NGC 4000 = UGC 6949 = MCG +04-28-103 = CGCG 127-118 = WBL 368-006 = LGG 261-005 = PGC 37643

11 57 57.0 +25 08 39; Leo

V = 14.5;  Size 1.0'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 3”

 

24" (3/22/14): faint, fairly small, very thin edge-on, 0.5'x0.1', even surface brightness.  Situated 1.7' WNW of mag 8 HD 103913.  NGC 4005 is symmetrically placed on the opposite side of the star.

 

17.5" (3/19/88): very faint, fairly small, very elongated N-S.  Located 1.6' WNW of mag 7.8 SAO 82077.  Located in the center of the NGC 4007 group with NGC 4007 3.2' ESE.

 

Lawrence Parsons discovered NGC 4000 on 25 Apr 1878 during one of the six Birr Castle observations of the cluster.  Parsons placed this nebula at 100.5" separation in PA 283.9” (WNW) with respect to mag 8 star HD 103913 and described it as "vF, vS, lE ns, gbM." The micrometric offset points directly to UGC 6949.

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NGC 4001 = MCG +08-22-047 = CGCG 243-033 = Holm 314b = PGC 37656

11 58 06.8 +47 20 05; UMa

V = 14.8;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 160”

 

17.5" (4/7/89): extremely faint, very small but elongation visible NNW-SSE, weak concentration.  A mag 12 star is 2.1' N and a mag 11.5 star 4.2' NE of center.  Located 6' NW of NGC 4010.

 

George Johnstone Stoney or Bindon Stoney, LdR's assistants, discovered NGC 4001 on 13 Apr 1852.  While observing NGC 4010 he noted "A S, R neb about 7' np."

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NGC 4002 = MCG +04-28-104 = CGCG 127-116 = PGC 37635

11 57 59.3 +23 12 07; Leo

V = 14.0;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 75”

 

17.5" (2/20/88): fairly faint, small, elongated ~E-W, small bright core.  A mag 13.5 star is 0.8' SE of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 4003 4.6' S.  Located very close to Coma Berenices border.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4002 = H III-344 = h1034, along with NGC 4003, on 10 Apr 1785 (sweep 394) and recorded "Two, both eF and vS.  240x verified them, 5 or 6' from each other."  JH measured a fairly accurate position.

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NGC 4003 = UGC 6948 = MCG +04-28-105 = CGCG 127-115 = PGC 37646

11 57 59.0 +23 07 29; Leo

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 10”

 

17.5" (2/20/88): faint, small, oval, weak concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 4002 4.6' N.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4003 = H III-345 = h1035, along with NGC 4002, on 10 Apr 1785 (sweep 394).  WH provided a single position for both objects, but JH measured fairly accurate positions.

 

CGCG, UGC and MCG equate NGC 4003 with NGC 4007, but the correct equivalence is NGC 4005 = NGC 4007.

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NGC 4004 = VV 230 = UGC 6950 = MCG +05-28-060 = CGCG 157-065 = Mrk 432 = Holm 312a = WBL 367-003 = PGC 37654

11 58 05.2 +27 52 43; Leo

V = 13.7;  Size 1.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 8”

 

17.5" (4/9/99): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, 1.2'x0.4', no concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is close following [57" SE of center].  Last and brightest of a trio with IC 2982 3.1' W and NGC 3988.  IC 2982 appeared faint, very small, elongated 20"x15" SW-NE.  Just follows a mag 11 star [45" to center] which is the brightest star in an inverted "L" asterism and which detracts from viewing. 

 

On the DSS, NGC 4004 appears to be an interacting, distorted galaxy (or the result) with a long tidal tail to the south.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4004 = H III-354 = h1036 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "vF, vS.  It was in the field I was gaging otherwise it would probably have been overlooked."  CH's reduction is 6.5' NNE of UGC 6950.  Because of the poor position, JH listed this object as a "nova" (h1036), though questioned if it was identical to III-354 in the GC.  JH recorded "pF; lE; gbM; the f of 2 in parallel [with NGC 3988] with a star between."  Both Herschels missed nearby IC 2982, next to the star.

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NGC 4005 = NGC 4007 = UGC 6952 = MCG +04-28-107 = CGCG 127-120 = WBL 368-007 = LGG 261-002 = PGC 37661

11 58 10.1 +25 07 19; Leo

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 92”

 

24" (3/22/14): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 30"x20", bright core.  Situated 1.6' SE of mag 8.2 HD 103913.  NGC 4011 lies 3.7' ESE.

 

17.5" (3/19/88): fairly faint, small, oval slightly elongated E-W, bright core.  Located 1.8' SE of mag 7.8 SAO 82077.  This is one of the brightest members in the cluster.

 

Otto Struve found NGC 4005 on 16 Mar 1869 with the 15-inch refractor at Pulkovo Observatory while searching for Comet Winnecke (7P/Pons-Winnecke) in Mar-Apr 1869.

 

WH discovered this galaxy and catalogued it as H III-325 (later NGC 4007), but the declination in the GC and NGC is 2 degrees too far south due to a copying or reduction error (Auwer's reduction has the correct position).  This correction was noted by Dreyer in his 1912 "Scientific Papers of WH."  Because of Struve's unambiguous position, this galaxy is identified as NGC 4005 in UGC, CGCG, MCG, RNGC, RC3 but by historical precedence, NGC 4007 should be the primary designation.

