right at the northeast edge of the rim.

 

18" (8/17/04): easily picked up at 115x unfiltered.  At 225x appears moderately bright and large, slightly elongated ~N-S, ~1.2'x1.0'.  A mag 13.5 star is just off the SE end.  The rim appears to be slightly brighter, particularly along the SE side towards the mag 13.5 star.

 

17.5" (10/13/01): easily picked up sweeping at 100x without a filter.  Appears moderately bright, round, 1.2' diameter, crisp-edged.  A mag 13.5 star is off the SE edge.  Excellent view at 280x without filter.  The surface brightness appears irregular with a slightly brighter rim, particularly along the eastern half of the rim.  An extremely faint star is intermittently visible right at the NE edge.  A nice, elongated group of 6-8 stars follows the planetary in the same high power field.  Central star not seen at 280x.

 

17.5" (8/8/91): moderately bright, fairly large, slightly elongated, 1.2' diameter.  A mag 13.5 star is just off the SE edge 40" from the center.  A slightly darker center is visible with an OIII filter at 140x but the annularity is subtle.  No central star visible. 

 

8" (8/28/81): extremely faint, moderately large, round, difficult, a faint star is near the south edge.  Located about 4' NW of a faint curving arc of stars and 23' E of mag 7 SAO 19595.  This is one of the faintest planetaries observed with the C8.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7139 = H III-696 on 5 Nov 1787 (sweep 775) and recorded "vF, iR, may be a patch of stars but I have not been out long enough, about 1' diam."  His position is within 2' of this planetary.  Four nights later (sweep 776) he reported "vF, S, R, lbM, r."  On 15 Oct 1794 (sweep 1062), he noted "F, irr figure, easily resolvable."  On this sweep, his position is just 1.3' too far south.  John Herschel didn't record an observation.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 24 July 1884.

 

Heber Curtis first found the spectrum to be of a planetary with a slitless spectrograph at Lick.  Based on a Crossley photograph. Heber Curtis reported (1918) "the oval is 86"x67" in p.a. 20¡ +/-.  Considerably fainter along the major axis; at the east and west edges slightly brighter streaks appear, indicating a ring or shell formation."

 

The declination is 8.5' too far south in the RNGC, Sky Catalogue 2000, Strausberg-ESO Catalogue, NGC 2000.0 and the first edition of the Uranometria 2000 Atlas. The position is correct in the NGC and the P-K catalogue.  Kent Wallace was first to note the positional error.

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NGC 7140 = NGC 7141 = ESO 189-007 = PGC 67532

21 52 15.3 -55 34 11; Ind

 

See observing notes for NGC 7141.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7140 = h3892 on 4 Oct 1834 and recorded "pF; R; gbM; 35"."  There is nothing at his position, but exactly one degree north is NGC 7141 = h3893, which he found again the following night!   Herschel suspected he made an error and noted "It is not improbably that this and the nebula immediately preceding sweep 499 are identical, one or other being mistaken 1¡ in PD.  Still, as both observations are clearly written in MS, and, as the difference in PD even then is rather considerable (1' 28"), I have thought it necessary to enter them separately."  Despite his uncertainly, NGC 7140 = NGC 7141.

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NGC 7141 = NGC 7140 = ESO 189-007 = PGC 67532

21 52 15.4 -55 34 11; Ind

V = 11.5;  Size 4.2'x3.0';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 18¡

 

30" (10/9/15 - OzSky): at 394x; very bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, 2.5'x1.0', contains a very bright elongated core.  The halo has an irregular surface brightness suggesting parts of spiral arms.   A mag 15 star is just off the west edge, 40" from center.  Located 13' NNE of mag 7.0 HD 207618.

 

Forms a pair with PGC 190704, 2.7' to the southwest.  It appeared faint (B = 16.3), very small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 12"x8".  A mag 14.5 star is 1.2' SE.  No redshift data is available on this galaxy so it may not be a physical pair.

 

John Herschel found NGC 7141 = h3893 on 5 Oct 1834 and recorded "F; L; R; first g, then pslbM."  His position matches ESO 189-007.  He discovered the galaxy the previous night, but made an error and recorded the declination of h3892 (later NGC 7140) 1¡ too far south.  Herschel thought they might be equal, but included both entries in the GC and Dreyer followed in the NGC.  So, NGC 7140 = NGC 7141, with the first observation resulting in NGC 7140.

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NGC 7142 = Cr 442 = Lund 1000 = OCL-241

21 45 09 +65 46 30 ; Cep

V = 9.3;  Size 4'

 

13.1" (7/20/85): fairly rich but somewhat scattered in parts, large.  Includes three brighter mag 10 stars but otherwise fairly uniform and rich in mag 12.5-13.5 stars.

 

8": large, spread out.  There is a string of stars on the east and SE edge.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7142 = H VII-66 = h2134 on 18 Oct 1794 (sweep 1063) and recorded "a cl of considerable compressed vS stars, intermixed with some pretty large ones. iF, 8 or 9' diameter.  Some of the large ones from an irregular kind of circle."  On 16 Sept 1798 (sweep 1079) he logged "a cluster; considerably rich, chiefly small stars, about 12' diameter."  JH made a single observation and recorded "the chief star in the sf part of a large, pretty rich, loose cluster of st 12...14m; diam 10'; has more than one star 10-11m in it."  His position is on the double star HJ 1696 at the east side of the cluster.

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NGC 7143

21 48 53.9 +29 57 24; Cyg

 

18" (10/25/03): this is a faint, very close pair of mag 15 stars that was just resolved at 257x.  At first glance at 215x, this pair appeared nebulous.  Also, an easier distinctive pair of mag 14 stars is just 2' E. Located 28' SW of mag 5.1 14 Pegasi.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7143 = h2133 on 15 Sep 1828 and recorded a "strongly suspected neb, or a vF double star with nebulosity. Has a *11 np."  Four negative observations were made in the 1850's using Lord Rosse's 72".  At Herschel's position is a small clump of stars and 1.5' NW is a brighter mag 11 star matching his description.   The RNGC calls this a double star with no nebulosity.  See Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 7144 = ESO 237-011 = LGG 448-001 = PGC 67557

21 52 42.4 -48 15 14; Gru

V = 10.8;  Size 3.7'x3.6';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

11" (8/8/04 - Haleakala Crater): moderately bright and large, round, 1.5' diameter, increases to a very small brighter nucleus.  This galaxy has a high surface brightness.  A mag 11 star lies 3' NNE.  In the same 38' field at 127x as NGC 7145, situated 23' NNE.

 

Brightest in a small group along with NGC 7155 and NGC 7151 and one of the brightest members of the Pavo-Indus Cloud including NGCs 7213, 7205, 7049 and 7083.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7144 = h3894 on 30 Sep 1834 and recorded "vB; pL; R; smbM to nucleus; 45"."  His position (measured on two sweeps) is accurate.

 

Pietro Baracchi observed this galaxy on 2 Nov 1885 with the Great Melbourne Telescope and wrote, "B, small, round, svmbM to an almost star like nucleus - fades away outwards, the diameter being about 60".  Very faint in every part except the nucleus, which alone justify the object to be called bright."

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NGC 7145 = ESO 237-013 = LGG 448-002 = PGC 67583

21 53 20.2 -47 52 57; Gru

V = 11.2;  Size 2.5'x2.4';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

11" (8/8/04 - Haleakala Crater): moderately bright and large, round, 1.2' diameter, small bright core.  Bracketed by mag 13 stars just 0.8' SE and 1.3' NW of center.  A mag 11 star lies 2.4' SSE.  Forms a wide pair (same field) with NGC 7144 23' SSW.  Located 17' ESE mag 8.5 HD 207615.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7145 = h3895 on 2 Oct 1834 and recorded "B; R; pgbM; 20" within a triangle of 3 st 13m."  His single position is accurate.  Observing with the 48" Melbourne Telescope on 6 Sep 1877, Joseph Turner noted it was brighter in the middle to a stellar nucleus.

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NGC 7146 = MCG +00-55-024 = CGCG 376-044 = PGC 67508

21 51 47.4 +03 01 01; Peg

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 80¡

 

17.5" (8/1/86): very faint, small, elongated ~E-W.  A brighter star is at the east end.  Forms a pair with NGC 7147 4.3' NE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7146 = m 456, along with NGC 7147, on 11 Aug 1863 and noted "F, R."  His position is 1' too far north.

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NGC 7147 = MCG +00-55-025 = CGCG 376-045 = PGC 67518

21 51 58.4 +03 04 18; Peg

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 5¡

 

17.5" (8/1/86): faint, small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 7146 4.3' SW.  Located 14' S of NGC 7149.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7147 = m 457, along with NGC 7146, on 11 Aug 1863 and simply noted "vF".   His position is accurate.  Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered this galaxy on 15 Sep 1865.  He noted it as slightly elongated and that a mag 10 or 11 star preceded by 10.7 seconds of RA (and a little south).

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NGC 7148

21 52 08.5 +03 20 29; Peg

 

= **, Corwin.  Incorrect identification in the RNGC.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 7148, along with NGC 7149, on 15 Sep 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  At his position (measured 3 times) is a pair of stars (~10" separation on the DSS), so the identification is certain although he did not resolve the pair.

 

The RNGC and PGC misidentify IC 1407 = CGCG 376-048 as NGC 7148.  This galaxy is located 6.4' NE of d'Arrest's position.

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NGC 7149 = UGC 11835 = MCG +00-55-026 = CGCG 376-047 = PGC 67524

21 52 11.7 +03 18 04; Peg

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 25¡

 

24" (9/22/17): at 375x; fairly faint, moderately bright, sharply concentrated with a bright oval core that increases to a very small brighter nucleus.  The core is slightly elongated along the major axis.  The outer halo is ~0.8'x0.6' and has a very low surface brightness.  A mag 12.3 star is 1.4' SSW.

 

IC 1407 (misidentified as NGC 7148 in RNGC and PGC) lies 14' NNE.  It appeared fairly faint, small, round, 24" diameter, very faint stellar nucleus.  This is a double system (II Zw 152), but the nearly stellar companion (PGC 67535) at the WNW edge was not resolved.

 

17.5" (8/1/86): faint, small, round, weak concentration.  On a line close south are two stars; a mag 14 star 0.8' SSW and a mag 12 star 1.4' SSW of center.  Brightest of three with NGC 7146 and NGC 7147 15' SSW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 7149, along with NGC 7148 (just a double star) on 15 Sep 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen. His position (3 measurements) is accurate.

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NGC 7150

21 50 23.5 +49 45 20; Cyg

Size 0.7'

 

18" (9/26/11): this asterism was picked up at 175x as a small knot of 4 faint stars, ~45" diameter.  The stars are arranged in a slightly curving north-south string, bowed out to the east with mags of 13.5-14.3.  At 285x, a 5th star ~50" E of the string was noticed.  Collinear with two mag 10.5/11 stars situated 3' ENE.  Located 14' ENE of mag 7.0 HD 207647.

 

George Bond discovered NGC 7150 = HN 1 on 10 Feb 1848 with the 15" refractor at Harvard.  This was first deep sky object to be discovered in the United States!  Less than 1' north of his position is a small clump of 4 stars that Harold Corwin identifies as Bond's object.

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NGC 7151 = ESO 237-015 = LGG 448-004 = PGC 67634

21 55 04 -50 39 24; Ind

V = 12.8;  Size 3.0'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 75¡

 

30" (10/9/15 - OzSky): at 394x; moderately bright and large, elongated 5:2 ~WSW-ENE, 2.0'x0.8' .  There are no well defined brightness zones but the appearance is unusual; very mottled and knotty with an odd shape.  It is brighter on the west side and wider, seeming to taper on the northeast end.  A stellar knot [apparently an HII region, though perhaps a compact companion] is on the southeast side of the galaxy.  In addition, a couple of stars are superimposed; a mag 14.5 star is at the northwest edge and a mag 16 star is place symmetrically on the south side [28" SW of center].

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7151 = h3896 on 8 Jul 1834 and recorded "eF; mE; vgbM; rather wedge-formed; ? if not binuclear."  His position (measured on 3 sweeps) is fairly accurate.

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NGC 7152 = ESO 466-013 = MCG -05-51-020 = PGC 67601

21 53 59.0 -29 17 21; PsA

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 17¡

 

17.5" (8/27/92): very faint, small, elongated 3:2 N-S.  A mag 14 star is at the SW end 34" from center and a mag 14.5 star is just off the SE end.  A pair of mag 12-13 stars lie 3.5' N.  NGC 7153 is 15' NNE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7152 = h3897 on 18 Aug 1835 and recorded "eeF; vS; 10"; barely perceptible; sky perfectly clear."  His position is accurate, though Dreyer notes in the NGC description that "Lassell not found."  Herbert Howe, observing with the 20" refractor in Denver in 1898-99, wrote (in his compilation of NGC/IC observations) "According to the NGC, Lassell did not succeed in finding this.  It is a small, exceedingly faint and diffuse stain on the sky."

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NGC 7153 = ESO 466-016 = MCG -05-51-022 = PGC 67624

21 54 35.4 -29 03 49; PsA

V = 13.4;  Size 1.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 68¡

 

17.5" (7/28/92): faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, brighter core.  Located 10' NNW of mag 9.2 SAO 190727.  NGC 7152 lies 15' SSW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7153 = h3898 on 28 Sep 1834 and recorded "eF; S; E; or has an eF * near."  His position is 1.8' too far north.

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NGC 7154 = ESO 404-008 = MCG -06-48-005 = LGG 450-001 = PGC 67641

21 55 21.0 -34 48 51; PsA

V = 12.4;  Size 2.1'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 102¡

 

24" (9/25/19): at 375x; moderately bright, fairly large, slightly elongated, ~1.5' diameter, weak concentration, fairly low - though irregular - surface brightness.  A very faint mag 15-15.5 star is superimposed on the south side.  A mag 14.8 star is 1.6' NW of center.

 

First in a large group (LGG 450) that includes HCG 90 (NGC 7172-7176).  MCG -6-48-4, located 12' NW, appeared  fairly faint, slightly elongated E-W, 0.5'x0.4', even surface brightness.  ESO 404-12, located 26' NE, appeared moderately bright, slightly elongated NW-SE, 1.2'x1.0', brighter core.  A mag 14.6 star is superimposed on the east side.

 

13.1" (8/5/83): very faint, elongated 3:2, low even surface brightness, diffuse, requires averted.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7154 = h3900 on 23 Sep 1834 and recorded "B; pL; glbM; more nebulae hereabouts."  The next sweep he logged "B; pL; irreg R; glbM; r; 60"."

 

Based on photographs taken at the Helwan observatory in 1919-20, it was described as "pF, 1' x 1/2', irr shape.  Appears to be two small spirals very close together."

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NGC 7155 = IC 5143 = ESO 237-016 = LGG 448-003 = PGC 67663

21 56 09.7 -49 31 19; Ind

V = 12.2;  Size 2.2'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 4¡

 

30" (10/9/15 - OzSky): at 394x; bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 N-S, ~1.6'x1.1'.  Sharply concentrated with an intensely bright, roundish core and fainter extensions (bar) oriented E-W.  The core/bar is encased in a much larger, low surface brightness halo.  Located 14' NW of mag 7.7 HD 208360.  The galaxy is collinear with two mag 11-11.5 stars 4' and 6.4' SE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7155 = h3899 on 30 Sep 1834 and recorded "pB; S; lE; psmbM; 20"."  His position (measured also the next sweep) is accurate.  Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 17 Sep 1897 and logged "eeF; pS; R; in line with 2 9m st[ars]."  His position was 28' too far north, but Harold Corwin comments that Swift's description of the two bright stars clinches this identification.  So, IC 5143 = NGC 7155.

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NGC 7156 = UGC 11843 = MCG +00-55-029 = CGCG 376-053 = PGC 67622

21 54 33.6 +02 56 35; Peg

V = 12.5;  Size 1.6'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 105¡

 

17.5" (8/1/86): fairly faint, fairly small, round, weak concentration, irregular surface brightness, appears mottled.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7156 = H III-452 = h2135 on 8 Oct 1785 (sweep 461) and recorded "vF, pL, R, r."  CH's reduced position is 2' northwest of UGC 11843.  JH made three observations, logging it as "F; R: pL; 40"; vglbM" on sweep 295, and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 7157 = ESO 532-003 = MCG -04-51-015 = AM 2154-253 = PGC 67693

21 56 56.7 -25 21 02; PsA

V = 14.1;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 5¡

 

17.5" (8/3/94): very faint, fairly small, round, 0.7' diameter, low even surface brightness.  A mag 14.5 star is 1.9' N of center.  Located 2.7' ENE of mag 9.3 SAO 190762.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7157 = LM 1-244 in 1886 and recorded "mag 14.0; vS; R; sbMN; B double star precedes 8 sec; env 16.0."  His position is 0.7 minute of RA west and 1.5' south of ESO 532-003.  A mag 10/14 pair at ~12" separation is 2.8' west, matching Leavenworth's description, so the identification is certain.  Herbert Howe, though, observing with the 20" refractor at Denver, reported in 1898-99 "There is no bright double star in the vicinity, and I could find no nebula.  Possibly, however, the abbreviation "BD" is here used for "Bonn Durchmusterung."  Spitaler also failed to find this."  Despite their failure (the double star is probably very difficult), the identification is certain.

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NGC 7158

21 57 28.1 -11 35 33; Cap

 

18" (8/31/11): At 220x this triple star appears as a soft or nebulous "star" that won't focus sharply.  There is a strong impression, though, of a slightly fainter companion attached on the west side. I could easily see how the merged image of this triple could be taken as a possible nebula (described as a "vF neb[ulous] star").  At 285x it appears to be a double star, though the separation is quite small and the stars were not cleanly resolved in only fair seeing.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 7158 = LM 2-464 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  Muller described a "neb*[estimated at mag 14]; *9.5 P 40¡ Æ2.8'."  In 1898-99 Howe reported "this nebulous star is of mag 13.  It may be double at 270¡ (west)."  Howe's object is a close double star (fainter component to the west) about 30 seconds of RA east of Muller's rough position (nearest min of RA).  Bigourdan also measured this same multiple star on 10 Sep 1888.

 

Harold Corwin also identifies NGC 7158 as this object (calling it a triple star).  A mag 10 star is 2.9' in PA 40¡, clinching this identification.  The RNGC misidentifies PGC 67698, a faint galaxy about 9' southwest of the triple, as NGC 7158.

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NGC 7159 = CGCG 428-003 = PGC 67674

21 56 25.6 +13 33 45; Peg

V = 14.3;  Size 0.65'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 168¡

 

17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, very small, slightly elongated ~N-S.  A mag 14.5 star at the south end interferes with viewing.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7159 = Sw. VI-94 on 14 Nov 1886 and recorded "eeF; eS; R; pF * with vF distant companion 5' s."  His position is 9 seconds of RA east of CGCG 428-003 = PGC 67674.  His description mentions a "pF * with vF distant companion 5' S.  A mag 10.7 star is 4' due south with a mag 13 companion 46" NW.  Herbert Howe commented the star south-following is involved, but this isn't the star Swift referred to.

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NGC 7160 = Cr 443 = Lund 1002 = OCL-236

21 53 40 +62 36 12; Cep

V = 6.1;  Size 7'

 

18" (8/17/04): at 160x, ~40 stars are visible in a 8'x6' group, extended SW-NE.  Two mag 7 and 8 stars (HD 208392 and 208440) that are separated by 1' dominate the cluster.  Both of these stars have much fainter companions.  Another nice mag 13 pair is southwest of the 7th magnitude star.  The  cluster stands out well in the field.

 

17.5" (10/5/91): about three dozen stars in a 7' diameter.  Very bright, elongated SW-NE although scattered outliers make the cluster rounder.  Includes several fairly bright stars with two stars mag 7.0/7.9 at 1.0' separation NE of center which are surrounded by a semicircle of nine stars.  Includes several double stars with a mag 10 star that has a very faint companion on its west side.  Not rich but distinctive.  Mag 6.8 SAO 19698 is 11' NW at the edge of the field.

 

8" (10/31/81): about two dozen stars in a bright cluster, not dense.  Includes two mag 8 stars.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7160 = H VIII-67 = h2136 on 9 Nov 1787 (sweep 776) and recorded "a coarsely scattered cluster of stars of several sizes, 6 or 7' diam, a forming one."  His position is accurate. Both William and John only made a single observation.

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NGC 7161

21 56 57.2 +02 55 39; Peg

 

18" (10/25/03): this is a close pair of faint mag 15 stars at 9" separation, situated nearly at the midpoint of two mag 13 stars ~2' N and 2' S.  Resolved at 250x, but the faint pair appears nebulous at lower powers.  Located 10' N of a distinctive equilateral triangle of stars highlighted by mag 8.9 SAO 127184.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 7161 on 13 Sep 1862 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  He made two observations on consecutive nights  and mentioned a mag 11-12 stars precedes by 11 seconds of time.  On the 14th, he described this object as a small group of stars (19th mag), between two (16th mag) stars.  About 2' south of his position is a pair of mag 15 stars and 1' further south is a fainter and closer pair with a third extremely close pair to its south.  Karl Reinmuth reported this as a "double star 15 dist 0.2', 0 deg; bet 2 st ssp/nnf." [the northernmost pair].  RNGC follows Reinmuth and Carlson and calls it a double star, though Corwin mentions the other closer pairs might have also been glimpsed.

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NGC 7162 = ESO 288-026 = MCG -07-45-003 = LGG 449-002 = PGC 67795

21 59 39.1 -43 18 22; Gru

V = 12.7;  Size 2.8'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 10¡

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 303x; fairly bright to bright, very large, very elongated 3:1 ~N-S, ~2.5'x0.9', broad concentration with an elongated, brighter core.  A mag 16.2 star is at the west edge.  Second brightest in a trio (similar redshifts) with NGC 7166 11' SE and fainter NGC 7162A 14' NE.  Situated 10.6' NNW of mag 8 HD 208812.  NGC 7162A, a Magellanic spiral, appeared very diffuse, large glow, circular,~2' diameter, no distinct core or zones.

 

18" (10/16/09): very faint, fairly large, appears as a very hazy ill-defined glow, ~1.2'x0.8' N-S.  This galaxy was surprisingly difficult for a V = 12.7 galaxy, though the low elevation affected the view.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 7166 11' SE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7162 = h3901, along with NGC 7166, on 5 Sep 1834 and recorded "F; L; mE; vgbM; (fog)."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7163 = ESO 466-030 = MCG -05-51-035 = LGG 450-003 = PGC 67785

21 59 20.3 -31 52 55; PsA

V = 13.4;  Size 1.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 101¡

 

18" (10/21/06): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 40"x30, low even surface brightness.  Located 34' W of NGC 7172 (HCG 90).  Two mag 12.5 star ~7' SSE are collinear with the galaxy.

 

17.5" (7/28/92): very faint, fairly small, irregularly round, low surface brightness, diffuse with ill-defined edges, weakly concentrated but no core, requires averted to see well.  Located 7.5' W of a mag 9.5 star.  The NGC 7172-7176 group (HCG 90) lies 35'-40' E.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7163 = h3902 on 27 Sep 1834 and logged "pF; lE; glbM; 40"."

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NGC 7164 = CGCG 377-006 = PGC 67673

21 56 23.6 +01 21 50; Aqr

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 55¡

 

17.5" (8/1/89): very faint, very small, round, low surface brightness.  Five stars mag 11-15 in a string to the NE are almost collinear with NGC 7164.  Located 12' from core of the rich cluster AGC 2397 (possible member?).

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7164 = LM 2-465 in 1886 and recorded "mag 15.7, R, 4 vF stars from 1' to 4' n."  There is nothing at his rough position (nearest min of RA), but 2.2 minutes of time west and 3.5' south is CGCG 377-006 = PGC 67673.  Despite the poor positional match, there is a string of stars extending north.  This is the northernmost galaxy discovered at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  See Corwin's identification notes for IC 1415 and IC 1416 (found by Bigourdan while searching for NGC 7164).

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NGC 7165 = MCG -03-56-002 = PGC 67788

21 59 26.1 -16 30 44; Aqr

V = 13.2;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 67¡

 

17.5" (9/15/90): fairly faint, small, round, even concentration, small bright core.  Located equidistant from a mag 13 star 2.1' WNW and a mag 12.5 star 2.0' SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7165 = H III-930 = h2137 on 6 Sep 1793 (sweep 1050) and noted "suspected, eF.  300 confirmed it."  John Herschel noted on 5 Aug 1826 (sweep 37), "suspected, but the state of the air is most unfavourable."  His position, though, is a good match.  Herbert Howe, observing in 1898-99, commented "this nebula contains a condensation [nucleus] of mag 13."

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NGC 7166 = ESO 288-027 = MCG -07-45-004 = AM 2157-433 = LGG 449-003 = PGC 67817

22 00 32.9 -43 23 23; Gru

V = 11.9;  Size 2.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 14¡

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 303x; bright, moderately large, very elongated 7:2 SSW-NNE, 1.5'x0.4', sharply concentrated with a very small intense core and quasi-stellar nucleus. CPO 628, a nice mag 11.9/13.3 double at ~5" separation lies 4.8' due east and another mag 11.5 star is 2.5' NE.  Brightest in a small group with NGC 7162 11' NW and NGC 7162A 15' N.  NGC 7162A, a Magellanic spiral, appeared very diffuse, large glow, circular,~2' diameter, no distinct core or zones.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7166 = h3903, along with NGC 7162, on 5 Sep 1834 and recorded "pB; S; R; psmbM; 15"."  His position is just off the east side of the galaxy.

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NGC 7167 = ESO 532-009 = MCG -04-52-001 = AM 2157-245 = PGC 67816

22 00 30.9 -24 38 00; Aqr

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 145¡

 

17.5" (10/13/90): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 WNW-ESE, weak concentration.  A mag 10.5 star is off the east end 1.3' from center.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7167 = h3905 on 29 Jul 1834 and recorded "F; R; vglbM; 45"; has a * 10m, 90" dist from centre, following in parallel."  His position and description is a perfect match.

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NGC 7168 = ESO 237-026 = AM 2158-515 = PGC 67882

22 02 07.4 -51 44 35; Ind

V = 11.9;  Size 2.0'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 68¡

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x, moderately bright, fairly small, round, 1' diameter, sharply concentrated with a very small bright core.  A mag 14.5 star is close southeast, just 43" from the center.  Located 27' S of brighter IC 5152.  PGC 101233, located 3' SE, appeared extremely faint and small with a brighter 15" core surrounded by an extremely faint halo (possibly elongated).  The companion's redshift is 4x that of NGC 7168.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7168 = h3904 on 8 Jul 1834 and recorded "pF; S; R: pslbM; 15"."  On two later sweeps he called this galaxy "pB". JH missed IC 5152.

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NGC 7169 = ESO 237-028 = PGC 67913

22 02 48.6 -47 41 52; Gru

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 78¡

 

30" (10/9/15 - OzSky): at 394x; fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:3 WSW-ENE, 0.55'x035', sharply concentrated with a very bright, small core and much fainter halo.  A mag 13 star is 1.4' NE and a mag 15.5 star is just off the northeast end, 0.5' from center.  Situated 3.2' ESE of mag 8.8 HD 209175.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7169 = h3906 on 30 Sep 1834 and recorded "eF; S; R; difficult to distinguish from a * 15m; has a * 8m, distance 4' np, nearly in parallel, and another 11m, 60" nf."  His position is 45 seconds of RA too far west, but the detailed description clinches this identification. The error in RA is noted in the ESO and SGC.

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NGC 7170 = PGC 67848

22 01 26.3 -05 25 58; Aqr

V = 13.8;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 158¡

 

17.5" (8/8/91): faint, small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, broad concentration.  A nice double star is 5' W consisting of a mag 12/13 duo at 9" separation.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7170 = LM 1-245 in 1886 and recorded "mag 13.0; pS; iR; bMN; double star p 36 seconds."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 40 seconds of RA west of PGC 67848.  The double star he mentions precedes, though by only 20 seconds of time.  Ormond Stone measured an accurate micrometric offset (in the "Southern Nebulae" paper) but the position given in the IC 1 is notes is 1.0 tmin too far east!  Bigourdan also corrected the RA on 27 Oct 1888 and noted the NGC RA was off by 40 seconds (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 7171 = MCG -02-56-005 = PGC 67839

22 01 02.0 -13 16 11; Aqr

V = 12.2;  Size 2.6'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 120¡

 

24" (9/22/17): at 200x and 375x; moderately or fairly bright, fairly large, elongated ~5:3 NW-SE, ~1.6'x0.9', irregular halo and surface brightness, broadly concentrated, occasionally seemed to have brighter elongated sections (arcs of spiral arms?) and darker regions (probably dust).  A mag 14.7 star is at the southeast end.

 

IC 1417, situated 12' NW. appeared fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated, 3:1 or 7:2 WNW-ESE, 0.9'x0.3', contains a small bright elongated core with faint extensions, a mag 15 star is at the ESE end.

 

13.1" (9/3/83): faint, very diffuse, moderately large, weakly concentrated but no nucleus, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE.  Appears fainter than the V magnitude suggests.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7171 = H III-692 = h2138 on 12 Aug 1787 (his only discovery on sweep 750) and recorded "eF, E from np to sf, about 2' long and 1' broad."  JH made three observations and recorded on 9 Sep 1825, "vF; R; vgbM; r; 90"."

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NGC 7172 = HCG 90A = ESO 466-038 = MCG -05-52-007 = LGG 450-006 = PGC 67874

22 02 01.7 -31 52 18; PsA

V = 11.9;  Size 2.5'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 100¡

 

24" (8/23/14): at 375x; moderately bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, ~1.5'x0.6', increases in size with averted.  Contains a brighter, elongated core that bulges slightly and the halo has a sharper edge along with south edge.  NGC 7173, 7174 and 7176 triplet lies ~7' SSE, the quartet forming HCG 90.

 

18" (10/21/06): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated ~2:1 E-W, ~1.8'x1.0', broad concentration.  A mag 10.6 star lies 2.5' SE and two mag 13 stars 1.5' SW and 3' SW are collinear with the galaxy.

 

18" (9/3/05): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, 1.4'x0.6', contains a brighter bulging core.  A mag 10.5 star lies 2.5' SE.  Located ~7' N of the main grouping (NGC 7173, NGC 7174, NGC 7176) in HCG 90) and largest in the group.

 

13.1" (7/27/84): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated, fairly diffuse.  Brightest of four in HCG 90.  The compact trio consisting of NGC 7173, NGC 7174, NGC 7176 is roughly 7' S.

 

8" (7/24/82): very faint, fairly small, elongated E-W.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7172 = h3908 on 23 Sep 1834 and logged "pB; R; 40"."  His position (measured on 4 sweeps) is accurate.  The dark rift was first noted by Knox-Shaw in 1912, based on a photograph taken in 1909-11 with the 30" Reynolds reflector at the Helwan Observatory.

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NGC 7173 = HCG 90C = ESO 466-039 = MCG -05-52-008 = UGCA 422 = VV 698 = LGG 450-007 = KTS 66A = PGC 67878

22 02 03.4 -31 58 27; PsA

V = 12.0;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 143¡

 

24" (8/23/14): bright, moderately large, round, 45" diameter.  Contains a relatively large, very bright core that gradually increases to the center.  NGC 7174/7176  (contact pair) is less than 1.5' southeast.  NGC 7172 lies 6' north.  The quartet forms HCG 90 and the close triplet is KTS 66.

 

18" (10/21/06): fairly bright, fairly small, round, well concentrated with a very bright 30" core that increases to the center.  The core is surrounded by a much fainter halo perhaps 45" diameter.  In a trio with the contact pair NGC 7174/7176 1.4' SE.

 

18" (9/3/05): moderately bright, fairly small, round, evenly concentrated to a brighter core and quasi-stellar nucleus.  Located 1.5' NW of the NGC 7176/7174 pair in HCG 90 and just slightly fainter and smaller than NGC 7174.

 

13.1" (7/27/84): faint, small, round.  Similar in size and brightness to NGC 7176 1.5' SE in a compact trio with NGC 7174 1.3' SE.  Member of the HCG 90 = NGC 7173 group = Klemola 34. 

 

8" (7/24/82): faint, small.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7173 = h3909 on 25 Sep 1834 and recorded "B; vS; R; sbM to a star."  His position (measured on 4 sweeps) and sketch (plate IV, fig 11) matches ESO 466-039 = HCG 90C.

 

RNGC reverses the identifications of NGC 7173 and NGC 7174, making NGC 7173 and NGC 7176 the contact pair instead of NGC 7174 and NGC 7176, as described by Herschel.  Sherburne Burnham measured accurate positions (Publications of Lick Observatory, II) and the galaxies were correctly identified. The identifications are also sorted out in my RNGC Corrections #1.

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NGC 7174 = HCG 90D = ESO 466-040 = MCG -05-52-010 = VV 698 = LGG 450-004 = KTS 66B = PGC 67881

22 02 06.8 -31 59 37; PsA

V = 13.3;  Size 2.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 88¡

 

24" (8/23/14): at 375x, NGC 7174 was elongated perhaps 3:1 E-W, 0.9'x0.3'.  The surface brightness is irregular with no core region. The galaxy appears to taper and brighten at the west end with a bend or short kink angling northwest.  The east end merges into the halo of NGC 7176 on the its southwest end!

 

18" (10/21/06): this is the western component of an interacting system with NGC 7176 attached to the east side.  At 225x appears fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 E-W, 1.0'x0.4, very weak concentration, no noticeable core.

 

18" (9/3/05): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 E-W, 0.9'x0.3'.  This member of the HCG 90 quartet is attached at the west edge of NGC 7176 and extends due west.  The identifications of NGC 7173 and NGC 7174 are reversed in the RNGC.

 

13.1" (7/27/84): fairly faint, small.  Virtually in contact with NGC 7176 on the NE edge 26" separation.  In a compact trio with NGC 7173 1.3' NW in the NGC 7172 group.  The identifications of NGC 7173 and NGC 7174 are reversed in the RNGC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7174 = h3910 on 28 Sep 1834 and recorded "in sweep 493 this was taken for a vF star, but I now perceive it plainly to a small faint round nebula."  His position and sketch matches ESO 466-040 = HCG 90D.

 

The RNGC reverses the identifications of NGC 7173 and 7174, making NGC 7173 and 7176 the contact pair.  This misidentification is listed in my RNGC Corrections #1.

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NGC 7175

21 58 51.5 +54 49 01; Cyg

 

17.5" (10/25/97): at 100x there is no noticeable clustering at the John Herschel's position centered on a mag 9 star at 21 58 51.5 +54 49 01.  Visually, this appears to be a rich Milky Way field over unresolved haze.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7175 = h2141 on 25 Sep 1829 and recorded "The chief * 9m of a vL, loose clustering group which fills two fields and is pretty rich of large stars."  His position corresponds with mag 9.1 SAO 33935 at 21 58 51.5 +54 49 01. Reinmuth adds "a dense region, no distinct Cl."   RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.  See Corwin's identification notes for more on this number.

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NGC 7176 = HCG 90B = ESO 466-041 = MCG -05-52-011 = UGCA 423 = VV 698 = LGG 450-008 = KTS 66C = PGC 67883

22 02 08.4 -31 59 30; PsA

V = 11.4;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 11.0

 

24" (8/23/14): at 375x appeared very bright, moderately large, round, 1.0' diameter, intense core that increases to the center, which contains a bright, stellar nucleus. NGC 7174, with an elongated, irregular shape, is merged with NGC 7176 on the southwest side, and the combination forms a striking triple with NGC 7173 1.5' northwest.  ESO 466-046 lies 7.5' due east.  This edge-on galaxy appeared extremely faint, fairly small, very elongated 4:1 SSW-NNE, 0.6'x0.15'.  A mag 15 star is off the southeast end.

 

18" (10/21/06): slightly brighter than NGC 7173.  Appears bright, moderately large, round, 1.1' diameter.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright 30" core that increases to a stellar nucleus.  Forms an interacting double system (merged) with NGC 7174 (elliptical/spiral pair) attached to the SW side.

 

18" (9/3/05): fairly bright, moderately large, 1' diameter, well concentrated with a bright, very small nucleus.  This is the most obvious (along with NGC 7172) in a quartet comprising HCG 90.  NGC 7174 is attached at the west edge.

 

13.1" (7/27/84): faint, small, round, similar to NGC 7173 1.5' NW.  Forms a contact pair with NGC 7174 at the SW edge in the NGC 7172 group = HCG 90.

 

8" (7/24/82): faint, small.  Component of an unresolved pair with NGC 7174.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7176 = h3911 on 23 Sep 1834 (sweep 492) and recorded "B; R; pgbM; 40"." Two nights later (sweep 493) he logged "vB; pL; sbM to a star; has a very faint star sp."  His position (measured on 6 sweeps and sketched on plate IV, fig 11) matches ESO 466-041 = HCG 90B.  The "faint star" on sweep 493 is NGC 7174 - recorded as a nebula on sweep 495.  Both Joseph Turner and Pietro Baracchi sketched the group using the 48" Melbourne telescope but the prepared drawing (plate VI, figure 66) was not pubished.

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NGC 7177 = UGC 11872 = MCG +03-56-003 = CGCG 451-002 = PGC 67823

22 00 41.2 +17 44 17; Peg

V = 11.2;  Size 3.1'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 90¡

 

17.5" (8/5/91): very bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 E-W, 2'x1'.  Unusual appearance as the very bright core is elongated at nearly a 45¡ angle (SW-NE) to the major axis and contains a stellar nucleus.  There is a hint of an irregular surface brightness in the outer halo.

 

13.1": moderately bright, brighter core, elongated WSW-ENE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7177 = H II-247 = h2139 on 15 Oct 1784 (sweep 290) and recorded "pB, nearly R, bM, r, about 1' dia."  On 11 Oct 1825, JH reported "pB; R; gbM; 60"-90" diameter."  R.J. Mitchell sketched this galaxy on 31 Aug 1854 (included in the LdR 1861 publication).  A total of 19 observations were made at Birr Castle.

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NGC 7178 = ESO 404-022 = MCG -06-48-016 = PGC 67898

22 02 25.2 -35 47 26; PsA

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 172¡

 

17.5" (9/23/95): extremely faint, small, round, 30" diameter.  Appears as a difficult low surface brightness patch with no concentration.  Located 2.6' N of mag 8.1 SAO 213493.  NGC 7178 was much more difficult to view than IC 5157 located 53' NNE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7178 = h3912 on 31 Aug 1834 and recorded "eF; S; R; 2' n of a *8m; a double star 10/10 m follows nearly on the parallel of the nebula, and pointing directly to it.  A sure observation; but except in the finest nights this neb will not be seen."

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NGC 7179 = ESO 108-011 = LGG 452-001 = PGC 67995

22 04 49.5 -64 02 49; Ind

V = 12.8;  Size 2.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 48¡

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): first in a group of 5 galaxies with brightest member NGC 7192.  At 228x, NGC 7179 appeared moderately bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 1.8'x0.7', brighter core.  I had the impression this was a barred spiral.  A mag 14 star is just south of the NE end.  Located 21' NW of NGC 7192.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7179 = h3907 on 22 Jun 1835 and recorded "F; R or lE; vgbM; 40"."  His mean position (2 sweeps) is very accurate.

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NGC 7180 = ESO 601-006 = MCG -04-52-008 = PGC 67890

22 02 18.4 -20 32 53; Aqr

V = 12.6;  Size 1.6'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 68¡

 

18" (10/21/06): fairly faint, small, elongated 4:3 WSW-ENE, 40"x30", very small bright core, occasional stellar nucleus. Located 16' NNW of NGC 7184 and first of 3 NGC galaxies with NGC 7185 10' ENE and NGC 7188 21' NE.

 

18" (8/2/05): moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, 1.0'x0.35'.  Well concentrated with a relatively large bright core and much fainter extensions.  Member of the NGC 7184 group of 4 NGC galaxies.

 

17.5" (10/12/85): fairly faint, very small, small bulging bright core, surrounded by oval halo.  Located 16' NNW of NGC 7184 in a group.  NGC 7185 lies 10' NE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7180 = h2140 on 23 Sep 1830 and recorded "vF; S; R; lbM; the first of 2 [with NGC 7185]." His position is just 1' too far west. Due to a mix-up, WH is credited (H III-693) with the discovery in the Slough Catalogue, GC and NGC, but H III-693 applies to NGC 7185.  See notes on that number.

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NGC 7181 = CGCG 377-014 = PGC 67859

22 01 43.5 -01 57 38; Aqr

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 95¡

 

17.5" (8/31/86): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, small bright core.  A mag 14.5 star is just 0.6' SE of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 7182 14' S.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7181 = m 458 on 31 Jul 1864 and noted "eF, vS, stellar."  His position is just off the east side of the galaxy.

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NGC 7182 = MCG +00-56-006 = CGCG 377-015 = PGC 67864

22 01 51.6 -02 11 48; Aqr

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 110¡

 

17.5" (8/31/86): faint, very small, round, easy with averted, small bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 7181 14' N.  Located 21' W of Omicron Aquarii (V = 4.7).

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7182 = m 459 on 31 Jul 1864 and noted "eF, vS, stellar."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7183 = ESO 601-008 = MCG -03-56-004 = PGC 67892

22 02 21.6 -18 54 59; Aqr

V = 11.9;  Size 3.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 77¡

 

17.5" (10/13/90): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, gradually increases to a small bright core.  Located at the center of four stars mag 11-13; the closest of the four is a mag 12 star 1.9' NW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7183 = H II-595 = h2142 on 23 Sep 1786 (sweep 601) and recorded "F, cL, irr E."  He observed it again of 13 Nov 1786 (sweep 634) and noted "eF, S, lE nearly in the parallel, lbM."  On 21 Sep 1830, JH logged "vF; pL; R; pglbM; 50"."

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NGC 7184 = ESO 601-009 = MCG -04-52-009 = UGCA 425 = PGC 67904

22 02 39.8 -20 48 46; Aqr

V = 10.8;  Size 6.0'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 61¡

 

18" (10/21/06): bright, large, very elongated 4:1 WSW-ENE, 4.5'x1.1'.  The halo extends to a mag 11.5 star at the tip of the ENE arm.  The core is fairly sharply concentrated, round, ~20" in diameter with a stellar nucleus.  The extensions have a grainy appearance. Two wide pairs of mag 12 stars (~1' separation) lie 2' W and 7' NW.  Brightest and largest in a group of three NGC galaxies (NGC 7180, NGC 7185, NGC 7188).

 

18" (8/2/05): fairly bright, large, nearly edge-on 4:1 SW-NE, ~4'x1'.  Well concentrated with a brighter 30" roundish core.  The extensions fade at the tips and increase in size with averted vision.  A mag 11.5 star is off the NE extension in the same direction as the major axis and a wide pair of stars is near the southwest end.  Brightest in a group with NGC 7180, NGC 7185 and NGC 7188.

 

17.5" (10/12/85): bright, large, very elongated WSW-ENE with long faint extensions 5'-6' length, small bright core.  A mag 12 star is off the NE edge.  In a group with NGC 7180, NGC 7185 and NGC 7188.

 

8" (8/28/81): faint, fairly large, edge-on, narrow.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7184 = H II-1 = h2143 on 28 Oct 1783, the first night of his systematic sweeps! (internal discovery #1).  He was using the "front-view" mode without a secondary (first 41 sweeps).  He made another observation on 13 Oct 1786 (sweep 609, starting again using the front-view): "F, mE, er, making an angle with two pairs of stars, which are situated in a line from np to sf.  The nebula is also followed by a small star, which continues the angle the nebula makes with the two pairs of stars."  JH made the single observation on 23 Sep 1830, "pB; pL; vmE; position = 64.3¡; psvlbM; 2' long."  On 7 Sep 1850, George Stoney (LdR's assistant) reported seeing 4 knots or faint stars in the nebula.

 

Photographs taken with the 30-inch reflector at the Helwan observatory in Egypt in 1919-20 revealed "spiral with rather compact but well defined whorls [spiral arms] and a B sharp stellar nucleus surrounded by a rather brighter patch of nebulosity.  Ther are signs of absorption in the northwest portion."

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NGC 7185 = ESO 601-010 = MCG -04-52-011 = PGC 67919

22 02 56.7 -20 28 17; Aqr

V = 12.6;  Size 2.3'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 15¡

 

18" (10/21/06): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:3 SSW-NNE, 0.5'x0.35', contains a small bright core, perhaps 5" diameter.  There is an extremely faint star superimposed on the southwest side [20" SW of center].  Member of the NGC 7184 group with NGC 7180 10' WSW and NGC 7188 12' NE.

 

18" (8/2/05): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE.  Contains a relatively large, bright core and possibly a stellar nucleus.  The surface brightness seems irregular, though this may be due to a very faint star that is superimposed.

 

17.5" (10/12/85): fairly faint, elongated ~N-S, bright core, stellar nucleus, surrounded by faint extensions.  Located within the NGC 7184 group.  Appears slightly fainter than NGC 7180 10' WSW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7185 = H III-693 = h2144 on 11 Sep 1787 (sweep 754) and noted "eF, vS.  360x confirmed it, but may consist of but a few stars."  His position is 33 tsec east and 2' north of ESO 601-006 = PGC 67890 and falls much closer to NGC 7185.  JH found this galaxy again on 23 Sep 1830 along with nearby NGC 7180, and noted "vF; pL; irr R; vglbM; the second of two."  JH accidentally assigned H III-693 to h2140 = NGC 7180 in the Slough catalogue, although Wolfgang notes his sweep records show the correct identification.

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NGC 7186

22 01 05.1 +35 04 41; Peg

 

= 4*, WH.  = 7 faint stars, Reinmuth.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7186 = H III-165 on 13 Sep 1784 (sweep 269) and recorded "Five or six stars forming a parallelogram and mixed with very faint nebulosity.  240 confirmed it."  Although an elongated group of about 8 faint stars matching his description is about 4' southwest of his offsets, there is no involved nebulosity.  Herschel used this object as an example of a "small patches consisting of stars mixed with nebulosity" in his 1814 PT paper.  Bigourdan's corrected position from 24 Aug 1884 in the IC 2 notes is accurate.  Reinmuth describes "7 F st; neb not found"  (repeated by Carlson).  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 7187 = ESO 404-024 = MCG -06-48-018 = AM 2159-330 = LGG 450-011 = PGC 67909

22 02 44.3 -32 48 11; PsA

V = 12.5;  Size 1.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (7/22/87): fairly faint, fairly small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 39' S of mag 6.7 SAO 213495.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7187 = LM 1-246 in 1886 and recorded "pF; pS; R; lbM."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is less than 1 min of time east of  ESO 404-024 = PGC 67909.  Wolfgang Steinicke notes this is the southernmost galaxy in the NGC discovered at the Leander McCormick Observatory with the 26-inch Clark refractor.

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NGC 7188 = ESO 601-011 = MCG -04-52-012 = PGC 67943

22 03 29.0 -20 19 05; Aqr

V = 13.2;  Size 1.6'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 44¡

 

18" (10/21/06): faintest of 4 NGC galaxies in the NGC 7184 group.  Appears faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 45"x35", low even surface brightness.  Located 14' WNW of mag 8.2 SAO 190861 and 12' NE of NGC 7185. A mag 14 star lies 1.7' NE.

 

18" (8/2/05): faintest of four in the NGC 7184 group.  At 225x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 1.0'x0.5'.  Fairly low surface brightness with just a weak concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is off the NE end 1.7' from center.

 

17.5" (10/12/85): very faint, small, slightly elongated, weak concentration, very diffuse.  Located 10' NNE of NGC 7185 and a member of the NGC 7184 group.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7188 = LM 1-247 on 9 Oct 1885 and reported "eF; pS; E; lbM."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 25 seconds west and 1' south of ESO 601-011.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 with the 20" refractor at Denver.  I'm surprised John Herschel missed this galaxy as he observed the other three members in the NGC 7184 group.

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NGC 7189 = UGC 11882 = MCG +00-56-007 = CGCG 377-017 = PGC 67934

22 03 16.0 +00 34 16; Aqr

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 115¡

 

17.5" (8/31/86): fairly faint, small, elongated NW-SE, small bright core, stellar nucleus or faint star superimposed.  Located 33' E of 28 Aquarii (V = 5.8).

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7189 = m 460 on 12 Oct 1863 and noted "F, S, lE."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7190 = UGC 11885 = CGCG 428-019 = PGC 67928

22 03 06.7 +11 11 57; Peg

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 66¡

 

17.5" (9/19/87): faint, small, round, small bright core.  Located in field 10' S of 21 Pegasi (V = 5.8).  IC 5160 lies 16' S.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7190 = St II-28 = St IV-7 on 23 Jul 1870.   NGC 7190 was discovered by Stephan (II-28) on 23 Jul 1870 and found again by Stephan in 1872.  His second position is a bit off, but close enough it's surprising he didn't realize the equivalence.  Dreyer assigned two GCS number but queried "are these identical?"  UGC and PGC reverse the identifications of N7190 = UGC 11885 and IC 5160 = UGC 11884 located 17' S.  See Harold Corwin's notes on the identification of IC 1424.

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NGC 7191 = ESO 108-013 = LGG 452-003 = PGC 68059

22 06 51.3 -64 38 03; Ind

V = 13.1;  Size 1.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 136¡

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x, fairly faint, moderately large, elongated nearly 3:1 NW-SE, 1.4'x0.5', weak concentration.  Located 19' due south of NGC 7192 and second of 5 in a group.  NGC 7199 is located 11' ESE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7191 = h3913, and NGC 7199, on 22 Jun 1835 and recorded "vF; S; lE; vgbM; 20"."  His single position is just off the south side of the galaxy.

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NGC 7192 = ESO 108-012 = LGG 452-002 = PGC 68057

22 06 50.2 -64 18 57; Ind

V = 11.2;  Size 2.0'x1.9';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly bright, round, 1.5' diameter, well concentrated with a very small bright core.  A mag 10.5 star lies 5.7' E.  Brightest in a group with 5 members including NGC 7179, NGC 7191, NGC 7199 and NGC 7219.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7192 = h3914 on 22 Jun 1835 and recorded "pB; S; R; gpmbM; 20"."  His position (measured on two sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 7193

22 03 03.8 +10 48 06; Peg

Size 8'

 

18" (8/8/10): I noticed this asterism, while observing IC 5160, located in the same field 7' to the north.  The group is a distinctive asterism of about a dozen mag 11-12 stars that is elongated NW to SE and extends 6'x1' or nearly twice this length if you include some scattered stars extending NW.  The group stands out well at low power and is a good impostor of a scattered cluster.

 

17.5" (9/23/95): this asterism consists of almost two dozen scattered stars mostly mag 10 and 11 in an elongated 10'x2' group oriented WNW-ESE.  The stars are spread out but well detached in the field and immediately catch the eye at low power.  A faint galaxy IC 5160 lies 7' N of the center of the group.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7193 = h2145 on 13 Oct 1825 and recorded "A coarse straggling cl, stars 9...10m."  His position falls on a blank piece of sky, but 30 seconds of RA preceding is a distinctive string of mag 10 and fainter stars elongated E-W.  Based on Heidelberg plate, Karl Reinmuth reported this object as a "Cl, E, pP, st sc, st 9...15; IC 5160 [galaxy] n."  RNGC misclassifies the number as nonexistent, although the group of stars may be an asterism.  A 2016 preprint titled "Investigation of Galactic open cluster remnants: the case of NGC 7193", concludes "that NGC 7193 is a 2.5 Gyr OCR [open cluster remnant] composed by 15 confirmed members and 19 probable members and located at about 500 pc away from the Sun."

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NGC 7194 = UGC 11888 = MCG +02-56-008 = CGCG 428-021 = PGC 67945

22 03 30.9 +12 38 12; Peg

V = 13.1;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 20¡

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Forms a close pair with NGC 7195 1.5' N.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7194 = Sw. II-90, along with NGC 7195, on 9 Nov 1884 and recorded "vF; S; R; lbM; s of 2 [with NGC 7195]."  His position is 8 tsec of RA too far east and 1.8' too far north (similar offset as NGC 7195).  CGCG fails to label this galaxy NGC 7194.

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NGC 7195 = MCG +02-56-008 = CGCG 428-022 = PGC 67940

22 03 30.3 +12 39 39; Peg

V = 14.6;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, very small, round.  Located 1.5' N of NGC 7194.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7195 = Sw. II-91, along with NGC 7194, on 9 Nov 1884 and recorded "eeF; R; v diff; n of 2 [with NGC 7194]."  His position is 8 tsec of RA too far east and 1.3' too far north (similar offset as NGC 7195).

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NGC 7196 = ESO 237-036 = AM 2202-502 = PGC 68020

22 05 55.1 -50 07 11; Ind

V = 11.5;  Size 2.5'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 53¡

 

30" (10/9/15 - OzSky): at 394x; bright, moderately large, very sharply concentrated with the core increasing to a very bright stellar nucleus.  The halo extends 4:3 SW-NE, ~1.2'x0.9'.  A mag 13.5 star is just off the east edge, 0.6' from center.  A curving chain of stars passes just north of the galaxy and continues to the northeast.  NGC 7200 lies 14' NE and the pair is part of the same physical group.

 

PGC 129874 = 2MASX J22060021-5006303 is a small companion off the northeast edge, 1.1' from center.  It was easily visible as a faint to fairly faint glow, very small, round, 12"-15" diameter, low surface brightness.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7196 = h3915 on 2 Oct 1834 and recorded "pB; R; pslbM; 20"; position of a * 14m from neb = 101.7¡."  His position (measured on 4 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 7197 = UGC 11887 = MCG +07-45-005 = CGCG 530-003 = PGC 67921

22 02 58.0 +41 03 32; Lac

V = 12.8;  Size 1.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 112¡

 

17.5" (8/5/91): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, very bright core.  Located 4.1' WNW of mag 8.2 SAO 51599.  Situated in a very rich star field that includes many fairly bright stars mag 10-11.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7197 = H II-599 = h2146 on 17 Oct 1786 (sweep 612) and noted "F, pS, E."  JH made the single observation "vF; lE; S; vglbM; 15"." and measured a fairly accurate position.

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NGC 7198 = MCG +00-56-008 = CGCG 377-023 = PGC 68006

22 05 14.2 -00 38 54; Aqr

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 5¡

 

17.5" (8/31/86): faint, small, slightly elongated, sharp stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star is 0.7' SE of center.  Located 21' SSW of Alpha Aquarii (V = 3.0).

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7198 = m 461 on 31 Jul 1864 and noted "eF, vS, stellar."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7199 = ESO 108-014 = PGC 68124

22 08 29.9 -64 42 23; Ind

V = 13.1;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 30¡

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, irregularly round, 0.8'x0.7', brighter core.  A mag 11 star lies 2.7' W.  Fourth of five in a group with NGC 7191 11' WNW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7199 = h3916, and NGC 7191, on 22 Jun 1835 and recorded "vF; vS; R; pslbM; follows a * 11m, 3'." His position (measured on two sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 7200 = ESO 237-037 = PGC 68068

22 07 09.5 -49 59 44; Ind

V = 12.9;  Size 1.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 33¡

 

30" (10/9/15 - OzSky): at 394x; bright, fairly small, sharply concentrated with an intense core that increases to an even brighter nucleus.  The halo is slightly extended SW-NE and perhaps 0.6'x0.45'.  NGC 7196 lies 14' SW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7200 = h3917 on 30 Sep 1834 and recorded "pF; S; R; smbM; 15"."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7201 = ESO 467-004 = MCG -05-52-026 = PGC 68040

22 06 31.9 -31 15 47; PsA

V = 12.8;  Size 1.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 128¡

 

24" (8/16/12): moderately to fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 or 3:1 NW-SE, ~45"x16", small bright core, brightens to the center.  Forms a very nice trio with NGC 7203 and 7204.

 

18" (10/25/08): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.2', small bright core.  First and furthest south in a linear trio with NGC 7203 6.6' NNE and NGC 7204 13.5' NNE.  This galaxy has a higher surface brightness than NGC 7203.  This group (Klemola 36) is located ~1.3 degrees NE of the NGC 7173 group (HCG 90).

 

17.5" (7/22/87): fairly faint, fairly small, round, bright core.  First of three on a line in field with NGC 7203 6.5' NNE and NGC 7204 13.5' NNE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7201 = h3918, along with NGC 7203 and 7204, on 27 Sep 1834 and recorded "pF; R; gbM.

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NGC 7202 = ESO 467-4

22 06 43.3 -31 13 06; PsA

 

18" (10/25/08): this is a single mag 14.5 star located just east of the midpoint of a line connecting NGC 7201 and NGC 7203.  Does not have a nebulous appearance at 280x.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7202 = h3920 on 15 Aug 1835 and recorded "eF; S; star like; [italics] the second of a group of 3."  He later added the note, "It precedes the 3rds 2 beats of the chronom = 1 second.  The RA here set down, it must be noticed, is comparable only with that single value of the RA of the others, which results from sweep 619]."  At his offset from NGC 7203 (3rd in the sweep) is a single star (mag 14.6 in the GSC). Pietro Baracchi searched for this object carefully in Dec 1887 with the Great Melbourne Telescope and also found a single star at Herschel's position.  ESO equates NGC 7202 with this star.  See Harold Corwin's notes.

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NGC 7203 = ESO 467-007 = MCG -05-52-027 = PGC 68053

22 06 43.9 -31 09 45; PsA

V = 12.6;  Size 1.6'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 72¡

 

24" (8/16/12): moderately bright, fairly small to moderately large, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, bright roundish core, 40"x20".

 

18" (10/25/08): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 WSW-ENE, 0.65'x0.4', gradually brightens to a large, brighter core.  Middle of linear trio of elongated galaxies with NGC 7201 to the SSE and NGC 7204 to the NNE.  A mag 11 star lies 2.9' ENE.

 

17.5" (7/22/87): fairly faint, fairly small, round, bright core.  Slightly brighter than NGC 7201 6.5' SSW.  Second of three on line with NGC 7204 7.0' NNE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7203 = h3921, along with NGC 7201 and 7204, on 27 Sep 1834 and recorded "pF; R; gbM."  He made a total of 3 observations.

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NGC 7204 = ESO 467-008 = MCG -05-52-028 = MCG -05-52-029 = AM 2204-311 = VV 685 = PGC 68060 = PGC 68061

22 06 54.0 -31 02 59; PsA

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

24" (8/16/12): this strongly interacting double system appeared fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 E-W, irregular, ~1.0'x0.7'.  At 280x it resolved into two galaxies.  According to my notes the northwest component (MCG -05-52-008 = NGC 7204A) is more prominent with a higher surface brightness.  The fainter galaxy is attached on the south side (MCG -05-52-009/NGC 7204B) and is elongated E-W, extending to the east, with the two glows barely resolved.

 

18" (10/25/08): this interacting double system is the furthest NNE is an equally spaced trio with NGC 7203 6.9' SSW and NGC 7201 13.5' SSW.  At 174x it appeared faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 E-W, fairly low surface brightness with no concentration.  At 283x, it appeared brighter on the western side (due to the small companion galaxy just off the NW end), but the duo was not cleanly resolved.

 

17.5" (7/22/87): faint, fairly small, round, diffuse.  Faintest and last of three with NGC 7201 13.5' SSW and NGC 7203 7.0' SSW.  Mag 8.2 SAO 213556 is 7.2' NNE and mag 9.6 SAO 213549 5.8' N.  This is an interacting double system but was not resolved.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7204 = h3922 on 27 Sep 1834 and recorded "pB; L; lE; gbM; 80"."  Although described as single, this is a double system with two entries in MCG (-05-52-028 and -05-52-029) although the MCG declination is 4' too far south.

 

NGC 7204 was first recognized as a close pair in a Helwan Observatory photograph taken in 1914-16 with the 30" reflector and reported in the 1921 observations table: "a curious double nebula.  The north portion is F, S, E30¡, but not an ordinary spindle.  The south-following portion is a slightly curved line; concave to the north, moderately bright at each end and E85¡.  The west end of this line is south-following the north portion by 20"."

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NGC 7205 = ESO 146-009 = AM 2205-574 = PGC 68128

22 08 34.4 -57 26 33; Tuc

V = 10.9;  Size 4.1'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 73¡

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x, this galaxy was surprisingly bright and large, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 3.5'x1.8', increases to a small bright core.  The outer halo on the west-southwest end seems to be more extensive but has a noticeably lower surface brightness.  A single spiral arm appears to emerge from the core on the north side and wrap around clockwise towards the east!  Situated between mag 8.9 SAO 247319 4' SW and a mag 10 star 4' NE.  This galaxy straddles the border of Tucana and Indus and is close to the southwest corner of Grus.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7205 = h3919 on 10 Jul 1834 and recorded "pB; lE; glbM; 2 1/2' l, 1 1/2' br."  Member of the Pavo-Indus Cloud along with NGC 7213, 7049, 7083 and 7144.

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NGC 7206 = UGC 11904 = MCG +03-56-007 = CGCG 451-006 = PGC 68014

22 05 40.9 +16 47 07; Peg

V = 13.3;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (8/20/88): faint, small, round, sharp concentration with a very small core.  Pair with NGC 7207 1.6' SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7206 = m 462, along with NGC 7207, on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "F, S, lE, bM."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7207 = CGCG 451-007 = PGC 68017

22 05 45.7 +16 46 04; Peg

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 93¡

 

17.5" (8/20/88): very faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  Forms a close pair with NGC 7206 1.6' NW.  Forms an equilateral triangle with two mag 14.5 stars 1' E.  Not identified as NGC 7207 in UGC or CGCG.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7207 = m 463, along with NGC 7206, on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, S."  His position is accurate (to within 1').  CGCG and UGC (notes for NGC 7206) fail to label this galaxy as NGC 7207. Malcolm Thomson mentioned this omission in his unpublished "CGCG Corrections".

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NGC 7208 = ESO 467-010 = MCG -05-52-032 = AM 2205-291 = PGC 68120

22 08 24.4 -29 03 04; PsA

V = 12.8;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 11.9;  PA = 142¡

 

17.5" (8/10/91): fairly faint, fairly small, round, broad concentration but no nucleus.  On a line between a mag 11.5 star 1.8' WSW and a mag 11 star 3.3' ENE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7208 = h3923 on 28 Sep 1834 and recorded "vF; vS; R; almost uniformly bright."  There is nothing near his single position, but exactly 1.0 minute of RA east is ESO 467-010 = PGC 68120, certainly the intended object.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1897 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).  MCG fails to label this galaxy as NGC 7208.

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NGC 7209 = Cr 444 = Mel 238 = Lund 1004

22 05 07 +46 29 00; Lac

V = 6.7;  Size 25'

 

15x50 IS binoculars (6/19/09): while observing Barnard 168, the fairly prominent, long dark lane that begins near M39 and heads east in the direction of the Cocoon Nebula (IC 5146), I picked up this fairly faint, round, diffuse patch that was easily visible in binoculars.  NGC 7209 is perhaps two degrees further ESE and collinear with the B168 dark lane.

 

17.5" (10/12/85): 100-125 stars are resolved, bright, large.  Located in a very rich field so does not stand out conspicuously.

 

13.1" (9/22/84): about 75 stars, bright, fairly scattered.

 

8": fairly large, spread out, similar magnitudes.  Framed by an 8th magnitude star.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7209 = H VII-53 = h2147 on 19 Oct 1788 (sweep 868) and recorded "a large cl. of pretty compressed considerable L stars, above 15' diameter."  JH made two observations, first recording on sweep 209, "place of a * 10m near the middle of a fine L p rich cluster; 50 stars from 10m to 13m counted.  It fills field.  Moon full."

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NGC 7210 = NGC 7487 = UGC 12368 = MCG +05-54-035 = CGCG 496-043 = PGC 70496

23 06 50.5 +28 10 45; Peg

V = 13.5;  Size 1.8'x1.7'

 

See observing notes for NGC 7487.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7210 = h2148 on 17 Nov 1827 and recorded "eF; R; bM; ill-defined; a vF double star 45¡ north-preceding 4' dist points just to it."  Both his RA and Dec are marked as very uncertain (::) and there is nothing fitting his description near the position.  There were three unsuccessful attempts to find this object at Birr Castle (twice with passing clouds) and Karl Reinmuth reported it was not found on a Heidelberg plate.  But JH made two transcription errors contributing to the erroneous NGC position.  His position in the General Catalogue (GC) and repeated in the NGC is 1 degree too far south.  Furthermore Harold Corwin found (April 2016), that he made a transcription error in copying the RA from his logbook to the Slough Catalogue, so the RA (marked as uncertain) is 1 hour too small.  Correcting both of these errors, the position of NGC 7210 = h2148 (as well as the description) matches NGC 7487, later discovered by Lewis Swift.

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NGC 7211 = PGC 68033

22 06 21.9 -08 05 24; Aqr

V = 14.1;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 90¡

 

17.5" (9/15/90): very faint, extremely small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7211 = m 464 on 3 Aug 1864 and noted "eF, S, stellar."  There is nothing at his position but exactly 1.0 minute of RA west is PGC 68033.

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NGC 7212 = UGC 11910 = MCG +02-56-011 = CGCG 428-032 = PGC 68065

22 07 02.0 +10 14 00; Peg

V = 13.8;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 33¡

 

24" (8/25/19 and 8/29/19): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~0.5'x0.4', contains a very small bright core and easy stellar nucleus.  A mag 15.5 star is off the south side [33" S of center].  A 20" pair of mag 14.5/15 stars is 1.3' NW and another 20" pair of 15th mag stars (nearly collinear with the galaxy) is 2' N

 

A difficult companion is attached on the NE side [15" between centers] and it occasionally popped at 260x as a slightly brighter "knot", perhaps 12" diameter, involved on the north end of the halo.

 

24" (7/30/16): at 260x; faint to fairly faint, oval 3:2 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.4', very small bright core (round) stands out, occasional stellar nucleus.  A mag 15.5 star is off the south edge [35" S of center].  The seeing was too soft to confidently see the attached companion at the northeast end.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): extremely faint, small, diffuse.  A mag 15 star is involved at the southwest end.  Located 16' NE of ·2857 = 7.2/9.0 at 20".  NGC 7212 is an interacting, overlapping pair with tidal plumes, but only a single glow was seen.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7212 = Sw. V-93 on 2 Oct 1886 and recorded "vF; pS; lE."  His position matches UGC 11910 = PGC 68065.

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NGC 7213 = ESO 288-043 = AM 2206-472 = PGC 68165

22 09 16.3 -47 10 00; Gru

V = 10.1;  Size 3.1'x2.8';  Surf Br = 12.3

 

18" (11/22/08): fairly bright [even from northern California!], moderately large, round, 1.5' diameter.  Contains a bright 30" core that gradually increases to the center and a much fainter outer halo.

 

18" (7/5/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): bright, moderately large, round, 1.8' diameter.  Well concentrated with a small bright core that increases to a very bright stellar nucleus.  Forms the western vertex of an acute isosceles triangle with two equal mag 10.5 stars  6' E and 6' SE.  Located 16' SE of mag 1.7 Alpha Gruis (Al Nair).

 

11" (8/8/04 - Haleakala Crater, Hawaii): fairly bright, moderately large, round, 1.5' diameter, increases to a small bright core.  Very symmetrical appearance.  Easy to locate 16' SE of mag 1.7 Alpha Gruis.  Forms the western vertex of an isosceles triangle with two mag 10.5 stars ~6' E and SE.

 

13.1" (7/20/85): fairly faint, small, bright core.

 

13.1" (9/11/82): faint, small, round.  Located 16' SE of Alpha Gruis (V = 1.7).  This is farthest southern galaxy observed from northern California.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7213 = h3924 on 30 Sep 1834 and recorded "vB; R; gbM; 45"."  His single position is accurate.  NGC 7213 is the brightest in a group that includes NGCs 7232 and 7233, IC 5170 and IC 5181.  The latter two galaxies were discovered by Joseph Lunt at the Royal Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope.  Curiously, his list of new nebula also appears to include NGC 7213 (based on his position), though he specifically mentioned the new nebulae were near h3924 [NGC 7213].

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NGC 7214 = HCG 91A = ESO 467-012 = MCG -05-52-034 = VV 700 = AM 2206-280 = PGC 68152

22 09 07.6 -27 48 34; PsA

V = 12.7;  Size 2.2'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

24" (9/6/18): NGC 7214 is the dominant member of the HCG 91 quartet.  It appeared moderately bright, moderately large, ~50" diameter, well concentrated with a well-defined bright core that increased to the center and a fainter, slightly irregular halo (no spiral structure, though).  HCG 91D is barely off the north edge and appeared fairly faint, very small, round, ~0.3' diameter, very small brighter nucleus with a stellar peak.

 

ESO 467-011 (misidentified as IC 5168), located 5.6' SW of NGC 7214, was a threshold object and popped a couple of times at 220x as a thin edge-on, ~5:1 NW-SE.  A number of faint ESO galaxies surround HCG 91, including ESO 467-17 21' ESE, ESO 467-16 19' NNE, ESO 467-5 36' WSW.

 

18" (9/3/05): brightest and largest of four in the HCG 91 group = AM 2206-280 = Klemola 40.  At 225x NGC 7214 appeared fairly faint, fairly small, irregularly round or a ragged edge to the outer halo.  Diameter ~0.8', though grows slightly with averted vision.  Contains a small, bright, round core.  Two mag 13 stars aligned E-W are close south and southwest.  MCG -05-52-035 = HCG 91D is attached at the north end and appears as a very faint, extremely small knot, ~10" diameter.  ESO 467-013 = HCG 91C, situated 2' NE of NGC 7214, appeared extremely faint, very small, round, very low surface brightness, 0.3' diameter.  ESO 467-015 = HCG 91B, situated 5' NNE, appeared extremely faint, small, thin edge-on streak NNW-SSE, 0.4'x0.1'.

 

17.5" (10/13/90): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated, very small very bright core, a mag 13 star is just off the SW end, 1.1' from center.  This galaxy is the brightest of four in HCG 91.  An almost stellar companion, MCG -05-52-035 = HCG 91D, is 30" NNE, MCG -05-52-036 = HCG 91C 2.2' NE and MCG -05-52-039 = HCG 91B 5' NNE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7214 = h3926 on 30 Jul 1834 and recorded "a vS cluster or resolvable nebula; irreg R; lbM; 2' diam; has 2 or 3 stars larger than the rest."  His position is accurate.  Herbert Howe, observing with the 20" refractor in Denver in 1898-99, remarked "h calls this a globular cluster.  To me it appeared to be a nebula having a nuclear condensation of mag 12; the surrounding nebulosity was indefinite in extent."I

 

In 1915 Knox-Shaw reported it was a not a globular cluster, but an open spiral, based on a photograph taken between 1912-13 the Helwan Observatory with the Reynolds reflector.  Based on imges taken 1914-16 it was described as "spiral with two arms, lE 90¡, vB stellar nucleus with faint star following 15"."

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NGC 7215 = CGCG 377-031 = PGC 68127

22 08 34.5 +00 30 42; Aqr

V = 13.9;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 88¡

 

17.5" (8/31/86): faint, small, elongated E-W, a small knot is possibly at the east end.  Located 10.4' N of mag 8 SAO 27318.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7215 = m 465 on 11 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, S, E."  His position is less than 1' south of CGCG 377-031 = PGC 68127.

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NGC 7216 = ESO 076-003 = PGC 68291

22 12 35.8 -68 39 43; Ind

V = 12.6;  Size 1.7'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 133¡

 

30" (10/12/15 - OzSky): at 394x; fairly bright, sharply concentrated with a very bright core, the halo is extended 3:2 NW-SE, ~40"x25".  Mag 8.8 HD 210473 lies 4.8' SE and a distinctive 1.3' string of three mag 10-12.5 stars is 6' WSW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7216 = h3925 on 29 Jun 1835 and recorded "pF; R; gbM; 25"."  His position is good.

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NGC 7217 = UGC 11914 = MCG +05-52-001 = CGCG 494-002 = PGC 68096

22 07 52.4 +31 21 33; Peg

V = 10.1;  Size 3.9'x3.2';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 95¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): very bright, fairly large, round, dominated by small very bright core, surrounded by larger halo.  A mag 10.5 star is 3.2' SE of center.

 

8": fairly bright, round, moderately large, bright core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7217 = H II-207 = h2149 on 7 Sep 1784 (sweep 259) and recorded "R, mbM, cL, er, the brightness diminishing gradually."  JH made the single observation "B; R; 30"; gbM." and measured an accurate position.  The Birr Castle observers felt this object was resolvable -- and there are several faint stars involved or at the periphery.  On 16 Sep 1854, R.J. Mitchell logged "there can hardly be a doubt that this neb is a Cl; some stars near centre seen by Lord R. with one-inch single lens [power 650] and filaments of stars at times suspected running out from the nucleus."

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NGC 7218 = MCG -03-56-008 = PGC 68199

22 10 11.7 -16 39 36; Aqr

V = 12.0;  Size 2.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 20¡

 

17.5" (9/15/90): moderately bright, fairly large, oval 2:1 SW-NE, 2.0'x1.0', broadly concentrated halo.  Two mag 12.5/13.5 are just following; the brighter star is 1.0' E of center and the fainter star is at the NE tip.

 

8" (7/24/82): faint, moderately large, elongated SW-NE, brighter core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7218 = H II-897 = h2150 on 6 Sep 1793 (sweep 1050) and recorded "pB, lE, r, about 1 1/2' long, 1 1/4' br." His position is fairly accurate.

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NGC 7219 = ESO 108-019 = LGG 452-004 = PGC 68312

22 13 09.5 -64 50 49; Tuc

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 27¡

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): last of 5 NGC galaxies in the NGC 7192 group.  At 228x it appeared fairly faint, small, round, 40" diameter.  The brighter core is perhaps 15" and with averted vision the faint halo increased to ~1' diameter.  A mag 13 star is less than 2' W.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7219 = h3927 on 22 Jun 1835 and recorded "pB; R; psbM; near 2 stars."  His mean position (2 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 7220 = ESO 532-028 = MCG -04-52-020 = PGC 68241

22 11 31.0 -22 57 10; Aqr

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 3¡

 

17.5" (8/8/91): very faint, very small, irregularly round, gradually weak concentration.  A mag 15 star is 1' N and a mag 12 star lies 3.0' N.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 7220 = LM 2-466 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  He reported "mag 15.5, 0.2' dia, vlE, gbM, *10 precedes 3.2' in PA 5¡ (NNE).  There is nothing at his position, but 1.0 min of RA east and 2' north is ESO 532-028.  A mag 12 star 3' north matches his description.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1897-98 with the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver.

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NGC 7221 = ESO 467-018 = MCG -05-52-043 = AM 2208-304 = LGG 454-001 = PGC 68235

22 11 15.2 -30 33 47; PsA

V = 12.1;  Size 2.0'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 10¡

 

17.5" (10/5/91): faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 N-S, gradually brightens.  A mag 13.5 star is just off the NE edge 1.3' from center.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7221 = h3928 on 27 Sep 1834 and recorded "F; R; gbM; has 2 stars 14m near; one almost involved."  His mean position (measured on 4 sweeps) is good.

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NGC 7222 = UGC 11934 = MCG +00-56-012 = CGCG 377-035 = PGC 68224

22 10 51.7 +02 06 21; Aqr

V = 13.8;  Size 1.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 5¡

 

24" (9/10/15): at 260x; fairly faint, small, round, very small brighter nucleus, fairly low surface brightness halo ~24" diameter.  A mag 12 star lies 2' S and a mag 13.5 star 1.6' NW.  Viewed in fairly poor transparency.

 

CGCG 377-036 lies 4.4' E.  It appeared faint, very small, round, 12"-15" diameter.  A 4" double (mag 13.5/14.5) is just 0.6' E of center.

 

17.5" (8/31/86): faint, fairly small, diffuse, broadly concentrated.  Located between a mag 12 star 1.9' S and mag 13 star 1.5' NW.  A mag 11 star is 4.9' WNW.  Relatively large for such a faint galaxy.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7222 = m 466 on 11 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, S."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7223 = UGC 11931 = MCG +07-45-018 = CGCG 530-013 = Holm 788a = LGG 453-005 = PGC 68197

22 10 09.1 +41 01 02; Lac

V = 12.2;  Size 1.7'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (8/1/86): moderately bright, fairly diffuse, slightly elongated ~N-S.  There are two stars to the south including one at the south edge.

 

Forms a close pair with Holm 788B = PGC 214803 1.0' NW.  The companion appeared very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  It's situated west of a star off the north side of NGC 7223.  Also UGC 11927, located 8' WSW, appeared faint, fairly small, elongated NW-SE, very diffuse.

 

13.1" (8/17/85): fairly faint, moderately large, diffuse, elongated N-S.  Extends from a star on the south end in a fan-shape.  A faint star is off the north end.  A knot is suspected just west of the star at the north end (probably an anonymous companion).

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7223 = H III-862 = h2151 on 8 Nov 1790 (sweep 977) and recorded "eF, pL, iR, r.  300 showed it very plainly."  JH made the single observation "eF; S; E; among 3 stars, with which however it seems not connected."

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NGC 7224 = UGC 11940 = MCG +04-52-004 = CGCG 473-006 = PGC 68242

22 11 35.4 +25 51 52; Peg

V = 13.2;  Size 1.6'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 110¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): faint, small, irregularly round, weak concentration.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7224 = m 467 = St II-29 on 6 Sep 1863 and noted "F, S, R."  His position is accurate.  ƒdouard Stephan rediscovered the galaxy on 25 Jul 1870 and measured a very accurate micrometric position.

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NGC 7225 = ESO 532-033 = MCG -04-52-023 = AM 2210-262 = LGG 457-004 = PGC 68311

22 13 08.4 -26 08 54; PsA

V = 12.2;  Size 2.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 147¡

 

17.5" (10/13/90): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, gradually increases to a small bright core.  Located 12' NNE of mag 6.2 SAO 190967.  The strong dust lane on the DSS was not seen.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7225 = h3929 on 30 Jul 1834 and recorded "pF; S; lE; bM; 15" l, 12" br."  His single position is accurate.

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NGC 7226 = Cr 446 = Lund 1007 = OCL-226

22 10 26.9 +55 23 54; Cep

V = 9.6;  Size 2'

 

18" (8/17/04): at 225x, this is a small, faint group with 25-30 stars resolved in a 2'-2.5' region.  The star at the northeast edge is a nice, mag 12/13 double.  The remaining stars are generally 14th-15th magnitude and some pop in and out of view.

 

17.5" (11/2/91): 15 stars resolved at 220x within a compact 2' diameter.  The brightest mag 11 star is at the WNW edge and a close double star mag 12/13 at 11" is at the NE edge.  The remaining dozen very faint stars are 14th and 15th mag and located along the south side.  Situated in a rich star field over unresolved background haze.

 

Edward Holden discovered NGC 7226 on 20 Jun 1881 with the 15.6" Clark refractor at the Washburn Observatory and described a "pB nebula connected with a small cluster of stars which radiate in two streams from the f[ollowing] to p[receding] side.  Diam of Neb 5', of Cl. 15'.  North-preceding in p[osition angle] 315¡ is a small knot which may be nebulous."  His position is just off the east side of this small cluster.

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NGC 7227 = UGC 11942 = MCG +06-48-015 = CGCG 513-012 = PGC 68243

22 11 31.3 +38 43 17; Lac

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 8¡

 

17.5" (8/27/92): faint, small, elongated 3:2 N-S, weak concentration, low surface brightness.  View hindered by a mag 10 star at the SW end 34" from the center!  Pair with NGC 7228 3.6' ESE.  Nearby are UGC 11950 12' E and IC 5180 13' NNW.

 

On two occasions, I have picked up nearby galaxies instead of NGC 7227/7228 from the Sierra Buttes!  These include IC  5180/MCG +06-48-014 (for the pair) and CGCG 513-016 (for NGC 7227).

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7227 = St IV-8, along with NGC 7228, on 1 Sep 1872.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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NGC 7228 = UGC 11945 = MCG +06-48-016 = CGCG 513-013 = PGC 68254

22 11 48.6 +38 41 57; Lac

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 150¡

 

17.5" (8/27/92): faint, small, round, broad concentration, no sharp core.  Close pair with NGC 7228 3.6' WNW and UGC 11950 also in field 8' E.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7228 = St IV-9, along with NGC 7227, on 1 Sep 1872.  His micrometric position is very accurate.  It's surprising he missed UGC 11950!

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NGC 7229 = ESO 467-024 = MCG -05-52-051 = LGG 454-002 = PGC 68344

22 14 03.2 -29 22 58; PsA

V = 12.5;  Size 1.8'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 157¡

 

17.5" (10/5/91): very faint, fairly small, round, low surface brightness, averted only.  Located between two mag 14.5 stars 1.7' E and 1.2' SW.  Forms the north vertex of a flat isosceles triangle with mag 9 SAO 190990 6' ESE and an evenly matched double star 5.4' SW (mag 14/14 at 18").  ESO 467-026 = MCG -05-52-056 is located 15' NNE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7229 = h3930 on 27 Sep 1834 and recorded "pF; L; R; glbM; r."  His mean position (4 nights) is accurate.

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NGC 7230 = MCG -03-56-012 = PGC 68350

22 14 13.0 -17 04 27; Aqr

V = 14.1;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (10/13/90): faint, small, round, broad concentration with no well-defined core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7230 = H III-931 = h2152 on 6 Sep 1793 (sweep 1050) and noted "eF, S, iR."  His position is accurate.  JH made a single observation on 5 Aug 1826 and called it "vF; R; bM; 20"."

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NGC 7231 = UGC 11951 = CGCG 530-017 = PGC 68285

22 12 30.1 +45 19 42; Lac

V = 13.0;  Size 1.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 88¡

 

17.5" (8/8/91): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 E-W, unconcentrated glow.  Two mag 14 stars are off the south edge.  Located 15' SW of mag 5.5 SAO 51783 just off the edge of the field.  This object appears as an unresolved patch in a rich Milky Way field (ZOA galaxy) as it is located just 9¡ from the galactic equator.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7231 = H II-606 = h2153 on 24 Oct 1786 (sweep 620) and recorded "F, S, easily resolvable or rather a patch."  His position is nearly 5' too far northwest.  A second observation was made on 19 Oct 1788 (sweep 868), though he just noted "eF, r[esolvable]." JH made the single observation "a most eF nebulous appearance, which is probably a few minute stars.  No other near."  His position is accurate to within 1'.

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NGC 7232 = ESO 289-007 = KTS 67A = LGG 455-002 = PGC 68431

22 15 38.0 -45 51 00; Gru

V = 12.0;  Size 2.6'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 99¡

 

18" (7/5/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, ~1.5'x0.6'.  Well concentrated with a bright 30" core.  Forms the western vertex of an isosceles triangle with two bright stars – mag 8.8 HD 211111 3' NE and mag 8.9 HD 211121 3.5' E.  To complete this striking arrangement, a fainter companion, NGC 7233 is 1.9' E and is squeezed between NGC 7232 and the mag 8.9 star nearly due east.  Observation made with a partially dewed secondary that probably dimmed both members.

 

13.1" (8/17/85): faint, elongated WNW-ESE, brighter core.  Located just 3.0' SW of mag 8.5 SAO 231056 and 3.0' W of a mag 9.5 star.  Brighter IC 5181 lies 26' SW.  Very far south for viewing from the latitude of Northern California.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7232 = h3931, along with NGC 7233, on 6 Sep 1834 and recorded "pB; vS; pmE; psbM; 15" l, 8" br.  The preceding of 2."

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NGC 7233 = ESO 289-008 = KTS 67B = LGG 455-004 = PGC 68441

22 15 49.0 -45 50 47; Gru

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 133¡

 

18" (7/5/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): faint, small, round, ~30" diameter, increases gradually to the center.  The halo increases a bit with averted vision to 0.6' diameter.  This unassuming galaxy is in a pretty striking arrangement, sandwiched between brighter NGC 7232 1.9' W and mag 8.9 HD 211121 1.5' following.  NGC 7232B, situated 4' N, was not noticed although the observation was compromised by a partially dewed secondary.

 

13.1" (8/17/85): not seen from northern California (very low elevation).

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7233 = h3932, along with NGC 7232, on 6 Sep 1834 and recorded "F; vS; R; 10".  The following of 2 [with NGC 7232]."  A star 8m follows nearly on the parallel, and another to the north."

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NGC 7234 = NGC 7235

22 12 25.0 +57 16 16; Cep

V = 7.7;  Size 4'

 

See observing notes for NGC 7235.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7234 = H VIII-63 on 16 Oct 1787 (sweep 768) and recorded "A small cl of stars, the stars pL but not many of them."  His position (CH's reduction) is just off the west side of the cluster.  But the GC and NGC position is nearly 18' too far south (apparently JH made a clerical error) and falls on a blank piece of sky.  Harold Corwin also reduced WH's offsets (1 min 21 sec east and 56' south of Zeta Cephei) and they land directly on NGC 7235, which was found by JH again (h2154) on 16 Dec 1830.  Because of the poor NGC position, Reinmuth looked in the wrong place and concluded "no distinct cluster".  Dorothy Carlson and RNGC repeated this conclusion.  But NGC 7234 = NGC 7235, with discovery credit to WH.

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NGC 7235 = NGC 7234 = Cr 447 = Lund 1008 = OCL-229

22 12 25.0 +57 16 16; Cep

V = 7.7;  Size 4'

 

18" (8/17/04): at 225x, nearly three dozen stars are resolved in a 4'x3' group, slightly extended E-W.  The brightest mag 9 star is at the east end.  A rich stream of faint stars over haze is the north side and angling WSW towards a mag 10.5 star on the west end.

 

17.5" (11/2/91): two dozen stars mag 9-15 in a 4' diameter at 220x.  This moderately concentrated group is elongated WNW-ESE and includes several fairly bright stars.  A mag 9 star is at the east end and there are eight other mag 10-11 stars.  Just west of the mag 9 star is a 1.5' circular hole with no stars.  A mag 10 star at the extreme west edge has 6 faint stars mag 13/14 close following.

 

A compact group of faint stars 13' S appears as a small, partially resolved nebulous glow at 100x.  At 220x, 7 stars are resolved from mag 14-15.5 within a 1.5' diameter.  I had taken this as NGC 7234 but Corwin's re-reduced position from William Herschel indicates that NGC 7234 is identical to NGC 7235.

 

John Herschel found NGC 7235 = h2154 on 16 Dec 1830 and recorded "a * 10m, the chief of a p compact cluster of 15 or 20 stars 10...17m.  One, 11m, is of a ruby colour."  His position (measured on two sweeps) is accurate.  JH equated this object with his father's H VIII-63 = NGC 7234, but they were given separate GC and NGC designation, due to an error in precessing the position of NGC 7234.  So, NGC 7235 = NGC 7234.

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NGC 7236 = Arp 169 NED1 = UGC 11958a = MCG +02-56-023 = CGCG 428-058 = 3C 442 = II Zw 172 NED1 = WBL 678-005 = PGC 68383

22 14 45.0 +13 50 48; Peg

V = 13.6;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

24" (9/27/14): first and brightest in a linear trio (Arp 169) with a total length of only 1.2'.  At 375x, NGC 7236 appeared fairly faint, very small, round, compact, high surface brightness, 18" diameter.  Forms a very close pair with NGC 7237 just 35" SE.  A trio of mag 14 star is to the N and NE and a mag 10 star is 2.7' SW.

 

Brightest in the poor cluster WBL 678 with CGCG 428-057 5.5' SW ("faint, very small (core), round, 12" diameter"), UGC 11953 13' WSW ("faint, very thin streak, 30"x6", even surface brightness"), CGCG 428-049 15' WSW ("very faint, very elongated 7:2 NNW-SSE, 27"x8", even surface brightness") and CGCG 428-054 8.5' NW.

 

17.5" (8/20/88): first and brightest of three with NGC 7237 35" SE of center and an anonymous galaxy 1.2' SE, all equally spaced on a NW-SE line.  Appears faint, very small, round, small bright core, in a common halo with NGC 7237.  Located 2.7' NE of a mag 10 star.  The trio forms Arp 169.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7236 = m 468, along with NGC 7237, on 25 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, S, stellar."  His declination is off by 1' (too far south).  CGCG fails to label this double system as NGC 7236 + 7237.  Malcolm Thomson mentions this omission in his unpublished CGCG Corrections.

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NGC 7237 = Arp 169 NED2 = UGC 11958 NED2 = MCG +02-56-024 = CGCG 428-058 NED2 = 3C 442 = II Zw 172 NED2 = PGC 68384

22 14 46.9 +13 50 27; Peg

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 143¡

 

24" (9/27/14): At 375x; faint, very small, round, fairly low even surface brightness, 18" diameter.  NGC 7237 is the middle of three collinear galaxies (and second brightest) in the compact Arp 169 triplet with slightly brighter NGC 7236 0.6' NW and very compact NGC 7237C 0.6' SE.  NGC 7237C appeared very faint, extremely small, round, ~5" diameter (core), not difficult with averted.  Arp 169 forms a very similar triplet as Arp 170 (also in Pegasus).

 

17.5" (8/20/88): fainter member of a double system with NGC 7236 35" NW of center.  Very faint, extremely small, round.  In a common halo with NGC 7236.  NGC 7237C, an extremely faint anonymous galaxy, is also just 38" SE!  This galaxy appeared extremely faint and small, round, at visual threshold.  Located 2.8' NE of a mag 10 star.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7237 = m 469, along with NGC 7236, on 25 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, S, stellar."  Dreyer questioned if this object was possibly only a faint star while an assistant at Birr Castle on 29 Oct 1877.

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NGC 7238

22 15 18 +22 30; Peg

 

= Not found, Corwin and RNGC.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7238 = Sw. IV-82 on 1 Sep 1886 and recorded "pF; S; R; mbM; 4 sts in form of a square nr p."  His position is 7' following a mag 6.6 star (which likely Swift would have mentioned) and there is no nearby non-stellar object.  Bigourdan was unable to recover NGC 7238 and Harold Corwin was unable to find a candidate.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 7239 = PGC 68388

22 15 01.3 -05 03 12; Aqr

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 75¡

 

17.5" (8/10/91): very faint, very small, round, bright core.  Three star mag 14-15 stars on a line are close south including a mag 14 star 1.4' S and a faint mag 15 star 2.2' S.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7239 = m 470 on 1 Oct 1864 and noted "eF, vS."  There is nothing at his position but 1 minute of RA west is PGC 68388.  A single digit error in time would account for the discrepancy.

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NGC 7240 = MCG +06-48-024 = CGCG 513-022 = CGCG 514-002 = WBL 679-003 = PGC 68415

22 15 22.5 +37 16 50; Lac

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (7/15/93): faint, very small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, weak concentration.  Situated between a mag 11 star 3.0' NW and three mag 13 stars about 3' SE.  Fourth in the compact NGC 7242 group.  Forms a tight trio with IC 1441 1.4' NNW and IC 5192 1.7' WSW.  Also nearby are NGC 7242 3.5' ENE and IC 5191 4.1' WNW.  The observed elongation is probably due to superimposed mag 16 star on the southeast side.

 

13.1" (9/3/83): very faint, very small, near visual threshold.  Located 3.5' W of NGC 7242 in a compact group.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7240 = St V-6 on 24 Sep 1873 and recorded "eF, eS, in contact in the north with a very small star."   His position matches CGCG 513-022 = PGC 68415.  At the same time he found NGC 7242 and assumed it was new, but it Auguste Voigt had discovered it earlier in 1865 also at the Marseille Observatory.

 

MCG fails to label this galaxy as NGC 7240.  RNGC and Dorothy Carlson (in her 1940 list of NGC correction) incorrectly equate NGC 7240 with IC 1441, which is a separate galaxy 1' NNW.  Mentioned in Malcolm Thomson's unpublished "Catalogue Corrections".

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NGC 7241 = UGC 11968 = MCG +03-56-020 = CGCG 451-024 = II Zw 174 = PGC 68442

22 15 49.9 +19 13 56; Peg

V = 12.6;  Size 3.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 20¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): moderately bright, fairly large, very elongated or edge-on SSW-NNE.  Asymmetric appearance as the galaxy appears brighter on the SSW end and very faint at the NNE end.  A mag 11.5 star is just following the south end 0.8' from center and a mag 13 star is at the NW end.  A mag 10 star lies 3.4' SW.

 

UGC 11964, an extremely thin and faint edge-on (1.9'x0.15'), lies 5' W.  It was just glimpsed at 262x and 285x and was too faint to see its needle-like shape clearly, though occasionally was visible as a streak, perhaps 20"x6".

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7241 = St IV-10 on 3 Sep 1872.  His RA is 16 seconds too large.  Emmanuel Esmiol's re-reduced position (published in 1916) corrected this error.  Bigourdan also measured an accurate position in 1887, which Dreyer published in the IC 2 Notes.

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NGC 7242 = UGC 11969 = MCG +06-48-025 = CGCG 513-023 = CGCG 514-003 = Holm 789a = WBL 679-004 = PGC 68434

22 15 39.4 +37 17 56; Lac

V = 12.9;  Size 2.1'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 33¡

 

24" (8/13/15): brightest in a group of 8 galaxies.  At 375x appeared fairly bright, moderately large, oval 3:2 SW-NE, ~0.9'x0.6', large bright core ~30" diameter.

 

17.5" (7/15/93): brightest in a group of 7 galaxies.  Fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, bright core.  A mag 13.5 star is at the south edge of halo 40" S of center.  Two mag 14 stars are 1.1' WSW and 1.5' ENE from the center.  IC 5195, an extremely faint stellar companion, is superimposed at the northeast tip.  It appeared like a mag 16 "star" and was visible less than one-quarter of the time.  Nearby are NGC 7240 3.5' WSW, IC 1441 4.0' W, IC 5193 3.5' SSE, IC 5192 5.3' WSW and IC 5191 7' W.  See their entries for notes.

 

17.5" (7/28/92): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 SW-NE.  A mag 13 star is off the SE side of nucleus.  A group of 10 faint stars to the east appears like a faint open cluster.  Brightest of four galaxies in tight group including NGC 7240 3.5' WSW, IC 1441 4' W, IC 5191 7' W. 

 

13.1" (9/3/83): brightest in a group.  Faint, moderately large, slightly elongated, NGC 7240 3.5' W, IC 5191 7' W.  Located 30' S of a mag 4 star.

 

Auguste Voigt discovered NGC 7242 = St V-7 in 1865 with the 31-inch silver-on-glass Marseille reflector.  He didn't publish a discovery list so was not credited in the NGC but his position matches UGC 11969.  Voigt missed the fainter members of the group including NGC 7240.  ƒdouard Stephan independently discovered the galaxy again using the same telescope on 24 Sep 1873 and described it as "F; vS; diffuse; slbM; a faint star projecting." His position is very accurate. At the same time Stephan discovered fainter NGC 7240.  The RNGC photographic description "ALMSTEL" does not apply.

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NGC 7243 = Cr 448 = Mel 240 = Lund 1009

22 15 08 +49 53 54; Lac

V = 6.4;  Size 21'

 

17.5" (10/12/85): at 83x, 150-200 stars are visible in a 20' field.  This is a striking cluster at low power and includes a number of fairly bright stars.  On the east side is the nice pair ·2890 = 9.3/9.6 at 9".  The cluster is irregularly distributed into subgroups.

 

13.1" (9/22/84): about 80 stars resolved, rich, fairly large, excellent low power field, includes double star ·2890.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7243 = H VIII-75 = h2155 on 26 Sep 1788 (sweep 863) and recorded "an extended cluster of coarsely scattered vL stars, in the direction of the parallel nearly; about 16' long."  JH made the single observation "a double star in a very loose straggling cl, which more than fills the field."

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NGC 7244 = MCG +03-56-021 = CGCG 451-025 = Mrk 303 = PGC 68468

22 16 26.8 +16 28 17; Peg

V = 13.8;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.0

 

17.5" (8/20/88): faint, small, round, weak concentration.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7244 = St IV-11 on 6 Sep 1872.  His position is very accurate.

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NGC 7245 = Cr 449 = Mel 241 = Lund 1010

22 15 16 +54 20 12; Lac

V = 9.2;  Size 5'

 

18" (8/27/05): small, rich group at 323x with at least three dozen stars resolved within the borders of an isosceles triangle (long sides ~4') formed by a mag 8.9 star (HD 235771) at the NE corner and two mag 10.7/10.9 stars on the west and south sides.  Contains a rich, 1' ball of stars that follows the brighter star on the west side.

 

King 9 is close northeast.  At 323x, this rich, distant cluster appeared as a very small, faint knot of stars is just south of a mag 13.5-14 stars.  Perhaps a half-dozen stars were resolved, though these may be superimposed field stars as the brightest cluster members are ~16.5.

 

17.5" (8/5/94): about two dozen stars in a 2.5' diameter bordered by a mag 11 star on the west edge, a mag 10 star on the SSE edge and a mag 9 star (SAO 34240) off the NE side.  A small 1' diameter core is richer.  A large dust lane appears to cut through the 20' field SW-NE and passes the east side of cluster.  At low power other dark patches are evident.  Open cluster IC 1442 is in the low power field 20' SE.

 

13.1" (9/9/83): about 20 fainter stars mostly in a string.  Other rich enhancements are near in this Milky Way field. 

 

8": 15 faint stars elongated N-S with a double star at the north edge.  Includes three brighter stars mag 8-10 around the edges but the rest of the stars are mag 13 or fainter.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7245 = H VI-29 = h2157 on 14 Oct 1787 (sweep 765) and noted "a compressed cluster of extremely small stars."  JH made the single observation "a Milky Way cluster.  Stars 14...15m.  It is more crowded than the Milky Way, so as to run up to a condensed but faint mass of light."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7246 = IC 5198 = MCG -03-56-014 = PGC 68512

22 17 42.7 -15 34 17; Aqr

V = 12.8;  Size 1.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 162¡

 

17.5" (9/15/90): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, weak concentration, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 12.5 star is involved at the north end 1.0' NNE of center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7246 = H III-932 = h2156 on 6 Sep 1793 (sweep 1050) and recorded "eF, S, lE.  Just south of a small star, to which it seemed almost to be attached, but is free from it.  The star is the first of 3 making a small triangle.  His position and description is a perfect match with

MCG -03-56-014 = PGC 68512.  JH logged "vF; R; vgbM; has a * 13m south, at a dist from edge = 1 diam by diagram."

 

Malcolm Thomson found that Bigourdan's IC 5198 is a duplicate of NGC 7246.  Bigourdan made positional errors in declination with his offset stars.  Once the correct stars are identified, his offsets point to NGC 7246.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes on IC 5198.

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NGC 7247 = ESO 533-008 = MCG -04-52-032 = PGC 68511

22 17 41.2 -23 43 52; Aqr

V = 12.6;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 2¡

 

17.5" (7/1/89): fairly faint, slightly elongated N-S, weak concentration.  A pretty double star h5324 = 9.1/10.5 at 10" is 2.5' NW!

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7247 = LM 1-248 in 1886 and recorded "pF, vS, R, B double star p 13 seconds, F double star follows 5 seconds."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) as 27 seconds too large, with the bright double star h5324 to the NW by 2.6' and an extremely faint double that follows by 5 seconds.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 as well as Jermain Porter in 1906 at the Cincinnati Observatory.

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NGC 7248 = UGC 11972 = MCG +07-45-022 = CGCG 530-019 = LGG 456-002 = PGC 68485

22 16 52.6 +40 30 16; Lac

V = 12.6;  Size 1.7'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 133¡

 

24" (9/2/16): at 375x; fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 1.25'x0.5'.  Strong concentration with a very bright slightly elongated core that increases to the center.   The outer extensions have a low surface brightness.  Sitated in a rich star field between two doubles; a 12" pair is 2' E and a 8" pair is 2.7' W.  NGC 7250 is 17' ENE.

 

24" (8/7/13): at 375x appeared fairly bright, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 0.9'x0.5', sharply concentrated with a bright oval core that increases to the center and a moderately large halo.  A 12" pair of mag 13.5-14 stars lies 2' E, a 7" pair of mag 12-12.5 stars is 2.7' W, and finally a 10" pair of mag 14 stars lies 3' WNW.  Not surprisingly in a Milky Way field. NGC 7250 is 17' ENE.

 

13.1" (8/24/84): fairly faint, small, very elongated 5:2 NW-SE, small bright nucleus.  Two faint double stars are near including a mag 13/14 pair at 12" located 2' E.  NGC 7250 lies 17' ENE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7248 = H III-863, along with NGC 7250, on 8 Nov 1790 (sweep 977) and recorded "vF; vS; mbM."  His position (CH's reduction) is off by 7 seconds of RA east and 1' north.

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NGC 7249 = ESO 190-001 = PGC 68606

22 20 31.0 -55 07 29; Gru

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 136¡

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 318x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.4' diameter, weak concentration.  Forms a pair with PGC 95403 = 2MASX J22204571-5506093, just 2.5' NE.  The companion was logged as very faint, small, 15" diameter. A mag 15.5-15.8 star is 0.4' NE.  These are the two brightest members of the southern cluster AGC 3869.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7249 = h3933 on 4 Oct 1834 and recorded "eeF; R; rather a doubtful object." Despite his doubts, his position is within 1' of ESO 190-001 = PGC 68606, the brightest member of AGC 3869.

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NGC 7250 = UGC 11980 = MCG +07-45-024 = CGCG 530-022 = Mrk 907 = PGC 68535

22 18 17.8 +40 33 45; Lac

V = 12.6;  Size 1.7'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 157¡

 

24" (9/2/16): at 200x; this disrupted galaxy or interacting pair appeared moderately bright, elongated 5:2 N-S, 0.7'x0.3', bright core.  A small, very faint knot or extension is at the north end. A mag 10.9 star is 0.9' SE of center.  At 375x; the "knot" attached on the west side of north end of the galaxy extends ~20"x10" NNW-SSE (slightly different PA than the main galaxy), increasing the total size of the merged glow to nearly 1.0'x0.3'.  HyperLeda catalogues the object at the north end as a galaxy (PGC 214816), though on the SDSS it appears to be a collection of blue knots.  NGC 7248 is 17' WSW.

 

24" (8/7/13): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 N-S, 0.75'x0.3', sharply concentrated with a very small brighter nucleus.  A mag 11 star is just off the SSE edge.  The structure at the north end was masked by Type-Ia supernova 2013dy at mag 13-13.5, which was discovered on July 10th, a couple of weeks before maximum.  The supernova was 2" W and 25" N of the nucleus of NGC 7250.

 

18" (10/19/06): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated NNW-SSE, 0.6'x0.2', very small bright core.  A mag 11 star is just off the SSE end.  The galaxy fades at the tips, so the full extent was difficult to determine but appears to extend to 1.0'x0.25'.  A very faint knot (PGC 214816) is occasionally visible at the NNW end.  This nearly stellar "knot" is often noted as an interacting companion, though it may be a bright HII complex in the galaxy.  NGC 7250 is classified as a starburst galaxy.

 

13.1" (8/24/84): fairly faint, very elongated streak NNW-SSE, small bright core.  A mag 11 star is off the SSE tip 0.9' from center.  Pair with NGC 7248 17' WSW.  This galaxy may be an interacting double system but it was not resolved.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7250 = H III-864, along with NGC 7248, on 8 Nov 1790 (sweep 977) and recorded "vF; S; mE; 300 showed it very plainly.  The extension from about 75¡ np to sf; bM."  His position is 12 seconds of RA too large (typical error).

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NGC 7251 = MCG -03-57-002 = LGG 458-005 = PGC 68604

22 20 27.2 -15 46 21; Aqr

V = 12.6;  Size 1.9'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 0¡

 

24" (9/29/16): at 225x; fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, round, 45" diameter, broad concentration except for a very small brighter nucleus with direct vision.  MCG -03-57-001, 11' SSW of NGC 7251, appeared faint to fairly faint, elongated 2:1 ~E-W, 0.8'x0.4', weak concentration with no noticeable core or nucleus.

 

17.5" (9/15/90): faint, small, round, broad concentration.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7251 = H III-933 = h2158 on 6 Sep 1793 (sweep 1050) and recorded "vF, S, R, bM."  JH made three observations.  On 27 Jul 1830, he logged "pF; lE; gpmbM; 20"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 7252 = Arp 226 = ESO 533-15 = MCG -04-52-036 = LGG 457-007 = PGC 68612 = Atoms for Peace Galaxy

22 20 44.8 -24 40 43; Aqr

V = 12.1;  Size 1.9'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 118¡

 

13.1" (9/9/83): fairly faint, very small, round, compact, weak concentration.  Located 40' WNW of 49 Aquarii (V = 5.5).

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7252 = H III-458 = h3934 on 26 Oct 1785 (sweep 465) and recorded "vF, S, er.  240 confirmed it with difficulty."  His position is at the north edge of the galaxy.  JH made the single observation "Not vF; S; R: bM; 30"."

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NGC 7253 = Arp 278 = VV 242A/B = UGC 11984 = MCG +05-52-010 = Holm 790A/B = Kara 72 566A/B = LEDA 3168458 = PGC 68572 = PGC 68573

22 19 28.6 +29 23 32; Peg

V = 13.2;  Size 2.1'x1.4'

 

24" (7/24/14): NGC 7253 = Arp 278, a disrupted, interacting double system, was observed at 260x.  NGC 7253A, the northwest component, appeared fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, ~50"x20".  A mag 12.5 star is 1.3' WNW, collinear with the major axis.  A 7" pair of mag 15 stars is barely off the ESE end.  NGC 7253B is attached at the east-southeast end of NGC 7253A, very close to the faint double, and appears very faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 30"x15".  A mag 13.3 star is 0.7' E.  Situated in a rich star field.

 

17.5" (9/2/89): NGC 7253A is very faint, small, elongated WNW-ESE.  Forms a double system (Arp 278) with NGC 7253B = VV 242b attached at the east end with a separation of 55" between center.  The companion is extremely faint, small, elongated SW-NE.  A pair of mag 15 stars is at the east edge.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7253 = m 471 on 9 Sep 1863 and noted "vF, pE."  His position is accurate though apparently he did not resolved this close pair.

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NGC 7254 = NGC 7256 = ESO 602-013 = MCG -04-52-042 = PGC 68686

22 22 36.2 -21 44 14; Aqr

V = 13.1;  Size 1.4'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 122¡

 

See observing notes for NGC 7256.

 

Frank Muller found NGC 7254 = LM 2-467 in 1886 and recorded "mag 13.0, 0.4' dia, R, *11 at 4.5' separation in PA 280¡ [WNW].  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 0.6 minutes west of NGC 7256 (discovered by Marth on 27 Sep 1864, though placed 10' too far south).  Furthermore, a mag 13 star is  4.7' west, matching his description.  Herbert Howe was the first to equate the two numbers when he observed the field in 1897-98 and found only a single galaxy.

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NGC 7255 = MCG -03-57-006 = PGC 68721

22 23 08.0 -15 32 29; Aqr

V = 14.2;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 130¡

 

17.5" (7/27/95): very faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, 1.0'x0.4', even surface brightness.  Incorrectly listed as nonexistent in RNGC.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7255 = LM 1-249 on 1 Oct 1886 and recorded "mag 16.0, 2.5'x0.5', vE 30¡, sbMN."  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is 1.2 minutes west of MCG -03-57-006 = PGC 68721.  His size estimate is too large and the position angle is in the wrong quadrant, but Corwin verified this identification using Leavenworth's sketch.  Bigourdan could not locate this object.

 

The RNGC classifies NGC 7255 as nonexistent and the galaxy was not plotted on the first edition of the Uranometria 2000.0 atlas.

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NGC 7256 = NGC 7254 = ESO 602-013 = MCG -04-52-042 = PGC 68686

22 22 36.2 -21 44 14; Aqr

V = 13.1;  Size 1.4'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 122¡

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, fairly small, elongated WNW-ESE.  A mag 15 star is involved at the NE end.  Located 16' SE of mag 41 Aquarii (5.6/6.7 pair at 5").

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7256 = m 472 on 27 Sep 1864 and noted " 3 stars involved in F nebulosity."  There is nothing at his position by 10' north  is ESO 602-013 = PGC 68686.  His description is a there are only two stars involved, though a third "star" is probably the nucleus.  Frank Muller found the galaxy again in 1886 at the Leander McCormick observatory and reported it as new in list II-467 (later NGC 7254).

 

In 1898 Herbert Howe reported "These are identical.  The place of NGC 7254 is wrong in right ascension, and the place of 7256 is 10' wrong in declination.  I could find only one nebular object in this vicinity.  Two of the three stars involved, and mentioned by Marth were seen; the third was suspected.  The northernmost one was brightest and was of mag 14."

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NGC 7257 = NGC 7260 = MCG -01-57-003 = PGC 68691

22 22 36.4 -04 07 15; Aqr

 

See observing notes for NGC 7260.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7257 = m 473, along with NGC 7266, on 1 Oct 1864 and noted "F, vS, lE."  There is nothing at his position but 24 seconds of RA east and 5.5' south is NGC 7260.  The same offset identifies NGC 7266 with PGC 68758.  Stephan independently found this galaxy later on 22 Sep 1876 and placed it accurately.  So, NGC 7257 = NGC 7260, with discovery priority to Marth.  Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 1 Sep 1886 and reported it as new in list IV-83, but he retracted the discovery claim in an addendum to list VI.

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NGC 7258 = ESO 467-049 = MCG -05-52-068 = PGC 68710

22 22 58.1 -28 20 43; PsA

V = 13.1;  Size 1.4'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 141¡

 

17.5" (8/27/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, weak concentration.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7258 = h3935 on 30 Jul 1834 and recorded "vF; S; R or E, as if it had a feeble neb south preceding; glbM; 15"."  His position is good.

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NGC 7259 = ESO 467-050 = MCG -05-52-069 = AM 2220-291 = PGC 68718

22 23 05.5 -28 57 17; PsA

V = 13.1;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 49¡

 

18" (10/25/08): faint, fairly small, round, diffuse, 40"x30", diffuse with only a weak concentration.  ESO 467-051, an ultra-thin edge-on companion 3' SE, was not seen.

 

17.5" (10/30/99): very faint, moderately large, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, ~1.2'x0.9', weak concentration.  The nearby edge-on ESO 467-051 was not seen.

 

17.5" (8/27/92): faint, fairly small, round, 50" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Collinear with two mag 12 stars 3.3' NE and 6.4' NE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7259 = h3936 on 28 Sep 1834 and recorded "eF; pL; R; vglbM; 40"."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7260 = NGC 7257 = MCG -01-57-003 = PGC 68691

22 22 36.4 -04 07 15; Aqr

V = 12.9;  Size 2.0'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 155¡

 

17.5" (10/5/91): fairly faint, fairly small round halo although it noticeably increases in size with averted vision.  Weak broad concentration, edges fade into background.

 

ƒdouard Stephan found NGC 7260 = St VIII-13 on 22 Sep 1876 and measured an accurate position.  Albert Marth discovered this galaxy on 1 Oct 1864, but his position for m 473 = NGC 7257 was poor (see that number) and Dreyer included both positions in the NGC.  But NGC 7260 = NGC 7257.

 

Lewis Swift also found this galaxy on 1 Sep 1886 and reported the discovery in his 4th list (#83).  His description "vF; pL; R; 4 stars near sf point to it" clinches this identification.  He later noted the equivalence with GC 6040 (later NGC 7260) in the errata comments ti his 6th discovery list.

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NGC 7261 = Cr 450 = Lund 1013 = OCL-237

22 20 12 +58 05; Cep

V = 8.4;  Size 6'

 

18" (8/17/04): at 225x, ~30 stars are resolved in an 7'x3.5' group, elongated N-S.  A couple of scattered groups of stars are to the south, but are apparently detached.  7 stars on the south side form the outline of a perfect rectangle with the eastern vertex the brightest star in the cluster (mag 9.5 SAO 34332).  There are no stars within the interior of this rectangle.  The richest group of stars is just north of the rectangle.

 

17.5" (10/5/91): about 30 stars in a 7'x3' region elongated N-S.  Set over a background of some unresolved haze on the north side of cluster.  Includes six brighter stars with a mag 9 star on the SE side.  Fairly rich in faint stars on the north side although not rich in other sections.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7261 = h2159 on 5 Oct 1829 and recorded "The chief star of a coarse p rich cluster which fills the field.  Stars 10...15m."  His position matches mag 9.6 HD 239927.

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NGC 7262 = ESO 405-017 = PGC 68737

22 23 28.5 -32 21 52; PsA

V = 13.8;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (7/20/96): very faint, small, roundish, 35" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Forms a near equilateral triangle with two mag 13 stars ~4' NE and 4' SE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7262 = h3937 on 27 Sep 1834 and recorded "eF; S; R; lbM."  His position is fairly accurate.

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NGC 7263 = MCG +06-49-004 = CGCG 514-012 = PGC 68642

22 21 45.2 +36 21 00; Lac

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 60¡

 

24" (9/14/12): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, slightly brighter core, 0.4'x0.3'.  A mag 14.4 star is attached at the northeast end [13" from the center].  Located 6' WSW of NGC 7264 and 12' NW of NGC 7265.

 

17.5" (8/12/88): faint, very small, round.  A mag 15 star is at the NE end.  In a group with NGC 7264 6.1' ENE and NGC 7265 12.0' SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7263 = m 474 on 9 Sep 1863 and noted "F, S, R."  His position is accurate.  Marth discovered NGC 7264 just a week later, so he must have revisited the field.

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NGC 7264 = UGC 12001 = MCG +06-49-005 = CGCG 514-014 = PGC 68658

22 22 13.8 +36 23 13; Lac

V = 13.8;  Size 2.2'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 57¡

 

24" (9/14/12): fairly faint but excellent thin edge-on 6:1 SW-NE, ~1.2'x0.2', slightly brighter core, very thin extensions.  Two mag 11.6/13.3 stars parallel the galaxy off the north side.  NGC 7263 is 6.1' WSW and NGC 7265 (brightest in a small quartet) is 11' SSE.

 

17.5" (8/12/88): faint, fairly small, very elongated SW-NE.  A wide double star mag 12/13 at 34" separation is less than 1' N.  Pair with NGC 7263 6.1' WSW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7264 = m 475 on 17 Sep 1863 and noted "vF, pS, mE."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7265 = UGC 12004 = MCG +06-49-006 = CGCG 514-015 = PGC 68668

22 22 27.5 +36 12 35; Lac

V = 12.2;  Size 2.4'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 170¡

 

24" (9/14/12): at 325x, fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated N-S, 1.2'x1.0', well concentrated with a small bright core.  A mag 12 star lies 1.4' SSE, a mag 12.5 star 1.5' SE (12" pair), a mag 12 star is 2.4' ESE and a mag 10 star is 3' ESE.

 

Brightest in a group of at least 9 galaxies, which were all viewed (USGC U813).   In the eyepiece, it's part of a small quartet with UGC 12007 2.8' ESE (attached to the mag 10 star), PGC 214824 2.5' NW and PGC 214825 3.0' NE.  NGC 7273, 7274 and 7276 are roughly 20' ESE and NGC 7263 and 7264 lie ~12' NNW.  In addition, PGC 2075294 is 11' ESE and UGC 12013 is 12' SE.

 

UGC 12007 is faint to fairly faint, moderately large, roundish, roughly 45" diameter.  View hampered by a mag 10 star superimposed just NE of center.  In addition a mag 12 star is just off the NW side, though the halo has a very low surface brightness and fades into the glare from the stars.  Contains a very small weakly brighter core just SW of the mag 10 star.

 

PGC 214824 is faint, small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 15"x10".  A mag 14 star is attached at the north edge and the faint glow extends just south.  PGC 214825 is faint, small, slightly elongated E-W, 0.3'x0.2'.  Visible continuously at 325x.

 

UGC 12013 is fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, 0.6'x0.2'.  A mag 13.2 star is just east of the ESE tip.

 

17.5" (10/13/01): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated.  Contains a bright, 30" core embedded in a fainter halo extended NNW-SSE, 1.0'x0.8'.  The core increases to a faint, stellar nucleus.  Brightest in a group and forms a pair with UGC 12007 2.8' ESE.  Located 1.3' NNW of a mag 11.5 star.

 

17.5" (8/12/88): moderately bright, fairly small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 11.5 star is 1.3' SSE.  Brightest in a group including NGC 7263, NGC 7264, NGC 7273, NGC 7274 and 7276.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7265 = St VIII-14 on 20 Sep 1876.  His micrometric position is a perfect match with UGC 12004.

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NGC 7266 = MCG -01-57-006 = Mrk 910 = PGC 68758

22 23 58.9 -04 04 24; Aqr

V = 13.4;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 85¡

 

17.5" (8/7/91): fairly faint, fairly small, round, broad concentration, faint stellar nucleus.  Located 5.4' SW of mag 9.5 SAO 146069.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7266 = m 476 on 1 Oct 1864, along with NGC 7257 = NGC 7260, and noted "F, vS, R, alm stellar."  There is nothing at his position though this galaxy is 25 seconds of RA east and 5.7' south.  Harold Corwin notes that despite the poor positional match, the same offset helps to identify NGC 7257, found the same night.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 5 Nov 1887 and the correction was given in the IC 2 Notes.

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NGC 7267 = ESO 405-018 = MCG -06-49-003 = PGC 68780

22 24 21.8 -33 41 39; PsA

V = 12.2;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 6¡

 

17.5" (10/5/91): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, prominent bright core.  Located 3.6' NE of Mag 8.4 SAO 213789 (very wide triple).

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7267 = h3938 on 23 Sep 1834 and recorded "pB; R; pgbM; 40"; a large triple * sp."

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NGC 7268 = ESO 467-057 = AM 2222-312 = MCG -05-53-001 = MCG -05-53-002 = PGC 68847 = PGC 68848

22 25 41.4 -31 12 02; PsA

V = 13.2;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 66¡

 

24" (9/6/18): at 375x; NGC 7268 is a merged double system at 20" separation between centers, with NGC 7268 NED1, the brighter and larger component, on the west end and NGC 7268 NED1 on the east end.  Initially the combined glow appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated ~3:2 E-W, ~0.6'x0.4', slightly brighter nucleus.  With careful viewing, the fainter and smaller eastern member occasionally resolved as a distinct glow; faint, very small, round, 12"-15" diameter. The halos of the two components appeared merged with no gap.  NGC 7277 lies 7.2' NE.

 

17.5" (10/5/91): very faint, very small, round.  A wide double star mag 14/15 is 1' NE.  Slightly brighter of a pair with NGC 7277 7.2' ENE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7268 = h3939 on 28 Sep 1834 and recorded "vF, S, R."  He added the comment "The preceding of 2 [with NGC 7277]."  At his position (mean of two observations) is the double galaxy ESO 467-057.  His GC position, which was used in the NGC, is 1.0 minute of RA too far west.

 

The RNGC clearly misidentifies NGC 7268 (the position is 3' south of ESO 467-IG55) and NGC 7268 is plotted too far south on the first version of Uranometria 2000 Atlas.  Listed in my RNGC Corrections #5 and Corwin's notes.

 

The 2 components of this merged double system are identified as NGC 7268A (west) and NGC 7268B (east) in the SGC.

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NGC 7269 = MCG -02-57-005 = PGC 68841

22 25 46.6 -13 09 59; Aqr

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 140¡

 

17.5" (9/15/90): very faint, small, almost round, even surface brightness.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7269 = LM 1-250 in 1886 and recorded "eF, pS, R, glbM."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 0.9 minutes too far west and 4' south of MCG -02-57-005 = PGC 68841.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1897-98 with the 20" refractor at Denver.

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NGC 7270 = UGC 12019 = MCG +05-52-015 = CGCG 494-021 = WBL 680-001 = PGC 68748

22 23 47.5 +32 24 11; Peg

V = 13.9;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 90¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): fairly faint, small, oval E-W, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Collinear with a mag 11.5 star 1.0' WNW and mag 12.5 star 2.4' WNW.  In a group (WBL 680) with NGC 7271 3.0' SE and NGC 7275 6.8' ENE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7270 = m 477, along with NGC 7271 and 7275, on 9 Sep 1863 and noted "vF, S, E."  His declination is off by 2' too far north (same offset as NGC 7275).

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NGC 7271 = MCG +05-52-016 = CGCG 494-022 = WBL 680-002 = PGC 68753

22 23 57.6 +32 22 01; Peg

V = 14.8;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 118¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): extremely faint and small, round.  A mag 14 star is 0.9' W.  Located 4' SE of NGC 7270 in a group (WBL 680).  NGC 7275 is 6.4' NE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7271 = m 478, along with NGC 7270 and 7275, on 9 Sep 1863 and noted "vF, S, vlE."  His positions are all off by 1' - 2' too far north.

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NGC 7272 = UGC 12028 = MCG +03-57-003 = CGCG 452-008 = PGC 68786

22 24 31.7 +16 35 17; Peg

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 39¡

 

24" (8/14/15): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated 4:3 or 5:4 SW-NE, 30"x24", small bright core.  A mag 12.5 star lies 1.3' WSW, a mag 13.6 star is the same distance NE and a mag 15.5 star is 40" NW.  Brightest in a small triplet with PGC 1511999 just 52" SSW of center and PGC 214829 1.9' NE.

 

PGC 1511999 (V = 15.4) appeared faint, very small, slightly elongated, 15"x12".  A mag 12.5 star (mentioned above) lies 1.1' NW and a double star (~10" separation) is 1.6' SE.  PGC 214829 (V = 15.6) is very faint to faint, very small, ~12"x8" E-W. A mag 13.5 star lies 50" WSW.

 

17.5" (8/20/88): very faint, small, round, even surface brightness.  Located between two mag 13 stars and a mag 15 star is 30" NW.  Neither of the faint companions were noticed.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7272 = m 479 on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, S, irr R."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7273 = MCG +06-49-012 = CGCG 514-024 = WBL 681-001 = PGC 68768

22 24 09.2 +36 12 00; Lac

V = 13.7;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 8¡

 

17.5" (8/12/88): faint, small, slightly elongated, small bright core.  This is the northern galaxy of three on a line with NGC 7274 4.5' S and NGC 7276 6.8' SSE.  The three galaxies form WBL 681 triplet, but these are likely part of the NGC 7265 group (USGC U813), which is 20' to the west.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7273 = St VIII-15, along with NGC 7274 and 7276, on 20 Sep 1876.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 7274 = UGC 12026 = MCG +06-49-013 = CGCG 514-026 = WBL 681-003 = PGC 68770

22 24 11.1 +36 07 33; Lac

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (8/12/88): fairly faint, fairly small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Largest and brightest of three with NGC 7273 4.5' N and NGC 7276 2.4' SSE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7274 = St VIII-16, along with NGC 7273 and 7276, on 20 Sep 1876.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 7275 = UGC 12025 = MCG +05-52-019 = CGCG 494-025 = PGC 68774

22 24 17.2 +32 26 47; Peg

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 37¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): extremely faint, small, edge-on 4:1 SW-NE, very small brighter core.  A pretty mag 13/13 double star is 2' W.  Located 6.8' ENE of NGC 7270 in a group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7275 = m 48, along with NGC 7270 and 7271, on 9 Sep 1863 and noted "eF, S, mE."  His declination is off by nearly 2' too far north (same offset as NGC 7270).

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NGC 7276 = MCG +06-49-014 = CGCG 514-025 = WBL 681-002 = PGC 68773

22 24 14.4 +36 05 15; Lac

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

17.5" (8/12/88): faint, very small, round, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star is 26" SE of center.  This galaxy is the furthest south of three on a line with NGC 7274 2.4' N and NGC 7273 6.8' NNW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7276 = St VIII-17, along with NGC 7273 and 7274, on 20 Sep 1876.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 7277 = ESO 467-059 = MCG -05-53-004 = PGC 68861

22 26 10.9 -31 08 43; PsA

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 125¡

 

24" (9/6/18): at 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, brighter core.  The major axis is collinear with a mag 13.3 star 3.5' SE.  NGC 7268, a close double system, lies 7' WSW. The sky contrast was poor (hazy), viewing at a low elevation.

 

17.5" (10/5/91): very faint, small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE.  Pair with NGC 7268 7.2' WSW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7277 = h3940 on 27 Sep 1834 and recorded "pF; pL; lE; glbM."  He later noted "[The following of 2]", when NGC 7268 was seen the following night.

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NGC 7278 = ESO 146-027 = PGC 68940

22 28 22.4 -60 10 11; Tuc

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 23¡

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 318x; faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, no internal details.  A mag 12 star is 1.1' SE and another is 4.7' ENE.  Located 8.2' SSW of mag 7 HD 212878 and the view was improved when I moved this star outside the field.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7278 = h3941 on 11 Aug 1836 and recorded "eeF; lE; vgvlbM; very difficult, but a certain observation. It is n p the first of 3 stars 10-11m."  His position and description matches this faint galaxy.

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NGC 7279 = ESO 405-021 = MCG -06-49-005 = PGC 68896

22 27 12.6 -35 08 25; PsA

V = 13.8;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 68¡

 

17.5" (7/20/96): extremely faint, round, 20".  Appears to have a nearly stellar nucleus.  A faint double lies 4.5' NW (GSC 14.2/14.9 at 23").

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7279 = h3942 on 23 Sep 1834 and recorded "vF; S; R; gbM; 15"."  On a later sweep he noted "vF; pL; R; vgvlbM; 30"."  His mean position is accurate.

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NGC 7280 = UGC 12035 = MCG +03-57-005 = CGCG 452-011 = PGC 68870

22 26 27.6 +16 08 53; Peg

V = 12.1;  Size 2.2'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 78¡

 

17.5" (8/20/88): moderately bright, small bright core, faint halo, stellar nucleus, slightly elongated WSW-ENE.  Two mag 12 and 13 stars are roughly 2.5' N and 2' NE and a 10" pair of mag 13.5/14 stars are 1' NNW.

 

MCG +03-57-006, located 4.7' NE, appeared extremely faint, very small, round.  A mag 14 star is off the NE edge.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7280 = H II-248 = h2160 on 15 Oct 1784 (sweep 290) and recorded "F, pS, makes a small quartile with 3 small stars.  The north and preceding whereof is double."  He made a second observation the next night (sweep 294) and logged "vF, S.  The south and preceding corner of a small quartile of very small stars. (See 290 sweep)." JH made two observations and measured an accurate RA.

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NGC 7281 = Lund 1015 = OCL-238

22 25 12 +57 49; Cep

Size 12'

 

17.5" (8/10/91): about 20 stars in a 4' diameter.  A string of three mag 9-9.5 stars is on the north side aligned E-W (separation 1' between pairs) and a pair of mag 12 stars just east aligned N-S (separation 0.9').  Includes two very faint double stars.  Neither rich nor distinctive.  Located in a rich field so extent difficult to determine and outliers greatly increases diameter and total number of stars.  The classification of this group as a true cluster is doubtful.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7281 = h2161 on 5 Oct 1829 and recorded "Large, coarse, not extremely poor, the stars scattered and 10...16m."  His position is on a 10th magnitude star at the west end of the group.  Sky Catalogue 2000.0 calls it a possible asterism.  Although this field is not distinctive visually, JH's position and description fits.

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NGC 7282 = UGC 12034 = MCG +07-46-007 = CGCG 531-006 = PGC 68843

22 25 53.8 +40 18 53; Lac

V = 13.7;  Size 2.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 14.6;  PA = 0¡

 

17.5" (8/8/91): very faint, small, elongated 3:2 N-S, low even surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is at the NE edge [39" from center].

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7282 = St IX-29 on 2 Oct 1878.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7283 = MCG +03-57-012 = CGCG 452-017 = PGC 68946

22 28 32.7 +17 28 13; Peg

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 9¡

 

17.5" (8/20/88): extremely faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  Located 2.7' E of a mag 10 star and 19' NNE of NGC 7290.  This galaxy is 1.0 min of RA preceding and 2' S of Marth's position, so the identification is very uncertain.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7283 = m 481 on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, vS, R."  There is nothing at his position but 1 minute of RA east and 2' north is CGCG 452-017 = PGC 68946.  This is a large random error unless it was caused by a digit error in RA, so this identification is very uncertain.  Harold Corwin notes that Marth's object could also be a faint double star about 2' preceding his position.  PGC 68946 is not labeled NGC 7283 in the CGCG or MCG, but is used in the RNGC and PGC.

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NGC 7284 = Arp 93 NED1 = VV 74b = ESO 533-031 = MCG -04-53-004 = LGG 457-002 = PGC 68950

22 28 35.9 -24 50 39; Aqr

V = 12.1;  Size 2.1'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 133¡

 

24" (8/23/14): at 375x, the western component of the double system VV 74 = Arp 93 appeared bright, small, round, high surface brightness, ~0.4' diameter.  The core of NGC 7285 is cleanly resolved [33" between center], though very close northeast.  The twin nuclei are encased in a very low surface brightness halo.

 

17.5" (10/13/90): fairly faint, very small, very compact, almost round, high surface brightness, very small very bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms a contact pair with NGC 7285 at the ENE edge with a separation of 30" between centers.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7284 = H II-469 = h3943 on 26 Oct 1785 (sweep 465) and recorded "F, er [easily resolvable] or some of the stars visible; pS, lE." Perhaps one the "stars" was the second nucleus (NGC 7285).  From the Cape of Good Hope, JH logged (sweep 474) "F; E; bM; r; binuclear pos 62.3¡.  Rather an equivocal object, whether nebulous or a group, but I incline to regard it as a nebula."  On a later sweep (14 Sep 1835), he wrote "pB; irr R; 25"; involves a double star (13m + 14m)." So, he clearly resolved the two nuclei.

 

Herbert Howe reported NGC 7284 and 7285 as follows: "The description of 7284 in the NGC is "cF, cS, lE, r, D * inv." The description of 7285, discovered by Lassell [Marth], is "Nebs. * 1' dist from 7284."  I judge 7285 to be simply one of the components of 7284.  Both seem to be nebulous stars. The brighter one is of mag 12.5  The other is of mag 13, and lies at P.A. 60¡, distant about 40".  Neither of the stars appeared to be double.  I could not see any nebulosity uniting them, but the sky was rather dull."

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NGC 7285 = Arp 93 NED2 = VV 74a = ESO 533-032 = MCG -04-53-005 = LGG 457-003 = PGC 68953

22 28 38.0 -24 50 27; Aqr

V = 11.9;  Size 2.3'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 65¡

 

24" (8/23/14): at 375x, the eastern component of the double system VV 74 = Arp 93 appeared fairly bright, small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 30"x20", high surface brightness.  Forms a very close pair with slightly brighter NGC 7284 [just 33" between centers].  The twin nuclei are encased in a very low surface brightness halo 

 

17.5" (10/13/90): this is the NE member of a double system with NGC 7284.  Fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Slightly fainter than NGC 7284 just 30" WSW of center. Situated very close to the Aquarius-Pisces Austrinus border.

 

William Lassell discovered NGC 7285 in Oct 1862 using his 48-inch at Malta.  For some reason it wasn't included in Marth's catalogue, although NGC 7489 and NGC 2620, also found by Lassell, were included.  Lassell mentioned the discovery in a letter to John Herschel on 1 Nov 1862 and Dreyer included it in the GC Supplement (GCS 5078).  Although both William and John Herschel reported a double nuclei or two stars involved, neither catalogued it as two numbers.

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NGC 7286 = UGC 12043 = MCG +05-53-002 = CGCG 495-002 = PGC 68922

22 27 50.5 +29 05 45; Peg

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 98¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated WNW-ESE, weak concentration.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7286 = h2162 on 15 Sep 1828 and recorded "vF; R; 12"...15"; among stars."  His position is exactly 30 seconds of time too small (digit error).  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 1Aug 1884.

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NGC 7287

22 27 17.0 -22 07 00; Aqr

 

18" (8/31/11): this close pair of stars (seems to be a trio of stars on the DSS) was barely resolved at 220x and initially could have easily passed for a small, nebulous object, elongated NW-SE.  The separation is just a few arc seconds.  Located 21' WSW of 7.4-magnitude HD 213005.

 

The NGC position happens to fall closer to ESO 602-020 = PGC 68960 (double system), which is identified as NGC 7287 in NED, although this galaxy is less likely to be the NGC object.  ESO 602-020 appeared very faint, small, slightly elongated, bright core.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 7287 = LM 2-468 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory. He described it as "mag 15.0, 0.1' dia, E 330¡ [NNW-SSE]" with a note "slightly nebulous **."  There are several faint galaxies near his position, but since the Leander McCormick are often 1 or 2 minutes off in time, Corwin suggests NGC 7287 may be a triple star at 22 27 17 -22 07 00 (2000).  This pair is roughly 1 min 15 sec west of Muller's position and the orientation of the stars is northwest-southeast

 

As far as nearby galaxies, just 16 seconds east and 4' south is ESO 602-020A.  Sherburne Burnham (Publ of Lick Observatory, II) found this galaxy and described it as two very faint objects about 20" apart (the following one appeared to a faint star).  Corwin feels this candidate is less likely because of the relatively large difference in declination and the wrong position angle. The RNGC misidentifies ESO 533-030 as NGC 7287.

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NGC 7288 = Mrk 912 = MCG -01-57-013 = PGC 68933

22 28 15.0 -02 53 04; Aqr

V = 13.0;  Size 2.3'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 92¡

 

17.5" (8/7/91): fairly faint, small, well-defined small bright core, bright stellar nucleus, faint halo slightly elongated E-W.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7288 = m 482 = Sf 84 on 1 Oct 1864 and noted "vF, eS, stellar." His position is an exact match with MCG -01-57-013 = PGC 68933.  Truman Safford rediscovered this galaxy on 19 Sep 1866 with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.

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NGC 7289 = ESO 405-023 = MCG -06-49-006 = PGC 68980

22 29 20.0 -35 28 15; PsA

V = 13.2;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 165¡

 

17.5" (7/20/96): faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter, brighter core.  Halo grows to 1.0' with averted vision.  Brightest in a group with an anonymous galaxy 5.2' SSE and 2.3' SW (star + galaxy?).

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7289 = h3944 on 25 Sep 1834 and recorded "vF; R: glbM; 20"."  His position is just off the northwest side of ESO 405-023.

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NGC 7290 = UGC 12045 = MCG +03-57-009 = PGC 68942

22 28 26.4 +17 08 51; Peg

V = 13.3;  Size 1.6'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 161¡

 

17.5" (8/20/88): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated NNW-SSE, even surface brightness.  Located 7.7' SSE of ·2908 = 7.7/9.4 at 9", a nice yellow-blue pair.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7290 = m 483 on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "pB, S, pmE."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7291 = UGC 12047 = MCG +03-57-008 = CGCG 452-015 = PGC 68944

22 28 29.5 +16 46 59; Peg

V = 13.1;  Size 1.8'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.2

 

17.5" (8/20/88): faint, small, almost round, small bright core.  A mag 13 star is 0.9' ENE of center.  Located 22'S of NGC 7290.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 7291 = Sf 56 = St VIII-18 on 1 Oct 1866 and recorded "pF, pS, neb MN."  His position is accurate.  ƒdouard Stephan independently discovered the galaxy on 21 Sep 1876 and measured an accurate micrometric position.  Stephan was credited with the discovery in the GC Supplement and NGC due to the late publication of Safford's list.

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NGC 7292 = UGC 12048 = MCG +05-53-003 = CGCG 495-003 = Kaz 290 = PGC 68941

22 28 25.8 +30 17 33; Peg

V = 12.5;  Size 2.1'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

48" (10/29/16): at 813x; bright, fairly large, very irregular appearance.  A faint star is superimposed just south of a very small brighter nucleus or knot.  A bright "bar" extends through the nucleus WNW-ESE, (length ~50"), ending at a fairly bright knot at its WNW end.  The knot (HII complex/OB assocation?) appears ~10"x7" SW-NE.  A low surface brightness halo on the north and south side of the bar is roughly oval 3:2 and increases the overall size to ~1.5'x1.0'.  Situated in a fairly busy star field.

 

17.5" (9/2/89): fairly faint, moderately large, oval WNW-ESE, broad concentration.  A group of mag 13.5-14 stars are off the NW end including a two mag 13.5 stars 1.2' NW and 1.8' NW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7292 = St IV-12 on 6 Sep 1872.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 7293 = PK 36-57.1 = PN G036.1-57.1 = Helical Nebula = Helix Nebula

22 29 38.4 -20 50 13; Aqr

V = 7.6;  Size 970"x735"

 

18" (11/13/07): superb view at 115x and OIII filter, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, ~14'x12' including a faint extension or filament on the west side.  The bright rim is relatively thick and brightest along the north to NE side within the interior of the annulus (not at the very edge).  A star is embedded at the west edge of this large, enhanced arc (due east of the mag 10.5 star just off the NW edge).  The opposite SW rim is also enhanced in brightness and thicker.  The rim is weakest and thinnest at the WNW end, but with averted vision this end bulges out due to a faint extension or large filament (second ring) that begins just south of the western side of the rim and extends north towards the mag 10.5 at the NW edge of the halo.

 

17.5" (10/2/99): gorgeous view at 100x and OIII filter.  This huge, annular PN is 15'x12' in size and slightly elongated E-W due to an extension on the west side.  The thick annulus is mottled and irregular with brighter regions along the N, NE and SW edge.  The west side is slightly weaker but very faint extensions from the north and south side towards the west, cause the rim to bulge on this side (part of a second ring).  The west edge of the halo more gradually blends into the background near a mag 11 star off the west side.  At 220x without a filter about a dozen stars are superimposed.  The mag 13.5 central star is easy along with a similar star a couple of arc minutes following.

 

13.1" (8/15/82): the "Helix" nebula is extremely large, about 15' diameter, clearly annular.  Significant contrast gain with OIII filter permits observation even from the Bay Area. The fairly bright rim is non-uniform appearing brighter along the north side.  About seven stars are superimposed including the mag 13.5 central star.  Appears best at low power due to size and relative low surface brightness.  Easy in the 80mm finder.

 

8" (10/4/80): huge annular planetary is fairly bright at low power using a Daystar 300 filter.  The rim has an irregular surface brightness.

 

15x50 IS binoculars (8/27/11): easily visible in binoculars using a pair of narrowband filters.

 

Karl Ludwig Harding discovered NGC 7293 = Au 48 around 1823-24 at Gottingen University Observatory, probably using an 8.5-inch reflector built by William Herschel.  According to Wolfgang Steinicke, Harding published a list of 8 new nebulae in Astronomisches Jahrbuch, although the Helix Nebula is the only object he actually discovered, the others being observations of previously discovered nebuae.  Harding's list was not checked until 1857 by Winnecke, so the Helix was not generally known.  Ernesto Capocci independently discovered this huge planetary in late 1824 at Capodimonte Observatory in Naples, but his position was over a degree too far west and the object wasn't found or generally known by others.  In 1856, Christian Peters reported another discovery while he was at Capodimonte Observatory around 1850 (AJ 2, p16).  As late as 1884 Jermaine Porter also reported a discovery, although at that point it was already in the GC.  Both Herschels missed finding this planetary, probably due to its large size.

 

Based on a September 1912 photograph (4 hour explosure) taken with the Crossley reflector at Lick, Heber Curtis wrote "I would suggest that this interesting object be referred to as "The Helical Nebula in Aquarius" [to distinguish it from the the Helical Nebula in Draco, NGC 6543].  In 1917, Robert Innes, at the Union Observatory in Johannesburg, noted it was "seen in both the 3-inch and 9-inch telescopes.  Large, but no detail." and probably based on Curtis' comment, he referred to it as the "Helical nebula in Aquarius."

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NGC 7294 = IC 5225 = ESO 533-044 = MCG -04-53-009 = AM 2229-253 = PGC 69088

22 32 08.1 -25 23 52; PsA

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 47¡

 

24" (7/29/16): at 200x; fairly faint, moderately large, elongated ~3:2 SW-NE, ~60"x40", contains a brighter core that gradually increases to a small brighter nucleus.  The core itself sometimes appears noticeably elongated SW-NE. 

 

ESO 533-045 (possibly IC 5226) lies 16.6' SSE.  It was fairly faint to moderately bright, slightly elongated, 1.2'x1.0', sharply concentrated with a very small brighter nucleus, low surface brightness halo.  With careful viewing the core extended into a bar, elongated 2:1 SW-NE.

 

17.5" (10/13/90): faint, small, round, bright core.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7294 = LM 1-251 in 1886 and recorded "vF, vS, R."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 2 minutes of time preceding ESO 533-044.  As his declination is a fairly close match, this identification is reasonable, despite the simple description.  Lewis Swift independently discovered the galaxy on 6 Oct 1897 at age 77 and described Sw. XII-38 (later IC 5225) as "eeF; pS; R; betw 2 stars; a dozen stars in margin of field following, form semicircle, 4 st np a curve, one D, sp of 2 [should be np of 2, with IC 5226].  His position was 36 seconds of time too far west and 2' too far north, but his detailed description matches (specifically "4 st np a curve, one D[ouble]".  So NGC 7294 = IC 5225.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position for NGC 7294 in 1898-99 that was repeated in the IC 2 Notes.

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NGC 7295

22 27 54 +52 49; Lac

 

17.5" (10/21/95): this asterism consists of ~10 stars including a mag 10 star at the east end and eight mag 12-13 star in an E-W string about 3' length.  Located 6' SW of mag 7.6 SAO 34488.  In addition, there are also several mag 15 stars surrounding the mag 10 star that are easier to view with averted vision.  Appears to be an unimpressive random grouping at both 100x and 220x.  Open cluster NGC 7296 is in the same low power field 30' S.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7295 = h2163 on 8 Nov 1831 and recorded "A Milky Way straggler, a poorish cluster of stars 12...13m."  His position corresponds with a mag 9 star accompanied by a small clump of stars close southwest.  Karl Reinmuth called this a "a few st 11...13 in a dense region."  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent ("No cluster").  But Harold Corwin suggests that if his declination is 30' too far north, then NGC 7295 is a duplicate of NGC 7296.  As evidence, JH listed H VII-41 as a synonym (with a question mark), so he was uncertain.  The object described in my notes is the asterism at his position.

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NGC 7296 = Cr 451 = Lund 1016 = OCL-228

22 28 02 +52 17 18; Lac

Size 4'

 

17.5" (10/5/91): compact group of roughly 30 stars in a 3'x2' area elongated N-S.  A mag 9 star is at the NW edge.  Most stars are arranged in a curved arc roughly N-S.  A string of four perfectly collinear stars trail from this arc to the NE.  Not particularly distinctive as located in a rich star field.  Contains about ten faint stars mag 14-14.5.  Located 40' E of Beta Lacertae (V = 4.4).

 

8" (11/8/80): 15 stars extended N-S between two mag 8 and 9 stars.  Appears faint and small with an unresolved background haze.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7296 = H VII-41 on 14 Oct 1787 (sweep 765) and noted "a small cluster of stars, not very rich; like a forming one."  His RA was 40 seconds too large.

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NGC 7297 = ESO 345-018 = MCG -06-49-007 = PGC 69046

22 31 10.3 -37 49 35; Gru

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 130¡

 

17.5" (7/20/96): very faint, fairly small, irregularly round, ~40" diameter.  Located 2.7' WSW of a mag 13 star.  Pair with NGC 7299 4.6' ENE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7297 = h3945, along with NGC 7299, on 1 Sep 1834 and recorded "eF; S; R.  The preceding of 2 [with NGC 7299]."   His position is less than 1' southwest of ESO 405-023 = PGC 68980.

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NGC 7298 = MCG -02-57-010 = Mrk 1124 = LGG 458-002 = PGC 69033

22 30 50.6 -14 11 18; Aqr

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 5¡

 

24" (9/25/19): at 375x faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, ~45" diameter, irregular halo with an indistinct shape (face-on spiral), very weak concentration.  In a group (LGG 458) with NGC 7300 12' NNE and NGC 7302 23' ENE.

 

17.5" (9/15/90): extremely faint, fairly small, very low even surface brightness, diffuse.  Forms a pair with NGC 7300 11.3' NNE.  Located 22' NNE of 56 Aquarii (V = 6.4).

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7298 = m 484 on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, pL, iR."  His position is fairly accurate.

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NGC 7299 = ESO 345-019 = MCG -06-49-008 = AM 2228-380 = PGC 69060

22 31 33.1 -37 48 34; Gru

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (7/20/96): threshold object only glimpsed with concentration for moments, ~30" diameter.  No details seen.  Located 1.9' E of a mag 13 star and 4.6' ENE of slightly brighter NGC 7297.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7299 = h3946, along with NGC 7297, on 1 Sep 1834 and recorded "eF; S; R.  The following of 2 [with NGC 7297]."  His position is fairly good.

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NGC 7300 = IC 5204? = MCG -02-57-011 = LGG 458-003 = PGC 69040

22 30 59.9 -14 00 13; Aqr

V = 12.8;  Size 2.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 160¡

 

24" (9/25/19): at 375x; moderately bright and large, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 1.2'x0.4', broad concentration with a brighter elongated core.  In a group (LGG 458) with NGC 7302 22' SE and NGC 7298 11' SSW.

 

13.1" (9/3/83): very faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, low surface brightness.  Forms a pair with NGC 7298 11.3' SSW.  NGC 7302 lies 24' ESE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7300 = h2164 on 26 Jul 1830 and recorded "F; pL; a strong suspicion; almost sure."  The next night he logged "vF; R; vglbM; 20"; twilight commencing."  His position is just off the south side of MCG -02-57-011 = PGC 69040.  This galaxy was found at Birr Castle on 4 Nov 1850 and described as "a vF neb, 80" long, 10" broad, light seems equable."  With a rough position JH catalogued the Rosse "nova" as GC 4799, but Dreyer realized its equivalence with h2164 and assigned only a single NGC designation.

 

Harold Corwin suggests Lewis Swift's list XI, #212 (later IC 5204) found on 8 Aug 1896, is probably a duplicate of NGC 7300 despite a very poor position.  Swift's description reads "vF; eE; a ray; p of 2 [with IC 5228 = NGC 7302].  See Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 7301 = ESO 602-023 = VV 372 = MCG -03-57-015 = PGC 69021

22 30 34.7 -17 34 26; Aqr

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 1¡

 

17.5" (10/13/90): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, weak concentration.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7301 = LM 1-252 in 1886 at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "vF; pS; lE 0¡; lbM."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 1.3 min of RA too large, but his position angle (N-S) clinches this identification. Bigourdan was unable to find this galaxy.

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NGC 7302 = IC 5228 = MCG -02-57-013 = PGC 69094

22 32 23.8 -14 07 14; Aqr

V = 12.3;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 97¡

 

24" (9/25/19): at 375x; fairly bright, moderately large, oval 2:1 WNW-ESE, at least 1.0'x0.5', sharply concentrated with an intense, round core.  Mag 9.2 HD 213549 lies 3' S.

 

Forms a pair with MCG -2-57-15 5.8' ENE.  This diffuse edge-on was extremely faint, very small, 15" diameter (only the core region seen)

 

13.1" (9/3/83): faint, very small, slightly elongated E-W, small bright core.  Located 3' N of mag 9 SAO 165152.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7302 = H IV-31 = h2165 on 3 Oct 1785 (sweep 450) and recorded "F, S, stellar, 3 or 4' north of a pB star.  The chevelure pretty large."  JH made 4 observations, reporting on 26 Jul 1830, "F; pL; R; vsbM to a S, F, R nucleus; diam = 2'; has a * sf in pos 352.5¡ by micrometer; dist 3'."  Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 8 Aug 1896 and reported Sw. XI-215 as "pB, pS, R; B * nr s; f of 2 [with IC 5204 = NGC 7300]."  His position was just 2' west of NGC 7302, so the equivalence NGC 7302 = IC 5228 is certain.  See IC 5204 for more.

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NGC 7303 = UGC 12065 = MCG +05-53-004 = CGCG 495-005 = PGC 69061

22 31 32.8 +30 57 22; Peg

V = 12.6;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 125¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): fairly faint, moderately large, diffuse, almost even surface brightness, slightly elongated NW-SE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7303 = h2166 on 15 Sep 1828 and recorded "vF; R; vlbM; 20"."  His RA was 12 seconds too small.  The next night he measured a fairly accurate position.  Harold Corwin notes that NGC 7304, discovered by d'Arrest, is not a duplicate of NGC 7303, despite being equated in the UGC and other sources.

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NGC 7304

22 31 30 +30 58; Peg

 

= Not found, Corwin and RNGC.  =NGC 7303, UGC.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 7304 on 20 Aug 1862 while observing NGC 7303.  He claimed it was 137" away and his offset (+2 seconds in RA and +1.2' in dec, implies it lies northeast.  But there is nothing at this position.  On a later observation (5 Oct 1864) of NGC 7303, he searched carefully but could not find the object again.  Dreyer also searched unsuccessfully for NGC 7304 on 29 Sep 1875 at Birr Castle.  A double star is 2' southwest of NGC 7303 (opposite direction).  Perhaps d'Arrest reversed the orientation and this pair is NGC 7304.  In any case, NGC 7304 is not a duplicate of NGC 7303.

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NGC 7305 = MCG +02-57-003 = CGCG 429-007 = PGC 69091

22 32 13.9 +11 42 44; Peg

V = 13.6;  Size 0.7'x0.7'

 

24" (12/1/16): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, roundish, ~24" diameter, small bright core, diffuse halo.  A mag 15.7 star is 40" N of center.

 

The blazar CTA 102, located  5.6' ENE, was near the maximum of a historic outburst.  It appeared marginally brighter than a mag 12.9 star on the AAVSO chart, so perhaps mag 12.7 or 12.8.  This is 4.5 magnitudes brighter than its normal quiescent state.  At z = 1.037, the light-travel time is ~8 billion years.  This is certainly the most distant object in recorded times to be visible in a 6" scope.

 

17.5" (8/20/88): very faint, very small, round, small bright core.  A mag 15 star is 30" N.  Located between two stars mag 13.5 1.6' NW and 2.1' E.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7305 = Sw. IV-84 on 1 Sep 1886 and recorded "eF; S; R; in center of 4 F stars in form of a rhombus."  His position is fairly accurate.

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NGC 7306 = ESO 468-011 = VV 832 = AM 2230-273 = PGC 69132

22 33 16.5 -27 14 48; PsA

V = 12.7;  Size 1.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 60¡

 

17.5" (10/13/90): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 2:1 SW-NE, brighter core.  A mag 12 star is 2.0' WNW.  Pair with MCG -05-53-015 6' E.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7306 = h3948 on 30 Jul 1834 and recorded "vF; S; lE; follows a star 11m in the parallel."  His position is accurate.  Howe noted in 1900 that "The * 11m p" appears to be of mag 10 and precedes 8 seconds, 0.7' north.  The nebula seems brighter near its preceding end."

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NGC 7307 = ESO 345-026 = MCG -07-46-003 = PGC 69161

22 33 52.5 -40 55 58; Gru

V = 12.6;  Size 3.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 9¡

 

17.5" (8/26/00): very faint, moderately large, elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, ~2.5'x0.8', broad concentration, fades at tips.  A mag 13.5-14 star is close west of the SW tip.  This galaxy was difficult to view due to its very low elevation.  Located ~40' SW of a wide mag 6 pair (Sigma-1 and 2 Gruis).

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7307 = h3947 on 4 Oct 1836 and recorded "F; pL; pmE; about pos of 75¡ with parallel; 2 1/2' long.  His RA is 6 seconds too small, and the description is a perfect match.

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NGC 7308 = IC 1448 = MCG -02-57-017 = PGC 69194

22 34 32.1 -12 56 02; Aqr

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 145¡

 

24" (9/29/16): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, 25"-30" diameter, slightly elongated, reasonably high surface brightness.  Gradually increases to a very small brighter nucleus.  Resides in a barren star field.

 

NGC 7308 forms a pair with MCG -02-57-018 4' ENE.  The companion was faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 25"x10", low even surface brightness.  MCG -02-57-019 was also picked up 14' NE (again in star-poor field). It was logged as very faint, very small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 18"x12".  A mag 13.5 star is 1.7' WSW.

 

17.5" (9/15/90): faint, small, round, bright core.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7308 = LM 1-253 in 1886 and reported "pB; vS; R, no star in field."  His very rough position (nearest minute of RA) is 40 seconds west and 3' south of PGC 69194.  Stephane Javelle independently discovered this galaxy on 2 Nov 1891.  His position in list 1-472 (later IC 1448) is accurate, so NGC 7308 = IC 1448.  Herbert Howe "recovered" NGC 7308 in 1899-1900 at the University of Denver and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 7309 = MCG -02-57-016 = PGC 69183

22 34 20.6 -10 21 25; Aqr

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

24" (8/14/15): moderately bright and large, irregular shape, slightly elongated, ~1.0'x0.8', contains a small bright core.  A fairly thin spiral arm juts out to the west on the north end.  On the DSS, this spiral has a second strong arm off the south end, extending east, though this arm was difficult to distinguish.

 

13.1" (9/3/83): faint, moderately large, very diffuse, slightly elongated ~E-W, even surface brightness.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7309 = H II-476 = h2167 on 28 Nov 1785 (sweep 479) and recorded "F, pL, iR, lbM."  JH made 5 observations, first reporting it on 9 Sep 1825 (sweep 9) as "F; R; vgbM; r; 2'."  R.J. Mitchell, observing at Birr Castle on 2 Oct 1856, reported "has a * near center and I suspect a * or knot in np edge [spiral arm at this end]."

 

Heber Curtis described the photograhic appearance in 1913 based on Crossley plates at Lick as "a small nebula about 1.5' in size, of very unusual form.  Has faint stellar nucleus; ther are three fainter nuclei from which spring short whorls [spiral arms]; these are not arranged as in an ordinary spiral, but overlap."  At the Helwan observatory in Egypt, it was described (1921) as a "3 branched spiral with sharp stellar nucleus.  The north branch starts from a faint almost stellar condensation just n.f. the nucleus.  The branch just south of the nucleus forms an oval around it, much brighter on the south side.  The third branch is also south and curiously broken in the middle."

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NGC 7310 = ESO 533-049 = MCG -04-53-015 = PGC 69202

22 34 36.9 -22 29 06; Aqr

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 36¡

 

17.5" (7/1/89): very faint, fairly small, elongated SSW-NNE, very low even surface brightness.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7310 = LM 1-254 on 20 Jul 1885 and reported "mag 15.0; pS; R; bMN."  His rough position (nearest min of RA is marked as uncertain) is 25 seconds east and 2' south of ESO 533-049 = PGC 69202.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 7311 = UGC 12080 = MCG +01-57-009 = CGCG 404-022 = PGC 69172

22 34 06.7 +05 34 12; Peg

V = 12.5;  Size 1.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 10¡

 

17.5" (11/1/86): moderately bright, small, very elongated ~N-S, small bright core, sharp bright stellar nucleus. This striking galaxy forms a wide pair with NGC 7312 16.4' NNE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7311 = H II-428 = h2168 on 30 Aug 1785 (sweep 427) and recorded "F, pS, R, lbM."  On 25 Oct 1785 (sweep 464) he noted "pB, S, irr R, r."  JH made two observations and his mean position is accurate.

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NGC 7312 = UGC 12083 = MCG +01-57-010 = CGCG 404-023 = PGC 69198

22 34 34.8 +05 49 02; Peg

V = 13.4;  Size 1.4'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 83¡

 

17.5" (11/1/86): fairly faint, fairly small, diffuse, very small brighter core, slightly elongated ~E-W.  Located 16.4' NNE of NGC 7311.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7312 = m 485 on 30 Oct 1863 and noted "F, S."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7313 = ESO 533-052 = PGC 69242

22 35 32.6 -26 06 06; PsA

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 170¡

 

24" (9/25/19): at 375x; faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, ~24"x20", low even surface brightness.  Located 4.5' SW of much brighter and larger NGC 7314.

 

17.5" (10/13/90): extremely faint, small, elongated ~N-S.  Pair with NGC 7314 4.4' NE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7313 = m 486 on 24 Sep 1864 and noted "eF, E."  His position is within 1' of ESO 533-052 = PGC 69242.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position at Denver in 1898-99.

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NGC 7314 = Arp 14 = ESO 533-053 = MCG -04-53-018 = AM 2233-261 = PGC 69253

22 35 45.9 -26 03 01; PsA

V = 11.0;  Size 4.6'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 3¡

 

24" (9/25/19): at 200x and 375x; bright, large, elongated 5:2 N-S, ~2.5'x1.0'.  Subtle spiral structure was seen.  A bright linear arm extended ~N-S along the SW flank.  A 15th mag star is close off the E side, 0.9' from center and a 12th mag star is 2' WNW of center.  Pair with NGC 7313 4.5' SW.

 

17.5" (10/13/90): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 3:1 N-S, 2.7'x0.9', broad concentration.  A mag 15 star is just off the east side.  A brighter mag 12 star lies 2.0' W of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 7313 4.4' SW. 

 

8" (8/28/89): faint, moderately large, elongated, diffuse.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7314 = h3949 on 29 Jul 1834 and recorded "pB; L; mE in meridian; vlbM; 4' l, 2' br; moonlight."  His position (also measured the next sweep) is accurate.

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NGC 7315 = UGC 12097 = MCG +06-49-037 = CGCG 514-059 = PGC 69241

22 35 31.7 +34 48 12; Peg

V = 12.5;  Size 1.6'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (8/12/88): fairly faint, fairly small, round, bright core.  A mag 15 star is 0.7' W of center.  Located 30' NW of NGC 7331.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7315 = St IV-13 on 11 Sep 1872.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7316 = UGC 12098 = MCG +03-57-020 = CGCG 452-030 = Mrk 307 = PGC 69259

22 35 56.3 +20 19 20; Peg

V = 13.0;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 60¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): faint, small, elongated SW-NE, irregular surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is 50" SSW of center. An extremely faint star is possibly involved at the east end.  Located 3.2' NNE of mag 6.7 SAO 90628.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7316 = H III-180 = h2169 on 18 Sep 1784 (sweep 277) and noted "eF, vS, north of a star about 9m."   His time is about 8 seconds too small, but the identification is certain.

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NGC 7317 = HCG 92E = Arp 319 NED1 = VV 288d = MCG +06-49-038 = CGCG 514-060 = Holm 792d = PGC 69256 = Stephan's Quintet

22 35 51.8 +33 56 42; Peg

V = 13.6;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

18" (6/25/04): faint, very small, round, ~20" diameter.  A mag 13 star just off the NW side detracts from viewing.  This star is collinear with two mag 13.5 stars 0.7' NE and 1.7' SE with a mag 14.5 star just off this line.  These and a few additional faint stars near or attached to galaxies in the group (NGC 7320) contribute to the challenge and fascination of these five galaxies.

 

17.5" (9/14/85): fourth brightest of five in Stephan's quintet.  Fairly faint, small, round, brighter core, easy with direct vision.  A mag 13 star is at the NW edge just 16" from the center which confuses the observation.  The interacting pair NGC 7318A and NGC 7318B is 1.6' NE and NGC 7320 is 2.5' E.

 

13.1" (9/29/84): very faint, small, round.  A star is at the NW edge.  Second faintest in Stephan's quintet.

 

13.1" (8/23/84): very faint, small, round, visible without averted vision.

 

13.1" (8/5/83): extremely faint, very small, round, close following a star, requires averted vision.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7317 = St VIIIa-19, along with the other members of the group, on 23 Sep 1876.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7318 = HCG 92D = Arp 319 NED2 = VV 288c = (R)NGC 7318A = UGC 12099 = MCG +06-49-039 = CGCG 514-061 = PGC 69260 = Stephan's Quintet

22 35 56.7 +33 57 56; Peg

V = 13.4;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

18" (6/25/04): The brighter western component (NGC 7318A) appeared fairly faint, slightly elongated E-W, sharply concentrated with a bright stellar or quasi-stellar nucleus.  The eastern component (NGC 7318B) is fairly faint, slightly elongated ~E-W, sharply concentrated with a stellar nucleus (not as prominent as NGC 7318A). The two galaxies are encased in a common halo.

 

17.5" (9/14/85): the western member of this double galaxy in Stephan's quintet is moderately bright, elongated ~E-W.  The eastern member is moderately bright, elongated ~E-W.  This double system appears as two stellar nuclei within a common elongated halo.  The three other members are NGC 7317 1.6' SW, NGC 7320 1.9' SE and NGC 7319 1.5' NE.

 

13.1" (9/29/84): faint, elongated, two stellar nuclei are resolved in good seeing.

 

8" (6/27/81 and 8/28/81): extremely faint, small.  This double galaxy appears as a single object.

 

6" (6/25/04): extremely faint, glimpsed intermittently at 105x and 140x, along with NGC 7320 using a 6" mask.  This double system was unresolved.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7318 = St VIIIa-20 on 23 Sep 1876.   He didn't resolved the pair, so the two components are often called NGC 7318A and 7318B.  Harold Corwin carefully re-reduced his offsets and found he measured the brighter western component, although his position is just off the nucleus of the eastern component.  Shapley and Ames mentioned NGC 7318 is "bi-nuclear and probably represents two interpenetrating system" in 1930BHarO.878....6S.  The group is also referred to as "Stephan's Quintet".

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NGC 7319 = HCG 92C = Arp 319 NED5 = VV 288b = UGC 12102 = MCG +06-49-041 = CGCG 514-064 = Holm 792b = PGC 69269 = Stephan's Quintet

22 36 03.5 +33 58 33; Peg

V = 13.1;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

18" (7/20/04): at 323x appears a very faint low surface brightness glow, small, elongated 3:2 or 2:1 NW-SE, ~40"x25", very weak concentration.  Three mag 15-16 stars are very near.  This galaxy is the faintest in  Stephan's Quintet.

 

18" (6/25/04): very faint, small, round, low surface brightness, slightly elongated, ~25"x20", very small slightly brighter core.  Faintest in Stephan's quintet.

 

17.5" (9/14/85): faintest in Stephan's quintet.  Faint, fairly small, elongated NW-SE, very low surface brightness with only a very weak concentration.  Located 1.7' N of NGC 7320 and 1.5' NE of the double system NGC 7318A/B.

 

13.1" (7/27/84): extremely faint, fairly small, requires averted.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7319 = St VIIIa-21, along with others in the group, on 23 Sep 1876.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 7320 = HCG 92A = Arp 319 NED4 = VV 288a = UGC 12101 = MCG +06-49-042 = CGCG 514-063 = Holm 792a = LGG 459-002 = PGC 69270 = Stephan's Quintet

22 36 03.4 +33 56 53; Peg

V = 12.6;  Size 2.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 132¡

 

18" (6/25/04): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, ~50"x30".  A mag 14 star is embedded on the SE portion of the halo, just 15" from the center.  The brightness of NGC 7320 is comparable to the combined glow of NGC 7318A/B.  The Quintet was viewed at 257x and 300x.  This galaxy has a very low redshift compared to the other group members, so has been a subject of controversy but is likely a foreground object.

 

17.5" (9/14/85): brightest in Stephan's quintet consisting of five galaxies within a 4' diameter circle.  Moderately bright, moderately large, brighter core, elongated 5:2 NW-SE.  A mag 14.5 star is at the SE side 15" from the center.  NGC 7317 lies 2.5' W, NGC 7318 pair is 1.7' NW and NGC 7319 1.7' N.  Located 30' SSW of NGC 7331.

 

13": faint, elongated NW-SE. 

 

8" (6/27/81 and 8/28/81): extremely faint, small.

 

6" (6/25/04): marginal but definitely glimpsed at moments with a 6" mask at 115x and 140x.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7320 = St VIIIa-22, along with the other members of the group, on 23 Sep 1876.  His position is accurate.

 

This galaxy is probably a foreground galaxy in the Quintet.  The Feb 2001 issue of Astronomy mentions the HST image resolved NGC 7320 but not the other members, confirming it is a foreground galaxy (~35 million l.y. vs. ~270 million l.y.).  See S&T November 2004 and my observing piece in the article.

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NGC 7321 = UGC 12103 = MCG +03-57-021 = CGCG 452-031 = Holm 793a = PGC 69287

22 36 28.0 +21 37 19; Peg

V = 12.9;  Size 1.6'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 12¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): faint, small, elongated SW-NE, no concentration.  A mag 15 star is attached at the NE end, 24" from center.  Four bright stars are within the 20' field; mag 9 SAO 90632 5.7' SSW and SAO 90645 9.5' NE and mag 8.5 SAO 90631 6.3' NW and SAO 90649 9.5' NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7321 = H III-237 = h2170 on 17 Nov 1784 (sweep 319) and logged "eF, vS."  His position is 2.5' north of UGC 12103.  JH recorded "pF; irreg R; vgvlbM; 15...20"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 7322 = NGC 7334 = ESO 405-033 = MCG -06-49-010 = PGC 69365

22 37 51.5 -37 13 52; Gru

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 114¡

 

17.5" (10/30/99): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Requires averted vision in poor seeing.  Located just west of the midpoint of a mag 10 (SAO 213968) and 12 star oriented N-S at 14' separation.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7322 = h3950 on 30 Aug 1834 and recorded pF; R; gbM; 20".  Two nights later he called this galaxy "eF; S; vlE."  His position matches ESO 405-033 = PGC 69365.  NGC 7334 is a third observation made on 23 Oct 1835 (see that number).  So, NGC 7322 = NGC 7334.

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NGC 7323 = UGC 12108 = MCG +03-57-025 = CGCG 452-034 = Holm 794a = PGC 69311

22 36 53.7 +19 08 38; Peg

V = 12.9;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 170¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): faint, small, slightly elongated, broad mild concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 7324 1.8' E.  A wide pair of mag 9 stars is 6' E (mag 8.7 SAO 108048 and mag 9.3 SAO 108049 at 41" separation).

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7323 = m 487, along with NGC 7324, on 13 Sep 1863 and noted "pF, pL, irr R."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7324 = MCG +03-57-026 = Holm 794b = PGC 69321

22 37 00.9 +19 08 46; Peg

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 168¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): very faint, extremely small, round.  A mag 11.5 star is 0.6' SE of center.  Close pair with NGC 7323 1.8' W.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7324 = m 488, along with NGC 7323, on 13 Sep 1863 and noted "vF, vS neb. *."  His position is less than 1' north of PGC 69321.

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NGC 7325

22 36 48.4 +34 22 02; Peg

Size 15"

 

17.5" (10/17/98): this is a very faint double star 4.5' SW of the core of NGC 7331.  At 220x only the brighter mag 14 component was evident but at 280x and 380x a fainter mag 15 companion at 15" S was visible.  A wide pair of mag 12/13 stars that are collinear with the core of the galaxy lie 1.5' NW.  RNGC misidentifies NGC 7325 with PGC 69291 at 22 36 33.4 +34 30 05.

 

Herman Schultz discovered NGC 7325 = Nova VIII on 20 Sep 1865 while observing NGC 7331 with the 9.6-inch refractor at Uppsala Observatory.  His micrometric position matches a mag 14/15 double star at 15" separation with the northern component an extremely close double. This pair is situated 4.5' southwest of the center of NGC 7331.  Dreyer also found this object and measured an accurate offset at Birr Castle on 8 Sep 1875 using NGC 7331 as the reference.  It's shown unlabeled on the constructed sketch of the companions to NGC 7331 in the 1880 publication. Karl Reinmuth reported this object as a "? Neb *14.8" based on a Heidelberg plate.

 

RNGC misidentifies PGC 69261 as NGC 7325.  On the POSS this galaxy appears to have a fairly bright star superimposed making a visual observation extremely difficult.  The identification of NGC 7325 was discussed in my Fall 1986 Deep Sky magazine article as well as in RNGC Corrections #1.

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NGC 7326

22 36 52.0 +34 25 22; Peg

 

17.5" (10/17/98): NGC 7326 refers to a faint, close double star just 2.5' preceding the nucleus of NGC 7331.  It was not seen with certainty at 220x, but was clearly visible at 280x and 380x as a mag 15.5 star (not resolved).  The RNGC misidentifies CGCG 514-066 as NGC 7326.

 

Lawrence Parsons, the 4th Earl of Rosse, discovered NGC 7326 on 7 Oct 1874.  His micrometric offset (also measured in 1875) from NGC 7331 (153" in PA 278¡) points to a close double star 2.5' preceding the nucleus of NGC 7331.  It's also shown unlabeled on the constructed sketch in the 1880 publication. Dorothy Carlson also equated this number with the double star based on Mount Wilson and Lick Observatory plates.

 

RNGC misidentifies CGCG 514-066 as NGC 7326.  This galaxy is located 12' northwest of NGC 7331.  This error was mentioned in my article on NGC 7331 and its companions in Deep Sky magazine for Fall 1986, as well as in RNGC Corrections #1.

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NGC 7327

22 36 57.3 +34 28 02; Peg

 

17.5" (10/17/98): this number refers to one of the several nonexistent NGC entries in the NGC 7331 vicinity.  A possible candidate suggested by Harold Corwin is a mag 13 star near the tip of the northern extension of NGC 7331.  This single star appeared stellar, although it seems plausible that it might look slightly nebulous due to the faint background haze of the galaxy.  Other fainter nearby stars may instead apply to NGC 7327.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 7327, along with NGC 7338, in 1882 with the 11" refractor near Florence and reported in the narrative portion of his fifth paper (AN 2439).  He mentions finding a total of 8 companions to NGC 7331, including two that are not shown on Lord Rosse's sketch.  No position was given but NGC 7327 was simply noted as "preceding the northern end of the spindle [NGC 7331]."  There are no galaxies or double stars nearby, so he may have mistaken a single faint star.

 

Harold Corwin suggests the mag 13 star at 22 36 57.3 +34 28 02 (2000) as a reasonable candidate.  Another possibility is the compact galaxy PGC 69261, which has a bright star superimposed (the RNGC misidentifies this galaxy as NGC 7325).  Unfortunately, Tempel didn't leave any additional clues as to the identification of NGC 7327, so any assignment is really a guess.  The identifications in the NGC 7331 group are discussed in my Deep Sky magazine article for Fall 1986.

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NGC 7328 = UGC 12118 = MCG +02-57-007 = PGC 69349

22 37 29.3 +10 31 54; Peg

V = 13.1;  Size 2.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 88¡

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, broad weak concentration, faint outer halo.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7328 = h2171 on 12 Oct 1825 and recorded "eF; elongated in parallel [E-W]; 60" l, 40" br."  His position (measured on 4 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 7329 = ESO 109-012 = AM 2236-664 = LGG 462-002 = PGC 69453

22 40 24.2 -66 28 44; Tuc

V = 11.3;  Size 3.9'x2.6';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 107¡

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 303x; bright, very large, oval 5:3 ~E-W, at least 2.5'x1.5', sharply concentrated with a bright, elongated core (bar E-W).  The halo is only slightly concentrated but shows weak spiral structure.  A mag 12.5 is 3' NW and a pair of mag 14.5/15 stars is off the southwest side and collinear with the nucleus.  IC 5235 and 5236 lie 8.4' and 10.6' SE, respectively.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7329 = h3951 on 20 Jul 1835 and recorded "pB; mE in parallel; gbM; 50" l, 20" br."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7330 = UGC 12111 = MCG +06-49-046 = CGCG 514-067 = PGC 69314

22 36 56.2 +38 32 53; Lac

V = 12.2;  Size 1.8'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (6/15/91): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, weak concentration, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star is 1.2' NW of center.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7330 = St II-30 on 26 Jul 1870.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 7331 = UGC 12113 = MCG +06-49-045 = CGCG 514-068 = Holm 795a = LGG 459-003 = PGC 69327 = Deer Lick Group

22 37 04.1 +34 24 56; Peg

V = 9.5;  Size 10.5'x3.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 171¡

 

48" (10/24/14): at 488x, the long dust lane along the west side (running N-S) was very evident as the galaxy is sharply cut off at the bright edge of a thin inner spiral arm (the arm itself was not resolved). A clearly visible outer spiral arm curves sharply counterclockwise around the south side of the halo and shoots directly north.  It continues or merges into a fairly narrow arm just west of the dust lane and extends north of the central region on the west side.

 

24" (7/21/12): at 322x this showpiece galaxy appeared very bright, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, ~9'x3'.  Contains a very bright, elongated core that is sharply concentrated with an intense stellar nucleus.  The galaxy exhibits subtle spiral structure in the outer halo and the brighter edge of the inner western arm is sharply defined as it shoots north.  Just west of this arm the light drops off sharply due to a long dust lane and the dim glow of the outer halo is clearly visible west of the lane.  Arm structure is also evident at the north and south ends of the central region.  The four background companions to the east fit snugly in the field.

 

18" (8/1/08): The sharp light cut-off (dust lane) was evident, running along the west side of the galaxy, and the outer halo had subtle structure and variations in brightness that suggested spiral structure.

 

13.1" (7/27/84): very bright, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 9'x2.5', very bright elongated core, substellar nucleus.  The west side has a sharper edge due to dust.  Four (background) companions are close following with the brightest three NGC 7335 3.5' ENE, NGC 7337 5.2' SE, NGC 7336 5.3' NE and NGC 7340 8.1' E of center.  Stephan's Quintet lies 30' SSW.  NGC 7331 is the brightest in a small group including NGC 7320 (in Stephan's Quintet).

 

8" (8/28/81): very bright, large, nucleus bulge, very elongated.  Two extremely faint companions to the east are just visible.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7331 = H I-53 = h2172 on 6 Sep 1784 (sweep 258) and recorded "pB, cL, E, lbM."  His position is 10' too far south-southeast.  On 13 Sep 1784 (sweep 269), he noted "vB, cL, mE, mbM, r." JH reported "vB; pL; smbM; E 70¡ np to sf; 90" l, 30" br.  If I. 53, the working list 9' out in PD [it is]."

 

George Stoney, LdR's assistant on 17 Aug 1849, logged "the preceding edge is well defined [dust lane] and Nucl near it.  I strongly suspected an eF branch [spiral arm] from south end round following and north and then preceding of preceding edge."  A month later he confirmed "appendage preceding certain, following branch suspected, 4 knots [companions] following, one preceding seen by Lord R to consist of 4 or 5 stars [wrong]."  The sketch on Plate XXX, fig 39, clearly shows the dust lane along the major axis.

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NGC 7332 = UGC 12115 = MCG +04-53-008 = CGCG 474-012 = Holm 796a = PGC 69342

22 37 24.5 +23 47 54; Peg

V = 11.1;  Size 4.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 155¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): bright, fairly large, edge-on 4:1 NNW-SSE, well-defined very bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 2.4' SSE of center, collinear with the major axis.  Forms a striking pair of edge-on systems with NGC 7339 5.2' E!

 

8" (7/24/82): fairly bright, small bright nucleus, edge-on NNW-SSE.  Forms a pair with NGC 7339 5' E.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7332 = H II-233 = h2173, along with NGC 7339, on 19 Sep 1784 (sweep 278) and recorded "pB, E, easily resolvable.  I can distinguish one or two stars."  On 20 Oct 1784 (sweep 302) he reported "B, lE, the direction nearly in the parallel [N-S]." John Herschel's first observation (sweep 166) reads, "B; S; mE in pos = 163¡ by microm; vsmbM to a * 11m."

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NGC 7333

22 37 11.6 +34 26 14; Peg

 

17.5" (10/17/98): extremely close double star just 2.0' NE of the center of NGC 7331.  At 220x it appeared as a single mag 15 star 40" following a mag 13.5-14 star.  This star is on a line between NGC 7335 and the core of NGC 7331.

 

Herman Schultz discovered NGC 7333 = Nova IX on 20 Sep 1865 while observing NGC 7331 with the 9.6-inch refractor at Uppsala Observatory.  His micrometric position matches an extremely close double star (less than 2" separation) situated 2' northeast of the center of NGC 7331.  The components are just distinguishable on the SDSS.  Karl Reinmuth reported this object as a "nebulous *15, *14 p 0.7'.", based on a Heidelberg plate.  Dorothy Carlson classified it as a double star (misinterpreting Reinmuth's description) in her 1940 paper on NGC errata.  I discussed NGC 7333 in my article on the identifications in the NGC 7331 group in Deep Sky magazine.

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NGC 7334 = NGC 7322 = ESO 405-033 = MCG -06-49-010 = PGC 69365

22 37 51.5 -37 13 52; Gru

 

See observing notes for NGC 7322.

 

John Herschel found NGC 7334 = h3950 on 23 Oct 1835 and recorded "eeF; barely, but certainly seen."  A note was added "the observation makes the RA 29 min 6.5 sec [instead of 28 min], and as the PD fails of a perfect agreement [with his previously two observations of h3950 = NGC 7322], it is not impossible that this may be a different nebula."  In the Cape catalogue, all three observations of this galaxy were listed under the single entry h3950, but he included a second entry in the GC at the wrong position, which became NGC 7334.  So, NGC 7322 = NGC 7334, with a 1 minute error in RA.

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NGC 7335 = UGC 12116 = MCG +06-49-047 = CGCG 514-069 = Holm 795c = PGC 69338

22 37 19.4 +34 26 52; Peg

V = 13.3;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 151¡

 

48" (10/24/14): at 488x; fairly bright, moderately large, elongated nearly 5:2 NNW-SSE, 0.9'x0.35'.  Contains a very bright core.

 

24" (7/21/12): at 322x was moderately bright and large, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, ~50"x20", relatively large bright oval core that gradually increases to the center.  This is the brightest of the four "companions" to NGC 7331 with the faintest galaxy, NGC 7336, situated 2.1' NNE.  The quartet is actually far in the background (8x the redshift) of NGC 7331, at a similar redshift as Stephan's Quintet with the exception for NGC 7320, which has a similar redshift as NGC 7331.

 

18" (8/1/08): at 280x appeared fairly faint or moderately bright, very elongated nearly 3:1 NNW-SSE, well concentrated with a small, bright elongated core.  With averted vision increases in size to 1.2'x0.35'.  This is easily the brightest of four companions on the east side of NGC 7331.

 

18" (7/19/04): at 225x appears fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, contains a bright core which increases to a faint stellar nucleus, ~0.8'x0.35', though increases in size with averted vision to 1.0'x0.4'.  Brightest of four companions on the following side of NGC 7331.

 

17.5" (8/27/87): fairly faint, bright core, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, small bright core.  This is the brightest and largest of the four following companions of NGC 7331 located 3.5' ENE of center.  A mag 14 star is 1.3' NE.  Extremely faint NGC 7336 is 2.1' NNE.

 

17.5" (9/14/85): fairly faint, bright core, very elongated NNW-SSE.

 

13.1" (9/29/84): easily the brightest and largest of the companions to NGC 7331.  Fairly faint but easily visible with direct vision at 220x, gradually increases to center, elongated NNW-SSE.

 

13.1" (7/27/84): fairly faint, elongated NNW-SSE, broad concentration.  Located 3.6' E of the center of NGC 7331.  Extremely faint NGC 7336 is 2' NNE.

 

8" (8/28/81): extremely faint, very small, requires averted.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7335 = H III-166 = h2174 on 13 Sep 1784 (sweep 269) he recorded "eF, vS, E, between 4 & 5' distant from the former [NGC 7331] and north following it." JH reported this galaxy as "eF; it is nf from I. 53 [NGC 7331]; pos by micrometer = 61.8¡; Delta RA = 14.5 seconds."

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NGC 7336 = MCG +06-49-049 = Holm 795j = PGC 69337

22 37 21.9 +34 28 54; Peg

V = 14.8;  Size 0.5'x0.4'

 

48" (10/29/16): at 375x; moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, very small brighter core.  Faintest of the four galaxies to the east of NGC 7331.

 

48" (10/24/14): at 488x; fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.3', contains a small bright core.  Located 2' N of NGC 7335.

 

24" (7/21/12): at 322x the faintest of the four "companions" to NGC 7331 appeared faint, small, oval 3:2 NW-SE, 20"x14", small brighter core.  Situated 2.1' NNE of NGC 7335 (brightest of the quartet).  A mag 13.5 star is 1' S, between the two galaxies.

 

18" (8/1/08): at 283x appeared very faint but visible steadily with averted vision, very small, slightly elongated, 20"x15" in size.

 

18" (7/19/04): at 225x appears extremely faint, very small, roundish.  At times only a 10" core was visible but with concentrated viewing an extended halo was visible increasing the size to 20"x10".  Located 2' NNE of NGC 7335 and faintest of the quartet.

 

17.5" (8/12/88): very faint, very small, elongated, visible steadily.  Located 1' NNW of a mag 14 star.

 

17.5" (8/27/87): Can just be held continuously with averted vision, elongated ~N-S.  Faintest of the 4 galaxies on the east side of NGC 7331.

 

17.5" (9/14/85): very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  Just visible with constant direct vision at 200x (10mm Clave). A mag 14 star is 1.0' SSE of center.  This is the faintest of four companions of NGC 7331 and is located 2.1' NNE of NGC 7335.

 

George Johnstone Stoney discovered NGC 7336, along with NGC 7337 and 7340, on 10 Sep 1849 and noted "4 knots following [NGC 7331]."  A diagram was made 2 nights later and NGC 7336 was labeled "C".

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NGC 7337 = UGC 12120 = MCG +06-49-050 = CGCG 514-071 = Holm 795b = PGC 69344

22 37 26.6 +34 22 27; Peg

V = 14.4;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.3

 

48" (10/24/14 and 10/27/19): moderately bright, fairly small, roundish, ~0.5'x0.4'.  It was difficult to estimate the size of halo due to the superimposed star (just 8" SE of center!) and the low surface brightness outer halo faded into the background. Contains a very small bright core and stellar nucleus within a fairly low contrast "bar" extending N-S.

 

24" (7/21/12): fairly faint, fairly small, round, though a mag 14 star on the east side of the core of the galaxy distracts from a clean view.  Sharply concentrated with a very small bright core ~10" diameter and a much fainter halo ~25" diameter.

 

18" (8/1/08): faint or fairly faint, small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 0.4'x0.25'.  A mag 14.5 star on the east side confuses the view.  Located 5' SE of NGC 7331.

 

18" (7/19/04): at 322x appears faint, very small, round, ~20" diameter.  The observation is confused by a mag 14 star that is attached on the southeast side and the galaxy appears to bulge out from the star towards the NW.

 

17.5" (8/27/87): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated.  A mag 14-14.5 star attached at the SE end just 9" from the center confuses the observation as the galaxy appears like a close double.  Located 5.2' SE of the center of NGC 7331 in a group of four faint companions.

 

17.5" (9/14/85): faint, very small, round, star attached at SE end.

 

13.1" (9/29/84): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 14 star is superimposed at the SE side.  This is the third faintest of the four companions to NGC 7331 and is located 5' SE of the center of NGC 7331.  NGC 7340 is 4' NE.

 

George Johnstone Stoney discovered NGC 7337, along with NGC 7336 and 7340, on 10 Sep 1849 and noted "4 knots following [NGC 7331]."  A diagram was made 2 nights later and NGC 7337 was labeled "E".  Despite an accurate position, NGC 7337 was reported in the 1908 Catalogue of new nebulae and clusters found on plates taken with the Crossley reflector, generally of bright nearby galaxies [NGC 7331 in this case].  The plates were taken by Keeler in 1898-00 and this galaxy was recorded as #716 out of 744.

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NGC 7338 = ?

22 37 31.7 +34 24 51; Peg

 

17.5" (10/17/98): at 220x, a single mag 14 star was clearly visible at this position.  A fainter companion ~12" preceding was not seen at 280x or 380x.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 7338, along with NGC 7327, in 1882 with the 11" refractor near Florence and reported in the narrative portion of his fifth paper (AN 2439).  No position was given but NGC 7338 was noted as located "between the four brighter companions following [NGC 7331], closer to the southern two [NGC 7337 and 7340]."  There are no additional galaxies he might have seen, so this number probably refers to a single or double star.  Harold Corwin suggest NGC 7338 is probably the faint double star about 3' southeast of NGC 7335, which forms an isosceles triangle with NGC 7337 and 7340.  The identifications in the NGC 7331 group are discussed in my Deep Sky magazine article for Fall 1986.

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NGC 7339 = UGC 12122 = MCG +04-53-009 = CGCG 474-013 = Holm 796b = PGC 69364

22 37 46.9 +23 47 12; Peg

V = 12.2;  Size 3.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 93¡

 

24" (6/14/15): bright, fairly large, edge-on 5:1 E-W, 2.2'x0.4', large bright core, slightly mottled appearance.  The north edge of the central region had a sharper light cut-off (apparently due to dust) and a very low surface brightness glow was visible just beyond this edge.  A mag 14.6 star is 1.6' WSW and a mag 15.4 star is 1.4' NW of center.

 

17.5" (9/2/89): moderately bright, thin edge-on 5:1 E-W, brighter core but no sharp nucleus.  Forms a striking pair with edge-on NGC 7332 5.2' W.

 

8" (7/24/82): faint, very elongated ~E-W.  Aligned nearly perpendicular to NGC 7332 5' WNW and has a similar size.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7339 = H II-234 = h2175, along with NGC 7332, on 19 Sep 1784 (sweep 278) and recorded "F, E, r, the direction of the extent different from that of the foregoing [NGC 7332]."  On 20 Oct 1784 (sweep 302) he reported "E of the size of the foregoing [NGC 7332], and the extension in a different direction, almost at rectangles to the former; the direction nearly in the parallel, about 1 1/2' in length." On sweep 290, John Herschel recorded "vF; mE in parallel; 60" l; the following of two [with NGC 7332] and a third suspected."  There is no other nearby third object, so perhaps he glimpsed a very faint star.

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NGC 7340 = MCG +06-49-052 = CGCG 514-075 = Holm 795e = PGC 69362

22 37 44.2 +34 24 36; Peg

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 170¡

 

48" (10/24/14): at 488x; fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, 35"x25", sharply concentrated with a bright core and sharp stellar nucleus.

 

24" (7/21/12): moderately bright at 322x, fairly small, slightly elongated ~N-S, 0.5'x0.4', sharply concentrated with a very small bright core that increases to the center.  Second brightest of the four "companions" to NGC 7331.  Collinear with a mag 11 star 1.8' NNW and a mag 10.3 star 3.6' NNW.

 

18" (8/1/08): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.6'x0.5', very faint stellar nucleus.  Collinear with two bright stars 1.8' NNW and 3.6' NNW.

 

18" (7/19/04): at 322x appears fairly faint, small, round, 25"-30" diameter, broad concentration to a brighter core.  This is the second most prominent galaxy of the quartet following NGC 7331.

 

17.5" (8/27/87): fairly faint, small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  This is the last of four galaxies following NGC 7331 and lies 8.1' E of center.  Nearby are NGC 7337 4.2' SW and NGC 7335 5.6' NW.  Collinear with two 10 stars 1.8' NNW and 3.6' NNW.

 

17.5" (9/14/85): fairly faint, small, round, bright core.

 

13.1" (9/29/84): faint, small, round, bright core.  Second brightest of four faint companions of NGC 7331.

 

8" (8/28/81): extremely faint, very small, requires averted.

 

George Johnstone Stoney discovered NGC 7340, along with NGC 7336 and 7337, on 10 Sep 1849 and noted "4 knots following [NGC 7331]."  A diagram was made 2 nights later and NGC 7340 was labeled "D".

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NGC 7341 = ESO 534-011 = MCG -04-53-027 = PGC 69412

22 39 05.1 -22 39 55; Aqr

V = 12.4;  Size 2.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 94¡

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, very small, slightly elongated E-W, weak concentration.  Located just 2' SSW mag 8.3 SAO 191299.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7341 = LM 1-255 on 20 Jul 1885 and recorded "pF; pS; E; lbM."  His rough position (the nearest min of RA is marked as uncertain) is coincidentally just 2' south of ESO 534-011 = PGC 69412.  Ormond Stone later published an accurate micrometric position in the "Southern Nebulae" publication (repeated in the IC 1 Notes section).

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NGC 7342 = UGC 12126 = MCG +06-49-054 = CGCG 514-076 = WBL 685-001 = PGC 69374

22 38 13.1 +35 29 56; Peg

V = 13.9;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.3

 

18" (6/25/04): faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter, weak concentration to a small slightly brighter core.  Overall, the surface brightness is pretty low.  A mag 14 star is attached at the west side.  Located 10.7' NNW of UGC 12127 in a group of faint galaxies including NGC 7345 7' ENE.

 

17.5" (8/12/88): faint, small, round, weak concentration, very faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star is at the west edge 25" from the center.  Member of the UGC 12127 group with NGC 7345 6.9' ENE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7342 = St IV-14, along with NGC 7345, on 11 Sep 1872.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 7343 = UGC 12129 = MCG +06-49-059 = CGCG 514-082 = PGC 69391

22 38 37.9 +34 04 17; Peg

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 160¡

 

18" (8/1/08): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3, 0.6'x0.45', weak concentration.  Located 28' SE of NGC 7331.

 

17.5" (8/12/88): faint, small, round, weak concentration.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 7343 = Sf 53 = St VIIIa-23 on 14 Sep 1866.  Safford's position is 5' too far south and 7 sec of RA too large.  His discovery wasn't published until 1887 (just a position with no description), too late to be credited in the NGC.  ƒdouard Stephan independently discovered this galaxy a decade later on 26 Sep 1876.  His micrometric position is very accurate and Stephen was credited in the GC Supplement (6072) and NGC.

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NGC 7344 = MCG -01-57-020 = PGC 69433

22 39 36.2 -37 16 32; Aqr

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 160¡

 

17.5" (8/10/91): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated 4:3 ~N-S, almost even surface brightness.  Either a faint knot is at the north edge or an extremely faint star is superimposed.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7344 = m 489 on 1 Oct 1864 and noted "pF, vS, R."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7345 = UGC 12130 = MCG +06-49-064 = CGCG 514-083 = WBL 685-005 = PGC 69401

22 38 44.8 +35 32 26; Peg

V = 14.3;  Size 1.2'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 39¡

 

24" (8/31/16): moderately bright and large, edge-on 6:1 SW-NE, 1.0'x0.15', relatively large bright core, the extensions taper at the tips.  A mag 9.6 star is 1.8' S.  Furthest north in the UGC 12127 Group (WBL 685) with NGC 7342 7' SW and CGCG 514-087 6.8' SSE.  The latter galaxy is fairly faint, small, round, 18" diameter, gradually increases to a small, brighter nucleus.

 

18" (6/25/04): faint, fairly small, thin edge-on 5:1 SW-NE, 0.8'x0.15', very small brighter core.  Situated just north of a small group of stars highlighted by a mag 9.6 star 1.7' S.  NGC 7342 lies 7' WSW and CGCG 514-087 is 7' SSE.

 

CGCG 514-087 is very faint, very small, round, 0.3' diameter.  Contains a slightly brighter 5" core and faint stellar nucleus with direct vision at 300x.  Located just south of a line connecting two mag 12.5/15 stars oriented E-W and 9' NE of UGC 12127.

 

17.5" (8/12/88): faint, fairly small, very elongated SSW-NNE, bright core.  A mag 10.5 star is 2' S.  Located 6.9' ENE of NGC 7342 in the UGC 12127 group.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7345 = St IV-15, along with NGC 7342, on 11 Sep 1872.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 7346 = CGCG 429-017 = PGC 69430

22 39 35.4 +11 05 00; Peg

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 52¡

 

17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, very small, round, small bright core.  Pair with NGC 7347 6.1' SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7346 = m 490 on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "eF, vS, stellar."  His position is accurate (to within 30").

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NGC 7347 = UGC 12136 = MCG +02-57-009 = CGCG 429-019 = PGC 69443

22 39 56.2 +11 01 39; Peg

V = 13.6;  Size 1.5'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 133¡

 

17.5" (9/19/87): faint, fairly small, very elongated NW-SE, weak concentration.  Pair with NGC 7346 6.1' NW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7347 = h2176 on 9 Oct 1830 and recorded "eF; pL; 60" l, 30" br; a certain observation."  His position and description is a good match with UGC 12136.  On 28 Sep 1875, Dreyer recorded "eF; vmE 130¡, vlbM, perhaps a little curved [like an integral sign]."

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NGC 7348 = UGC 12142 = MCG +02-57-010 = CGCG 429-020 = PGC 69463

22 40 36.3 +11 54 22; Peg

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 12¡

 

17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, small, elongated, very diffuse, low surface brightness.  Appears fainter than V = 13.8.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7348 = m 491, along with NGC 7350 and 7353, on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, pL, irr R."  His position is accurate, though NGC 7350 and NGC 7353 have uncertain identifications.

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NGC 7349 = ESO 603-004 = MCG -04-53-029 = PGC 69488

22 41 14.8 -21 47 48; Aqr

V = 14.3;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 166¡

 

17.5" (10/30/99): this was a marginal object from Pacheco State Park and appeared extremely faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S.  Required averted vision and could hold for more than a few seconds at a time at 220x and 280x.  Forms the southern vertex of a small triangle with two mag 13 stars 1.7' NE and 2.3' NW.  Located 5' N of a mag 10.5 star.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): not found at 220x and 280x although examined exact position using GSC chart.  The seeing was fairly poor and observed early in evening before mirror had reached thermal equilibrium.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 7349 = LM 2-469 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  He recorded "mag 15.0 (nucleus), 0.3'x0.1' in position angle 175¡, binuclear; double."  There is nothing at his position but one degree north is ESO 603-004 = PGC 69488, which is identified as NGC 7349 in ESO and the Southern Galaxy Catalogue, but not the MCG.  Although Muller's declination is considerably off, his position angle is accurate and provides a reliable check.  Harold Corwin concurs with this identification.

 

The RNGC misidentifies MCG -04-53-036 as NGC 7349.  This galaxy is 3.3 minutes of RA east and 8' south of Muller's place.  Neither galaxy is close to the original position, but the ESO galaxy is a better fit with the visual description.  This number was discussed in my RNGC Corrections #5.

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NGC 7350

22 40 48.5 +12 00 23; Peg

 

= **?, Corwin (or triple star).

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7350 = m 492, along with NGC 7348 and 7353, on 7 Aug 1864 and simply noted "vF".  There is nothing near his position, despite the fact that NGC 7348 was accurately placed.  Dorothy Carlson equates this number with a star (repeated in the RNGC).  Harold Corwin tentatively identifies this number as a double or triple star at this position.  DSS shows a close pair with a much wider third component.  See his notes for further investigation of this number.

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NGC 7351 = MCG -01-57-022 = PGC 69489

22 41 26.9 -04 26 41; Aqr

V = 12.3;  Size 1.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 0¡

 

17.5" (8/10/91): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE.  This galaxy has a high surface brightness with a large prominent central region and a small bright core.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7351 = St IX-30 = Sw. II-92 on 3 Oct 1878.  Stephan's micrometric position is very accurate.  Lewis Swift independently found this galaxy on 18 Nov 1884 and noted "vF; pS; R."  Swift's RA was 19 seconds too small.  Herbert Howe commented in his series of NGC observations that "Swift calls this 'round', but to me it appeared much elongated at 180¡ [N-S]." Jermain Porter measured an accurate micrometric position in 1906 at the Cincinnati Observatory.

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NGC 7352

22 39 46 +57 23 18; Cep

 

18" (9/24/05): at John Herschel's position is just a undistinguished scattered star field surrounding mag 8.5 HD 214833, set within a rich, low power Milky Way field.  Perhaps 50 stars are visible within a 15' circle, though the borders are pretty arbitrary.  There are no rich subgroupings although the background contains some unresolved Milky Way background glow.  This field does not appear to be eye-catching enough to be mentioned by Herschel, but apparently it was.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7352 = h2177 on 24 Sep 1829 and recorded "A star 9-10m, the chief of a p rich, vL, very coarse cluster."  His position corresponds with mag 8.5 HD 214833.  Based on its photographic appearance, Karl Reinmuth described this object as "a very dense region, Cl not well defined."  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.  See Corwin's identification notes for an alternative identification.

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NGC 7353 = PGC 85285

22 42 12.5 +11 52 38; Peg

 

17.5" (8/25/95): very faint, small, round, 30" diameter, very weak concentration.  Can barely hold continuously with averted vision at 220x once identified using GSC chart.  Forms the NE corner of a nearly perfect rhombus with sides 2.7' with three mag 12-14 stars.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7353 = m 493 on 7 Aug 1864 and simply noted "eF".  There is nothing near his discovery position of 22 41 24 +11 56 (2000).  RNGC and RC3 misidentify UGC 12134 as NGC 7353.  This galaxy is 1.8 minutes of time west of Marth's position and also 10' south. This error was given in my RNGC Corrections #2.

 

Harold Corwin suggests KUG 2239+116 = PGC 85285 as NGC 7353.  This galaxy is 49 seconds east and 3' south (11' ESE) of Marth's position.  Although closer to his position, this is still implies a large positional error, so the identification is very uncertain.  There is no listing for NGC 7353 in MCG, CGCG or RC3 or Reinmuth's photographic survey.

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NGC 7354 = PK 107+2.1 = PN G107.8+02.3

22 40 19.8 +61 17 06; Cep

V = 12.2;  Size 28"x20"

 

24" (8/30/16): at 375x; fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~25"x20".  The rim is brighter along the southeast side and very slightly brighter along the northwest side.  The rim dims on the northeast side.  A mag 14 star is 0.5' SW, a mag 14-14.5 star is 0.8' W and a mag 15 star is 0.7' NW.  At 500x, the planetary clearly has a mottled appearance with what appears to be several very small brighter spots that wink in and out.

 

18" (8/17/04): at 225x, moderately bright, fairly small, ~30" diameter.  A mag 14 star is just off the SW edge with a mag 14.5 star a bit further west.  At 435x appears slightly brighter along portions of the rim, particularly along the SE side.

 

17.5" (11/6/99): a fairly bright, 25" disc is visible at 100x with one or two stars very close.  At 280x, the PN is slightly elongated E-W, ~25"x20".  A mag 14 star is close off the SW edge, 30" from center and a mag 14.5 star is 0.6' due west.  At 380x, a mag 15-15.5 star is 0.6' WNW.  In addition, the surface brightness is noticeably irregular with hints of brighter areas.

 

13.1" (7/12/86): fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated.  A mag 14 star is just off the SW edge.  Pretty with a UHC filter at 166x, estimate V = 12.0.  Takes high power without a filter.

 

8": faint, small, round, but easily visible at 100x or higher and takes 200x. Very faint star is at the SW edge.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7354 = H II-705 = h2178 on 3 Nov 1787 (sweep 773) and recorded "pB, S, irr R, er, almost of an equal light throughout."  JH noted it was "B enough to be noticed and caught in sweeping in full moonlight, with the moon on meridian; pgbM; R; no nucleus seen."  NGC 7354 was the most northerly object observed with the Lord Rosse's 72", culminating 8¡ beyond the zenith.

 

Based on Crossley photographs taken at Lick, Heber Curtis (1918) reported "a somewhat irregular oval ring, fading out at each end, 22"x18" in p.a. 27¡.  Outside this is a ring or disk of much fainter matter, rather more circular in form and 32" across from east to west.  This outer portion likewise is fainter at the ends of the major axis, and shows brighter streaks at the east and west edges."

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NGC 7355 = ESO 406-006 = AM 2240-370 = PGC 69587

22 43 30.4 -36 51 57; Gru

V = 14.3;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 43¡

 

17.5" (8/26/00): at 220x, this was a marginal sighting as it appeared to pop into view a few times momentarily and I had the impression it was elongated.  Forms the north vertex of a small equilateral triangle with two mag 15 stars ~1.5' SW and SE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7355 = h3952 on 1 Sep 1834 and recorded "eeF; vS; R: a double star follows about 40 seconds on the parallel [east]."  There is nothing near his position, but Harold Corwin notes that exactly 1¡ north is ESO 406-006  = PGC 69587 and his description applies (a 30" pair follows by 40 seconds of time).  RNGC misses this identification and classifies the number as nonexistent.

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NGC 7356 = UGC 12159 = MCG +05-53-010 = CGCG 495-014 = PGC 69530

22 42 02.3 +30 42 32; Peg

V = 14.1;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 76¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): very faint, small, very elongated WSW-ENE.  A mag 14 star is at the edge 32" SSE from center.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7356 = St XIII-94 on 4 Oct 1883 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; weak gradual concentration; *13 attached to southeast."  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 7357 = UGC 12162 = MCG +05-53-011 = CGCG 495-016 = PGC 69544

22 42 23.9 +30 10 17; Peg

V = 14.0;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 120¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): very faint, small, round, 20" diameter.  A mag 14 star is just off the NW edge 25" from center.  View severely hampered by Eta Pegasi (V = 2.9) located 8' NE!

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7357 = St XIII-95 on 26 Sep 1883 and recorded "vF; eS; vF * inv."  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 7358 = ESO 109-018 = LGG 462-005 = PGC 69664

22 45 36.4 -65 07 19; Tuc

V = 12.8;  Size 1.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 176¡

 

30" (10/15/15 - OzSky): at 303x; fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 3:1 ~N-S, 1.2'x0.4', sharply concentrated with a very small, very bright nucleus.  A collinear trio of stars passes just north of the galaxy with the closest mag 13.5 star 0.8' NE.  Also a mag 13.8 star is 1.5' WSW.  Located 11' SW of the brighter double system IC 5250 in a group containing several IC galaxies.  IC 5247 lies 12' SE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7358 = h3953 on 20 Jul 1835 and recorded "F; S; R; bM; 15"."  His position is accurate though he missed IC 5250 11.6' WNW, which is brighter than NGC 7358 and found earlier by Dunlop (D 255).

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NGC 7359 = ESO 534-022 = MCG -04-53-034 = LGG 463-002 = PGC 69638

22 44 48.0 -23 41 17; Aqr

V = 12.5;  Size 2.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 55¡

 

17.5" (10/5/91): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated, sharp concentration, bright core.  Located 7' NE of mag 8.5 HD 215298.  Unusual appearance as bright core dominates with very thin and faint extensions 4:1 SW-NE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7359 = LM 1-256 on 14 Jul 1885 and reported "pF; vS; pmE; bMN."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is less than 1 min of RA too far west and the description fits. Ormond Stone's corrected micrometric position (in the IC 1 Notes) is incorrect as he misidentified the comparison star.  Herbert Howe finally measured an accurate position in 1898-99 with the 20-inch refractor at Denver.

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NGC 7360 = UGC 12167 = MCG +01-58-001 = CGCG 404-036 = CGCG 405-002 = PGC 69591

22 43 34.0 +04 09 04; Peg

V = 13.6;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.0;  PA = 153¡

 

17.5" (11/1/86): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, weak concentration, slightly fainter than NGC 7367 34' SE.  Located 16' NNW of mag 7.6 SAO 27714.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7360 = m 494 on 29 Aug 1864 and noted "eF, vS."  His position is fairly accurate.

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NGC 7361 = ESO 468-023 = MCG -05-53-027 = UGCA 434 = AM 2239-301 = IC 5237 = PGC 69539

22 42 18.1 -30 03 24; PsA

V = 12.3;  Size 3.8'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 5¡

 

13.1" (9/22/84): faint, moderately large, very diffuse, very elongated 3:1 N-S.  A faint star is off the south end.  Located 5.4' ESE of mag 7.8 SAO 214019.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7361 = h3954 on 28 Sep 1834 and recorded "F; pL; vmE in meridian [N-S]; vgvlbM."  There is nothing near his position, but exactly 2.0 min of RA west is ESO 468-023 = PGC 69539 and his description applies.  Lewis Swift probably found this galaxy again on 19 Jul 1897 at Echo Mountain and reported Sw. XII-40 (later IC 5237) as "eeeF; eeeS; eeeE; eee dif; a line.  8m * np."  Swift's position was also 2.4 minutes of time too small, but the description fits!  At age 77 Swift's positions were often very poor and he wasn't careful in checking prior discoveries, so the identification IC 5237 = NGC 7361 is nearly certain.

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NGC 7362 = UGC 12171 = MCG +01-58-002 = CGCG 405-003 = PGC 69602

22 43 49.3 +08 42 20; Peg

V = 12.7;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 175¡

 

17.5" (8/1/87): fairly faint, small, almost round, brighter core.  An anonymous galaxy is 4' S.  There are several very faint companions on the POSS.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7362 = Sw. IV-85 on 2 Sep 1886 and recorded "vF; S; R; lbM."  His position is fairly accurate.

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NGC 7363 = MCG +06-49-078 = CGCG 514-102 = LGG 459-004 = PGC 69580

22 43 18.4 +33 59 56; Peg

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

17.5" (9/2/89): faint, fairly small, irregularly round.  A faint star mag 15 is involved at the SE side 17" from center and a second mag 15 star is off the east end.  UGC 12179 lies 22' E.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 7363 on 27 Aug 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position is accurate and he mentioned a (wide) pair (~40") follows by 15 seconds and 1 1/2' north.

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NGC 7364 = UGC 12174 = MCG +00-58-001 = CGCG 379-002 = PGC 69630

22 44 24.4 -00 09 43; Aqr

V = 12.6;  Size 1.7'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 65¡

 

17.5" (8/31/86): moderately bright, round, large brighter core surrounded by much fainter halo.  Located 30' SE of two mag 7 stars.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7364 = H II-442 = h2179 on 1 Oct 1785 (sweep 447) and logged "eF, S, r.  240 confirmed it."  JH made two observations, first logging it on 12 Sep 1830 as "vF; S; R; psbM; 15"."

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NGC 7365 = ESO 603-010 = MCG -03-58-001 = LGG 463-005 = PGC 69651

22 45 10.0 -19 57 07; Aqr

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 34¡

 

17.5" (10/5/91): moderately bright, small, bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 2.9' NE and a mag 12 star 4.3' SE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7365 = LM 1-257 in 1886 and recorded "mag 14.5; eS; R; gbMN; * 11 nf 4.0'."  His rough position (nearest min) was fairly accurate and a mag 12 star is 3' northeast.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 at Denver (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 7366 = MCG +02-58-004 = PGC 69629

22 44 26.6 +10 46 53; Peg

V = 14.5;  Size 0.3'x0.3';  Surf Br = 11.7

 

17.5" (8/4/97): extremely faint, small, round, 20" diameter, very weak concentration.  Initially, I had a difficult time locating this object, but once identified could hold continuously with averted vision.  Located 2' WSW of a nice pair of mag 12/12.5 stars [25" separation] oriented N-S.

 

17.5" (8/20/88): not found.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7366 = m 495 on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "eF, S, stellar."  His position is 1' northwest of PGC 69629.

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NGC 7367 = UGC 12175 = MCG +00-58-002 = CGCG 379-003 = PGC 69633

22 44 34.4 +03 38 47; Peg

V = 13.8;  Size 1.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 128¡

 

17.5" (8/31/86): fairly faint, edge-on WNW-ESE.  A faint star is just off the east edge [19" ESE of center].  Located 12' WSW of mag 8.0 SAO 127735.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): similar appearance to observation of 8/31/86 but second very faint star suspected.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7367 = m 496 on 29 Aug 1864 and noted "eF, vS, irr. R, stell."  His position is less than 1' south of UGC 12175.  Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered the galaxy a year later (30 Aug 1865) with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen and noted a faint double star followed by 16.5 seconds of time.

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NGC 7368 = ESO 345-049 = MCG -07-46-010 = LGG 461-002 = PGC 69661

22 45 31.4 -39 20 26; Gru

V = 12.3;  Size 3.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 130¡

 

17.5" (7/20/96): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 1.0'x0.5'.  No concentration though viewed hampered by the very low elevation.  In good moments, appears up to 1.5'x0.5' in size.  Forms an isosceles triangle with two mag 13 stars 3.5' S and 3.5' WNW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7368 = h3955 on 4 Oct 1836 and recorded "F; lE; glbM; 30" length."

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NGC 7369 = MCG +06-49-080 = CGCG 514-105 = CGCG 515-002 = IV Zw 113 = PGC 69619

22 44 12.3 +34 21 04; Peg

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (9/2/89): very faint, small, round.  Located between two mag 14 stars 0.7' SSW and 0.9' NE of center.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 7369 on 29 Aug 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  He measured an accurate micrometric position on two nights and mentioned this object was between two stars of mag 14 and 15.

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NGC 7370 = PGC 69662

22 45 37.2 +11 03 28; Peg

V = 15.3;  Size 0.5'x0.2';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 132¡

 

17.5" (8/20/88): extremely faint, very small, round, low even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is 1.9' NNE.  On a line with NGC 7372 4.9' NNE and mag 7.5 SAO 108159 9.5' NNE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7370 = m 497, along with NGC 7372, on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "eF, vS."  His position is accurate to within 1'.

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NGC 7371 = MCG -02-58-001 = PGC 69677

22 46 03.7 -11 00 04; Aqr

V = 11.5;  Size 2.0'x2.0';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

13.1" (9/9/83): fairly faint, fairly small, round, weak concentration.  Located 10' N of mag 6.6 SAO 165285.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7371 = H II-477 = h2180 on 28 Nov 1785 (sweep 479) and logged "pB; pL; iR; lbM."  JH made 5 observations, first reporting it on 9 Sep 1825 (sweep 9) as "F; R; 1' diam; no other near."

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NGC 7372 = MCG +02-58-005 = CGCG 430-004 = PGC 69670

22 45 46.0 +11 07 51; Peg

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (8/20/88): faint, small, slightly elongated ~E-W, slightly brighter core.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, small, round, diffuse, very weakly concentrated core.  Located 4.6' SSW of mag 7.5 SAO 108159 that detracts from viewing.  Pair with NGC 7370 4.9' SSW and MCG +02-58-009 is 13' ENE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7372 = m 498, along with NGC 7370, on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "F, S, irr R."  His position is accurate to within 1'.

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NGC 7373 = CGCG 379-004 = PGC 69688

22 46 19.4 +03 12 36; Peg

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 160¡

 

17.5" (8/31/86): fairly faint, small, round, increases to bright core with a sharp stellar nucleus.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7373 = m 499 on 11 Aug 1864 and noted "F, vS, bM, stellar."  His RA is 12 seconds too small.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 16 Aug 1890.

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NGC 7374 = (R)NGC 7374A = MCG +02-58-007 = CGCG 430-006 = Holm 798a = PGC 69676

22 46 01.0 +10 51 13; Peg

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 177¡

 

24" (7/29/16): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, broad weak concentration, ~30"x24".  Forms a close pair with virtually stellar IC 1452 [centers separated by 56"].  The companion was faint, but extremely compact (core only seen), so has a high surface brightness.  On a later observation (10/1/16), a very small halo (~6"-8") was visible using averted vision only.  This pair is is situated on the southwest end of ZwCl 2247.3+1107 (distance ~360 million l.y).  The core of the cluster contains NGC 7385 and 7386 and lies 1.2¡ NE.

 

17.5" (8/20/88): faint, small, slightly elongated ~E-W.  Forms a close pair with IC 1452 = NGC 7374B just 1' NNW.  IC 1452 appeared very faint, extremely small, round.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): faint, small, round, a mag 14 star is 30" N.  Forms a double system with IC 1452 = CGCG 430-005 57" NNW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7374 = m 500 on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, pL, R."   Marth's position is less than 1' north of CGCG 430-006 = PGC 69676. He missed the fainter companion (IC 1452) that was discovered by Bigourdan.

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NGC 7375 = MCG +03-58-003 = CGCG 453-007 = PGC 69695

22 46 32.0 +21 05 01; Peg

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 60¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): faint, very small, slightly elongated ~E-W, very small or stellar nucleus.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 7375 = Sf 57 = Sw. IV-86 on 1 Oct 1866 with the 18.5-inch refractor at the Dearborn Observatory and recorded "vS, R, bM, N = 13m."  Lewis Swift independently rediscovered the galaxy on 2 Sep 1886. Swift's position is 12 seconds of RA west of CGCG 453-007 = PGC 69695 and his comment "forms equilateral triangle with 2 st, one the brighter" applies. Swift is credited with the discovery in the NGC.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 5 Oct 1888 (Comptes Rendus, 22 Jul 1901).

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NGC 7376 = CGCG 379-006 = PGC 69715

22 47 17.4 +03 38 44; Peg

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 40¡

 

17.5" (8/31/86): very faint, small, round, diffuse.  A mag 14 star is very close off the north edge 0.8' N of center.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7376 = m 501 on 29 Aug 1864 and noted "eF, vS, R."  His position is 1' too far south.

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NGC 7377 = ESO 534-026 = MCG -04-53-038 = LGG 463-004 = PGC 69733

22 47 47.4 -22 18 38; Aqr

V = 11.1;  Size 3.0'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 101¡

 

17.5" (10/5/91): fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated ~E-W, 1' diameter, gradually increases to a small bright core.  A group of stars lies south and mag 8.5 SAO 191412 is 11' N. 

 

8" (9/25/81): faint, small, round, diffuse.  Two mag 9 stars 6' NNW and 10' N are aligned N-S.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7377 = H II-598 = h2181 on 13 Oct 1786 (sweep 609) and recorded "pB, pL, iR, vgmbM."  The observation was using the "front-view" configuration (adopted as the primary method after earlier experiments) at the edge of his tube, bypassing the need for a secondary.  John Herschel made three additional observations.

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NGC 7378 = MCG -02-58-005 = PGC 69734

22 47 47.7 -11 49 00; Aqr

V = 12.7;  Size 1.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 175¡

 

17.5" (9/15/90): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, large brighter center.  Located 3.6' WNW of mag 8.5 SAO 165304.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 7378 = T III-1 = T IV-10 on 19 Sep 1879 and first reported it the narrative part of his third paper (AN 2284).  His micrometric position in AN 2347 is accurate.

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NGC 7379 = UGC 12187 = MCG +07-46-018 = CGCG 531-013 = PGC 69724

22 47 33.0 +40 14 20; Lac

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 90¡

 

17.5" (7/28/92): faint, small, round, broad weak concentration.  Collinear with two mag 13.5 stars 20" SE and 1.5' SE.  Previously observed UGC 12188 22'S.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7379 = St VIIIa-24 on 22 Sep 1876 and recorded "eeF; vS; R; lbM."  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 7380 = Sh 2-142 = LBN 511 = Ced 206 = Cr 452 = Wizard Nebula

22 47 21 +58 07 54; Cep

V = 7.2;  Size 30'x20'

 

17.5" (10/30/99): at 100x with an OIII and UHC filter appears as a bright triangular-shaped nebulosity (Sh 2-142), 8'-10' diameter, superimposed on a rich cluster of stars (NGC 7380) within a rich Milky Way field.  The brightest member, mag 8.5 DH Cep, a very rare spectroscopic eclipsing pair of massive O5.5/O6.5-type stars, is at the west vertex. Also a wide strip of nebulosity is attached near the southeast vertex and extends to the southwest.  A dark band appears to separate this strip from the triangular patch. The surrounding region appears weakly nebulous and the "edge" can be traced with some certainty further the north.  DH Cep is the main ionizing source of the nebula.

 

17.5" (7/31/92): at 100x, about 40 stars in a 10' diameter.  The brighter stars form a "V" or chevron pattern.  The brightest star is at the west tip of the "V" and is an unequal double mag 8.6/13.  The cluster appears to be encased in nebulosity especially from the mag 8.6 star to the star at the east tip of the "V".  Using an OIII filter the nebulosity is quite prominent with some structure and encases the entire cluster.  A lane of nebulosity oriented SW-NE extends beyond the cluster from the star at the east end of the "V" and nebulosity also extends west of the mag 8.6 star.  The double star O·480 = 7.6/8.6 at 30" is in the field to the west.

 

13" (10/26/80): ~30-35 stars in a triangular outline, 10'-12' in diameter but not rich.

 

Caroline Herschel discovered NGC 7380 = H VIII-77 = h2182 on 7 Aug 1787 with her 4.2" comet-sweeper reflector.  William rediscovered it on 1 Nov 1788 (sweep 876) as "a Cl of coarsely scattered stars 7' or 8' diameter."  His position is accurate.  John Herschel called it "a L, p rich, v coarse cl of stars 9.10 m and below."  On a second sweep he noted "A double star, the chief of a fine, p rich, L cluster, 10' dia; stars 9...13m."

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NGC 7381 = ESO 603-017 = MCG -03-58-007a = PGC 69828

22 50 08.2 -19 43 30; Aqr

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 123¡

 

17.5" (9/23/95): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated 4:3 ~E-W, 40"x30", very little concentration.  Can hold steadily with averted once identified.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 7381 = LM 1-258 on 9 Oct 1885 and recorded "eF; vS; R; gbM."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 1 minutes of time too small and 2' of dec too small.

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NGC 7382 = ESO 406-015 = MCG -06-50-005 = PGC 69840

22 50 23.9 -36 51 26; Gru

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 109¡

 

17.5" (8/4/97): very faint, very elongated, ~1.0'x0.3', no concentration.  View hampered by the low elevation in the sky.  Has an unusual appearance as a mag 12 star is attached at the NW edge [0.6' from center] and the elongated ghostly galaxy appears to hang from the star towards the SE!

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7382 = h3956 on 1 Sep 1834 and recorded "eF; vS; R: appended (sf 45¡, dist 30") to a * 12m; place taken that of the star."

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NGC 7383 = MCG +02-58-014 = CGCG 430-012 = WBL 688-001 = PGC 69809

22 49 35.6 +11 33 23; Peg

V = 13.7;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

24" (7/30/16): at 260x; fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, gradually increases to center but no well defined core or nucleus.  Located 5.6' SW of NGC 7385, the brightest member of the group (WBL 688) of 6 NGC galaxies.  PGC 69819 (misidentified as NGC 7385 in the RNGC) lies 2.5' E.  It appeared very faint, very small, round, 10" diameter.

 

18" (10/21/06): faint, small, irregularly round, ~25" diameter, very small slightly brighter core.  First in a group of 6 NGC galaxies (brightest member NGC 7385). PGC 69819, just 2.5' E, appeared extremely faint and small, round, 10" diameter.

 

17.5" (7/4/86): faint, small, slightly elongated, brighter core.  Located 5.6' SW of NGC 7385 in a group.

 

Johnstone and Bindon Stoney, LdR's assistants, discovered NGC 7383, along with NGC 7387 and 7389, on 27 Nov 1850.  It was labeled Beta on the diagram of the group and placed it 5.5' southwest (PA = 235¡) of NGC 7385.  In 1875 Dreyer called it "vF, vS, R, south of 3 stars nearly in a line of which the middle one is in Pos 333.9¡ at 146.6"."  Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered this galaxy on 19 Sep 1862 and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 7384

22 49 42.6 +11 29 15; Peg

V = 15.7

 

24" (7/30/16): at 260x; continuously visible mag 15.7 star situated 4.5' SSE of NGC 7383.  It forms the northern vertex of a small triangle with a mag 11.7 star 1.0' SSW and a mag 14 star 40" SE.  RNGC and PGC misidentify PGC 69819 as NGC 7384.  This galaxy, situated 2.5' E of NGC 7383, appeared very faint, very small, round, 10" diameter.

 

18" (10/21/06): PGC 69819 is extremely faint and small, round, 10" diameter, requires averted to glimpse and faintest member of the NGC 7385 group.

 

17.5" (7/4/86): PGC 69819 is extremely faint, very small, round.  The faintest member of the NGC 7385 group is located 4.0' SW of NGC 7385 and 2.5' E of NGC 7383.  This galaxy is identified as NGC 7384 in the RNGC and PGC although the number more likely applies to a faint star at Lord Rosse's position.

 

Johnstone and Bindon Stoney, LdR's assistants, discovered NGC 7384 on 27 Nov 1850 in an observation of NGC 7385/7386 group.  It was placed southeast of NGC 7383 on the diagram of the cluster but not labeled.  Offsets were measured four other nebulae, but not to NGC 7384.  Dreyer's comment "5' nf 7383" in the NGC is incorrect.

 

RNGC, PGC and SIMBAD misidentify PGC 69819 (due east of NGC 7383) as NGC 7384.  Harold Corwin identifies NGC 7384 with a star (position given here) about 5' southeast of NGC 7383, although there are several other nearby stars that may as well be Stoney's star.

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NGC 7385 = UGC 12207 = MCG +02-58-017 = CGCG 430-015 = WBL 688-002 = PGC 69824

22 49 54.7 +11 36 30; Peg

V = 12.0;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 36¡

 

24" (7/30/16): at 260x; moderately to fairly bright, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~1.3'x1.0', moderate concentration with a bright core that gradually increases to the center.  A mag 11.5 is just off the NW edge, 1.0' from center.  Brightest in a group (WBL 688, the core of ZwCl 2247.3+1107 at roughly 360 million l.y.) with 6 NGC galaxies and numerous additional fainter galaxies.  Only slightly fainter NGC 7386 is 5.8' NNE.

 

18" (10/21/06): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 4:3 SW-NE.  Appears similar to NGC 7386, though slightly larger and brighter.  Contains a bright, 25" core and a much fainter halo.  A mag 10.8 star is just off the northwest side, 1' from the center.  Brightest in a compact group of 7 galaxies (not rich enough to qualify as an Abell cluster). 

 

17.5" (7/4/86): moderately bright, broadly concentrated halo, small bright core, slightly elongated ~N-S.  A mag 11 star is 1.0' NW.  Brightest in a group with NGC 7383 5.6' SW, NGC 7384 ~5' SSW, NGC 7386 5.8' NNE, NGC 7387 5.9' ENE, NGC 7389 5.9' ESE and NGC 7390 7.7' SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7385 = H III-216 = h2183, along with III-217 = NGC 7386, on 18 Oct 1784 (sweep 297) and recorded both as "Two, vF, S, R, r, about 5' distant from each other.  The position is that of the last or north following [NGC 7386]."  On 23 Nov 1785 (sweep 476) he noted "vF, pS, R, vlbM, not far south of a small star." JH made two observations and recorded on sweep 304 "pB; R; 20"; has a *11m near.  The preceding of two neb.  The * by diagram is 1 radius of the neb np its edge."

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NGC 7386 = UGC 12209 = MCG +02-58-018 = CGCG 430-016 = WBL 688-003 = PGC 69825

22 50 02.2 +11 41 54; Peg

V = 12.3;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 150¡

 

24" (7/30/16): at 260; moderately bright and large, oval 3:2 NW-SE, ~1.2'x0.8', well concentrated with a bright, round 25" core.  One of the two brightest galaxies in a group (WBL 688) with NGC 7385 5.7' SSW.

 

18" (10/21/06): fairly faint to moderately bright, irregularly round, outer extent varies with averted vision though roughly 1.2'x1.0' diameter.  Contains a brighter, 20" core surrounded by a very low surface brightness halo that was difficult to trace.  NGC 7835 lies 5.8' SSW.

 

17.5" (7/4/86): fairly faint, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, very small bright core.  Located 5.8' NNE of NGC 7385 in a galaxy group and appears as a slightly fainter version of NGC 7385.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7386 = H III-216 = h2184, along with III-216 = NGC 7385, on 18 Oct 1784 (sweep 297) and recorded both as "Two, vF, S, R, r, about 5' distant from each other.  The position is that of the last or north following [NGC 7386]."  On 23 Nov 1785 (sweep 476) he noted "vF, pS, R, vlbM."  JH made two observations and recorded on sweep 304 "pB; S; R; pgbM."

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NGC 7387 = MCG +02-58-022 = CGCG 430-019 = WBL 688-005 = PGC 69834

22 50 17.6 +11 38 12; Peg

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 48¡

 

24" (7/30/16): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 25"x20", contains a very small bright nucleus.  In a group (WBL 688) of 6 NGC galaxies with NGC 7389 4.3' S, brighter NGC 7386 5.4' NW and brighter NGC 7385 5.9' WSW.  A wide pair of mag 10.5/11 stars lies 4' SE and the two stars "point" to the galaxy.

 

18" (10/21/06): faint, small, slightly elongated, 25"x20", very small bright core.  Collinear with a pair of mag 10.5-11 stars (40" separation) that are located ~4' ESE.  Similar distance from NGC 7386 5' NW and NGC 7385 6' SW.

 

17.5" (7/4/86): faint, very small, slightly elongated, gradually increases to a very small bright core.  Located 5.9' ENE of NGC 7385 in a rich galaxy group.  NGC 7389 lies 4.2' S and NGC 7386 5.3' NW.

 

Johnstone and Bindon Stoney, LdR's assistants, discovered NGC 7387, along with NGC 7383 and 7389, on 27 Nov 1850.  It was labeled Delta on the diagram of the group with an offset of 5' 44" east-northeast (PA = 73¡) from NGC 7385.  Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered this galaxy on 19 Sep 1862, measured an accurate position, and was credited with the discovery in the GC (JH was confused with the identifications).  Both LdR and d'Arrest are credited in the NGC.

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NGC 7388

22 50 21.0 +11 42 39; Peg

V = 15.9;  PA = 29¡

 

24" (7/30/16): at 260x; at the discovery position is a single 16th magnitude star.  It was visible as a very faint star 4.7' ENE of NGC 7386 and 4.5' NNE of NGC 7387.

 

Lawrence Parsons, the 4th Earl of Rosse, discovered NGC 7388 on 11 Oct 1873 in the NGC 7385 group.  His micrometric offsets from GC 4847 = NGC 7387 points precisely to a very faint star, whose position is given here.

 

RNGC and SIMBAD misidentifies PGC 69832 as NGC 7388.  This extremely faint galaxy is located just 1.5' north of Parsons' star and was too faint to see in my observation of 4 Jul 1986.   Malcolm Thomson discusses the identification in his unpublished Catalogue Corrections as well as Harold Corwin at the NGC/IC Project.

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NGC 7389 = MCG +02-58-019 = CGCG 430-018 = WBL 688-004 = PGC 69836

22 50 16.0 +11 33 58; Peg

V = 13.8;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 144¡

 

24" (7/30/16): at 260x; fairly faint, oval NNW-SSE, 0.7'x0.5', broad concentration, slightly brighter core gradually increases to the center.  Member of the NGC 7385 Group = WBL 688 with NGC 7390 2.3' SSE, NGC 7387 4.3' N and NGC 7385 6' NW.

 

18" (10/21/06): this member of the NGC 7385 group appeared faint, small, round, 30" diameter, broad concentration to a slightly brighter core.  Located 6' SE of NGC 7385.  NGC 7390 lies 2.3' SSE.

 

17.5" (7/4/86): faint, very small, brighter core, slightly elongated.  Located 5.9' ESE of NGC 7385 in a rich galaxy group.  Appears similar to NGC 7387 4.2' N.  Forms a close pair with NGC 7390 2.3' SSE.

 

Johnstone and Bindon Stoney, LdR's assistants, discovered NGC 7389, along with NGC 7383 and 7384, on 27 Nov 1850.  It is unlabeled on the diagram of the group and not very accurately placed. John Herschel apparently thought it was Delta (NGC 7387), resulting in a poor position in the GC and NGC.  Dreyer measured an offset and position angle from NGC 7390 on 11 Oct 1873.

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NGC 7390 = MCG +02-58-020 = CGCG 430-020 = WBL 688-006 = PGC 69837

22 50 19.6 +11 31 52; Peg

V = 14.1;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 3¡

 

24" (7/30/16): at 260x; faint to fairly faint, small, round, 15" diameter, fairly low even surface brightness.  Situated 3.3' NNW of mag 9.3 SAO 108210 and 2.3' SSE of NGC 7789 in the NGC 7385 Group = WBL 688.

 

18" (10/21/06): very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, low surface brightness.  Located 2.3' SSE of NGC 7389 and furthest southeast of a compact group of galaxies (brightest member NGC 7385).

 

17.5" (7/4/86): very faint, very small, round, low even surface brightness.  Located 7.7' SE of NGC 7385 in a rich, compact galaxy group.  Forms a close pair with brighter NGC 7389 3.3' NNW.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 7390 on 9 Sep 1856 while examining the NGC 7385 group.  He noted, "the 2 last sf ones [NGC 7389 and 7390] are vvF".  This galaxy was misidentified as GC 4848 [NGC 7389] in the offsets measured on 11 Oct 1873.  d'Arrest missed NGC 7390 when he observed the cluster.  The (estimated) NGC position is 3' too far north; a similar offset error occurred with NGC 7389.

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NGC 7391 = UGC 12211 = MCG +00-58-006 = CGCG 379-008 = PGC 69847

22 50 36.1 -01 32 37; Aqr

V = 12.0;  Size 1.7'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 70¡

 

17.5": moderately bright, small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7391 = H II-443 = h2185 on 1 Oct 1785 (sweep 447) and recorded "F, vS, stellar, about 1 1/2' south of small star."  JH made two observations, first logging it on 12 Sep 1830 as "pF; R; psbM; 50...70"; has a * np; pos by micrometer = 350.3¡."

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NGC 7392 = ESO 603-022 = MCG -04-53-040 = LGG 463-008 = PGC 69887

22 51 48.7 -20 36 26; Aqr

V = 11.9;  Size 2.1'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 123¡

 

17.5" (10/24/92): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:3 WNW-ESE, 1.4'x0.8', moderately brighter core.  Several stars are near including a mag 10.5 star 4.5' N.  A pair of mag 13/14 stars 1.6' N and 2.2' N are collinear with NGC 7392 and finally a mag 12 star lies 2.6' ESE. 

 

8" (9/25/81): faint, small, slightly elongated.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7392 = H II-702 = h2186 on 11 Sep 1787 (sweep 754) and recorded "pF, pL, E from np to sf but nearer the parallel, mbM, about 1 1/2' long."  JH made 3 observations and on 3 Sep 1831 logged "not vF; lE; gbM; 60" l, 40" br."

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NGC 7393 = Arp 15 = VV 68 = MCG -01-58-002 = PGC 69874

22 51 38.1 -05 33 26; Aqr

V = 12.6;  Size 2.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 90¡

 

17.5" (9/15/90): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 E-W, broad concentration.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7393 = H II-453 = h2187 on 5 Oct 1785 (sweep 455) and recorded "F, pL, E in the parallel [E-W], r."  JH logged it as "eF; R; vgbM; sky dull." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 7394

22 50 11.8 +52 10 03; Lac

 

17.5" (9/26/92): bright group of two dozen stars mag 9-13 in a 10' scattered field.  Very elongated in a string NW-SE.  Includes 10 stars mag 9-11 with a mag 7 star off the SSE end and a similar star 10' NNE.  This group is probably an asterism.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7394 = h2188 on 12 Sep 1829 and logged "A double star, the last of a poor cluster of about a dozen stars."  His position corresponds with this bright cluster or asterism.  Reinmuth calls it "a few pB stars north preceding of BD+51¡3485."  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent, despite the fact it is quite striking on the DSS.

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NGC 7395 = UGC 12216 = MCG +06-50-006 = CGCG 515-008 = PGC 69861

22 51 02.9 +37 05 16; Lac

V = 13.8;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

17.5" (10/5/91): faint, small, round, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is off the NW edge 0.9' from center.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7395 = St V-8 on 21 Aug 1873 and recorded "eF; vS; R; condensation in the centre."  His micrometric position is accurate.

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NGC 7396 = UGC 12220 = MCG +00-58-007 = CGCG 379-010 = WBL 689-001 = PGC 69889

22 52 22.6 +01 05 33; Psc

V = 12.8;  Size 1.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 103¡

 

48" (10/25/14): very bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, 1.7'x0.8', contains a very bright core that increases to an small, intense nucleus.  An obvious dust lane extends along the major axis for most of the length of the galaxy, passing just south of the core.  PGC 194158 lies 1.5' N ("faint, small, round, 15" diameter") and PGC 214871 is 3.2' SW ("fairly faint, small, round, 18" diameter").

 

17.5" (7/22/87): moderately bright, oval ~E-W, moderately large, brighter core.  Brightest in a group of five or six galaxies including NGC 7401 9.5' ENE, NGC 7402 11' ENE, NGC 7397 6.5' ENE and NGC 7398 9.3' NE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7396 = h2189 on 12 Oct 1827 and recorded "pF; irreg R; bM; 60"; r."  His mean position from two observations is accurate.  The four fainter NGC galaxies to the northeast were discovered at Birr Castle in 1856-57.

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NGC 7397 = MCG +00-58-008 = CGCG 379-011 = PGC 69904

22 52 46.7 +01 07 58; Psc

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 30¡

 

17.5" (7/22/87): faint, very small, elongated NW-SE, brighter core.  Located 6.5' ENE of NGC 7396 in a group with NGC 7398 4.2' N, NGC 7401 3.0' ENE and NGC 7402 4.5' ENE.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 7397, along with NGC 7401 and 7398, while observing NGC 7396 at Birr Castel on 2 Oct 1856.  He noted "about 5' nf [of NGC 7396] is another neb, pF, S, R, bM and f[ollowing] the latter are 2 vF, S, R neb knots."  A sketch was made on 23 Oct 1857 and NGC 7397 was labeled "C".  On 22 Dec 1876, Dreyer measured micrometric offsets to NGC 7397 from a mag 12 star 3.8' northeast of NGC 7396.

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NGC 7398 = UGC 12225 = MCG +00-58-009 = CGCG 379-012 = PGC 69905

22 52 49.3 +01 12 04; Psc

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 75¡

 

17.5" (8/21/87): fairly faint, small, small bright core.

 

17.5" (7/22/87): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated, stellar nucleus.  Located 4.2' N of NGC 7397 and 9.3' NE of NGC 7396 in a group.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 7398, along with NGC 7397 and 7401, while observing NGC 7396 at Birr Castle on 2 Oct 1856.  A sketch was made on 23 Oct 1857 and NGC 7398 was labeled "B".  On 22 Oct 1876, Dreyer measured micrometric offsets to NGC 7398 from a mag 12 star 3.8' northeast of NGC 7396.

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NGC 7399 = MCG -02-58-006 = PGC 69902

22 52 39.3 -09 16 04; Aqr

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 150¡

 

17.5" (8/7/91): faint, small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, bright core.  A mag 13 star is 1.1' N.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7399 = Sw. II-93 on 15 Nov 1884 and recorded "eF; pL; mistaken for Barnard's Comet 1884 II."  There is nothing at his position, but 22 seconds of RA west and 1' south is MCG -02-58-006 = PGC 69902.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver in 1898-99 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 7400 = ESO 290-022 = AM 2251-453 = PGC 69967

22 54 20.8 -45 20 49; Gru

V = 12.8;  Size 2.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 2¡

 

30" (10/15/15 - OzSky): at 303x; fairly bright, fairly large, very elongated 7:2 N-S, 1.5'x0.4', broad weak concentration.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7400 = h3957 on 6 Sep 1834 and recorded "pF; lE; glbM.  Query if it has not a vS * involved."  His Cape position is very accurate, though an error was made and the position in the GC (copied into the NGC) is 30 seconds of time too small.

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NGC 7401 = MCG +00-58-010 = CGCG 379-013 = PGC 69911

22 52 58.5 +01 08 33; Psc

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 90¡

 

17.5" (8/27/87): extremely faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  Forms a close pair with NGC 7402 1.5' E.  Located in a group 3.0' ENE of NGC 7397 and 9.5' ENE of brightest member NGC 7396.  Identification reversed with NGC 7402 in the RNGC and not identified as NGC 7401 in the CGCG.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 7401, along with NGC 7397 and 7398, while observing NGC 7396 at Birr Castle on 2 Oct 1856.  A sketch was made on 23 Oct 1857 and NGC 7401 was labeled "D", along with a companion just following that was labeled as "E" (NGC 7402).  The sketch identifies NGC 7401 = CGCG 379-013 (described here) and NGC 7402 = PGC 69914.

 

MCG, RC3 and DSFG all mislabel NGC 7401 as NGC 7402.  CGCG doesn't attach a NGC designation to CGCG 379-013.  RNGC and the first edition of the Deep Sky Field Guide reverse the identifications of NGC 7401 and 7402.  The correct identifications are sorted out in my RNGC Corrections #2.

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NGC 7402 = PGC 69914

22 53 04.5 +01 08 40; Psc

Size 0.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 50¡

 

17.5" (8/27/87): extremely faint and small, round, at visual threshold.  Forms a difficult pair with NGC 7401 1.5' W and last in a group.  Forms a near equilateral triangle with NGC 7398 5' NE and NGC 7397 4.5' W.  Appears just nonstellar on the POSS.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 7402 with LdR's 72" at Birr Castle on 23 Oct 1857.  This object is labeled "E" on the sketch and is shown on a line with "C" [NGC 7397] and "D" [NGC 7401].  Mitchell noted, however, "E is doubtful and needs confirmation."  Because of this comment, JH didn't assign a GC designation but Dreyer added it in the NGC.  Mitchell's sketch matches the position and orientation of PGC 69914.

 

The galaxy identified as NGC 7402 in RNGC, MCG, PGC and RC3 is NGC 7401.  NGC 7401 is the brighter of the close pair and is close west of NGC 7402.  See NGC 7401 and my RNGC Corrections #2.

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NGC 7403

22 53 06.4 +01 28 56; Psc

 

= *, Corwin.  = IC 1455?, Burnham.

 

Sidney Coolidge discovered NGC 7403 = HN 22 on 15 Nov 1859 with the 15-inch refractor of Harvard College Observatory during the Zone Survey of equatorial stars.  He simply noted "slightly nebulous" with a rough position (measured in 1 of 2 zones).  As a result, Herschel didn't include this object in the GC but Dreyer added it in the  GC Supplement (#6092).  A mag 13.4 star is close to Coolidge's position at 22 53 06.4 +01 28 57 (J2000), which Harold Corwin equates with NGC 7403.  All 9 of Coolidge's discoveries are stars (single or multiple).

 

In searching for this object, Sherburne Burnham found a nearby galaxy that he felt was probably NGC 7403.  Dreyer catalogued it as IC 1455 (also observed by Spitaler).  IC 1455 is 40 sec of RA east of Coolidge's rough position and 6.6' south.

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NGC 7404 = ESO 346-010 = MCG -07-47-001 = IC 5260? = PGC 69964

22 54 18.6 -39 18 54; Gru

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 2¡

 

18" (10/25/08): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 N-S, 0.4'x0.25', very small brighter core.  Located 22' NNW of the bright edge-on NGC 7410 and 11' NE of mag 7.3 HD 216443.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7404 = h3958 on 4 Oct 1836 and recorded "vF; S; R; 15"."  His position matches ESO 346-010 = PGC 69964.  Lewis Swift possibly rediscovered this galaxy on 19 Jul 1897 and recorded Sw. XII-41 (later IC 5260) as "eeF; pS; R; 9m star nr sp; ee dif."  Swift's position is two degrees south and 0.3 minutes of RA east of NGC 7404 but has a mag 7.3 star 11' SW, consistent with the description.  IC 5260 may also be a reobservation of NGC 7421, which is 2.3 min of RA due east of his position and has a mag 10.9 star to its southwest.

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NGC 7405

22 53 36 +12 28 36; Peg

 

= Not found, Corwin.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7405 = m 502 on 5 Sep 1864 and noted "eF, S, R."  There is nothing near his position and Harold Corwin was unable to recover this object.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 7406 = MCG -01-58-003 = PGC 69947

22 53 56.2 -06 34 45; Aqr

V = 13.6;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 75¡

 

17.5" (9/15/90): faint, small, oval 2:1 WSW-ENE, even surface brightness.  A mag 13.5 star is off the WSW end 1.8' from center.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7406 = m 503 on 25 Aug 1864 and noted "F, S, lE."  His position is 1' north of PGC 69947.

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NGC 7407 = UGC 12230 = MCG +05-54-002 = CGCG 495-042 = CGCG 496-005 = PGC 69922

22 53 21.1 +32 07 46; Peg

V = 13.2;  Size 2.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 152¡

 

18" (9/16/09): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 0.6'x0.3', very weak concentration, no core or zones.

 

A 20' string of faint galaxies oriented N-S follows, including UGC 12238 14' NE (closest).  All the galaxies in the nearby string, including NGC 7407, have identical redshifts of z = .022, so are members of the same group or cluster within the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster.

 

17.5" (9/2/89): fairly faint, fairly small, oval NNW-SSE, almost even surface brightness.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7407 = St V-9 on 13 Sep 1873 and recorded "eF; vS; vaporous."  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 7408 = ESO 109-026 = LGG 462-007 = PGC 70037

22 55 56.9 -63 41 41; Tuc

V = 12.6;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 167¡

 

30" (10/15/15 - OzSky): at 303x; moderately bright, fairly large, irregularly round, ~1.25'x1.0'. There is a hint of a central bar ~N-S, but no well-defined core.  The outer halo has an irregular surface brightness with a hint of structure and extends further on the east side.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7408 = h3959 on 1 Nov 1834 and recorded "pB; R; vglbM; 40"."  His position is accurate.  Donald Menzel misclassified this galaxy as a planetary in "Five New Planetary Nebula", Harvard Bulletin 772, 1922.

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NGC 7409 = CGCG 453-018 = PGC 69939

22 53 48.1 +20 12 37; Peg

V = 14.5;  Size 0.55'x0.45';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 160¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): extremely faint and small, round.  A mag 13 star 1.2' NW.  Located 11' WSW NGC 7411 in a group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7409 = m 504, along with NGC 7411 and 7415, on 20 Sep 1863 and simply noted "eF".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7410 = ESO 346-012 = MCG -07-47-002 = PGC 69994

22 55 00.7 -39 39 42; Gru

V = 10.3;  Size 5.2'x1.6';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 45¡

 

18" (10/25/08): bright, large, very elongated 7:2 SW-NE, ~3.0'x0.9'.  Contains a bright, round core ~25" diameter, which gradually increases to a very bright nucleus.  At moments a stellar nucleus was visible that appeared offset to the southwest of center.  The surface appeared irregular or curdled (perhaps due to dust or spiral arms).  NGC 7404 lies 23' NNW.

 

17.5" (10/20/90): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 3:1 SW-NE, well concentrated to a small very bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 12 star is 1.8' NNE of center.  Appears bright for such a far southern galaxy (observed from +38¡ latitude).

 

8" (7/16/82): faint, moderately large, very elongated SW-NE.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 7410 = D 518 = h3960 on 14 July 1826 and recorded "a very faint nebula extended preceding and following, about 1.5' long and 20 or 25 arcseconds broad; a little brighter in the middle, or rather nearer the N.p. extremity; the S.f. extremity is very ill defined."  His position is 11' due east of the galaxy.  John Herschel first observed this galaxy on 4 Sep 1834 and logged "B, pL, vmE in pos 41.9 degrees, pgmbM, 3' long, 20" broad, has a star 11m, 2' dist, pos from nucleus 12.9¡."  On a later sweep he wrote "a long pB ray, 4' long, psvmbM, elongated in pos 44.7¡."  His mean position is accurate.

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NGC 7411 = UGC 12241 = MCG +03-58-010 = CGCG 453-020 = PGC 69974

22 54 34.9 +20 14 10; Peg

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

18" (10/29/11): at 283x, faint to fairly faint, fairly small, round, gradually increases to a small bright core and stellar nucleus, ~25" diameter.  Located 2.3' SE of a mag 10.7 star and 6' S of BU 847, an attractive pair of mag 9/10 stars at 7" separation.  NGC 7415 lies 4.5' ENE.

 

17.5" (9/2/89): faint, very small, round, bright core.  Brightest of trio with NGC 7415 5' ENE and NGC 7409 11' WSW.  A pretty double star is 6' N.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7411 = m 505, along with NGC 7409 and 7415, on 13 Sep 1863 and noted "vF, vS."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7412 = ESO 290-024 = MCG -07-47-004 = LGG 464-001 = PGC 70027

22 55 45.5 -42 38 30; Gru

V = 11.3;  Size 3.9'x2.9';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 65¡

 

13.1" (9/3/86): faint, fairly large, very diffuse, elongated ~N-S.  Located 6' SSW of mag 7.3 SAO 231361.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7412 = h3961 on 2 Sep 1836 and recorded "eF; vL; 3' diam at least; it is south-preceding a star 7m, 8' dist."

 

Based on a photo taken at the Helwan observatory in 1919-20, it was described as a "2-branched spiral with pF almost stellar nucleus and condensations; like the letter "S"."

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NGC 7413 = MCG +02-58-035 = CGCG 430-029 = PGC 69997

22 55 03.1 +13 13 14; Peg

V = 14.1;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 81¡

 

18" (10/25/08): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter. A string of stars extends SW.  A very faint galaxy (PGC 70008) 5.4' ENE that is identified as NGC 7414 in the RNGC was not seen.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): faint, extremely small, round, weak concentration.  Several fairly bright stars lie SW including a mag 10 star 3.8' SW and a mag 11 star 6.1' SW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7413 = Sw. IV-87, along with NGC 7414, on 2 Sep 1886 and recorded ""eeF; pS; R; e diff.; 8 or 10 stars in an irregular line p; s of 2 [with NGC 7414]."  His RA is 15 seconds too small, but his comment of the string of stars applies to the loose string of stars extending southwest.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate micrometric position in 1998-99.  See NGC 7414.

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NGC 7414 = PGC 70008 = PGC 94273

22 55 24.4 +13 14 54; Peg

V = 16.0;  Size 0.5'x0.2';  PA = 171¡

 

18" (8/12/10): extremely faint, very small, irregularly round ~15"x12", required averted vision and visible at most 25% of the time but could repeatedly glimpse in the same position once the location was pinpointed.  Based on the difficulty of this object in superb conditions, I feel this galaxy was probably too faint to have been discovered by Swift with his 16" refractor.

 

18" (11/22/08): Not seen at 175x or 283x.

 

18" (10/25/08): Not seen at 175x or 283x.

 

17.5" (9/2/89): Not seen at 220x.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7414 = Sw. IV-88, along with NGC 7413, on 2 Sept 1886 and recorded "eeeF; S; R; eee diff; n of 2 [with NGC 7413]."  His RA is listed as the same as NGC 7413, which is 15 seconds too small, and 2.5' to the north. 

 

There is nothing near Swift's published position for NGC 7414 or after correcting for the offset in RA for NGC 7413.  The RNGC identifies PGC 70008 = PGC 94273 as NGC 7414.  This galaxy is located 1.7' north, but 21 seconds of RA further east.  Harold Corwin feels the RNGC candidate is a plausible identification, but I'm skeptical based on how faint it appeared in my 18".  So, NGC 7414 may be nonexistent (perhaps a faint star).  See Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 7415 = UGC 12244 = MCG +03-58-012 = MCG +03-58-011 = CGCG 453-023 = PGC 69985 = PGC 69984

22 54 53.6 +20 15 42; Peg

V = 14.5;  Size 0.9'x0.2';  PA = 128¡

 

28" (10/29/11): at 295x, resolved into two tangent glows oriented E-W, ~0.6'x0.3'.  It seemed the western component (MCG +03-58-011) was slightly brighter.  At 394x, the eastern component (UGC 12244) was elongated NW-SE, perhaps 0.4'x0.2'.  UGC 12244 is identified as NGC 7415 in most sources, though the NGC number should probably apply to the double system.

 

18" (10/29/11): at 283x, appeared very faint, small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, 0.4'x0.2'.  I suspected the glow was double but couldn't confidently resolve this close pair so the description likely refers to the combined glow.  Located 4.5' ENE of brighter NGC 7411 and 5.7' SE of

 

17.5" (9/2/89): extremely faint, small, edge-on NW-SE.  Located 5' ENE of NGC 7411.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7415 = m 506, along with NGC 7409 and 7411, on 13 Sep 1863 and simply noted "eF".  His position is fairly accurate.  The MCG identifies MCG +03-58-011, the western component, as NGC 7415.  Other sources identify the eastern edge-on component as NGC 7415, but the number should probably apply to the entire double system as Marth didn't resolve the pair and they are pretty comparable in brightness.

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NGC 7416 = MCG -01-58-004 = PGC 70025

22 55 41.7 -05 29 43; Aqr

V = 12.4;  Size 3.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 110¡

 

17.5" (10/12/85): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, broad concentration.  On a line with a mag 9.5 star 6' SSW and mag 7.7 SAO 146389 12.5' SSW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7416 = m 507 = Sf 86 on 25 Aug 1864 and noted" F, pL, pmE, vgbM."  His position is accurate. Aaron Skinner, assistant to Truman Safford at the Dearborn Observatory, independently rediscovered this galaxy on 21 Sep 1867 with the 18.5-inch Clark Refractor.

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NGC 7417 = ESO 109-028 = LGG 462-008 = PGC 70113

22 57 49.5 -65 02 19; Tuc

V = 12.3;  Size 1.9'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 2¡

 

30" (10/15/15 - OzSky): at 303x; bright, moderately large, oval 4:3 N-S, ~1.4'x1.0', well concentrated with a bright core that increases to a stellar nucleus.  Brightest in a group including IC 5266 6.4' SSE, IC 5272 14' SE and PGC 127682 11' S.  Mag 9.5 HD 216941 lies 6.5' NE and similar star is 10' E.  These galaxies and stars just fit in the 20' field.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7417 = h3962 on 20 Jul 1835 and recorded "B; R; gpmbM; r; 40"."  His mean position (2 observations) is accurate.

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NGC 7418 = ESO 406-025 = MCG -06-50-013 = LGG 466-006 = PGC 70069

22 56 36.2 -37 01 48; Gru

V = 10.9;  Size 3.5'x2.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 139¡

 

18" (10/25/08): fairly bright, very large, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 2.5'x1.8', broad weak concentration.  The halo fades into the background without a well-defined edge.  This is the largest galaxy visually in the Grus Chain (brightest member IC 1459).

 

13.1" (10/20/84): fairly large, very diffuse, even surface brightness. Larger than NGC 7421 19' SSE.

 

8" (7/16/82): very faint, fairly large, round, diffuse.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7418 = h3963 on 30 Aug 1834 and recorded "pB; vL; R; or vlE; vgbM; 4' diam; with left eye r, hardly resolved, PD bad.  A fine object."

 

Based on photographs taken in 1919-20 at the Helwan observatory with the 30-inch Reynolds telescope, it was described as "2.5' x 2.5', spiral with a pF almost stellar nucleus.  This is a "left-hand" spiral with two main branches which are close together on the following side, and from these proceed a number of smaller subsidiary whisps."

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NGC 7419 = Cr 453 = Lund 1024 = OCL-250

22 54 20.1 +60 48 55; Cep

Size 2'

 

18" (8/17/04): at 160x this is a small group of 25-30 stars down to mag 15, elongated 3'x1' NW-SE.  Located ~3' SE of a mag 8 star.  The brightest mag 9.5 star is at the NE tip of the cluster and the fairly rich cluster follows to the SE.  A faint pair is near the center of the group

 

13.1" (8/25/84): about a dozen faint stars are visible over unresolved haze with a mag 9.5 star at the NW edge.  Appears to be a rich group.  Mag 8.2 SAO 20306 is just off the NW edge.  About 12' NW is the double star ·2953 = 7.8/9.8 at 8".

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7419 = H VII-43 = h2190 on 3 Nov 1787 (sweep 773) and recorded "a small cluster of vS stars, considerably compressed and pretty rich."  His position is accurate.  On 29 Sep 1829 (sweep 213), JH logged "a *10m in a cluster of vS stars 15...18m; p rich; vgbM.  A star 8m is 2' S."

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NGC 7420 = MCG +05-54-018 = CGCG 496-023 = PGC 70017

22 55 32.0 +29 48 18; Peg

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (7/17/93): very faint, small, elongated 4:3 WSW-ENE, 0.7'x0.5', faint stellar nucleus or star superimposed.  Located between a mag 9.0 SAO 90876 4.6' WNW and a mag 10.5 star 4.1' ESE.  Several faint stars that confuses the observation are near south.  These include a close mag 14 pair at 9" separation.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7420 = m 508 on 6 Sep 1863 and noted "vF, S."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7421 = ESO 346-017 = MCG -06-50-015 = AM 2254-373 = LGG 466-004 = PGC 70083

22 56 54.3 -37 20 50; Gru

V = 11.9;  Size 2.0'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

18" (10/25/08): fairly faint, moderately large, ~1.5' diameter, diffuse with only a very weak concentration.  At moments I had the impression of an elongated brightening or bar in the central region.  Located near the southern end of the Grus Chain of 9 galaxies with NGC 7418 20' NNW and IC 1459 53' N.

 

13.1" (10/20/84): very faint, very diffuse, moderately large.  Located 20' SSE of NGC 7418.

 

8" (8/16/82): extremely faint, small, round, at visual threshold.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7421 = h3964 on 30 Aug 1834 and recorded "B; L; R; gpmbM; 2'; r[esolvable] with right eye; with left, barely resolved in the centre."  His mean position (3 measures) is accurate.  Harold Knox-Shaw reported it was a spiral in 1912 based on a photograph taken with the 30" reflector at the Helwan Observatory in Egypt.  On later photographs in 1919-20 showed the eastern halo suffered from dust obscuration.

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NGC 7422 = UGC 12254 = MCG +01-58-013 = PGC 70048

22 56 12.5 +03 55 36; Psc

V = 13.4;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 140¡

 

17.5" (11/1/86): fairly faint, fairly small, round, weak concentration.  Located 21' WNW of mag 6.3 SAO 127860.  Observation in poor seeing.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7422 = m 509 = Sf 93 on 11 Aug 1864 and noted "F, S, irr R."  His position is accurate.  Otto Struve independently discovered this galaxy on 6 Dec 1865 at the Pulkovo Observatory in St Petersburg (in an unsuccessful search for Comet Biela), by d'Arrest on 29 Sep 1866 and by Safford with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at Dearborn Observatory on 27 Sep 1867!  So, this object was "discovered" 4 times, which along with NGC 1360 and NGC 6364, is the most of any NGC entry.  Dreyer credited Struve and d'Arrest in the GC Supplement and Marth, Struve and d'Arrest in the NGC.  Safford's observation was not published until 1887, a bit too late to be noticed when Dreyer compiled the NGC.

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NGC 7423 = Be 57 = OCL-246 = Lund 1026

22 55 09 +57 05 49; Cep

Size 5'

 

18" (9/24/05): at 225x, this cluster appears as a small, rich, glowing spot 2' in diameter, peppered with roughly a dozen mag 14-15 stars, several of which are just on the edge of visibility.  Set within a rich low power Milky Way star field, although noticed immediately at 115x.  A wide pair of mag 11 stars is just off the SW side.  At 435x, the faint resolved stars are easier to view, although the background glow fades.  Planetary nebula M 1-80 is just 10' ENE.  M 1-80 was easily picked up by blinking at 160x with an OIII filter, although appears slightly soft at this power unfiltered.  Excellent view at 538x unfiltered as a slightly irregular small disc, ~4" diameter.  Situated ~40" W of a mag 11 star.  A very close pair of mag 14.5-15 stars follows the mag 11 star and a brighter double is close north.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7423 = H III-745 = h2191 on 1 Nov 1788 (sweep 876) and noted "pL, irr figure, easily resolvable, or a very distant patch of the milky way." His RA is 50 seconds too large.  JH recorded "A large patch of the milky way, consisting of stars so small as to be quite nebulous.  If this be not III 745, I find no other."  Dreyer used JH's position in the NGC but commented in his 1912 "Scientific Papers of William Herschel" that William's and John's positions differ by about 1 tmin, so the two entries may refer to different objects.  RNGC lists the number as nonexistent, though the cluster is also catalogued as Berkeley 57.  See Corwin's notes for discussion.

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NGC 7424 = ESO 346-019 = MCG -07-47-008 = PGC 70096

22 57 18.5 -41 04 14; Gru

V = 10.5;  Size 9.5'x8.1';  Surf Br = 15.1;  PA = 88¡

 

13.1" (9/3/86): very diffuse, hazy, fairly large, round, weak concentration.  Located 16' E of mag 6.8 SAO 231360.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7424 = h3965 on 5 Sep 1834 and recorded "F; vL; R; vgmbM; 3' diam."  Based on Helwan photographs taken in 1919-20, it was described as "pF, 6'x6', pB nucleus elongated in p.a. 130¡; spiral with open [spiral arms] and condensations."

 

This loose face-on spiral might show structure in the southern hemisphere.

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NGC 7425 = MCG -02-58-013 = PGC 70097

22 57 15.5 -10 57 00; Aqr

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 60¡

 

17.5" (9/23/95): faint, small, slightly elongated, 30" diameter, very weak concentration.  Located just south of three mag 14 stars (closest is 1.9' NNE of center).

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 7425 = LM 1-259 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.5, lE? 90¡, *10 in PA 260¡ [ESE] at 4.0' separation."  His rough RA (nearest min of time) is 30 seconds too small and the star is 13-14th magnitude.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 with the 20" refractor at Denver (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 7426 = UGC 12256 = MCG +06-50-012 = CGCG 515-012 = PGC 70042

22 56 02.9 +36 21 41; Lac

V = 12.3;  Size 1.7'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 72¡

 

17.5" (6/15/91): fairly faint, fairly small, round, weak concentration, faint stellar nucleus.  Observation slightly hampered by the bright wide double star h975 = 5.6/9.5 at 50" located 3.5' W!

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7426 = H III-576 = h2192 on 18 Oct 1786 (sweep 617) and recorded "vF, S, iR, stellar."  JH made two observation, first noting "eF; pL; R; a coarse double star 6m (HJ 975) precedes a little to south.  Hurried observation."

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NGC 7427 = MCG +01-58-016 = CGCG 405-018 = Mrk 521 = PGC 70091

22 57 09.9 +08 30 20; Peg

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (8/27/87): faint, small, round, small bright core.  Visible steadily with direct vision.

 

17.5" (8/21/87): very faint, extremely small, round  A mag 10.5 star is 4.2' S.  Located 34' SE of 50 Pegasi (V = 4.9).

 

Otto Struve discovered NGC 7427 on 22 Nov 1865 with the 15-inch refractor at Pulkovo Observatory at St. Petersburg while unsuccessfully searching for Comet Biela. Struve's position is 2.5' south of MCG +01-58-016, though he correctly placed a mag 11.5 star 4' from NGC 7427 in PA 172¡.

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NGC 7428 = UGC 12262 = MCG +00-58-014 = CGCG 379-016 = PGC 70098

22 57 19.5 -01 02 56; Psc

V = 12.5;  Size 2.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 160¡

 

17.5" (7/22/87): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, small bright core.  NGC 7434 lies 17.5' ESE.

 

13.1" (11/29/86): fairly faint, fairly small, almost round, small bright core.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7428 = m 510, along with NGC 7434, on 27 Jul 1864 and noted "F, vS, R, bM."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7429 = OCL-249 = Lund 1027

22 56 00 +59 58 24; Cep

Size 14'

 

17.5" (11/18/95): scattered group of 18 stars in a 6'x2' group elongated NNW-SSE.  Includes 8 mag 9.5-12 stars and the rest are mag 13-15.  There are no rich spots and most stars are scattered around the elongated irregular outline.  The brightest two mag 9.5 stars are located near the center (SAO 34961) and at the SE end (SAO 34971).  Located about 8' W of a mag 7.3 SAO 34988.  Appears to be an asterism although listed in Lynga 5.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7429 = h2193 on 29 Sep 1829 and recorded "VIII class; pretty compact, poor cluster; stars 9...11m." His position corresponds with the center of 6' group of 12 brighter stars (mag 9.4-13.3).

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NGC 7430 = MCG +01-58-017 = CGCG 405-019 = PGC 70106

22 57 29.7 +08 47 39; Peg

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.35';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 60¡

 

17.5" (8/21/87): very faint, very small, round, brighter core.  A faint star is very close south.  Located 32' E of 50 Pegasi (V = 4.9).

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 7430 on 27 Aug 1864 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position (measured on 2 nights) is an exact match with CGCG 405-019 = PGC 70106 and he mentioned the faint double star just over 1' south.

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NGC 7431 = LEDA 1765321

22 57 38.9 +26 09 51; Peg

V = 16.0;  Size 0.2'x0.2'

 

48" (10/26/16): at 610x; this object consists of a mag 15 star with a very small galaxy attached on the east side.  A low surface brightness, round glow extended ~10" diameter.  The star and the center of the galaxy are separated by only 5"!  Located 4.3' WNW of NGC 7436 in a group.

 

17.5" (8/25/95): with direct vision appears as a mag 14.5 star with no noticeable halo.  With averted vision, an extremely small halo is sometimes visible, perhaps 10" in diameter.  Located 4.3' WNW of NGC 7436 and faintest in a group of four galaxies.  A mag 14.5 star is 1.4' SW.  On the DSS the galaxy is virtually stellar with the star attached on the west edge.  The galaxy identified as NGC 7431in the RNGC, UGC (notes) and CGCG is CGCG 475-006 (possibly NGC 7433), located 1.5' NW of NGC 7436 and not seen in this observation though was not difficult in my 24".

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 7431 = Big. 92 on 30 Sep 1886 and noted "eF and eS."  His micrometric position is 19 seconds of time preceding NGC 7436 and 55" north.  Precisely at this separation is faint star with an extremely faint galaxy (PGC 1765321) attached on the east side.  It's like Bigourdan noticed only the star as the galaxy is quite faint, but he mistakenly thought it was a nebula.  RNGC, CGCG, UGC (notes to NGC 7436) and PGC all misidentify NGC 7433 = CGCG 475-006 = PGC 70112 as NGC 7431.

 

On 12 Oct 1855, R.J. Mitchell discovered the galaxy (CGCG 475-006) that RNGC, CGCG and UGC misidentify as NGC 7431.  Although clearly shown on the sketch, the 29 Sept 1875 observation states "the object preceding in the 1857 sketch is a faint star, night bad."  Because of this last statement, Thomson feels Dreyer decided not to include this object in the NGC but Corwin and Steinicke identify CGCG 475-006 = NGC 7433 and remove the companion jutting out of the west side of NGC.  Malcolm Thomson discusses this case in detail in the Dec 1989 Webb Society Quarterly Journal and his unpublished "Catalogue Corrections."

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NGC 7432 = UGC 12268 = MCG +02-58-040 = CGCG 430-033 = PGC 70129

22 58 01.9 +13 08 04; Peg

V = 13.4;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 40¡

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, very small, strong bright core, slightly elongated.  A mag 13 star is 1.6' E of center and a pair of mag 12/13 stars at 21" separation is 2' ESE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7432 = H III-465 = h2194 on 23 Nov 1785 (sweep 476) and recorded "eF, S, irregular.  240 showed the same."  JH made three observations and logged (sweep 304), "eF; S; R; precedes a near double star 5 seconds."

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NGC 7433 = MCG +04-54-003 = CGCG 475-006 = WBL 692-002 = PGC 70112

22 57 51.7 +26 09 44; Peg

V = 14.9;  Size 0.7'x0.25';  PA = 47¡

 

48" (10/26/16): at 610x; moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 35"x14", brighter nucleus. Located 1.5' NW of NGC 7436 in a group.  A mag 14.3 star is 0.4' S.

 

24" (7/20/12): very faint, small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 24"x8".  A mag 14.3 star is just 24" S of center.  Located in the core of the NGC 7436 group, just 1.5' NW of NGC 7436.

 

The historical identification of NGC 7433 is ambiguous (see notes), but this galaxy is misidentified as NGC 7431 (which is 2.9' W) in CGCG, UGC, PGC, U2000 and Megastar.

 

R.J. Mitchell, Lord Rosse's assistant, discovered NGC 7433, along with NGC 7435, on 12 Oct 1855.  While observing the field of NGC 7436 this galaxy was clearly shown on a diagram and sketch showing 4 galaxies (including the companion of NGC 7436).  Nevertheless, there are only three entries in the GC and NGC.  The reason is probably Dreyer's 1875 observation that noted "The object preceding in the diagram from 1857 is a faint star.  Night bad".  The question remains which object Dreyer intended to exclude in the NGC -- CGCG 475-006 (the galaxy generally associated with NGC 7433) or the companion at the west edge of NGC 7436?

 

Malcolm Thomson gives a detailed analysis of the identifications of NGC 7433 and 7435 in his Catalogue Corrections and concludes Dreyer rejected CGCG 475-006 so that NGC 7433 refers to the galaxy the western component of NGC 7436. On the other hand, Harold Corwin supports the view NGC 7436W was rejected by Dreyer and CGCG 475-006 is NGC 7433.  Corwin's identification is used in NED and Steinicke and adopted here, though Thomson's argument is very persuasive.

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NGC 7434 = MCG +00-58-016 = CGCG 379-017 = PGC 70145

22 58 21.5 -01 11 02; Psc

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 80¡

 

17.5" (7/22/87): very faint, extremely small, round, about 10" diameter.  Located 17.5' SE of NGC 7428.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7434 = m 511, along with NGC 7428, on 27 Jul 1864 and noted "vF, vS, R, stellar."  His position is 1' too far north.

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NGC 7435 = UGC 12267 = MCG +04-54-004 = CGCG 475-007 = Holm 800a = WBL 692-003 = PGC 70116

22 57 54.6 +26 08 20; Peg

V = 14.2;  Size 1.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 132¡

 

48" (10/26/16): at 610x; fairly bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 30"x12", small brighter nucleus.  A mag 15 star is on the NNW end [17" from center].  Situated 0.9' SW of NGC 7436 in the center of the cluster.

 

24" (7/20/12): faint or fairly faint, small, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 24"x8".  A mag 15 star is attached at the NNW tip. This close companion to NGC 7436 is situated just 1.0' SW of center.

 

17.5" (8/25/95): very faint, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 0.6'x0.2', no concentration.  A mag 15 star is at the NNW end.  In a tight group just 1.0' SW of NGC 7436.

 

17.5" (9/2/89): very faint, very elongated NW-SE.  A mag 15 star is attached at the NNW end 17" from center.  Located 1.0' SW of NGC 7436 in a group.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 7435, along with NGC 7433, on 12 Oct 1855 while examining the field of NGC 7436 at Birr Castle.  The identification is certain based on the diagram and sketch in Plate V, including a star close northwest. The NGC position is 1' due south, instead of southwest of NGC 7436.  Heinrich d'Arrest also measured the position twice in September 1865, although Dreyer only credited d'Arrest's observation of NGC 7433.

 

The NGC position falls very close to MCG +04-54-007 = LEDA 1763030, and Francis Pease identified this galaxy as NGC 7435 in the 1920 paper "Photographs of nebulae with the 60-inch reflector, 1917-1919".

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NGC 7436 = VV 84a = (R)NGC 7436B = UGC 12269 = MCG +04-54-006 = CGCG 475-008e = Holm 800b = WBL 692-004 = PGC 70124

22 57 57.5 +26 09 00; Peg

V = 13.0;  Size 2.0'x2.0'

 

48" (10/26/16): brightest of a total of 8 galaxies observed within 4'.  At 610x; bright, moderately large, round, sharply concentrated with a very bright small core, increasing to a stellar nucleus.  The halo has a much lower surface brightness and contains NGC 7436B, which pokes out of the halo on the west side.  The contact companion appeared moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 E-W, 24"x8", very small bright nucleus.

 

24" (7/20/12): brightest and central galaxy in a group with three extremely close companions.  At 325x appeared moderately bright and large, round, ~1' diameter.  Sharply concentrated and dominated by a very bright small core.  The halo has a low surface brightness and gradually fades out, but seems to encompass NGC 7436B = VV 84b, which appeared as a faint or fairly faint thin spike, ~22"x8", emerging from the halo and extending west.  NGC 7435 is just 57" SW and NGC 7433 is 1.5' NW.  Also nearby are MCG +04-54-007 2.4' S, PGC 1766408 3.4' NW, NGC 7431 4.2' WNW and PGC 1768375 is 5.7' NNW.

 

MCG +04-54-007 is extremely faint or very faint, very small, round, 12" diameter.  A mag 16.1 star lies 20" E.  PGC 1766408 is extremely faint, very small, irregularly round, 15"x12".  PGC 1768375 is extremely faint and small, round, 9" diameter.  Collinear with a mag 15 star 0.7' NE and a mag 13 star 1.2' NE.

 

17.5" (8/25/95): brightest in a tight group of four galaxies including NGC 7431, NGC 7433 and NGC 7435.  Fairly faint, small, round, 1.2' diameter.  Well concentrated with a small, bright core.  The view is confused by a companion, which is partially superimposed on the west side of the halo and creates the impression of elongation E-W.  A mag 15 star is 50" SW and a mag 14.5 star 1.3' WNW.

 

17.5" (9/2/89): brightest in a group, faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, bright core.  Forms a double system with NGC 7433 attached at the west end.  In a group with NGC 7435 1.0' SW, NGC 7431 2' NW (not seen).  Located 15' E of mag 8.9 SAO 90886.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7436 = H III-243 = h2195 on 2 Dec 1784 (only object in sweep 327) and recorded "vF, S, er, but I have not been out long enough to see very well, and it may be only stars."  On 18 Aug 1828 (sweep 167), JH logged "F; E in parallel; gbM; 60" l, 30" br."  Although not resolved, the elongation was caused by the superimposed companion on the west side.

 

The RNGC identifies the brighter eastern component as NGC 7436A and the western component as NGC 7436B.  The identification problems with this group (specifically NGC 7433 and 7431) are discussed in detail in the Oct 1989 Webb Society Quarterly Journal and in Malcolm Thomson's unpublished "Catalogue Corrections".

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 7436B = MCG +04-54-005 = PGC 70123 on 23 Oct 1855 and noted "3 neb; last one [NGC 7436] pB, bM, has either a star or nebulous knot closely p [NGC 7436]; ...."   The "nebulous knot" is NGC 7436B.  He observed the group again on 18 Sep 1857 and logged, "... closely p is a * or sharply defined nebulous patch, ..."  Dreyer observed the group on 29 Sep 1875 and reported, "The object p in the diagram from 1857 is a F *.  Night bad."  Harold Corwin notes that based on Dreyer's own observation, he didn't assign the western component of NGC 7436 an NGC designation.  NED identifies this galaxy as NGC 7436A and HyperLEDA calls it NGC 7436B.

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NGC 7437 = UGC 12270 = MCG +02-58-041 = CGCG 430-034 = PGC 70131

22 58 10.1 +14 18 32; Peg

V = 13.3;  Size 1.8'x1.8';  Surf Br = 14.4

 

17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, moderately large, slightly elongated, very diffuse, low surface brightness with a weak concentration.  A mag 14 star is at the north edge.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7437 = Sw. II-94 on 31 Oct 1885 and recorded "eeF; L; R; F * nr nf; v diff.  Nearly in finder field with Alpha Pegasi."  His RA is 10 seconds too large, but the dec is accurate.  In 1900, Herbert Howe reported "the 'F * nr nf" is of mag 10.5 and follows 4 seconds, 1.4' north."  Howe's micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 7438

22 57 29.6 +54 21 17; Cas

Size 15'

 

17.5" (8/13/96): at 100x, there is a 20' elongated group of stars separated into two distinct scattered subgroups. The SW group is circular, ~6' diameter with roughly three dozen stars total, although there are a dozen brighter mag 10/11 stars which form the circular outline.  Only a few faint stars populate the interior of the outline.  The NE group is more elongated, ~7'x5', with two dozen stars.  It includes a nice well-matched mag 11 pair at 15" separation.  The two groups only stand out in a rich Milky Way field using a 20 Nagler but it still looks like a random grouping.  Listed as nonexistent in Carlson and RNGC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7438 = h2196 on 8 Nov 1831 and recorded "A large oblong cluster which fills 2 fields.  Place that of the double star h3157 of my 5th catalogue."  Based on the photographic appearance on a Heidelberg plate, Reinmuth notes "a very dense region, no distinct Cl."  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.  See Harold Corwin's identification comments.

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NGC 7439 = UGC 12273 = MCG +05-54-021 = CGCG 496-027 = PGC 70134

22 58 09.9 +29 13 42; Peg

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 150¡

 

17.5" (7/17/93): very faint, very small, round, 0.4' diameter, very weakly concentrated core, very faint stellar nucleus at moments.  A mag 12.5 star is 2.5' WSW.  Located 4.3' NW of mag 9.3 SAO 90908.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7439 = m 512 on 9 Sep 1863 and noted a "long patch of F nebulosity."  His position is 30 seconds of RA east and 1' north of UGC 12273.  Interestingly, I recorded this galaxy as round, so his description does not fit this galaxy very well.  Bigourdan published a "corrected" position from 3 Aug 1891 in his Comptes Rendus list for 22 Jul 1901, but his position is 3.6' south and 20 seconds of time too large and probably refers to one or more stars.

 

Karl Reinmuth reported "not found" in his photographic survey at Heidelberg as well as Heber Curtis in Lick Observatory Bulletin #248 (1913) based on photographs with the Crossley reflector.  Harold Corwin searched unsuccessfully for another candidate besides UGC 12273.  See his notes.

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NGC 7440 = UGC 12276 = MCG +06-50-014 = CGCG 515-015 = PGC 70152

22 58 32.5 +35 48 09; And

V = 13.5;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

17.5" (8/27/92): faint, small, slightly elongated, broad concentration.  Located just west of a string of four stars mag 13-14 oriented N-S.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7440 = St VIII(a)-25 on 9 Oct 1876.  His micrometric position is very accurate. Bigourdan's "corrected" position in the his 22 Jul 1901 Comptes Rendus paper (repeated in the IC 2 Notes section) is 10 seconds too far east and 4' too far north and lands on a double star.

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NGC 7441 = MCG -01-58-013 = PGC 70186

22 59 29.2 -07 03 17; Aqr

V = 14.3;  Size 1.2'x1.2';  PA = 5¡

 

17.5" (9/15/90): very faint, very small, round, low even surface brightness.  This identification is very uncertain.  See historical comments.

 

IC 1458 is another possible candidate for NGC 7441.

22 56 41.4 -07 22 45

V = 13.6; B = 14.4; Size = 1.3'x0.8'; Type = Scd

24" (9/22/17): at 375x; faint or fairly faint, low surface brightness patch, irregularly round, ~0.6' diameter, slightly irregular surface brightness but no distinct core.

 

18" (10/25/03): very faint, small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 1.0'x0.7', low even surface brightness.  A 15' string of stars oriented SW-NE with mag 9.5 SAO 146395 at the SW end passes north of the galaxy.  A mag 9.5 star is 10' due west.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 7441 = LM 1-260 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 14.0, 0.8' dia, iR, *10 p[receding]."  His rough position (RA to the nearest min and Dec marked as uncertain) is coincidentally just 14 seconds of RA east of MCG -01-58-013 = PGC 70186.  The RNGC, PGC and HyperLeda identify this galaxy as NGC 7441, although no 10th magnitude star is preceding.  However, the 19th century estimated magnitudes were often several mags too bright and a mag 11.7 star is 1.8' NE and a mag 12.5 star 5' WSW.

 

As an alternative, Harold Corwin suggests NGC 7441 = IC 1458 = PGC 70080.  This galaxy has a 10th magnitude star 10' west, though the position is 3 minutes of RA east and 20' south of Stone's position.  Neither identification is very secure.

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NGC 7442 = UGC 12286 = MCG +02-58-045 = CGCG 430-042 = PGC 70183

22 59 26.6 +15 32 54; Peg

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, broad concentration.  Located 27' SW of NGC 7448 in a group.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 7442 on 24 Nov 1861 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His mean position (2 measures) is very accurate and he noted the mag 12 star (called mag 13) 2.0' north-northeast.

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NGC 7443 = MCG -02-58-015 = LGG 468-001 = PGC 70218

23 00 08.9 -12 48 28; Aqr

V = 12.6;  Size 1.5'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 40¡

 

17.5" (9/15/90): fairly faint, small, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, small bright core, high surface brightness.  Forms a distinctive similar duo of elongated systems with NGC 7444 1.6' S.  NGC 7450 is in the field 10' SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7443 = H II-450 = h2197 on 3 Oct 1785 (sweep 450) and recorded "Two [with NGC 7444], both lE and about 1.5' from each other; they extend in different directions.  The sweeping power showed but one, but 240 distinguished them both, and I saw them afterwards also both with the former power.  Both vF, vS."  JH made two observations and called it "F; R; psbM; rather the brighter of 2."

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NGC 7444 = MCG -02-58-016 = LGG 468-002 = PGC 70219

23 00 09.0 -12 50 03; Aqr

V = 12.8;  Size 1.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 3¡

 

17.5" (9/15/90): fairly faint, small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, small bright core.  Forms a close pair with NGC 7443 1.6' NNW.  NGC 7450 lies 10' ESE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7444 = H II-451 = h2198 on 3 Oct 1785 (sweep 450) and recorded "Two [with NGC 7443], both lE and about 1.5' from each other; they extend in different directions.  The sweeping power showed but one, but 240 distinguished them both, and I saw them afterwards also both with the former power.  Both vF, vS."  JH made three observations and called it "pF; irr R; sbM almost to a nucleus; r; the southern of a double nebula."

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NGC 7445 = MCG +06-50-015 = CGCG 515-016 = PGC 70178

22 59 22.4 +39 06 27; And

V = 14.6;  Size 0.7'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 88¡

 

17.5" (9/26/92): very faint, extremely small, round.  A mag 12 star is 1.5' ESE of center.  Member of the UGC 12298 group with NGC 7449 3.7' NE and NGC 7446 2.0' SE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7445 = St IX-31, along with NGC 7446 and 7449, on 23 Oct 1878.  His position matches CGCG 515-016.

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NGC 7446 = CGCG 515-017 = PGC 70185

22 59 29.0 +39 04 59; And

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

17.5" (9/26/92): very faint, very small, round, even concentration, small bright core.  A mag 12 star is 1.2' N.  Farthest south of the members in the UGC 12298 group with NGC 7449 4.5' N and NGC 7445 2.0' NW.  Appears unusually easy for a galaxy only 15.7pg.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7446 = St IX-32, along with NGC 7445 and 7449, on 23 Oct 1878.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 7447

23 00 26 -10 31 42; Aqr

 

= Not found, Corwin.  = *, Reinmuth.

 

Edward Cooper discovered NGC 7447 = Au 49 on 8 Oct 1855 with the 13.3-inch refractor at the Markree Observatory in Ireland.  While compiling the comprehensive Markree Ecliptic Catalogue he thought he found a nebulous mag 11-12 star.  Arthur Auwers searched and reported "no nebula can be seen" using the Heliometer at Konigsberg.  Wilhelm Tempel was also unsuccessful on several attempts (AN 2284), as well as Sherburne Burnham (Publ of Lick Observatory, II).  Reinmuth identified NGC 7447 as a mag 13 star but this number is likely lost. See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 7448 = Arp 13 = UGC 12294 = MCG +03-58-018 = CGCG 453-042 = LGG 469-001 = PGC 70213

23 00 03.6 +15 58 49; Peg

V = 11.7;  Size 2.7'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 170¡

 

48" (10/26/16 and 10/28/2019): at 610x; very bright, large, elongated ~2:1 N-S, 2'x1', interesting structure with knots.  The central portion is brighter along the major axis like a weak bar and in the center is a small, very bright nucleus.  A bright, prominent knot, 10"-12" diameter, is just west of the northern tip of the galaxy and a weak knot is close east [by ~15"].  The northern half of the galaxy is generally brighter with a slightly mottled surface.  The galaxy has a weak enhancement along the southwest edge of the halo [spiral arm] and a fairly faint knot is on the southeast side [40" SE of center].  Overall, the southern part of the halo has a lower, more uniform surface brightness.

 

17.5" (9/19/87 and 9/14/85): bright, large, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, small bright core, fainter extensions.  Brightest in the NGC 7448 group.

 

13.1" (9/22/84): fairly bright, broad moderate concentration, thin fainter extensions NNW-SSE.  Does not contain a well-defined nucleus.

 

8" (9/25/81): faint, small, elongated.  NGC 7454 is located 29' NNE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7448 = H II-251 = h2199 on 16 Oct 1784 (sweep 294) and recorded "pB, cL, E, r."  On his sweep 11, JH logged "pB; L; vgbM; E pos 85¡ np to sf."  His mean position is accurate.  Ralph Copeland commented it was "slightly concave towards p side" in a 1873 observation at Birr Castle.  Christian Peters also measured an accurate position.

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NGC 7449 = UGC 12292 = MCG +06-50-016 = CGCG 515-018 = PGC 70196

22 59 37.6 +39 08 45; And

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 130¡

 

17.5" (9/26/92): faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle, small bright core.  In the UGC 12298 group with NGC 7445 3.7' SW, NGC 7446 4.5' S and UGC 12298 9' NE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7449 = St IX-33, along with NGC 7445 and 7446, on 23 Oct 1878.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 7450 = MCG -02-58-019 = Mrk 1126 = LGG 468-003 = PGC 70252

23 00 47.8 -12 55 07; Aqr

V = 12.4;  Size 1.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (9/15/90): faint, very small, round, broad concentration.  Third of three with the striking NGC 7443 and NGC 7444 pair 11' NW.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 7450 = T I-47 = T IV-11 on 19 Nov 1876.  His micrometric position in list IV is 5 seconds of RA too large.

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NGC 7451 = UGC 12299 = MCG +01-58-020 = CGCG 405-022 = PGC 70245

23 00 40.9 +08 28 04; Peg

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 67¡

 

17.5" (8/27/87): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated WSW-ENE, weak concentration.

 

Otto Struve discovered NGC 7451 on 7 Dec 1865 with the 15-inch refractor at Pulkovo Observatory at St. Petersburg while unsuccessfully searching for Comet Biela. His position is 3' south of UGC 12299 (common offset with his other objects).  Bigourdan's "corrected" position from 7 Nov 1885 (repeated in the IC 2 notes) is 5.8' too far southwest, perhaps an error with the offset star.

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NGC 7452 = LEDA 1306660

23 00 47.5 +06 44 44; Psc

V = 15.0;  Size 0.4'x0.3;  PA = 25¡

 

24" (12/28/13): at 282x appeared faint, very small, round, 12" diameter, extremely small or stellar nucleus.  Located at 3.1' W of brighter UGC 12302 (NGC 7459?).

 

17.5" (11/18/95): extremely faint and small, round, 15" diameter, very low surface brightness.  Requires averted vision but observation repeatable.  Located 3.1' W of NGC 7459.  A mag 14.5 star lies 2.1' SSW.  This galaxy is not listed in any modern catalogue and the identifications of NGC 7452 and NGC 7459 are uncertain due to poor positions by Lewis Swift.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7452 = Sw. II-95, along with NGC 7455 and NGC 7459, on 14 Oct 1884 and recorded "eeeF; pL; R; e diff.; np of 2 [with NGC 7459]."  His position falls within a small cluster, 9 seconds of RA east of UGC 12302.  RNGC, MCG and PGC identify UGC 12302 as NGC 7452.  It's the brightest member of the cluster and a double system with nuclei only 10" apart.   Herbert Howe apparently also identified this galaxy as NGC 7452 (MN, Vol 60, 129).

 

As an alternative, Corwin suggests that NGC 7452 = LEDA 1306660, the second brightest in the cluster.  This places NGC 7452 21 seconds of RA preceding Swift's position (matching in dec).  This identification was first made by Kobold in his 1907 catalogue. NED and HyperLeda now both use this identification. This implies NGC 7459 = UGC 12302, which is 12 seconds of RA larger (Swift's difference is 20 seconds).

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NGC 7453

23 01 25.5 -06 21 19; Aqr

 

= ***, Corwin.

 

Christian Peters discovered NGC 7453 on 7 Nov 1860 with the 13.5-inch refractor at Hamilton College Observatory. At Peters' position of 23 01 25.4 -06 21 17 (2000) is a pair of mag 12.5 stars at 15" separation.  His observation may refer to one of these stars as his description reads "*11 north, close to it."

 

RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent (Type 7) although the New Description ("E,R,BM") implies it refers to a galaxy.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 7454 = UGC 12305 = MCG +03-58-020 = CGCG 453-045 = LGG 469-002 = PGC 70264

23 01 06.6 +16 23 18; Peg

V = 11.8;  Size 2.2'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 150¡

 

17.5" (9/14/85): fairly bright, small, bright core, stellar nucleus, fainter extended halo.  A mag 11 star is 52" WNW of center.  Member of the NGC 7448 group.

 

13.1" (9/3/83): faint, small, extended NNW-SSE, small bright core.  A brighter star is close WNW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7454 = H II-249 on 15 Oct 1784 (sweep 290) and recorded "F, vS, R, lbM."  The next night (sweep 294), he logged "F, pS, E, following a pB star."  Rudolph Spitaler measured a very accurate micrometric position with the 27" refractor in Vienna in 1891.

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NGC 7455 = CGCG 405-021 = Mrk 523 = PGC 70246

23 00 41.0 +07 18 11; Psc

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 174¡

 

17.5" (8/21/87): faint, very small, round, small, brighter core.  A mag 11 star is 1.1' NNE of center.  Located 29' E of mag 6.3 SAO 127874.  The NGC identification is not certain.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7455 = Sw. II-96, along with NGC 7452 and 7459, on 14 Oct 1884 and recorded "eF; cE; pS * nr p.  Found while searching for Encke's Comet 1885 I."  There is nothing at his position, but 38 seconds of RA west is CGCG 405-021 = PGC 70246 and Kobold identified this object as NGC 7455 in his 1907 publication.  RNGC and CGCG also identify CGCG 405-021 as NGC 7455.  Herbert Howe noted, though, that there is no star "nr p[receding]."  A mag 12 star is 1.2' north-northeast of this galaxy, but not in the right orientation and furthermore this small galaxy is not "cE".  Because of this discrepancy Corwin suggests that perhaps NGC 7455 actually applies to the comet!   Bigourdan searched for NGC 7455, but his position refers to a star.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 7456 = ESO 346-026 = MCG -07-47-011 = PGC 70304

23 02 10.4 -39 34 10; Gru

V = 11.8;  Size 5.5'x1.6';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 23¡

 

13.1" (9/3/86): very faint, diffuse, moderately large, elongated SW-NE.  A pair of mag 13 stars is 3' E of center.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7456 = h3966 = h3967 on 4 Sep 1834 and recorded "F; L; mE; vglbM; pos of elongation 33.8¡; 4' l, 1' br; loses itself imperceptibly.  His Cape position for h3966 is 30' too far south but he corrected this clerical mistake in the errata page at the end of the catalogue. His position for h3967 is correct.

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NGC 7457 = UGC 12306 = MCG +05-54-026 = CGCG 496-032 = PGC 70258

23 01 00.0 +30 08 42; Peg

V = 11.2;  Size 4.3'x2.3';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 130¡

 

17.5" (8/13/88): bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, very bright core, very small bright nucleus.  Forms a pair with UGC 12311 8' NE (logged as "very faint, fairly small, elongated NW-SE, even surface brightness").  Several bright stars in field including two mag 10 stars 3.5' NE and 2.8' E.  A mag 11 star is 5.0' ENE and mag 9 SAO 90959 9.5' ENE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7457 = H II-212 = h2201 on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 267) and recorded "pB, pL, lE, mbM, r.  South of 2 faint stars.  Some stars visible in it."  His position is just off the west side of the galaxy.  JH made a single observation, "B; L; lE; pgbM; 60"; has a stellar point in the centre."  The observers at Birr Castle noted a star involved just preceding the nucleus.

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NGC 7458 = UGC 12309 = MCG +00-58-020 = CGCG 379-022 = PGC 70277

23 01 28.6 +01 45 12; Psc

V = 12.5;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 15¡

 

13.1" (11/29/86): fairly faint, small, round, small bright core.  An equilateral triangle with sides 2' formed by mag 8.8 SAO 127905 and two mag 11 stars lies about 6' N.  NGC 7460 is 31' NNE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7458 = H II-590 = h2200 on 18 Sep 1786 (sweep 589) and noted "F, S, bM."  JH made two observations, measured an accurate position, and noted on sweep 295, "vF; vS; psbM."

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NGC 7459 = UGC 12302 = MCG +01-58-021 = PGC 70261

23 00 59.9 +06 45 01; Psc

V = 14.5;  Size 0.6'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 57¡

 

24" (12/28/13): at 200x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated ~5:3 SW-NE, 0.8'x0.5', brighter core.  At 282x, the core appeared double [post merger system?], with the two extremely small nuclei just resolved [10" separation], and oriented along the major axis.  The northeast component appeared quasi-stellar.  A mag 13.2 star is 1.2' E of center.

 

17.5" (11/18/95): very faint, small, elongated 3:2 WSW-ENE, 40"x25", weak concentration.  Located 1.2' W of a mag 13 star.  Forms a pair with NGC 7452 3.1' W.  This is a double system (not resolved) and brightest in a faint cluster. Listed as nonexistent in RNGC.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7459 = Sw. II-97, along with NGC 7452 and 7455, on 14 Oct 1884 and recorded "eeF; pL; R; * nr; sf of 2 [with NGC 7452]."  There is nothing at his position, but Harold Corwin suggests this number applies to UGC 12302 (the brightest in the cluster), located 30 sec of RA due west of Swift's position.  This identity was first made by Hermann Kobold in his observation at Strasbourg in 1897 (published in 1907). This implies NGC 7452 = PGC 1306660, which is 21 seconds west of his position.

 

RNGC, MCG and PGC identify UGC 12302 as NGC 7452.  UGC does not apply an NGC designation for this double system.  RNGC classifies NGC 7459 as nonexistent (Type 7).  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 7460 = UGC 12312 = MCG +00-58-021 = CGCG 379-023 = PGC 70287

23 01 42.9 +02 15 49; Psc

V = 13.0;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 175¡

 

13.1" (11/29/86): faint, small, round, diffuse, even surface brightness.  NGC 7458 is 31' SSW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7460 = St VIII(a)-26 on 21 Sep 1876.  His position is very accurate.

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NGC 7461 = UGC 12314 = MCG +02-58-056 = CGCG 430-051 = PGC 70290

23 01 48.3 +15 34 57; Peg

V = 13.3;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 150¡

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, extremely small, round, compact, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star lies 2.3' SW. Member of the NGC 7448 group located 23' S of the NGC 7463, NGC 7464 and NGC 7465.  Pair with NGC 7467 9.5' ESE.

 

13.1" (9/22/84): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, even surface brightness, NGC 7467 11' E.  Located 23' S of NGC 7463/64/65 in the NGC 7448 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7461 = m 513 on 8 Aug 1863 and noted "vF, vS, alm stellar."  His position is 1' south of UGC 12314.

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NGC 7462 = ESO 346-028 = MCG -07-47-013 = PGC 70324

23 02 46.5 -40 50 07; Gru

V = 11.7;  Size 4.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 75¡

 

13.1" (9/3/86): fairly faint, fairly small, pretty edge-on oriented ~E-W.  A mag 11 star is at the west end and four other comparable stars including a nice double at 36" separation are within 5'.  Located 10.6' W of mag 6.6 SAO 231415.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7462 = h3968 on 5 Sep 1834 and recorded "pB; S; vmE; has a *11m preceding its extremity."  The mag 11 star at the west edge is MCG -07-47-012 (misclassified as a galaxy).

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NGC 7463 = UGC 12316 = MCG +03-58-022 = CGCG 453-048 = Holm 802a = PGC 70291

23 01 52.0 +15 58 55; Peg

V = 13.2;  Size 2.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 90¡

 

48" (10/26/16): at 610x; very bright, large, very elongated at least 4:1 E-W, ~2.0'x0.5'.  Unusual structure [nearly edge-on barred spiral] with a fairly bright bar angling across the central section ~SW-NE, ~25"x10".  A spiral arm extends west of the bar and a long, low surface brightness tidal arm stretches to the east.  NGC 7464, situated 0.7' SE, is just south of the beginning of the eastern arm.  The stretched appearance is likely due to an interaction with NGC 7465 2.6' SE.  These galaxy, as well as the two described below, are part of the NGC 7448 group.

 

UGC 12321, located 7' NE, appeared fairly faint, thin edge-on 6:1 sliver WSW-ENE, 35"x6", very small brighter core.  A 2' length NW-SE string of 3 mag 11.5-12 stars is close south.  The middle star is in this string is an uncatalogued double star with a separation of ~1.8".  UGC 12313, located 5.5' NNW, appeared very faint to faint, moderately large, edge-on ~4:1 WNW-ESE, 1.2'x0.3', slightly brighter core, fades out at the tips, overall fairly low surface brightness.

 

18" (7/29/03): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 E-W, 1.0'x0.4', weak concentration.  Larger but lower surface brightness than NGC 7465 2.6' SE.  A close companion, NGC 7464, is just 0.7' SE.  Located 2.5' NE of a mag 8.5 star that is a bit of a distraction in viewing, though it makes the group quite distinctive.

 

17.5" (9/14/85): fairly bright, very elongated 3:1 E-W, brighter core but no sharp nucleus.  Lower surface brightness than nearby NGC 7465 2.6' ESE.  In a close trio with NGC 7465 and NGC 7464 just 42" SE of center.  Located 2.5' NE of mag 8.5 SAO 108339.  Member of the NGC 7448 group.

 

13.1" (9/22/84): fairly faint, fairly small, diffuse.

 

13.1" (9/9/83): faint, fairly small, elongated E-W, lower surface brightness than NGC 7464 45" SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7463 = H III-210 = h2202, along with NGC 7465, on 16 Oct 1784 (sweep 294) and recorded "Two, the second of them [NGC 7465] stellar, both vF.  The first [NGC 7463] lE and a little larger than the second; both vF."  Both Herschels missed NGC 7464 (discovered by d'Arrest).

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NGC 7464 = UGC 12315 = MCG +03-58-023 = CGCG 453-049 = Holm 802c = LGG 469-007 = PGC 70292

23 01 53.7 +15 58 26; Peg

V = 13.3;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

48" (10/26/16): at 610x; moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, ~24"x20", broad concentration with no well defined core or nucleus but fairly high surface brightness.  Smallest and faintest in an excellent trio with NGC 7463 40" NW and NGC 7465 1.8' ESE.

 

18" (7/29/03): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, no concentration.  Located just 40" SE of the center of NGC 7463 in a trio with NGC 7465 and less than 3' NE of a mag 8.5 star.

 

17.5" (9/14/85): faint, very small, slightly elongated WSW-ENE, even surface brightness.  Located just 42" SE of the center of NGC 7463 with NGC 7465 1.8' ESE.  Located 2.5' NE of mag 8.5 SAO 108339.  Member of the NGC 7448 group.

 

13.1" (9/22/84): appears as an extremely small "knot" attached at the southeast end of NGC 7463.

 

13.1" (9/3/83): extremely faint, very small, round, near visual threshold.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 7464 = m 514 on 27 Aug 1864 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen while examining NGC 7463 and 7465.  NGC 7464 is labeled Roman numeral III in his sketch. Albert Marth independently discovered this galaxy just two months later on 23 Oct 1864 with the 48-inch on Malta ("vF, eS, near [NGC 7463]") as well as Hermann Vogel with the 8.5-inch refractor in Leipzig on 10 Aug 1869.

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NGC 7465 = UGC 12317 = Mrk 313 = MCG +03-58-024 = CGCG 453-050 = Holm 802b = LGG 469-003 = PGC 70295

23 02 01.0 +15 57 54; Peg

V = 12.6;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

48" (10/26/16): at 610x; bright, moderately large, oval NNW-SSE, ~0.9'x0.7'.  There are three distinct brightness zones; the oval halo, a slightly elongated bright core, and a very small intensely bright nucleus.  In an interacting triplet with NGC 7463 2.4' NW and NGC 7464 1.8' WNW.  Mag 8.2 HD 217602 lies 4' WSW.

 

18" (7/29/03): moderately bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 or 4:3 NNW-SSE, ~0.6'x0.4'.  Fairly high surface brightness with a weak, even concentration to a small brighter core and quasi-stellar nucleus.  Brightest in a close trio with the tight duo NGC 7463/7464 ~2' WNW.  The trio is situated ~3' NE of mag 8.5 SAO 108339.

 

17.5" (9/14/85): fairly bright, small, bright core, stellar nucleus, slightly elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE.  Brightest in a close trio with NGC 7464 1.8' WNW and NGC 7463 2.4' WNW in the NGC 7448 group.

 

13.1" (9/22/84): very small, round, stellar nucleus surrounding a small outer halo.

 

13.1" (9/3/83): fairly faint, very small, stellar nucleus, fairly high surface brightness.  Only viewing the nucleus?  Brightest in subgroup of three with NGC 7464 and NGC 7463.  Located 27' E of NGC 7448.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7465 = H III-211 = h2203, along with NGC 7463, on 16 Oct 1784 (sweep 294) and recorded "Two, the second of them [NGC 7465] stellar, both vF.  The first [NGC 7463] lE and a little larger than the second; both vF."  JH measured separate positions for the pair.  They both missed NGC 7464.

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NGC 7466 = UGC 12319 = MCG +04-54-017 = CGCG 475-023 = PGC 70299

23 02 03.4 +27 03 10; Peg

V = 13.6;  Size 1.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 26¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): faint, small, very elongated SSW-NNE, small bright core.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7466 = St V-10 on 20 Sep 1873 and recorded "eF; eS; with a condensation in the centre."  His position is accurate.  MCG and PGC incorrectly equate IC 5281 (a close double star) with NGC 7466.

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NGC 7467 = MCG +02-58-057 = CGCG 430-053 = PGC 70310

23 02 27.4 +15 33 15; Peg

V = 14.2;  Size 0.75'x0.55';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 33¡

 

17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, extremely small, round.  A mag 15 star is just off the east edge 1.0' from center.  Located 9.5' ESE of NGC 7461 in the NGC 7448 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7467 = m 515 on 23 Oct 1864 and noted "eF, v."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7468 = UGC 12329 = CGCG 453-052 = Mrk 314 = LGG 469-004 = PGC 70332

23 02 59.3 +16 36 18; Peg

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (9/2/89): faint, small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Located 8.7' N of mag 7.9 SAO 108362.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7468 = H III-202 on 15 Oct 1784 (sweep 290) and recorded "eF, vS, stellar.  240 confirmed it."  CH's reduction is a good match with UGC 12329 = PGC 70332.  No observations were made by JH, but d'Arrest measured three positions.

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NGC 7469 = Arp 298 NED1 = UGC 12332 = MCG +01-58-025 = Holm 803a = Mrk 1514 = PGC 70348

23 03 15.7 +08 52 26; Peg

V = 12.3;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 125¡

 

17.5" (11/1/86): sharp, bright stellar nucleus (Sy 1 galaxy) surrounded by a small faint halo.  A faint star is just east.  Forms a close pair (Arp 298) with IC 5283 1.3' NNE.  Located at the western vertex of a triangle with mag 8.5 SAO 127930 5.4' SE and mag 8.4 SAO 27929 6.3' NE.  This is a Seyfert galaxy with a variable nucleus.  IC 5283 is a very faint glow, small, round, diffuse, with an even surface brightness.

 

13" (11/13/82): moderately bright, small, round, small bright nucleus surrounded by small diffuse halo.  The nucleus dominates the galaxy.  Located along the west side of three mag 9-10 stars.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7469 = H III-230 = h2204 on 12 Nov 1784 (sweep 313) and noted "eF, eS, but 240 left a doubt."  He found it again on 26 Sep 1785 (sweep 442) and logged "suspected a small irregular patch with seeming nebulosity."  He didn't link the second observation with the first or assign it an internal discovery number.  JH made the single observation "F; S; R; vsmbM; equals a star 12m with a vF wisp about it.  At first seems like a star."  The RA in the RNGC is 1.0 minute too large.  NGC 7469 is one of the 6 original Sy 1 galaxies studied by Seyfert in his seminal 1943 paper "Nuclear Emission in Spiral Nebulae".

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NGC 7470 = ESO 239-009 = AM 2302-502 = PGC 70431

23 05 14.1 -50 06 42; Gru

V = 13.9;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 84¡

 

30" (10/15/15 - OzSky): at 303x and 394x; fairly faint to moderately bright, moderately large, slightly elongated, ~50"x40", contains a small slightly brighter core and a patchy halo.  A mag 12.5 star is 2.5' NW.  Forms a pair with PGC 469486 1.9' SSW.  At 394x, the (line of sight) companion appeared faint, very small, round, 10" diameter.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7470 = h3969 on 30 Sep 1834 and recorded "eF; R; glbM; 60"; has a * 11m np 3' dist."  There is nothing at his position but 0.8 min of RA east is ESO 239-009 and his description matches.

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NGC 7471 = ESO 535-4

23 03 54 -22 55; Aqr

 

= Not found, Corwin, RNGC and ESO.  = *?, SG

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 7471 = LM 2-470 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.8, 0.2' dia, lE 85¡, sbM, 3 stars 10, p[recede] 20 seconds."  There is nothing near his position.  If Muller's object is the mag 15 star at 23 05 32.9 -22 53 44 (1 min 38 seconds of RA east), there are three mag 12-13 stars about 30 seconds preceding.

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NGC 7472 = NGC 7482 = MCG +00-58-029 = CGCG 379-031 = PGC 70446

23 05 38.6 +03 03 33; Psc

 

See observing notes for NGC 7482.

 

Otto Struve found NGC 7472 on 7 Dec 1865 with the 15-inch Merz refractor at Pulkovo Observatory while unsuccessfully searching for comet Biela.  He noted a faint star with a nebulous halo.  There is nothing near his position, but exactly 2.0 minutes of RA east is NGC 7482, which was discovered by Marth the previous year on 11 Aug 1864.

 

Sherburne Burnham, who examined the field (see Publ of Lick Obs, II), noted there was only one galaxy in the vicinity, essentially agreeing with Marth's position for NGC 7482, and that NGC 7472 as well as d'Arrest's NGC 7477 were probably duplicates.  Dreyer mentioned this in the IC I Notes, although NGC 7477 is a different object.  See NGC 7477.

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NGC 7473 = UGC 12335 = MCG +05-54-030 = CGCG 496-038 = PGC 70373

23 03 57.1 +30 09 37; Peg

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 45¡

 

17.5" (8/13/88): faint, small, oval SSW-NNE, bright core.  A mag 14 star is 46" N of center.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7473 = m 516 on 6 Sep 1863 and noted "vF, S, R."  His position is 6 seconds of time too small.

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NGC 7474 = MCG +03-58-026 = PGC 70379

23 04 04.4 +20 04 02; Peg

V = 14.1;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

24" (9/10/15): faint to fairly faint, small, round, 18" diameter, stellar nucleus.  First in a trio with NGC 7475  1.6' NE (double system with MCG +03-58-028).  A mag 11.5 star lies 2' N and a wide pair (~15") is 2.8' SE.

 

17.5" (9/2/89): very faint, extremely small, round.  A mag 11 star is 2.0' N.  Forms a pair with NGC 7475 1.6' NE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7474 = m 517, along with NGC 7475, on 9 Sep 1864 and noted "eF, vS."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7475 = UGC 12337 = MCG +03-58-027 = MCG +03-58-028 = CGCG 453-059 = PGC 70382 = PGC 70383

23 04 10.9 +20 04 52; Peg

V = 13.6;  Size 1.5'x0.9';  PA = 54¡

 

24" (9/10/15): at 260x; fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 or 4:3 WSW-ENE, ~0.6'x0.4', contains a very small bright nucleus that appears offset to the southwest side.  NGC 7474 lies 1.6' SE.  A mag 11.5 star lies 1.7' NW.

 

With careful viewing this is clearly seen as a double system with a companion attached at the northeast end (MCG +03-58-028 = PGC 70382).  It was visible as a faint, small, round glow, 12" in diameter.  The centers of the galaxies are separated by just 27" and nearly collinear with NGC 7474.

 

17.5" (9/2/89): faint, fairly small, elongated SW-NE.  A mag 11 star is 1.7' NW.  Forms a pair with NGC 7474 1.5' SW.  The compact companion at the NE end was unresolved.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7475 = m 518, along with NGC 7474, on 9 Sep 1864 and noted "vF, S."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7476 = ESO 290-045 = MCG -07-47-015 = PGC 70427

23 05 11.7 -43 05 51; Gru

V = 12.7;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 175¡

 

17.5" (10/20/90): very faint, fairly small, possibly oval N-S, bright core.  Forms the southern vertex of an isosceles triangle with mag 7.7 SAO 231425 3' NW and mag 7.2 SAO 231432 4' NNE.  Located 32' ENE of mag 4.3 Theta Gruis.  This is an exceptionally far southern galaxy for viewing from Northern California.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7476 = h3970 on 5 Sep 1834 and recorded "pF; S; R; 12"; makes an obtuse-angled triangle, with 2 st 7m at some distance." His position (measured on 2 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 7477 = PGC 1245518

23 04 40.7 +03 07 05; Psc

V = 15.0;  Size 0.3'x0.15'

 

18" (9/26/11): this number applies to an extremely faint galaxy with a star superimposed.  At 175x, it appeared as a faint, nebulous patch (perhaps 15" diameter) with one or two very faint stars involved.  At 225x, three mag 14.5 stars were resolved including a 15" pair but a third star close north was not involved in the glow.  It was easy to see to see how this knot of stars could be taken as nebulous even if the galaxy was not seen.  NGC 7482 lies 15' ESE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 7477 on 9 Sep 1866 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  At his exact position is a group of 3 faint stars and an extremely faint galaxy (LEDA 1245518).  Probably d'Arrest picked up the combined glow of a faint star and the galaxy (V = 15.0) or else two close stars.  Hermann Kobold's position, measured in 1898 at the Stasbourg Observatory, is at the north end of LEDA 1245518, where a faint star is attached. Reinmuth also identified NGC 7477 as "4 st 15 in Dreyer's place; ? eeF vS neb s of 2nd * alm att?, neb E 75 deg?."

 

Burnham noted the odd situation that NGC 7477 and 7472 precede Marth's NGC 7482 by exactly 1.0 tmin and 2.0 tmin of RA, respectively, and felt all 3 numbers referred to the same galaxy.  But Harold Corwin notes that only NGC 7472 (discovered by Otto Struve) is identical to NGC 7482.

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NGC 7478 = PGC 70418

23 04 56.6 +02 34 40; Psc

V = 15.4;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (11/18/95): very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, slightly brighter core.  Located 1.0' SE of a mag 11.5 star and fainter of a pair with NGC 7480 4.6' ESE.  Not listed in CGCG, MCG or RC3.

 

13": not found.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7478 = m 519, along with NGC 7480, on 11 Aug 1864 and noted "eF, E."  His position is 1.2' too far northwest. This galaxy is mentioned in UGC notes to NGC 7480 but is not identified as NGC 7478.

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NGC 7479 = UGC 12343 = MCG +02-58-060 = CGCG 430-058 = PGC 70419

23 04 56.7 +12 19 23; Peg

V = 10.8;  Size 4.1'x3.1';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 25¡

 

48" (11/2/13, 10/30/16 and 10/28/19): The view of NGC 7479 was mesmerizing at 488x and 610x.  Compared to the view last October, I noticed the fainter eastern arm was broader (split in two parallel branches on images) and although diffuse, obviously extended all the way to the southern edge of the galaxy, nearly reaching a mag 16 star.  Also the bright arm on the western side of the bar dimmed as it extended north, but wrapped all the way or just beyond a mag 15.7 star situated 48" SW of the bright mag 12.5 star off the north end of the bar.  The western arm clearly had a clumpy appearance with a couple of brighter patches.  Near the south end of this arm [1.1' SSW of center] is a very faint quasi-stellar knot, which is catalogued as HII region #45 in Hodge and Kennicutt's 1983 "An Atlas of H II regions in 125 galaxies".  Another brighter knot, ~12"x6", is at the southwest end of the arm [1.5' SW of center].  This is region #57 in the HK Atlas.  A faint edge-on (V = 17.8), lies 3.5' NW of NGC 7479.

 

48" (10/22/11): NGC 7479 is probably the best barred spiral in the northern sky. At 488x and 610x the central bar appears very bright and extended over 2' N-S. The bar had a mottled appearance, bulging slightly in the center, was broadly concentrated with a small bright core. A bright mag 12.5 star is at the north end of the bar, 1.3' from the center.

 

At the northern end, an arm emerges from the bar and begins to curve counterclockwise to the east, but abruptly dims and merges with the halo on the east side. At the south end of the bar, a beautiful sweeping arm wraps counterclockwise around the south of a superimposed mag 13.5 star, extending to the west side of the core. This prominent arm dims and ends just north of an extremely faint HII knot (stellar) in the arm, which is catalogued as object #4 in Rozas' et al 1999 A&AS paper "Global properties of the population of HII regions in NGC 7479 from photometric H-alpha imaging". A mag 16.4 star is 0.7' due west (outside the arm) of this knot. A mag 15.7 star is also superimposed between the faint HII knot and the bright star at the north end. 

 

18" (11/7/07): I was surprised the thin spiral arm was readily visible from Lake Sonoma extending from the south end of the bar and wrapping outside the mag 13.5 star situated 50' SW of the core.  This arm dimmed out roughly due west of the star.  The central bar extends 2.4'x0.6' N-S and contains a bulging 25" core that broadly brightens to an occasional faint stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Barely off the north end of the central bar is a mag 12.5 star (1.3' due north of center) and there was just a hint of the spiral arm at the north end of the bar beginning to bend towards the east.

 

18" (10/19/06): fairly bright, fairly large, the main bar appears elongated 3:1 N-S, moderately concentrated with a bright core.  A mag 12.5 star is just off the north tip of the bar.  At the south end an extension is generally visible with averted vision hooking back sharply on the west side towards the north.  This spiral arm dims as it hooks but intermittently appears to sweep due north though does not extend as far as the mag 13.5 star off the SW side of the core.

 

17.5" (7/19/90): this is one of few northern barred spirals in which the structure is clearly visible. A bright bar is oriented N-S with a bright core and nearly stellar nucleus. A mag 13 star is off the north edge 1.4' from center and a fainter mag 14 star is 47" SW of center. A thin curving spiral arm attached at the south end curves to the west and then north beyond the mag 14 star SW of the core. This arm parallels the bar along the west side about 90¡. At the Sierra Buttes, the spiral arm was held almost continuously with averted vision. Located 3.3' NNE of a mag 10 star.

 

17.5" (10/12/85): thin curving arm clearly seen attached at the SW end curving to the north around a faint star.

 

13.1" (9/29/84): fairly bright, elongated ~N-S.  Strong impression of a dark lane or gap on the west wide and brief hints of haze beyond this gap, particularly around the south end towards the west (spiral arm).

 

13.1" (11/5/83): fairly bright, elongated N-S, bright core.  Two faint stars are west and north.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7479 = H I-55 = h2205 on 19 Oct 1784 (sweep 299) and noted "F, mE, r, near 3' in length and about 1' in breadth; I see 2 or 3 stars in it; but they do not seem to belong to it."  On 23 Nov 1785 (sweep 476) he noted "cB, mE nearly in the direction of the meridian; about 4' long, about 2' broad, gbM."  A sketch was published in 1811.

 

Lord Rosse or his assistant George Johnstone Stoney sketched NGC 7479 on 10 Sep 1849 (figure 4 in the 1850 PT paper).  The sketch shows a single prominent spiral arm wrapping nearly completely back to the bar, though the form was uncertain: "Spiral, but query whether this is not more properly an annular than a spiral nebula."  Tempel, John Herschel and d'Arrest made additional sketches.

 

In the 1900 paper "The spiral nebula H I 55 Pegasi" (1900ApJ....11....1K), Lick astronomer James Keeler compared the various sketches of NGC 7479 with the photograph taken with the Crossley reflector to demonstrate the subjectivity of sketches and their limitations compared to photographs.

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NGC 7480 = UGC 12349 = MCG +00-58-027 = CGCG 379-030 = Holm 804a = PGC 70432

23 05 13.6 +02 32 58; Psc

V = 14.0;  Size 1.3'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 105¡

 

17.5" (11/18/95): faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, 1.0'x0.3.'  Contains a small, round bright core with very faint thin extensions.  Preceded by an isosceles triangle of mag 10.5 stars (with equal sides about 3.5' and base 5.5').  Forms a pair with NGC 7478 4.6' WNW.

 

13.1" (11/29/86): very faint, small, edge-on WNW-ESE.  Nearby NGC 7478 not seen.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7480 = m 520, along with NGC 7478, on 11 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, vS, vlE, vgbM."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7481

23 05 48 -19 57; Aqr

 

= Not found, Corwin and RNGC.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 7481 = LM 1-261 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 14.0, vS, R, gbM."  There nothing near his rough position and Harold Corwin was unable to find a reasonable candidate in the area.

 

ESO assigned ESO 604-003 to NGC 7481, though questioned the identification as uncertain.  This galaxy is 20 seconds of RA east and 7' north of Stone's position and consists of a pair of extremely faint galaxies close to a mag 14-14.5 star.  Corwin rejects this as a plausible candidate, so this number is lost.

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NGC 7482 = NGC 7472 = MCG +00-58-029 = CGCG 379-031 = PGC 70446

23 05 38.6 +03 03 33; Psc

V = 13.6;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 140¡

 

13.1" (11/29/86): faint, very small, round.  Collinear with a mag 11.5 star 5.8' NW and a mag 10.5 star 7.8' NW.  NGC 7483 lies 29' N.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7482 = m 521 on 11 Aug 1864 and noted "F, vS, stellar."  His position is accurate to within 1'.  Otto Struve probably found this galaxy again on 7 Dec 1865 as his position for NGC 7472 is 2.0 minutes of RA west.  So, NGC 7482 = NGC 7472.

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NGC 7483 = UGC 12353 = MCG +00-58-030 = CGCG 379-032 = PGC 70455

23 05 48.3 +03 32 42; Psc

V = 13.0;  Size 1.6'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 110¡

 

13.1" (11/29/86): fairly faint, small, round, noticeable small bright core.  Possible larger fainter outer halo.  NGC 7482 is 29' S.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7483 = h2206 on 18 Sep 1830 and recorded "vF; E; psbM; 20" l, 8" br."  His single position is accurate.

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NGC 7484 = ESO 407-006 = MCG -06-50-026 = PGC 70505

23 07 04.9 -36 16 29; Scl

V = 11.8;  Size 1.8'x1.7';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (10/20/90): fairly faint, small, round, bright core.  Located just 1' N of mag 9.9 SAO 214317 and 3.8' W of mag 9.8 SAO 214322!  Very close to the Sculptor, Pisces Austrinus and Grus border.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7484 = h3971 = h3972 on 30 Aug 1834 and recorded "pB; S; R; gbM; attached to, or not much separated from, a * 8m just south of neb, 60" dist."  His position (for h3971) is 1.0 min of RA too small.  He observed this galaxy on 3 additional sweeps, recording the position accurately under h3972and noted the probable RA error with h3971..  The two entries were combined in the GC and NGC.

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NGC 7485 = UGC 12360 = MCG +06-50-022 = CGCG 515-024 = PGC 70470

23 06 04.9 +34 06 28; Peg

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 146¡

 

17.5" (8/13/88): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated oval NW-SE, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  A close mag 15 double star is 1.8' ESE = NGC 7486.

 

Forms a pair with UGC 12358 4.8' NW (incorrectly identified in RNGC as NGC 7485).  UGC 12358 appeared extremely faint, very elongated ~E-W, near visual threshold.  A star attached at the southwest end detracts from viewing.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7485 = h2207 on 19 Aug 1828 and recorded "vF; S; R; bM; 12"; has a * 10m, 5' preceding in same parallel.  His position is just 2 seconds of RA west of UGC 12360, though the mag 10 star is 7' west-northwest.

 

The RNGC misidentifies UGC 12358 as NGC 7485.  This extremely faint edge-on galaxy is located 4.8' northwest of NGC 7485.  The correct data for NGC 7485 is listed in the RNGC under NGC 7486.  This error was listed in my RNGC Corrections #3.

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NGC 7486

23 06 06.7 +34 04 25; Peg

 

17.5" (8/13/88): this number refers to three mag 15 stars located ~2' ESE NGC 7485.  Not knowing the nature of this object, I logged NGC 7486 as "very faint, extremely small, forming a close pair with a mag 15 star" and assumed this observation referred to a very small galaxy.  But on the DSS the "extremely small" object is just two very close mag 15 stars that form a tight triple with the mag 15 star.  Using Lord Rosse's 72", Copeland made the same error.

 

Ralph Copeland discovered NGC 7486 on 25 Aug 1871 while observing GC 4895 = NGC 7485.  He noted a "D neb f a little south [of NGC 7485]."  On 3 Dec 1877 Dreyer observed the field and logged "vF, vS, undoubtedly seen, position angle 109.5¡± and distance 114"."  At Dreyer's exact offset from NGC 7485 is compact group of 4 faint stars that I also mistook as a nebulous in my 17.5"!   This is the last object in the GC Supplement Addenda (GC 6251).

 

RNGC misidentifies NGC 7485 as NGC 7486.  This error was noted in my Catalogue Corrections #3.

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NGC 7487 = NGC 7210 = UGC 12368 = MCG +05-54-035 = CGCG 496-043 = PGC 70496

23 06 50.5 +28 10 45; Peg

V = 13.5;  Size 1.8'x1.7'

 

17.5" (8/13/88): faint, fairly small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Located 40' ENE of Beta Pegasi (V = 2.4).

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7487 = Sw. IV-89 on 3 Aug 1886 and noted "vF; S; R."  His RA is 8 seconds too large.

 

The original discovery of this galaxy was made by JH on 17 Nov 1827, but Harold Corwin found (April 2016) that he made a transcription error in copying his logbook RA to his Slough Catalogue, so the RA (marked as uncertain) is 1 hour too small.  Furthermore, he made another error when transferring the declination to the General Catalogue, so his GC and NGC north polar distance is one degree too large!  Correcting both of these errors, the position of NGC 7210 = h2148 matches NGC 7487.  Although NGC 7210 should be the primary designation, all catalogues of course identify this galaxy as NGC 7487 only (as of 2016).

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NGC 7488 = MCG +00-59-001 = CGCG 380-001 = PGC 70539

23 07 48.9 +00 56 26; Psc

V = 13.8;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 150¡

 

17.5" (8/1/87): fairly faint, very small, round, bright core.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7488 = m 522 on 11 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, vS, stellar."  His position in accurate.

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NGC 7489 = UGC 12378 = MCG +04-54-028 = CGCG 475-038 = PGC 70532

23 07 32.7 +22 59 53; Peg

V = 13.4;  Size 2.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 170¡

 

13.1" (9/22/84): fairly faint, very diffuse, fairly small.  A mag 14 star is very close southwest, just 33" from the center.  Located 4.5' SSW of mag 8.9 SAO 91024 and 10.7' WSW of mag 8.3 SAO 91034.  NGC 7489 is larger and slightly brighter than IC 5285 8.6' WSW.  IC 5285, an unusual ring galaxy, appeared faint, very small, almost round, slightly elongated ~E-W, possible faint stellar nucleus.  A very faint mag 14.5 star is at the west edge, 23" from center.

 

William Lassell discovered NGC 7489 = m523 on 14 Sep 1863 from Malta and recorded "F, S, R; found by L."  This was his last of four NGC discoveries and occurred while Marth was already surveying Pegasus for new objects (10 were discovered between the 13th and 17th of Sep).  His position is off by 1.5' in dec (too far south).

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NGC 7490 = UGC 12379 = MCG +05-54-036 = CGCG 496-044 = PGC 70526

23 07 25.2 +32 22 30; Peg

V = 12.3;  Size 2.8'x2.6';  Surf Br = 14.3

 

17.5" (8/13/88): moderately bright, fairly large, round, bright core, stellar nucleus, large faint halo.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7490 = St X-39 on 11 Oct 1879.  His position is an exact match with UGC 12379.  Edward Holden found this galaxy again on 21 Aug 1881 with the 15.6-inch Clark refractor at the Washburn Observatory.  He assumed it was new and reported it as #23 in his list of new nebulae in the Publications of the Washburn Observatory, Vol I.   Both Stephan and Holden are credited with the discovery in the NGC.

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NGC 7491 = MCG -01-59-002 = PGC 70546

23 08 06.0 -05 58 00; Aqr

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 172¡

 

17.5" (9/15/90): very faint, small, round, weak concentration.  Located 2.5' N of a mag 10 star.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7491 = St XII-94 on 21 Aug 1881.  His position is very accurate.

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NGC 7492

23 08 26.6 -15 36 41; Aqr

V = 11.5;  Size 4.2'

 

24" (11/24/14): picked up at 200x as a faint, large, low surface brightness glow with a very weak concentration, 4'-5' diameter.  At 375x, a few resolved stars shone steadily and quite a number popped in/out view consistently.  Perhaps two dozen were intermittently resolved, though the surface was too lively (particularly with averted vision) to count reliably. These are the brightest red giant members and range from mag 15.5 to 16+. 

 

17.5" (8/1/86): faint, large, round, diffuse, no resolution.

 

8" (8/2/81): very faint, diffuse, moderately large, no resolution.  Very low surface brightness for a NGC globular and difficult with this aperture.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7492 = H III-558 = h2208 on 20 Sep 1786 (sweep 595) and recorded "eF, cL, iR.  By changing and wiping the eye glasses, I saw it with both so as to leave no doubt.  5 or 6' dia."  JH called this cluster "eF; vL; 2 or 3'; the faintest thing imaginable; half way between two coarse double stars in the same parallel."

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NGC 7493

23 08 31.6 +00 54 36; Psc

 

= *, Corwin.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 7493 = Big. 95 on 28 Oct 1886 and noted "mag 13.4; stellar.  Sky mediocre."  His micrometric position corresponds with a mag 15 star, so this identification is secure.

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NGC 7494 = ESO 535-005 = MCG -04-54-007 = PGC 70568

23 08 58.6 -24 22 10; Aqr

V = 14.7;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.2

 

17.5" (10/21/95): extremely faint, small, round, 25" diameter, very low even surface brightness, requires averted vision.  NGC 7498 lies 13.5' ESE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7494 = m 524, along with NGC 7498, on 24 Sep 1864 and noted "eF, vS, stellar."  His position is accurate to within 1'.

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NGC 7495 = UGC 12391 = MCG +02-59-003 = CGCG 431-006 = PGC 70566

23 08 57.2 +12 02 53; Peg

V = 13.1;  Size 1.8'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 5¡

 

17.5" (7/19/90): faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 SSW-NNE, even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is at the NNE end.  Located 7' NW of mag 8.7 SAO 108451.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7495 = Sw. II-98 on 31 Oct 1885 and recorded "eF; lE; S; 9m star close nf."  His position is just 6 seconds of RA too small.  There is 9th magnitude star 7' southeast, but he is likely referring to the 12-13th magnitude star 1.3' northeast.

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NGC 7496 = ESO 291-001 = MCG -07-47-020 = VV 771 = LGG 472-001 = PGC 70588

23 09 47.3 -43 25 41; Gru

V = 11.1;  Size 3.3'x3.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 2¡

 

17.5" (10/20/90): faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 NNW-SSE, brighter core.  A mag 10.5 star is off the north end 1.8' from center!  Located 32' W of mag 4.3 Theta Gruis (V = 4.3).

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7496 = h3973 on 5 Sep 1834 and recorded "B; L; lE; vgmbM; to a * 13m."

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NGC 7497 = UGC 12392 = MCG +03-59-002 = CGCG 454-003 = LGG 470-003 = PGC 70569

23 09 03.4 +18 10 38; Peg

V = 12.2;  Size 4.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 48¡

 

17.5" (9/2/89): fairly faint, fairly large, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, brighter middle, fairly low surface brightness.

 

On deep images, NGC 7497 resides in a remarkable streak of "Integrated Flux Nebula" in Pegasus.  IFN, also known as Galactic Cirrus is dust and gas outside the plane of the Milky Way.  It dimly shines by reflected light (blue) as well as fluoresced by ultraviolet light of massive stars within the disk of our galaxy.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7497 = H III-203 = h2209 on 15 Oct 1784 (sweep 290) and recorded "vF, E, considerably L, about 2' long."  JH made two observations: "eF; E like the tail of a comet; lbM." (sweep 11) and "vF; mE; pos 45¡ nf to sp; 4' l, 1' br." (sweep 92).

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NGC 7498 = ESO 535-006 = MCG -04-54-008 = PGC 70590

23 09 56.2 -24 25 30; Aqr

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 2¡

 

17.5" (10/21/95): very faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 40"x20", very weak concentration.  Located 4.7' SSW of a mag 11 star.  A mag 13.5 star is 2.1' NW and a mag 15 star 1.5' NE of center.  NGC 7494 lies 13.5' WNW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7498 = m 525, along with NGC 7494, on 24 Sep 1864 and noted "vF, S, irr R."  His dec is 1' too large.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 at Denver.

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NGC 7499 = UGC 12397 = MCG +01-59-005 = CGCG 406-007 = PGC 70608

23 10 22.4 +07 34 50; Psc

V = 12.8;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 10¡

 

17.5" (8/1/87): faint, small, round, weak concentration.  First of three with NGC 7501 2.1' ENE and NGC 7503 5.0' ESE.  This trio is the brightest in the Pegasus II cluster.  Two very faint members, MCG +01-59-002 and CGCG 406-005 are located 5' W and ~8' SW, respectively.  Located 14' NNE of mag 7.2 SAO 128008.

 

CGCG 406-005 required averted vision using 220x to momentarily glimpse a 20", very low surface brightness circular patch, 3.0' NW of a mag 12.5-13 star.  A star appears to be very close or involved or possibly the galaxy contains a faint stellar nucleus.  Located ~10' SW of the NGC 7499/7501/7503 trio.

 

MCG +01-59-002 was also a difficult target and appeared as an extremely faint, small thin sliver, ~0.3'x0.1', but too faint for any details.  Collinear with brighter NGC 7499 and NGC 7501 to the east.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7499 = m 526, along with NGC 7501 and 7503, on 2 Sep 1864 and noted "vF, vS, stellar."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7500 = UGC 12399 = MCG +02-59-004 = CGCG 431-008 = PGC 70620

23 10 29.8 +11 00 44; Peg

V = 13.3;  Size 2.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 125¡

 

17.5" (9/19/87): faint, small, slightly elongated, small bright core, possible faint stellar nucleus.  Located 12' N of mag 7.4 SAO 108442.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7500 = Sw. IV-90 on 8 Aug 1886 and noted "eF; vS; R."  His position is 8 seconds too far west and 1' too far north (2.3' error).

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NGC 7501 = MCG +01-59-007 = CGCG 406-008 = PGC 70619

23 10 30.4 +07 35 21; Psc

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (8/1/87): very faint, very small, round, very small brighter core.  NGC 7501 is the faintest in a trio with NGC 7499 2.1' WSW and NGC 7503 3.2' ESE.  Located in the core of the Pegasus II galaxy cluster.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7501 = m 527, along with NGC 7499 and 7503, on 2 Sep 1864 and simply noted "eF".  His dec is 1' too large.

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NGC 7502 = ESO 604-005

23 10 19.8 -21 44 15; Aqr

 

= faint **, ESO.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 7502 = LM 2-471 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  He reported "mag 15.8; 0.3' dia; E 290¡; double star?" There is nothing at his rough position, but Harold Corwin identifies NGC 7502 as a double star (20" separation on the DSS) just 30 seconds west of Muller's position and matching his PA and size estimates.  ESO and RNGC also identify NGC 7502 as a double star.

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NGC 7503 = MCG +01-59-008 = CGCG 406-012 = PGC 70628

23 10 42.3 +07 34 04; Psc

V = 13.2;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (8/1/87): faint, small, round.  NGC 7503 is the third in a trio with NGC 7501 3.2' WNW and similar to NGC 7499 5.0' WNW but with a more compact core.  Located in the core of the Pegasus II cluster.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7503 = m 528, along with NGC 7499 and 7503, on 2 Sep 1864 and noted "vF, S, stellar."  His position is accurate.

******************************

 

NGC 7504

23 10 41.1 +14 23 10; Peg

 

= *?, Corwin.  =*, Carlson.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7504 = m 529 on 2 Sep 1864 and noted "vF, S, stellar."  There is no nearby galaxy to his position.  Bigourdan was unsuccessful in identifying it, of course, and Reinmuth identified a nearby mag 14 star as NGC 7504 (repeated by Carlson in her 1940 paper on NGC/IC corrections).  Harold Corwin also tentatively identifies NGC 7504 with this star as he was unable to find another candidate.  Still, we could just call this number lost.

******************************

 

NGC 7505 = CGCG 431-009 = PGC 70636

23 11 00.7 +13 37 54; Peg

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 111¡

 

18" (10/25/03): very faint, extremely small, 10" diameter.  At 257x, a very faint stellar nucleus was clearly visible embedded in a small halo.  Located 22' WSW of NGC 7511.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7505 = Sw. V-94 on 25 Sep 1886 and recorded "eeeF; eS; lE; nearly between a bright star and a very wide double star."  His position is fairly accurate.

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NGC 7506 = UGC 12406 = MCG +00-59-005 = CGCG 380-006 = PGC 70660

23 11 41.0 -02 09 36; Psc

V = 12.9;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 103¡

 

17.5" (8/1/87): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated WNW-ESE, bright core, fainter extensions.  NGC 7517 lies 23.5' ENE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7506 = H III-184 = h2210 on 20 Sep 1784 (sweep 279) and logged "eF, vS, stellar.  240 verified it."  On 6 Sep 1831 (sweep 371), JH called it "Not vF; R; gb and smbM to a * 15m."  His mean position from two observations is accurate.

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NGC 7507 = ESO 469-019 = MCG -05-54-022 = AM 2309-284 = PGC 70676

23 12 07.6 -28 32 26; Scl

V = 10.4;  Size 2.8'x2.7';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

17.5" (10/13/90): bright, fairly small, round, unusually bright compact core, stellar nucleus.  Located 6' NW of a mag 10 star.  NGC 7513 lies 18' NE. 

 

8" (7/24/82) : fairly bright, small, small very bright core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7507 = H II-2 = h2211 = h3974 on 30 Oct 1783 (#2 sweep discovery).  He made a total of 3 observations and noted on 1 Sep 1785 (sweep 430), "pB, S, irr figure, mbM."  JH made observations both at Slough and at the CGH, where he logged "B; R; psvmbM; 60"."

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NGC 7508 = UGC 12408 = MCG +02-59-005 = CGCG 431-011 = PGC 70663

23 11 49.2 +12 56 25; Peg

V = 14.7;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 160¡

 

17.5" (7/19/90): very faint, very small, edge-on 4:1 NNW-SSE, very thin extensions from stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 2.5' NW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7508 = h2212 on 13 Oct 1825 (sweep 14) and called it "eF; R; seems to have a star in centre."  His position is fairly accurate.

******************************

 

NGC 7509 = MCG +02-59-006 = CGCG 431-013 = PGC 70679

23 12 21.4 +14 36 34; Peg

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

17.5" (9/23/89): faint, small, slightly elongated E-W, weak gradual concentration.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7509 = Sw. IV-91 on 8 Aug 1886 with his 16-inch refractor and recorded "vF; S; R: bet 2 stars."  His position is 7 seconds of RA west and 1' north of CGCG 431-013.  The 2 stars might be a mag 9.5 star 5' northeast and a mag 9.9 star 5' south or refer to two fainter but closer stars.

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NGC 7510 = Cr 454 = Lund 1030 = Do 57 = OCL-256

23 11 04 +60 34 18; Cep

V = 7.9;  Size 4'

 

18" (10/9/04): beautifully rich, small cluster with a triangular or wedge-shaded outline.  Roughly 50 stars are resolved in a 4'x2' region with additional sprays of stars extending to the SW and NE.  There is a well-defined border of brighter stars running SW-NE along the south side of the wedge with the brightest mag 9.6 member at the east end of this string.  There are several 11-12th mag members, but most seem mag 13 and fainter.  The north end of the giant HII complex Sh 2-157 lies ~30' E.

 

17.5" (10/17/98): very pretty triangular wedge of stars in a 5x2' group.  There are brighter stars at the west and east vertex with the brightest star at the following end.  Within the triangle are two dozen stars oriented SW-NE including a number of mag 14-15 stars on the eastern side.  Just following the main grouping are another 8 or 9 stars that may be part of the cluster.  Picked up while viewing nearby Sh2-157.

 

13" (9/9/83): striking at 62x, about two dozen stars in a wedge-shape elongated SW-NE.  Compact cluster Mrk 50 and HII region LBN 11 is ~30' ESE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7510 = H VII-44 = h2213 on 3 Nov 1787 (sweep 773) and recorded "a cl of compressed pL stars, considerably rich, E, the stars arranged in lines."  On 29 Sep 1829 (sweep 213), JH logged "a very pretty fan-shaped cluster of pB close stars in two lines with other small to N.  A * 10m taken.  Another 11m dist 19 seconds; pos = 244¡."

******************************

 

NGC 7511 = UGC 12412 = MCG +02-59-007 = CGCG 431-012 = PGC 70691

23 12 26.3 +13 43 35; Peg

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 133¡

 

17.5" (7/19/90): faint, small, elongated 2:1 NW-SW, even surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is at the south end.  A distinctive line of five stars mag 12-13 oriented NW-SE follows.

 

17.5" (9/23/89): very faint, very small, slightly elongated, almost even surface brightness.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7511 = Sw. IV-92 = Sw. V-95 on 6 Sep 1886 and recorded "eeF; S; R; 5 or 6 stars nf in a line; e diff."  His position is 9 seconds of RA east of UGC 12412 and the description applies.  He found this galaxy again later in the month (25 Sep) and reported it as new in list V-95 at the correct position and a similar description.

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NGC 7512 = UGC 12414 = MCG +05-54-046 = CGCG 496-054 = PGC 70683

23 12 20.9 +31 07 32; Peg

V = 12.6;  Size 1.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 30¡

 

17.5" (8/13/88): fairly faint, fairly small, almost round, small bright core.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7512 = St IX-34 on 28 Sep 1878.  His position is an exact match with UGC 12414.  Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 10 Oct 1884, assumed it was new and reported it in list II-99 as "B; pL; R; bM.  Easy in presence of a half moon."  His position is 12 seconds of RA too small.

******************************

 

NGC 7513 = ESO 469-022 = MCG -05-54-023 = UGCA 437 = AM 2310-283B = PGC 70714

23 13 14.0 -28 21 27; Scl

V = 11.4;  Size 3.2'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 108¡

 

17.5" (10/13/90): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, bright core.  Located 3' NNW of a wide bright pair consisting of mag 8.1 SAO 191733 and a mag 10 star at 52" separation.  NGC 7507 lies 18' SW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7513 = m 530 on 24 Sep 1864 and logged "vF, pL, E, gbM."  His position is accurate. E.E. Barnard independently found this galaxy in Sep 1883 (Sidereal Messenger, Vol 2, p 226) with his 5-inch refractor at Nashville.  Barnard described it as "faint, moderate size, in field with and 20' nf GC 4900 [NGC 7507] and close north-following 2 stars", but the galaxy is NNW of the stars.  He soon published a note (Sidereal Messenger, Vol 2, p 290) that his object was the same as GC 6131 = NGC 7513.

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NGC 7514 = UGC 12415 = MCG +06-50-026 = CGCG 515-027 = PGC 70689

23 12 25.9 +34 52 53; Peg

V = 12.5;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 132¡

 

17.5" (8/13/88): fairly faint, fairly small, oval WNW-ESE, weak concentration.  Located 3.2' SSE of mag 8.5 SAO 73084.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7514 = St VIII(a)-27 on 21 Sep 1876 using the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position is off by 0.7' (too far northeast).

******************************

 

NGC 7515 = UGC 12418 = MCG +02-59-008 = CGCG 431-015 = LGG 471-002 = PGC 70699

23 12 48.7 +12 40 45; Peg

V = 12.4;  Size 1.7'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 15¡

 

17.5" (9/23/89): moderately bright, fairly small, oval ~N-S, bright core.  Collinear with a bright wide double star 8' SSE (8.9/9.0 at 27").

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7515 = H III-220 = h2214 = Sw. V-96 on 19 Oct 1784 (sweep 299) and recorded "vF, S, irr R, r."  His position matches UGC 12418.  He found the galaxy again on 23 Nov 1785 (sweep 476) and noted "F, R, bM, about 1 1/2' in diam."  John Herschel also made 3 observations.  Lewis Swift independently found this galaxy on 29 Sep 1886 and reported in his 5th discovery list, "pB; pS; R; double star points to it."  Swift's position is 10' too far north, but his description applies.

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NGC 7516 = UGC 12420 = MCG +03-59-010 = CGCG 454-006 = PGC 70703

23 12 51.9 +20 14 54; Peg

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 110¡

 

17.5" (9/23/89): faint, small, irregularly round, small bright core, faint halo.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7516 = m 531 on 5 Sep 1864 and noted "F, vS, stellar."  His position is off by 1' northwest.

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NGC 7517 = MCG +00-59-008 = CGCG 380-010 = PGC 70715

23 13 13.8 -02 06 02; Psc

V = 14.4;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 148¡

 

17.5" (8/1/87): faint, very small, round, seen with direct vision.  A mag 13 star is 0.9' WNW.  Located 2.3' S of mag 8.8 SAO 146567.  Located in the NGC 7556 group with NGC 7506 23.5' ESE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7517 = m 532 on 5 Oct 1863 and noted "vF, vS, stellar."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7518 = UGC 12422 = MCG +01-59-012 = CGCG 406-020 = Mrk 527 = LGG 473-002 = PGC 70712

23 13 12.7 +06 19 18; Psc

V = 13.4;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 126¡

 

24" (1/1/16): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 30"x24", small brighter nucleus.  Forms a pair with superthin UGC 12433 (axial ratio 10:1), located 6.6' due north.  Outlying member of the Pegasus I cluster.

 

UGC 12423 appeared very faint, very thin streak at least 8:1 NW-SE, ~1.5'x10", very small brighter nucleus.  The southeast extension was longer than the northwest.  Situated directly between a mag 10.8 star 2.3' SW and a mag 12.7 star 1.8' NE.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): faint, fairly small, diffuse, very slightly elongated, small weak concentration.  Observation in poor seeing.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7518 = m 533 on 29 Aug 1863 and noted "vF, S, R."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7519 = UGC 12424 = MCG +02-59-009 = CGCG 431-016 = PGC 70713

23 13 11.2 +10 46 20; Peg

V = 13.9;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 165¡

 

24" (10/6/18): at 260x; between faint and fairly faint, fairly large, irregularly round or slightly elongated (outer halo changes with averted), ~1.25'x1.0', broad concentration with an ill-defined brighter core.  The surface brightness is slightly uneven and gave the sense of a face-on spiral (later confirmed).

 

UGC 12416 lies 7.4' WSW.  At 260x and 375x it appeared at least fairly faint and nearly moderately bright, small, ~18"x10", surprisingly high surface brightness with a sharp stellar nucleus!    The galaxy is collinear with a mag 10.1 star 2.8' NNE and a mag 12.2 star 1.8' NNE.

 

17.5" (9/23/89): very faint, fairly small, almost round, diffuse.  Located 6' N of a wide double star mag 9/11 at 21".

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7519 = m 534 on 5 Oct 1864 and noted "vF, pL."  His position is a perfect match with UGC 12424.  Harold Corwin notes that Bigourdan's RA "correction" in the IC 2 notes applies to another galaxy (UGC 12416 = Mrk 526) that is located 28 seconds of RA further west and 2.5' north.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 7520 = IC 5290 = ESO 535-008 = MCG -04-54-014 = PGC 70705

23 12 53.3 -23 28 09; Aqr

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 66¡

 

18" (10/25/08): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.4', very weak concentration.  Situated between two fainter doubles 5' NNE (a 15" pair of mag 13.5/14.5 stars)  and 5' S (a 10" pair of mag 14 stars).  Another mag 13 star lies 2' SE.

 

NGC 7520 is listed as nonexistent in most sources.  Harold Corwin suggests the possibility that NGC 7520 is equivalent to IC 5290 (described above).

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 7520 = T I-49 in 1876 and noted "class II size; class III brightness; seen repeatedly; position difficult to determine."  There is nothing near his rough position (given only to the nearest min of time and noted as very uncertain "::").  Herbert Howe was unsuccessful in locating it on two nights at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver and RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.

 

Harold Corwin suggests that NGC 7520 may be identical to IC 5290, discovered by Johann Palisa on 4 Oct 1896 with the 27-inch refractor at Vienna (1897AN....143...49W).  This requires Tempel's declination to be 20' too far south, though the RA is less than a minute off.

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NGC 7521 = MCG +00-59-009 = CGCG 380-011 = PGC 70725

23 13 35.3 -01 43 53; Psc

V = 13.9;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 165¡

 

17.5" (8/1/87): fairly faint, very small, round, very small bright core, stellar nucleus.  NGC 7524 not seen 2.8' E.  NGC 7517 lies 22' SSW.  Located within the NGC 7556 group.

 

17.5" (7/20/90): similar appearance as earlier observation by NGC 7524 also observed.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7521 = m 535, along with NGC 7524, on 18 Nov 1864 and noted "vF, pS, psbM."  His position is accurate.  See notes for N7524.

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NGC 7522

23 15 36.4 -22 53 41; Aqr

 

= *?, Corwin. = Not found, RNGC

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 7522 = LM 2-472 in 1886 at Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 16.0; 0.3' dia, iR, sbM?; *10 in PA 75¡ at 3.2' separation."  There is nothing at Muller's rough position (nearest min of RA) and Howe was unsuccessful in finding it on 3 nights.  Confusingly, ESO places 535-009 at the nominal NGC position but there is no obvious galaxy there.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent

 

Corwin suggests NGC 7522 might be a faint star 1 min 45 sec of RA following Muller's position (typical error).  A mag 11-12 star is 3' separation in PA  70¡ matching Muller's description.

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NGC 7523 = CGCG 431-018 = PGC 70726

23 13 34.7 +13 59 12; Peg

V = 14.8;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 3¡

 

17.5" (7/19/90): very faint, very small, round (must have viewed the core only).  A mag 14/15 double star is off the north edge.  Forms a close pair with NGC 7525 2.5' NE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7523 = m 536, along with NGC 7525, on 3 Nov 1864 and noted "eeF, E." His positions for both objects are off 1' too far southwest.

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NGC 7524 = MCG +00-59-010 = PGC 70737

23 13 46.6 -01 43 48; Psc

V = 14.7;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 172¡

 

17.5" (7/20/90): extremely faint, very small, round.  Located 2.8' E of NGC 7521 in the large NGC 7556 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7524 = m 537, along with NGC 7522, on 18 Nov 1864 and noted "eF, vS."  His position and relative separation with NGC 7522 is accurate.

 

CGCG (380-046) completely misplaces NGC 7524 by over 5¡ and apparently this large error was repeated in the RNGC rectangular coordinates.  The error was listed in my RNGC Corrections #5.

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NGC 7525 = CGCG 431-019 = Mrk 316 = PGC 70731

23 13 40.5 +14 01 16; Peg

V = 14.5;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (7/19/90): faint, very small, round, weak concentration, extremely faint star involved or faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 7523 2.5' SW.  On the DSS, an extremely faint companion is at the north edge.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7525 = m 538, along with NGC 7523, on 3 Nov 1864 and noted "eF, vS, vlE, gbM."

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NGC 7526

23 14 02.1 -09 13 15; Aqr

 

18" (10/25/08): at 174x this object appears as a mag 14 star with a nearby very small knot (sometimes resolved) close SSE [35"].  At 450x the "knot" is cleanly resolved into a close, faint triple star with components 15-15.5 and separations 9" and 13".  Located 29' WSW of mag 4.2 91 Aqr.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7526 = H III-470 on 28 Nov 1785 (sweep 479) and logged "eF, vS, 240x left it doubtful."  There is no nebulous object near his position.  Karl Reinmuth (1926) reported finding on a Heidelberg plate "3 F st in line 10¡, no neb; *14 np nr."  Harold Corwin also tentatively identifies NGC 7526 as a short line (length of 20") of three mag 15 stars (length of 20").

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NGC 7527 = UGC 12428 = MCG +04-54-031 = CGCG 475-045 = PGC 70728

23 13 41.8 +24 54 08; Peg

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 165¡

 

17.5" (9/23/89): faint, small, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, small bright core.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7527 = m 539 on 5 Sep 1864 and noted "vF, vS, stellar."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7528 = 2MASX J23142026+1013531 = PGC 70770

23 14 20.3 +10 13 53; Peg

V = 15.1;  Size 0.4'x0.3'

 

17.5" (9/23/89): extremely faint and small, round, low surface brightness.  Located 5.5' NE of mag 8.9 SAO 128054.

 

Ainslie Common discovered NGC 7528 = Nova #26 in August of 1880 with his 36-inch reflector and simply noted "F, S."  His approximate position (obtained by reading the setting circles) is 25 seconds of RA due west of PGC 70770.  Bigourdan could not find this galaxy (at V = 15, perhaps too faint for his 12.5-inch refractor.  This galaxy is not in MCG or CGCG.

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NGC 7529 = UGC 12431 = MCG +01-59-014 = CGCG 406-024 = PGC 70755

23 14 03.2 +08 59 33; Peg

V = 14.1;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (11/1/86): fairly faint, fairly small, almost round, almost even surface brightness.  Located 14.5' E of mag 7.6 SAO 128037.  Outlying member of the Pegasus I cluster.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 7529 = T IV-12 on 2 Jul 1880 and noted "vF, I thought it was Comet Faye."  His micrometric position matches UGC 12431 to within a few arcseconds.

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NGC 7530 = MCG -01-59-004 = KTS 71A = PGC 70759

23 14 11.8 -02 46 46; Psc

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 120¡

 

24" (8/7/13): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 NW-SE, 27"x18", moderate concentration with a small brighter core.  First in a trio (KTS 71) aligned SW to NE with NGC 7532 4' NE.  A mag 10.7 star lies 2.7' ENE.

 

17.5" (8/1/87): faint, small, slightly elongated ~E-W, very small brighter core.  First in a trio on a SW-NE line with NGC 7532 4.1' NE and NGC 7534 6.1' NE in the NGC 7532-7556 group.

 

13.1" (9/29/84): faint, diffuse, even surface brightness, slightly smaller than NGC 7534 4.1' NE.  Member of the NGC 7532-7556 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7530 = m 540, along with NGC 7532 and 7534, on 1 Oct 1864 and noted "eF, vS, alm stellar."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7531 = ESO 291-010 = MCG -07-47-025 = AM 2312-435 = LGG 472-002 = PGC 70800

23 14 48.5 -43 36 00; Gru

V = 11.3;  Size 4.5'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 15¡

 

13.1" (9/3/86): moderately bright, fairly small, oval ~N-S, brighter core.  Located 7.0' due west of mag 8 SAO 231518.  Appears bright for such a low elevation galaxy from Northern California.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7531 = h3975 on 2 Sep 1836 and recorded "pB; S; lE; pgmbM."  His single position is accurate.

 

Pietro Baracchi observed this object on 2 Nov 1885 with the Great Melbourne Telescope and wrote, "B, vmE, gbM, about 2' long and 25" broad - ends indistinct, edges soft. The axis is in a direction n.f. (see diagram).  A star 13m follows nebula by 17 seconds and is 18" north of it.  Another star 7 mag follows nebula by 40" and is 10" south of it."

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NGC 7532 = MCG -01-59-005 = Mrk 529 = KTS 71B = PGC 70779

23 14 22.2 -02 43 41; Psc

V = 13.6;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 150¡

 

24" (8/7/13): brightest and largest in a trio of NGC galaxies (KTS 71) in a 6' string oriented SW to NE.  At 375x appeared moderately bright and large, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, well concentrated with a small bright round nucleus.  A mag 10.7 star lies 2.3' S.  NGC 7534 is 2' NE and NGC 7530 is 4' SW.  Situated 6.8' SE of mag 7.1 HD 219200.

 

17.5" (8/1/87): brightest and largest of three on a line with NGC 7530 4.1' SW and NGC 7534 2.1' NE.  Fairly faint, fairly small, elongated NW-SE, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 6.8' SE of mag 7.5 SAO 146580.

 

13.1" (9/29/84): brightest and largest of trio, fairly faint, small bright core, slightly elongated.

 

13.1" (11/5/83): very faint, small, round.  Second of three with NGC 7530 3' SW and NGC 7534 2' NNE.  Located SE of a mag 7 star in the NGC 7532/7556 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7532 = m 541, along with NGC 7530 and 7534, on 1 Oct 1864 and noted "vF, vS, lE."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7533 = CGCG 380-013 = PGC 70778

23 14 22.1 -02 02 01; Psc

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 135¡

 

17.5" (7/20/90): very faint, very small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, small brighter core.  Located 5.6' NW of mag 8.9 SAO 146588 in the NGC 7556 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7533 = m 542 on 5 Oct 1864 and noted "F, S, R."  His position is accurate.  CGCG misidentifies CGCG 380-053 as NGC 7533.  The correct CGCG entry is 380-013.

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NGC 7534 = MCG -01-59-006 = KTS 71C = PGC 70781

23 14 26.6 -02 41 54; Psc

V = 14.5;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  PA = 15¡

 

24" (8/7/13): faintest and last of three with NGC 7530 and 7532.  At 375x appeared fairly faint, small, elongated 5:3 SSW-NNE, 24"x15".  A mag 14 star is off the south side.  Located 2' NE of NGC 7532 (brightest in the trio) and 6' SE of mag 7 HD 219200.

 

17.5" (8/1/87): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated N-S.  A mag 15 star is just off the south edge 30" from the center.  Third of three on a line with NGC 7532 2.0' SW and NGC 7530 6.1' SW.  Located 6.3' SW of a mag 7.5 star in the NGC 7556 group.

 

13.1" (9/29/84): faintest of three in a group.  Faint, very small, possibly slightly elongated.  Located 3' NE of NGC 7532.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7534 = m 543, along with NGC 7530 and 7532, on 1 Oct 1864 and noted "eF, vS, lE." His position is accurate.

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NGC 7535 = UGC 12438 = MCG +02-59-010 = CGCG 431-023 = LGG 471-003 = PGC 70761

23 14 12.7 +13 34 54; Peg

V = 13.7;  Size 1.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.4

 

17.5" (9/23/89): faint, fairly small, very diffuse, sharp stellar nucleus or star superimposed.  Pair with NGC 7536 9.2' S.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7535 = Sw. V-97, along with NGC 7536, on 29 Sep 1886 and recorded "eeeF; pS; R; ee diff.; bet. a faint near star and a bright star following; n of 2 [with NGC 7536]."  His position is accurate and the description applies.

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NGC 7536 = UGC 12437 = MCG +02-59-011 = CGCG 431-022 = LGG 471-004 = PGC 70765

23 14 13.3 +13 25 38; Peg

V = 13.4;  Size 1.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 56¡

 

17.5" (9/23/89): faint, fairly small, oval SW-NE, bright core.  A group of five stars are within a 3' radius including a mag 13 star 1.3' NW, a mag 12 star 2.5' NE and a mag 11 star 2.4' SSW.  Pair with NGC 7335 9.2' N in the NGC 7556 group.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7536 = Sw. V-98, along with NGC 7535, on 29 Sep 1886 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; curiously placed in a ring of 6 stars np of center."  His position and description is accurate.  This is one of several candidates that Corwin suggests might be John Herschel's NGC 7555.

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NGC 7537 = UGC 12442 = MCG +01-59-016 = CGCG 406-028 = Holm 805b = PGC 70786

23 14 34.5 +04 29 54; Psc

V = 13.2;  Size 2.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 79¡

 

17.5" (8/10/91): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, 1.5'x0.5', much brighter core has a fairly high surface brightness, narrow faint extensions from core.  Forms a striking (physical) pair with NGC 7541 3.1' NE. 

 

13.1" (9/3/83): faint, small, elongated ~E-W, thin extensions, slightly brighter core, 3' SW of brighter and larger NGC 7541.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7537 = H II-429 = h2215 on 30 Aug 1785 (sweep 427), along with NGC 7541, and recorded "Two, the time and polar distance is that of the largest [NGC 7541]; pB, mE about 4' l; extended mbM about 1' broad, the extent nearly in the parallel.  The other [NGC 7537] is vF, cS, about 3 or 4' sp the large one; and but for the large one might have been overlooked."  JH reported (sweep 95), "F; S; R; bM; the sp of 2 [with NGC 7541]."

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NGC 7538 = LBN 542 = Sh 2-158 = Ced 209

23 13 38 +61 30 42; Cep

Size 10'x5'

 

18" (9/3/08): at 115x, this HII region appears bright, fairly large, surrounding two mag 11.5 stars SW-NE with a mag 14 star to the west of the SW star.  The main portion of the nebulosity (Sh 2-158) is elongated SW-NE and extends 3'x2'.  Using an OIII filter, fainter nebulosity extends on the NE side, making an oval 4.5'x3'.  The brightest portion is on the southwest side and this high surface brightness area encases the faint star mentioned above.  The SW mag 11.5 star (IRS 6) is a massive O3-type and the main ionizing source of Sh 2-158.  The 14th mag star (IRS 5) is also an O9-type.

 

17.5" (8/10/91): fairly large elongated emission nebula 2.0'x0.75' oriented NW-SE.  Surrounds two mag 11.5 stars oriented SW-NE (PA = 35¡) with a separation of 30".  The nebulosity extends SW of the pair and is brightest just west of the pair.  A mag 15 star is at the SW end and a mag 14 star is 30" W of the southern mag 11.5 star.  At 100x using an OIII filter the nebulosity is very bright and a fainter glow also extends east of the pair to a size of 3'x2'.

 

8": faint nebulosity with two mag 12 stars involved.  Appears elongated and fairly large.  Easy to view with averted.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7538 = H II-706 on 3 Nov 1787 (sweep 773) and recorded "vF nebulosity of 3 or 4' extent, contains two considerable stars, but they do not seem to be connected with it."  On 26 Nov 1788 (sweep 887) he noted "2 pS stars involved in nebulosity, about 2' l and 1 1/2' broad, pBM." In his 1814 PT paper WH argued that this was too unusual to be line of sight arrangement and the stars had formed within the nebula!  Ralph Copeland sketched the nebula using LdR's 72" in Sep 1873 and showed two extremely faint, curved thin "tails" extending east and west.

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NGC 7539 = UGC 12443 = MCG +04-54-035 = CGCG 475-048 = PGC 70783

23 14 29.5 +23 41 05; Peg

V = 12.5;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 165¡

 

17.5" (9/23/89): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated NW-SE, small bright core, stellar nucleus, diffuse elongated halo.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7539 = h2217 on 17 Aug 1828 and recorded "F; S; R: psbM; 12"."  His single position is very accurate.

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NGC 7540 = CGCG 454-010 = PGC 70788

23 14 36.1 +15 57 01; Peg

V = 14.5;  Size 0.65'x0.45';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 140¡

 

17.5" (7/17/93): very faint, very small, round, very small slightly brighter core.  A mag 13 star is 1.9' ENE of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 7551 11.1' E.  The close companion just 44" W (misidentified as NGC 7551 in the RNGC and PGC) was not seen.

 

17.5" (7/19/90): very faint, very small, round, small bright core.  A mag 13 star is 2' E.  NGC 7567 lies 25' ESE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7540 = m 544 on 3 Nov 1864 and noted "F, vS, stellar."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7541 = NGC 7581 = UGC 12447 = MCG +01-59-017 = CGCG 406-030 = Holm 805a = PGC 70795

23 14 43.9 +04 32 04; Psc

V = 11.7;  Size 3.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 102¡

 

17.5" (8/10/91): bright, fairly large, edge-on 4:1 WNW-ESE, 3.0'x0.75', large slightly brighter middle bulges.  Has an irregular surface brightness with mottling and appears brighter on the west side.  A mag 12 star is off the east edge 2.1' from center.  Forms a striking pair with NGC 7537 3.1' SW. 

 

8" (11/8/80): faint, fairly large, edge-on E-W.  A mag 12.5 star is close east.  Forms a pair with NGC 7537 3' SW.  Located in the Pisces Circlet.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7541 = H II-430 = h2216 on 30 Aug 1785 (sweep 427) and recorded "Two. The following [NGC 7541] pB, mE in parallel, mbM, about 4' long, 1' broad."  JH logged "vB; L; 10¡ np to sf; 80"; the nf of 2 [with NGC 7537]; a * 10m sf."

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NGC 7542 = CGCG 431-025 = PGC 70796

23 14 41.6 +10 38 36; Peg

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 117¡

 

17.5" (9/23/89): extremely faint, very small, round, weak concentration.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7542 = m 545 on 5 Oct 1864 and noted "eF, eS, stellar."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7543 = UGC 12450 = MCG +05-54-052 = CGCG 496-065 = PGC 70785

23 14 34.6 +28 19 38; Peg

V = 13.0;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 140¡

 

17.5" (8/13/88): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Pair with CGCG 496-062 7.5' NNW.  Located 17' W of 61 Pegasi (V = 6.5).

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7543 = St IX-35 on 19 Sep 1878 using the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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NGC 7544 = PGC 70811

23 14 56.9 -02 11 58; Psc

V = 15.1;  Size 0.8'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 58¡

 

17.5" (7/20/90): very faint, very small, round.  A string of four stars mag 13 oriented N-S is 3' E including a pair at 23" separation.  Member of the NGC 7556 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7544 = m 546 on 18 Nov 1864 and noted "eF, vS."  His position is accurate to within 1'.

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NGC 7545 = ESO 347-004 = MCG -07-47-026 = AM 2312-384 = PGC 70840

23 15 32.0 -38 32 03; Gru

V = 13.0;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 80¡

 

17.5" (10/20/90): extremely faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, low surface brightness.  A mag 11 star is attached at the west end 27" from the center.  Very difficult to view due to poor seeing at a low elevation.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7545 = h3976 on 4 Sep 1834 and recorded "pF; S; R; or lE; vgvlbM; attached to a * 10m in parallel."  His position is very accurate.

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NGC 7546 = MCG -01-59-007 = PGC 70820

23 15 05.6 -02 19 29; Psc

V = 15.1;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.7;  PA = 5¡

 

24" (9/29/16): at 375x; faint or fairly faint, fairly small, elongated ~4:3, 0.4'x0.3', irregular shape.  A knot or the core seems offset towards the north side.  Forms a close pair with MCG -01-59-008 2' N.  The companion appeared very faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 25"x8", even surface brightness.  Located 10' WNW of NGC 7556 in a large group of galaxies.

 

17.5" (8/1/87): extremely faint, fairly small, almost round, can barely hold steadily with averted.  Located in the NGC 7532-7556 group with NGC 7556 10.3' ESE.

 

13.1" (9/29/84): very faint, very diffuse, fairly small.  Located 10' WNW of NGC 7556.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7546 = m 547 on 1 Oct 1864 and noted "eF, S, lE."  His position matches MCG -01-59-007 = PGC 70820 to within 1'. Harold Corwin agrees with this identification but notes that NGC 7546 could be MCG -01-59-008, a fainter galaxy 2' north.  This seems unlikely to me as I didn't notice it while viewing -007 with my 17.5".

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NGC 7547 = HCG 93C = Arp 99 NED1 = UGC 12453 = MCG +03-59-013 = CGCG 454-011 = KTG 78A = PGC 70819

23 15 03.4 +18 58 24; Peg

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 98¡

 

24" (12/28/13 and 9/27/19): at 282x appeared fairly faint to moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 or 5:2 ~E-W, 45"x20", moderate concentration to a brighter core.  First in the HCG 93 quintet.

 

24" (12/1/13): at 375x appeared fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 5:2 ~E-W.  Strongly concentrated with a nearly round, small bright core.  First of 5 in HCG 93, with brighter NGC 7550 3.1' ESE.

 

18" (9/3/05): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, 0.7'x0.3'.  Contains a nearly stellar brighter core, otherwise the surface brightness is nearly even.  Located 3' W of NGC 7550 in a group of five galaxies (HCG 93).

 

18" (8/27/05): faint, small, elongated 2:1 E-W, 0.5'x0.25'.  Located 3' W of NGC 7550 in HCG 93.

 

17.5" (9/7/96): faint, small, elongated 2:1 E-W, weak concentration with a slightly brighter rounder core.  First of five in HCG 93 with NGC 7550 3.0' ESE.

 

17.5" (9/23/89): faint, small, oval ~E-W, weak concentration.  First of three with NGC 7549 5.2' NE and NGC 7550 3.0' E in the HCG 93.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7547 = h2218 on 26 Aug 1827 and simply noted "the np of 2 [with NGC 7550].  His single position is pretty accurate so there is no doubt with the identification.  Herman Schultz measured an accurate micrometric position at Uppsala.

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NGC 7548 = UGC 12455 = MCG +04-54-036 = CGCG 475-050 = PGC 70826

23 15 11.1 +25 16 55; Peg

V = 13.3;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 15¡

 

17.5" (9/23/89): faint, small, slightly elongated, broad concentration.  Located 23' SSE of mag 6.7 SAO 91126.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 7548 = Au 50 on 30 Sep 1861 with the 11-inch Merz refractor at Copenhagen.  He noted a faint star (called mag 16 and mag 17 on his two observations) preceded by 11 seconds of time.  The star is exactly where he placed it, though closer to mag 13.5.  The discovery was early enough to be included in Auwers' 1862 list of 50 new nebulae.

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NGC 7549 = HCG 93B = Arp 99 NED3 = UGC 12457 = MCG +03-59-014 = CGCG 454-013 = KTG 78C = PGC 70832

23 15 17.2 +19 02 30; Peg

V = 13.0;  Size 2.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 8¡

 

24" (12/28/13 and 9/27/19): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 4:3 N-S, 0.8'x0.6', the central region is weakly concentrated.  There was a hint of structure with a strong impression of a short arm on the west side extending south. A mag 11.0 star is 1.3' WNW of center.  NGC 7547 = HCG 93C lies 3.8' ENE and NGC 7550 = HCG 93A is 5' due south.

 

24" (12/1/13): fairly faint or moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 N-S, ~60"x40".  Contains a brighter central region that only has a weak, broad concentration towards the center and no distinguishable nucleus.  A mag 11 star lies 1.4' WNW of center.

 

18" (9/3/05): fairly faint, fairly small, irregular round, 0.5', weak concentration.  Situated 1.3' following a mag 10.5 star and 5' N of NGC 7550 in HCG 93.

 

18" (8/27/05): faint, small, round, 25" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Follows a mag 10.5 star and 4.8' N of NGC 7550.

 

17.5" (9/7/96): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 N-S, very weak concentration.  Situated 1.3' following a mag 10.5 star within the HCG 93 quintet and 4.8' N of NGC 7550 = HCG 93a.  Listed dimensions include extremely faint plumes not seen visually.

 

17.5" (9/23/89): fairly faint, fairly small, oval ~N-S, almost even surface brightness.  Located 1.3' ESE of a mag 10.5 star.  Second brightest in HCG 93 with NGC 7550 4.8' S and NGC 7547 5.2' SW.

 

George Johnstone Stoney, Lord Rosse's assistant, discovered NGC 7549 along with NGC 7553, on 2 Nov 1850. Whilehe was observing NGC 7547 and NGC 7550 he found "4 neb in the field, perhaps another [including NGC 7547 and 7550]."  No positions were measured.  A diagram made in 1877 was published in the 1880 publication.  Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered this galaxy on 30 Aug 1864 and made a total of 4 observations.  Herman Schultz also measured an accurate micrometric position, attributing the discovery to d'Arrest. Bigourdan noted the equivalence of d'Arrest's GCS 6151 and LdR's GCS 4912.  Dreyer combined the two GC designations in the NGC.

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NGC 7550 = HCG 93A = Arp 99 NED2 = UGC 12456 = MCG +03-59-015 = CGCG 454-012 = KTG 78B = PGC 70830

23 15 16.0 +18 57 42; Peg

V = 12.2;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 171¡

 

24" (12/28/13 and 9/27/19): at 282x appeared fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated, 0.9'x0.75', strongly concentrated with a very bright, prominent core that increased to a sharp stellar nucleus.  Brightest in the HCG 93 quintet with NGC 7547 3.1' WNW and NGC 7549 4.9' N.

 

24" (12/1/13): at 375x appeared moderately bright to fairly bright, moderately large, irregularly round, 1.0'x0.8', strongly concentrated with a bright core that increases to a very bright small nucleus.  Occasionally, a bright stellar nuclear pip was visible within the small nucleus.  Brightest in the HCG 93 quintet.

 

18" (9/3/05): moderately bright, fairly small, round, slightly elongated, 0.8'x0.7', fairly strong concentration, small bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

18" (8/27/05): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.8'x0.6', gradually increases to a small, bright core and stellar nucleus.  HCG 94 lies 32' SE!

 

17.5" (9/7/96): moderately bright, fairly small, halo elongated 4:3 N-S, 1.5'x1.2', sharply concentrated with a round, bright core and nearly stellar nucleus.  Brightest in the HCG 93 quintet.  HCG 94 lies only 32' SE!

 

17.5" (9/23/89): brightest in a group of 11 NGC galaxies and HCG 93.  Moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated ~N-S, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms a triple system with NGC 7549 4.8' N and NGC 7547 3.0' W.  Also nearby is NGC 7558 5.9' ENE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7550 = H III-181 = h2219 on 18 Sep 1784 (sweep 277) and recorded "vF, vS, R, 240 confirmed it.  His position is 34 sec of RA too large (noted by Dreyer in his 1912 "Scientific Papers of WH").  JH measured an accurate position for this galaxy and listed it as h2219 with description "pB; R; 20", the sf of 2 [with NGC 7547]", although due to his father's poor position, he thought it was new.

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NGC 7551 = 2MASX J23152200+1556251 = LEDA 3978375

23 15 22.0 +15 56 25; Peg

V = 15.2;  Size 0.5'x0.1'

 

17.5" (7/17/93): very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, very small brighter core, stellar nucleus.  Located 11.1' E of NGC 7540.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7551 = m 548 on 3 Nov 1864 and noted a "neb. star 13m."  His position is less than 1' south of LEDA 3978375, which has a very faint star superimposed on the southwest side.  Interestingly, Edward Fath reported in his "A Study of Nebulae" (1914) there was a double star in the position of NGC 7551, based on plates taken with the 60-inch at Mt. Wilson in 1909-1912.  Apparently the galaxy was stellar-like on the plate.

 

RNGC misidentifies a close companion 20" NE of NGC 7540 as NGC 7551.  This identification is clearly wrong as Marth placed NGC 7541 45 seconds of RA following NGC 7540 (both were found on the same night).  Malcolm Thomson reported this error in his unpublished "Catalogue Corrections", as well as Harold Corwin in his NGC identification notes.

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NGC 7552 = IC 5294 = ESO 291-012 = MCG -07-47-028 = VV 440 = LGG 472-003 = PGC 70884 = Grus Quartet

23 16 11.0 -42 34 59; Gru

V = 10.6;  Size 3.4'x2.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 1¡

 

30" (10/21/17 - OzSky): at 264x; very bright, very large, elongated 5:2 E-W, ~2.3'x0.9'.  A brighter bar extends E-W along the major axis.  The center is punctuated by a sharp, extremely bright stellar nucleus!  A spiral arm was clearly visible attached at the east end of the major axis (bar).  The beginning of the arm rotated counterclockwise towards the south but it shortly dimmed out after a distance ~0.6'.  The main part of the galaxy is embedded in an extremely low surface brightness halo, ~3' in diameter. A mag 13.5 star is off the west end [2.2' from center] and a mag 12 star is at the edge of the outer halo [1.8' S of center].   NGC 7583, the first in the Grus Trio with 7590 and 7599, lies 28' ENE.

 

13.1" (11/5/83): fairly faint, small, elongated E-W, small bright nucleus.  A mag 10 star lies 4.4' W and a mag 11 star is off the south side.  The Grus trio consisting of NGC 7582, NGC 7590 and NGC 7599 are roughly 35' NE with the entire group called the Grus Quartet.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 7552 = D 475 = h3977 on 7 Jul 1826 and claimed 4 observations.  He described the first member of the Grus Quartet as "a small faint nebula, rather elongated in the parallel of the equator, about 30" broad, and 40" long; there is a pretty bright point situated near the centre of the nebula: a small star precedes it."

 

John Herschel made a single observation on 2 Sep 1836, logging "B, S, mE, nearly in parallel; vsbM to a star 13m."  Herschel credited Dunlop with the discovery.  Lewis Swift found the galaxy again on 22 Oct 1897 and reported Sw. XI-226 (later IC 5294) as "pB; pS; R; 8m * p[receding] same parallel."  His RA was just 9 seconds too small and his description of the brighter star clinches the equivalence.

 

Based on a Helwan plate taken in 1919-20, NGC 7552 was described as "vB sharp stellar nucleus; irregular Phi-type spiral; the cross-arm [central bar] is in p.a. 90¡ and is moderately bright at each end rather than near the middle, where a curious faint circle occurs of diameter 50"; the outer circle [ring] of the Phi is extremely faint except the southeast side."

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NGC 7553 = HCG 93D = CGCG 454-015 = PGC 70842

23 15 33.1 +19 02 53; Peg

V = 14.7;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

24" (12/28/13 and 9/27/19): faint to fairly faint, fairly small, round, 20"-24" diameter, nearly even surface brightness.  A 12" pair of mag 15.5 stars was resolved 1.3' SE.  In addition, a 7" pair of mag 16.1/16.4 stars was noticed 3.5' ENE and often was merged into a single slightly fuzzy glow at 282x.

 

24" (12/1/13): faint to fairly faint, small, round, 20" diameter.  Contains a faint, quasi-stellar nucleus.  Located 3.8' ENE of NGC 7549 in HCG 93.

 

18" (8/25/06): very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  A very faint and close pair of mag 15 stars lies 1.4' SE.

 

18" (9/3/05): very faint, very small, round, 10" diameter.  Contains a sharp stellar nucleus in steady moments.  Located 4' E of NGC 7549 within HCG 93.

 

18" (8/27/05): very faint, extremely small, round, 0.2' diameter, occasional stellar nucleus.  Located 3.9' E of NGC 7549 in HCG 93.

 

17.5" (9/7/96): very faint, very small, round.  Located 3.9' E of NGC 7549 = HCG 93b.  An extremely faint and close double star ~1.5' SE also appears as a nebulous object at times.  Faintest of five (along with NGC 7558) in HCG 93.

 

George Johnstone Stoney, Lord Rosse's assistant, discovered NGC 7553 along with NGC 7549, on 2 Nov 1850.  While he was reobserving NGC 7547 and 7550 he found "4 neb in the field, perhaps another [including NGC 7547 and 7550]."  The 4th brightest galaxy in the field is CGCG 454-015, and this was likely seen by Stoney. The 6 Sep 1855 description reads "3 neb [NGC 7547, 7550, 7549], F, S, and perhaps 2 more vS and F f[ollowing] them."  A diagram of the field was made at Birr Castle on 6 Oct 1877 and confirmed on 10 Oct 1877 showing four objects including NGC 7547, 7549 and NGC 7550, although the direction of drift shown is somewhat off.  The object shown in the upper right corner of the diagram should be CGCG 454-015, but the placement better matches 16th magnitude 2MASX J23153890+1858171.  Perhaps it's one of the others that were suspected.

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NGC 7554 = III Zw 99 = PGC 70850

23 15 41.3 -02 22 43; Psc

V = 14.9;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

24" (9/29/16): at 375x; fairly faint, small, round, 15" diameter.  NGC 7554 is one of the close companions of brighter NGC 7556, which is centered just 48" E.

 

17.5" (7/20/90): very faint, very small, round, low even surface brightness.  Forms a close pair with much brighter NGC 7556 47" ESE.  Located in a large galaxy group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7554 = m 549 on 3 Aug 1864 and noted "eF, eS, alm stell, near h 2220 [NGC 7556]."  His position is just 3 seconds of RA preceding NGC 7556 and matches PGC 70850.

 

The RNGC appears to misidentify a faint galaxy 5' southwest of NGC 7556 as NGC 7554, although there may simply be an error in position for NGC 7556 as the rectangular coordinates don't match.  This error is listed in my RNGC Corrections #5.

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NGC 7555

23 15 36 +12 35; Peg

 

= Not found, Carlson.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 7555 = h2221 on 11 Sep 1828 and recorded "F; R; bM; place very rough; two or three more nebulae suspected in the neighborhood."  His RA and NPD are marked with +/- to the nearest minute of time and minute of arc, respectively.  There is nothing near his position, but if JH was off mostly in RA then NGC 7515 is a candidate.  If he was mostly off in declination, then NGC 7563 is another possibility.  Neither d'Arrest, Schultz or Vogel could recover this object, though one observation was claimed at Birr Castle (but of which object?).  Dorothy Carlson reported "Not Found" in her 1940 NGC/IC Correction paper and Corwin concludes the same.

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NGC 7556 = MCG -01-59-009 = PGC 70855

23 15 44.4 -02 22 53; Psc

V = 12.7;  Size 2.5'x1.6';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 123¡

 

24" (9/29/16): at 375x and 500x; fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 4:3 or 3:2 WNW-ESE, ~0.8'x0.5', well concentrated with a bright core, high surface brightness.  Surrounded closely by several smaller and fainter companions including NGC 7554 48" W, NGC 7556A just 19" SW, LEDA 195267 1.4' SE and LEDA 195265 3.3' SSE.  A mag 10.6 star is 2.7' E.

 

At 500x; NGC 7556A appeared extremely faint and small, round, ~8" diameter.  Situated at the southwest edge of the halo of NGC 7556.  At 375x LEDA 195267 appeared fairly faint, small, round, 15" diameter.  LEDA 195265 was a difficult object, extremely faint and small, round, 6" diameter.

 

17.5" (8/1/87): moderately bright, moderately large, oval ~E-W, bright core.  Forms a close pair with NGC 7554 47" WNW of center.  Brightest in the large NGC 7532-7556 group.

 

13.1" (9/29/84): moderately bright, moderately large, almost round, brighter core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7556 = H II-235 = h2220, along with NGC 7566, on 20 Sep 1784 (sweep 279) and noted "vF, pS." His summary description (based on a later observation) reads "F, pL, broadly E." JH reported "pB, R, a bright double * follows".  His single position is accurate.   LdR's assistant Bindon Stoney observed the galaxy on 4 Nov 1850 and wrote, "Has nucleus; I suspect a F, S, neb about 1' sf."  Very likely this second nebula is LEDA 195267, situated 1.4' SE of NGC 7556 (described in my 24" observation).  The RNGC declination is 3' too far north.

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NGC 7557 = MCG +01-59-021 = CGCG 406-035 = LGG 473-016 = PGC 70854

23 15 39.7 +06 42 30; Psc

V = 14.1;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

24" (1/1/16): faint to fairly faint, small, round, 0.4' diameter, weak concentration to the center.  Located 4.6' WNW of brighter NGC 7562.  NGC 7557 lies midway between mag 9.4 SAO 128068 9' NW and mag 9.5 SAO 128073 8' SE.  Outlying member of the NGC 7619/7626 Group.

 

18" (11/22/08): faint, small, round, 25" diameter, weak concentration.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 7562 4.5' ESE.

 

17.5" (8/27/87): faint, small, round, small brighter core.  A mag 15 star is 1' S.  Located 4.7' WNW of much brighter NGC 7562.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): faint, small, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, diffuse.  Precedes NGC 7562 by 5'.

 

George Johnstone Stoney, Lord Rosse's assistant, discovered NGC 7557 on 16 Sep 1852. Using a freshly polished mirror, he recorded "another neb about 6' p and 1' n of [NGC 7562], pB, vmbM, 40"."  R.J. Mitchell found it again on 23 Oct 1857 and noted "a new neb about 4' p[receding] h2224, F, vS, R."  His offset is accurate.

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NGC 7558 = HCG 93E = MCG +03-59-016 = PGC 70844

23 15 38.2 +18 55 11; Peg

V = 14.9;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

24" (12/28/13 and 9/27/19): faint to fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~N-S, ~20"x16".  Low even surface brightness with an occasional faint stellar nucleus.  The redshift of this galaxy is over ~70% greater than the other four members of HCG 93, so it is probably a background object.

 

24" (12/1/13): faint to fairly faint, small, round, 20" diameter, weak concentration.  Nearly collinear with two mag 14.5 stars [22" separation] located ~2.8' S.

 

18" (8/25/06): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Collinear with two mag 14.5-15 stars.  Furthest east of five members viewed in HCG 93.

 

18" (9/3/05): extremely faint, very small, round.  Can hold steadily with averted vision.  A close, faint pair of mag 14.5-15 stars (separation 22") lies 2.6' south.

 

18" (8/27/05): extremely faint, extremely small, round.  Collinear with a pair of faint stars to the south that help in pinpointing the location.

 

17.5" (9/7/96): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Collinear with a pair of mag 14.5 stars oriented N-S that lie 2.5' S.  This galaxy and  HCG 93D = CGCG 454-015 = NGC 7553? (NGC identification uncertain) are the two faintest members of the HCG 93 quintet.  Located 6' SE of NGC 7550 = HCG 93A.

 

17.5" (9/23/89): extremely faint, very small, round.  An easy pair of mag 14.5 stars with separation 22" oriented N-S lies 2.5' S.  Located 5.8' ESE of NGC 7550 in HCG 93 and faintest of four viewed.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7558 = m 550 on 3 Nov 1864 and noted "eeF, neb * 13m."  His position is accurate.  This galaxy was probably first found by LdR or assistant Bindon Stoney on 2 Nov 1850 and noted again on 6 Sep 1855, though it was just mentioned as an additional nebula in the field, without any comment about the location.

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NGC 7559 = UGC 12463 = MCG +02-59-013 = CGCG 431-028 = PGC 70864

23 15 46.6 +13 17 25; Peg

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

24" (8/30/16): at 375x; moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, 45"x35", small bright core.  A mag 15.5 star is 0.8' NE.  With averted vision, NGC 7559A = MCG +02-59-014 was seen just off the NNW edge [24" from center].  It appeared extremely faint [V ~15.5] and small, perhaps 8" diameter.  On the SDSS this is an edge-on galaxy, but I probably only noticed the brighter nucleus.  It was a bit easier to view at 282x.  NGC 7563 lies 6.2' SSE.  A mag 9.3 star 8.7' SW forms the vertex of an isosceles triangle with NGC 7563 and 7559.

 

17.5" (9/23/89): fairly faint, fairly small, bright core, oval SW-NE.  Forms a pair with NGC 7563 6.1' SSE.  This is a double system but the fainter companion was not seen.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7559 = H III-221 = h2222 on 19 Oct 1784 (sweep 299) and recorded "Two [along with NGC 7563 = H. III-222], eF, R, S, both alike."  He found the galaxy again on 23 Nov 1785 (sweep 476) and noted "vF, S."  John Herschel made 4 observations and remarked on sweep 15, "F; R; bM; 30"."

 

MCG lists the components separately as MCG +02-59-013 = NGC 7559a and MCG +02-59-014 = NGC 7559b, but NED identifies MCG +02-59-014 as NGC 7559A and MCG +02-59-014 as NGC 7559B.

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NGC 7560

23 15 53.9 +04 29 45; Psc

 

= **, Carlson.  = 8" double star, Gottlieb

 

Herman Schultz discovered NGC 7560 = Nova X, along with NGC 7561, on 5 Oct 1864 with the 9.6-inch refractor at Uppsala Observatory.  At Schultz's micrometric position is a double star (POSS2 separation 8").  Karl Reinmuth identified this double star as NGC 7560 in his photographic survey at Heidelberg (Dorothy Carlson and the RNGC repeated this identification).

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NGC 7561

23 15 57.7 +04 31 20; Psc

 

= *, Carlson.  = *14, Gottlieb.

 

Herman Schultz discovered NGC 7561 = Nova XI, along with NGC 7560, on 5 Oct 1864 with the 9.6-inch refractor at Uppsala Observatory.  At his micrometric position is a mag 14 star.  Karl Reinmuth reported "mag 14.5 star, no nebulosity" and this is repeated by Dorothy Carlson and in the RNGC.

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NGC 7562 = UGC 12464 = MCG +01-59-024 = CGCG 406-039 = LGG 473-003 = PGC 70874

23 15 57.5 +06 41 15; Psc

V = 11.6;  Size 2.2'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 83¡

 

24" (1/1/16): fairly bright, fairly large, oval 3:2 ~E-W, ~1.2'x0.8'.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright core that increases to the center.  The much fainter halo gradually fades out at the periphery.  A mag 13.8 star is 1.8' E.  NGC 7557 lies 4.6' WNW and NGC 7562A is 2.3' SSE.  Two extremely faint "stars" [mag 16.3 or fainter] were glimpsed close to the position of NGC 7562A and one of these may have been the core of the galaxy as it occasionally seemed non-stellar and possibly elongated N-S.

 

18" (11/22/08): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 ~E-W, 1.2'x0.8'.  Contains a very bright core surrounded by a much fainter halo.  The core is concentrated to a bright, quasi-stellar nucleus.

 

17.5" (8/27/87): fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated ~E-W, bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): fairly bright, fairly small, strong bright core, fainter halo slightly elongated ~E-W.  Forms a pair with NGC 7557 4.7' WNW.  NGC 7591 lies 35' ESE and NGC 7564 36' N.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7562 = H II-467 = h2224 on 25 Oct 1785 (sweep 464) and recorded "pB, pL, irr figure."  John Herschel made the single observation "B; S; R; psbM; 15"."  While observing NGC 7562 on 16 Sep 1852, George Johnstone Stoney, LdR's assistant, recorded "Involves a very small star to north-following.  Another nebula [NGC 7557] 6' preceding and 1' north of it."

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NGC 7563 = UGC 12465 = MCG +02-59-015 = CGCG 431-029 = LGG 471-007 = PGC 70872

23 15 55.9 +13 11 46; Peg

V = 12.8;  Size 1.9'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 155¡

 

24" (8/30/16): at 375x; moderately bright, fairly small, contains a small bright round core with very faint extensions (bar) E-W.  A very low surface brightness halo is elongated 2:1 NW-SE (clearly offset the axis of the "bar"), ~1.2'x0.6'.  A group of stars is close east including a mag 10.5 star 2.2' ESE.  NGC 7559 (double) lies 6.2' NNW.  The trio lies at a distance of 200 million l.y.

 

17.5" (9/23/89): faint, small, slightly elongated, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 2.3' WNW of a mag 10 star.  Pair with NGC 7559 6.1' NNW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7563 = H III-222 = h2223 on 19 Oct 1784 (sweep 299) and recorded "Two [along with NGC 7559 = III-221], eF, R, S, both alike."  He found the galaxy again on 23 Nov 1785 (sweep 476) and noted "vF, S."  JH made 4 observations and remarked (sweep 15), "pB; S; R; smbM; a B * near; the s f of 2 [with NGC 7559]."

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NGC 7564

23 16 01.2 +07 20 52; Psc

 

= *, Corwin.

 

CGCG 406-036 (identified as NGC 7564 in the RNGC, PGC, Megastar, etc.) appeared faint, small, elongated WNW-ESE.  Located 5.7' SSW of a mag 10 star.  This star is at the north end of a 8' string of 6 or 7 stars oriented NNW-SSE.  The galaxy lies just west of the middle of this string.  NGC 7562 is located 37' SSE.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 7564 = B. 96 on 7 Oct 1885 and noted as 5"-6" diameter.  At the exact position in the Comptes Rendus list is a mag 14 star.  RNGC and PGC misidentify CGCG 406-036 = PGC 70843 as NGC 7564.  Malcolm Thomson classifies NGC 7564 as nonexistent in his unpublished "Catalogue Corrections".  Harold Corwin identifies NGC 7564 with the star at Bigourdan's position.

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NGC 7565

23 16 19 -00 03 30; Psc

 

= Not found, Corwin.  = *, Carlson.

 

Gaspare Ferrari discovered NGC 7565 on 14 Dec 1865 using the 9.5-inch Merz equatorial while an assistant to Father Secchi.  It was found while searching for Biela's comet but there is nothing at his position. Reinmuth reported a "*15 in Dreyer's place." based on a Heidelberg plate.  No modern catalogue identifies NGC 7565 and Harold Corwin lists it as lost.

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NGC 7566 = MCG -01-59-010 = PGC 70901

23 16 37.4 -02 19 50; Psc

V = 13.3;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 115¡

 

24" (9/29/16): at 500x; fairly faint or moderately bright, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, ~0.6'x0.3', small bright nucleus.  Bracketed by two mag 14.5 stars [27" ESE and 36" WNW of center].  Member of a group with brightest member NGC 7556 13.5' WSW.

 

17.5" (8/1/87): fairly faint, small, oval.  Bracketed by two mag 14.5 stars 37" WNW and 27" E of center.  Also a mag 14 star is 1.1' SW.  Located 13' ENE of NGC 7556 in the NGC 7532-7556 group.

 

13.1" (9/29/84): within a triangle of 3 faint stars, elongated ~WNW-ESE, diffuse.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7566 = H III-185, along with NGC 7554, on 20 Sep 1784 (sweep 279) and logged vF, pS, irr E." His summary description (based on a second observation) mentions "3 faint stars visible in it."  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 7 Nov 1885 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 7567 = UGC 12468 = MCG +03-59-019 = CGCG 454-016 = KUG 2313+155A = WBL 702-001 = PGC 70885

23 16 10.3 +15 51 00; Peg

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 76¡

 

24" (12/20/17): at 375x; faint or fairly faint, very elongated ~4:1 WSW-ENE, ~40"x10", very weak concentration.  Two mag 12.5 stars are 1' SE and 1.2' ENE  A mag 10.7/13.7 pair at 8" is 2.8' NW. NGC 7567 is the brightest in a small group (WBL 702 at z = .015).

 

CGCG 454-017, 3' ENE, appeared very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, no other visible details.

CGCG 431-030, 7' SSE, appeared faint, small, irregularly round, 20" diameter, slightly brighter nucleus.

CGCG 454-019, 7' NE, appeared faint to fairly faint, elongated 5:2 SW-NW, ~40"x15", broad weak concentration. A mag 14.8 star is 50" NNE.

 

17.5" (7/19/90): very faint, very small, very elongated 4:1 WSW-ENE.  A mag 12.5 star is off the ENE end [1.2' from center].  NGC 7551 lies 13' NW and NGC 7540 is 24' WNW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7567 = m 551 on 3 Nov 1864 and noted "eeF, vS, E."  His position is 1' too far south.

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NGC 7568 = NGC 7574? = UGC 12469 = CGCG 475-058 = PGC 70892

23 16 24.9 +24 29 49; Peg

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 120¡

 

17.5" (9/23/89): very faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, very low even surface brightness.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 7568 = St VIII(a)-28 on 17 Oct 1876 using the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches UGC 12469.  Harold Corwin proposes that NGC 7574, discovered by d'Arrest ten years earlier on 2 Oct 1866, refers to this galaxy.

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NGC 7569 = UGC 12472 = MCG +01-59-026 = CGCG 406-041 = III Zw 100 = PGC 70914

23 16 44.5 +08 54 20; Peg

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 88¡

 

18" (10/25/03): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 E-W, 0.8'x0.6'.  A distinctive group of four mag 12-13 stars is SE.  The closest star is 2' SE while the other three are 4' SE and arranged in an isosceles right triangle with sides 0.9', 1' and 1.5'.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7569 = Sw. IV-93 on 6 Sep 1886 and logged "vF; vS; R; 3 faint stars south-following form a small right angle triangle."  There are no galaxies close to his position or even stars to the southeast matching his description. But Harold Corwin was able to identify UGC 12472 as NGC 7569.  This galaxy is exactly two degrees south of Swift's position (matches in RA) and there is a small right triangle of stars 5' southeast.  So, the identification is nearly certain.  No modern catalogue identifies UGC 12472 as NGC 7569 and RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent (Type 7).

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NGC 7570 = UGC 12473 = MCG +02-59-018 = CGCG 431-032 = LGG 471-005 = PGC 70912

23 16 44.7 +13 28 59; Peg

V = 13.2;  Size 1.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 30¡

 

17.5" (9/23/89): faint, fairly small, oval SW-NE, fairly low surface brightness except for small bright core.  NGC 7559 is located 20' SW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7570 = H III-238 on 17 Nov 1784 (sweep 320) and logged "eF, eS.  240 confirmed with difficulty."  His position is only 40" south of the center of UGC 12473.

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NGC 7571 = NGC 7597?? = MCG +03-59-032 = CGCG 454-032

23 18 30.3 +18 41 19; Peg

 

See observing notes for NGC 7597.   = **?, Bigourdan and Reinmuth.  = NGC 7578, RNGC.

 

Herman Schultz discovered NGC 7571 on 25 Sep 1867 with the 9.6-inch refractor at Uppsala Observatory.  In his remarks to NGC 7550 in "Micrometrical Observations of 500 Nebulae" he mentions "A poor stellar group of pretty bright stars follows the above nebulae [NGC 7547, 7549, and 7550] about 1 1/2 minutes; and the whole region following this stellar group seems nebulous:  a group of small nebulae or a considerably extended nebulosity with several knots?...Description and position do not at all agree with III. 181 [NGC 7550]!"  There is nothing near the NGC position.  Karl Reinmuth reported "identif very doubtful; vF** dist 0.3' 135d, np * nebulous?, N7571 = N7578?"  Bigourdan's "corrected" position from 23 Sep 1886 applies to this double star.  This equivalence is repeated in the RNGC.

 

Harold Corwin notes there is no group of "pretty bright stars" 1.5 minutes following NGC 7547/7550 as in Schultz's description, but there is such as group at this separation from NGC 7578.  If Schultz was confused and was actually referencing NGC 7578, then NGC 7571 may be a duplicate of NGC 7597 (the brightest in a group).  This identification is very uncertain, though, as I feel NGC 7597 is too faint for Schultz to have picked up.

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NGC 7572 = MCG +03-59-023 = CGCG 454-021 = PGC 70919

23 16 50.4 +18 28 59; Peg

V = 14.1;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 162¡

 

18" (8/25/06): faint, small, very elongated 7:2 NNW-SSE, 0.8'x0.25', *12 1' NNE.  Member of cluster AGC 2572 with core HCG 94.

 

17.5" (9/23/89): very faint, very small, irregularly round, broad weak concentration.  A mag 12 star is 1.3' NE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7572 = m 552 on 3 Nov 1864 and noted "eeF, alm stellar."  His position is just 1' too far south.

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NGC 7573 = ESO 604-008 = MCG -04-54-017 = AM 2313-222 = PGC 70893

23 16 26.3 -22 09 16; Aqr

V = 13.6;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 42¡

 

17.5" (7/25/95): very faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 50"x40", no concentration, very low surface brightness.  Located 4.4' ENE of a mag 11 star.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 7573 = LM 2-473 in 1886 and recorded "mag 15.8; 0.7' dia; iR; bnp; *10 in PA 290¡ at 4.4'."  There is nothing at his position but 1 min of RA west is ESO 604-008.  Muller's star is 5.5' west.  Herbert Howe noted the approximate RA correction in his 1900 list of NGC/IC comments.

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NGC 7574 = NGC 7568? = UGC 12469 = CGCG 475-058

23 16 24.9 +24 29 49; Peg

 

See observing notes for NGC 7568.  NGC identification very uncertain.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 7574 on 2 Oct 1866 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  There is nothing near his single position.  Karl Reinmuth reported it not found, and this was repeated by Dorothy Carlson and the RNGC. Harold Corwin suggests that if d'Arrest made both a 30' error in declination (too far south) and 30 seconds in RA (too far east), then NGC 7574 is equivalent to NGC 7568, discovered by Stephan 10 years later.  As both errors involve single digits, this solution is reasonable (though not certain).

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NGC 7575 = CGCG 406-044 = MCG +01-59-028 = Holm 807a = PGC 70946

23 17 20.9 +05 39 39; Psc

V = 14.2;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 108¡

 

18" (10/25/03): faint, small, slightly elongated, ~20"x15".  Difficult to pin down orientation, though appears roughly E-W.  Forms a 1' pair with fainter MCG +01-59-028.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7575 = m 553 on 29 Aug 1864 and noted "F, S, vlE."  There are no galaxies near Marth's position, only mag 15 stars 2' northwest and 3' east-south.  Karl Reinmuth reported "Not Found" on a Heidelberg plate and Dorothy Carlson equates it with star (repeated in the RNGC).

 

Harold Corwin suggests that NGC 7575 = CGCG 406-044 = PGC 70946 (brighter of a pair).  This galaxy is located 1¡ south of Marth's position and requires he made a single digit transcription error. See Corwin's notes for discussion.

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NGC 7576 = MCG -01-59-012 = PGC 70948

23 17 22.7 -04 43 40; Aqr

V = 12.9;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 165¡

 

17.5" (8/7/91): moderately bright, fairly small, round, even concentration to a bright core containing a stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 7585 10.7' NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7576 = H II-454 on 5 Oct 1785 (sweep 455) and logged "F, S, almost stellar."  His position is off by 1.6' southeast.  Nearby NGC 7585 had been discovered previously.

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NGC 7577 = PGC 70947

23 17 17.1 +07 21 56; Psc

V = 15.4;  Size 0.3'x0.2'

 

17.5" (11/18/95): extremely faint and small, round, 10" diameter.  Forms a close pair with a mag 15 star off the ENE edge 23" from center that confuses the observation.  Cannot hold steadily with averted at 220x but observation certain.  Faintest in trio and located 8.8' due west of NGC 7583 and 9.5' SW of NGC 7604.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 7577 = B. 97 on 7 Oct 1885.  His position in the Comptes Rendus list is just 1' north of PGC 70947, an extremely faint galaxy that is not listed in CGCG or MCG.  A mag 15 star just 23" northeast certainly contributed to the appearance of nebulosity.  This object is probably Bigourdan's faintest discovery. See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 7578 = NGC 7578B = HCG 94A = Arp 170 NED2 = VV 181a = (R)NGC 7578A = UGC 12478 = MCG +03-59-025 = CGCG 454-024 = PGC 70934

23 17 13.6 +18 42 29; Peg

V = 14.1;  Size 0.4'x0.4'

 

48" (10/27/16): at 488x; bright, fairly small, round, sharply concentrated with a very bright core that gradually increases to the center and a low surface brightness ~30" halo.  A mag 14.5 star is at the NE edge [17" from center]. Forms a bright double system with NGC 7578A = HCG 94B 0.6' SW.  The companion appeared fairly bright, small, round, sharply concentrated with a very bright core increasing to small intense nucleus.  HCG 94D, just northeast of the mag 14.5 star, is faint to fairly faint (V = 16.1), very small, round, 8" diameter, even surface brightness.

 

HCG 94C, the third brightest (V = 15.1) and perhaps the largest in the septet, is 2.2' NE.  It appeared moderately bright and large, very elongated at least 3:1 NNW-SSE, ~30"x10", well concentrated with a sharp bright nucleus.  HCG 94F, just 0.5' NW, is very faint (V = 17.0), very small, slightly elongated, 8"x6".  HCG 94G, 0.9' N of HCG 94C, is an extremely small, very faint glow (V = 17.2), only 6" diameter.  Completing the septet is HCG 94E, 1.2' NNE of NGC 7578.  This extremely faint (V = 16.9) edge-on extends 0.4'x0.1' and has a very low even surface brightness.  The observation was made through thin clouds.  This septet lies at a distance of ~570 million light years.

 

24" (8/14/15): at 375x; fairly faint to moderately bright, small, round, 24" diameter, very small bright nucleus.  A mag 14.5 star is just off the northeast side [17" from center].  Forms a double system with NGC 7578A = HCG 94B just 34" SW.  The companion appeared fairly faint, small, round, 20" diameter, contains a very small, bright nucleus.  NGC 7578C = HCG 94D, just 27" NE, is the faintest of 4 in HCG 94 and appeared extremely faint and small, round, only 6" diameter, visible only part of the time.  Finally HCG 94C lies 2.2' NE and appeared faint to fairly faint, small, elongated at least 3:2 N-S, contains a small brighter core and very faint extensions NNW-SSE, 18"x10".   The quartet (along with the mentioned star) are in a 2.8' linear string oriented SW-NE.

 

24" (8/16/12): at 376x the brightest member of HCG 94 appeared moderately bright, very small, round, 25" diameter, fairly high surface brightness, very small bright nucleus.  A mag 14.5 star is barely off the northeast end.  Forms a close pair with HCG 94B (34" between centers) with HCG 94D only 24" NE (very close to the mag 14.5 star).  HCG 94B (NGC 7578A) appeared fairly faint, very small, round, 20" core surrounded by a very low surface brightness halo.  HCG 94D (NGC 7578C) appeared extremely faint and small, round, 6" diameter.  HCG 94C lies 2.2' NE and appeared faint, small, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, contains a very small slightly brighter core and faint extensions NNW-SSE, ~20"x10".  A mag 14 star lies 50" S.

 

18" (8/25/06): this is the northeast component of a double system in HCG 94 (core of AGC 2572).  It appeared faint, very small, round, 0.4' diameter with a mag 14.5 star just off the NE end.

 

18" (9/3/05): fairly faint, very small, round, 25" diameter.  A mag 14 star is very close at the NE edge and somewhat confuses the view.  Forms a double with slightly fainter HCG 94B just 0.6' SW of center.  The SW component appeared faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.

 

18" (8/27/05): at 323x, this double system is cleanly resolved.  The NE component is faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  A mag 14-15 star is just off the NE end and a second mag 14 star lies 50" south.  Just separated from HCG 94B, which lies 34" SW of center.

 

17.5" (9/7/96): fairly faint, small, round, 45" diameter.  A mag 14 star is at the NE edge and a second mag 14 star 0.9' S.  Forms a double system with UGC 12477 = HCG 94b on the SW side of the halo.  The brighter cores of the galaxies are cleanly resolved but both appear to be encased in a common outer halo.  The faintest member, HCG 94c, lies 2.2' NE.  HCG 93 lies only 32' NW!

 

17.5" (9/23/89): this is the brightest member of the HCG 94 compact group in AGC 2572 (identified as NGC 7578B in RC2, UGC and HCG).  Faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE.  Attached to fainter NGC 7578A = HCG 94b just 34" SW of center in a common halo.  A mag 15 star is at the NE edge 15" from center and a mag 14 star is off the south side 52" from center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7578 = H III-182 = h2225 on 18 Sep 1784 (sweep 277) and recorded "2 vS stars about 2 or 3' distance with excessively faint nebulosity between them.  I saw also a third star."  He probably resolved the pair, though his separation estimate is much too large. On 15 Oct 1784 (sweep 290), he logged "Suspected, E, 240 shewed 4 or 5 small stars with seeming nebulosity but left it doubtful." JH simply called this object "F" but his position matches - no mention of being double or nearby faint stars.  The brighter northeast member is designated NGC 7578B in RC2, RC3, UGC, MCG and Hickson.  See Corwin's notes for a full discussion.

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NGC 7579 = MCG +01-59-031 = CGCG 406-046 = PGC 70964

23 17 38.9 +09 26 00; Peg

V = 14.1;  Size 0.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 11.6;  PA = 39¡

 

24" (9/30/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 18"x15".  First in a small group of galaxies within Pegasus II cluster with NGC 7584 3.5' due east and CGCG 406-050 4.2' ESE.  Situated 6.7' SW of mag 7.6 HD 219728.

 

17.5" (10/28/89): very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  This Pegasus II member forms a trio with NGC 7584 3.5' E and CGCG 406-050 4.2' ENE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7579 = m 554, along with NGC 7484, on 5 Oct 1864 and noted "eF, vS, stellar."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7580 = UGC 12481 = MCG +02-59-019 = CGCG 431-034 = Mrk 318 = LGG 471-006 = PGC 70962

23 17 36.4 +14 00 04; Peg

V = 13.7;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 45¡

 

17.5" (9/23/89): faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, bright core.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 7580 = Sw. V-99 on 25 Sep 1886 and recorded "vF; pS; R; F * nr sp; 3 stars following point to it."  His position and description is accurate.

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NGC 7581 = NGC 7541 = UGC 12447 = MCG +01-59-017 = CGCG 406-030 = Holm 805a = PGC 70795

23 14 43.9 +04 32 04; Psc

 

See observing notes for NGC 7541.

 

Horace Tuttle discovered NGC 7581 on 11 Jan 1875 with the 26-inch refractor at the U.S. Naval Observatory. Although Holden is credited with the discovery in the NGC, Wolfgang Steinicke found in the USNO observations for 1875 the entry "Jan. 11.  Nebula (nova).  In looking for Encke's Comet, found a vF, elongated nebula [alpha] = 23h 11m.4 [delta] = +3d 59.  T[uttle].".  There is nothing near his position.  In Die Herschel Nebel (1927), Karl Reinmuth states "not found, =N7541".  NGC 7541 is 3 minutes of RA west and 8' south of Tuttle's position, but there is a mag 12-13 star just east, which matches the NGC description.  So despite the very poor position this identification is possible.  See Harold Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 7582 = ESO 291-016 = MCG -07-47-029 = LGG 472-004 = PGC 71001 = Grus Trio

23 18 23.5 -42 22 14; Gru

V = 10.6;  Size 5.0'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 157¡

 

30" (10/21/17 - OzSky): at 264x; extremely bright, very large, very elongated ~3:1 NNW-SSE,  ~3.6'x1.2'. Strong concentration with an extremely bright elongated core and a prominent quasi-stellar nucleus.  This barred spiral is brighter along the spine of the major axis and displays a mottled or patchy surface brightness.  NGC 7582 is the largest and most impressive in the Grus Triplet with NGC 7590 5' NE and NGC 7599 12.5' NE. 

 

13.1" (11/5/83): fairly large, diffuse, elongated NNW-SSE.  First of three in the field with NGC 7590 9.8' NE and NGC 7599 12.6' NE.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 7582 = D 476 = h3977 on 7 Jul 1826 and recorded "a small faint round nebula, about 30" diameter: a double nebula follow this."  John Herschel made a single observation on 2 Sep 1836 and described "pB, L, pmE, gbM."  His declination is 15' too large.  DeLisle Stewart's corrected declination in the IC 2 notes (from Ann Harv Coll Obs, vol LX, p175) is accurate.

 

When Pietro Baracchi observed the field on 2 Nov 1885 with the Great Melbourne Telescope, he couldn't find NGC 7582 at Herschel's position, but instead picked up MCG -07-47-031, an uncredited discovery.

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NGC 7583 = NGC 7605 = MCG +01-59-034 = CGCG 406-047 = PGC 70975

23 17 52.8 +07 22 46; Psc

V = 13.8;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (11/18/95): faint, small, round, well-defined 30" halo.  Weak concentration to a small brighter core.  A mag 14 star is 1.1' W of center.  Brightest of trio with NGC 7604 = MCG +01-59-033 = CGCG 406-048 3.0' N and NGC 7577 8.8' W.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7583 = m 555 on 2 Sep 1864 and noted "vF, vS."  His position is 2' north of CGCG 406-047 and 1' south of CGCG 404-048.  Since he only observed one of these galaxies on this date, it's reasonable to assume he picked up CGCG 406-047, as this is the brighter galaxy.  Marth probably found this galaxy again three months later on 29 Nov 1864 as m 568 = NGC 7605 but his RA was 1.0 tmin too large.  So, NGC 7583 = NGC 7603 = CGCG 406-047.  CGCG doesn't use the NGC designation and misidentifies CGCG 406-048 as NGC 7583.  This latter galaxy is probably NGC 7604.

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NGC 7584 = MCG +01-59-035 = CGCG 406-049 = PGC 70977

23 17 53.0 +09 26 00; Peg

V = 14.4;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.1

 

24" (9/30/16): at 375x; fairly faint, small, round, 20" diameter.  In a trio with CGCG 406-050 1.1' NE and NGC 7579 3.5' due W.  Located 4.5' SSW of mag 7.6 HD 219728.  CGCG 406-050 appeared faint, very small, round, 10"-12" diameter.  A mag 14 star is 0.9' SE.  Member of the Pegasus II cluster.

 

17.5" (10/28/89): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 15.5 star (or extremely faint and small galaxy) is off the SW edge.  A mag 14 star is 1.3' ENE.  Forms a trio with CGCG 406-050 1.1' NNE and NGC 7579 3.5' W.  Located 4.6' SSW of mag 7.6 SAO 128095 in the Pegasus II cluster.  CGCG 406-050 appeared extremely faint and small, round.  A mag 15.5 star is less than 1' WSW and a mag 14 star is 1' SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 7584 = m 556, along with NGC 7579, on 5 Oct 1864 and noted "eF, vS, stellar."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 7585 = Arp 223 = MCG -01-59-015 = PGC 70986

23 18 01.2 -04 38 58; Aqr

V = 11.4;  Size 2.3'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 105¡

 

17.5" (8/7/91): bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, small very bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 8.0' SSE of mag 8.5 SAO 146621.  Forms a pair with NGC 7576 10.7' SW.  NGC 7592 lies 15' NE. 

 

8" (9/25/81): faint, small, small bright nucleus.  Two mag 8 stars are in the field to the north and NW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 7585 = H II-236 = h2226 = h3979 on 20 Sep 1784 (sweep 279) and noted "pB, irr E, r."  On 5 Oct 1785 (sweep 455) he noted "pB, pL, iR, mbM."  JH made an observation from Slough as well as the Cape of Good Hope (accurate position).

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NGC 7586 = LEDA 1349697

23 17 55.6 +08 35 03; Peg

V = 14.8;  Size 0.5'x0.4'

 

24" (8/29/19): at 375x; between faint and fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter halo, very small brighter core, occasional faint stellar nucleus.  Easily seen 3.8' NW of a mag 9.3 star.  This galaxy lies in the bacground of the Pegasus I cluster.

 

CGCG 406-45, misidentified as NGC 7586 in the CGCG, RNGC and PGC, is noticeably fainter and appeared very faint (V = 15.7), round, ~20" diameter, very low surface brightness.  Located 20' SSE of NGC 7586.

 

17.5" (11/18/95): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, slight central brightening.  Located 3.8' NW of mag 9 SAO 1280