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NGC 4006 = UGC 6951 = MCG +00-31-006 = CGCG 013-015 = PGC 37655

11 58 05.8 -02 07 12; Vir

V = 12.6;  Size 1.7'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 20”

 

17.5" (5/11/02): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, 0.7'x0.5', very small brighter core, faint stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Near the middle of a 13' N-S string of stars concave outwards towards the east.  A mag 12 star lies 1.6' NE.  Forms a pair with CGCG 013-020 7' ESE.  This galaxy appeared faint, small, slightly elongated, 0.5'x0.4'.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4006 = h1037 on 15 Apr 1828 and noted "F; S; R; bM; sp a * 11m."  His position and description matches UGC 6951.  Harold Corwin notes that IC 2983 is not NGC 4006.  See his notes on that number.

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NGC 4007 = NGC 4005 = UGC 6952 = MCG +04-28-107 = CGCG 127-120 = WBL 368-007 = LGG 261-002 = PGC 37661

11 58 10.1 +25 07 19; Leo

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 92”

 

See observing notes for NGC 4005

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4007 = H III-325 on 6 Apr 1785 (sweep 393) and noted "eF, vS."  His position (Auwer's reduction) is just 1' east of UGC 6952 = PGC 37661, but the North Polar Distance in GC and NGC is two degrees too far south (the offset is 45' south of 4 Comae).  This error was caught and corrected by Dreyer in his 1912 revision of WH's catalogues.  Otto Struve independently found the galaxy on 16 Mar 1869 and Dreyer himself picked it up at Birr Castle in 1878 (labeled as Alpha on the diagram of the cluster), and it was catalogued as NGC 4005 at the correct position.

 

All major catalogues identify this galaxy as NGC 4005 although you could argue that by prior discovery, H III-325 = NGC 4007 should take historical precedence.  In any case, it is clear that NGC 4005 = NGC 4007.  Unfortunately, as a result of the two degree error, the NGC position falls close to NGC 4003.  So, Karl Reinmuth in his 1926 survey "Die Herschel-Nebel", Dorothy Carlson's NGC/IC Correction list, CGCG, UGC, MCG all misidentify NGC 4007 = NGC 4003, ignoring Dreyer's correction.  See Malcolm Thomson's Catalogue Corrections and Corwin's notes.

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NGC 4008 = UGC 6953 = MCG +05-28-061 = CGCG 157-066 = PGC 37666

11 58 17.0 +28 11 33; Leo

V = 12.0;  Size 2.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 167”

 

17.5" (4/9/99): moderately bright, very elongated ~N-S with a prominent core., 1.4'x0.5'.  The extensions nearly reach an extremely faint mag 15.5 star at the north edge.  Initially I thought this galaxy was NGC 4004 which is located 20' SSW.

 

8" (4/24/82): faint, round, bright core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4008 = H II-368 = h1038 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "pF, bM."  JH made 4 observations and measured an accurate position.  A total of 7 observations were made at Birr Castle.

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NGC 4009

11 58 15.1 +25 11 24; Leo

 

= *, Corwin.

 

J.L.E. Dreyer discovered NGC 4009 with the 72" on 26 Apr 1878 in the last observation of the cluster at Birr Castle.  He placed it 238" in PA 41.5” from mag 8 HD 103913 and at this exact offset (labeled "Iota" on the final compiled sketch) is a mag 15 star (GSC 1985-1944).  RNGC and PGC misidentify PGC 37677 as NGC 4009.  This galaxy is 7' northeast of the offset star.

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NGC 4010 = UGC 6964 = MCG +08-22-049 = CGCG 243-034 = Holm 314a = LGG 258-021 = PGC 37697

11 58 37.0 +47 15 37; UMa

V = 12.6;  Size 4.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 66”

 

17.5" (4/7/89): faint, large, edge-on WSW-ENE, weak concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 4001 6' NW.  Member of the NGC 3877 subgroup of the M109 (NGC 3992) group = LGG 258.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4010 = h1040 on 26 Apr 1830 and noted "F; mE; vglbM; 100" l, 25" br."  His position is 2' southwest of center of UGC 6964, bu the identification is certain.

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NGC 4011 = CGCG 127-121 = WBL 368-008 = PGC 37674

11 58 25.4 +25 05 51; Leo

V = 14.7;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  PA = 35”

 

24" (3/22/14): very faint or faint, small, round, 15" diameter, very weak concentration.  Located 3.7' SE of NGC 4005 and 5.4' NW of NGC 4015.

 

J.L.E. Dreyer discovered NGC 4011 on 24 Apr 1878 in one of the later observations of the cluster with the 72" and labeled as "Epsilon" on the published sketch (constructed from all observations).  His notes read "vF, vS, *12m 2.5' np."  The nebula was placed +/- 4' in approximately PA  112” from mag 8.3 HD 103913.  The actual offsets to CGCG 127-121 = PGC 37674 are 5.4' in PA 117”.  The mag 12 star (also shown on the sketch) is 1.4' N.  This was apparently the last night that novae were discovered at Birr Castle.

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NGC 4012 = UGC 6960 = MCG +02-31-006 = CGCG 069-009 = PGC 37686

11 58 27.6 +10 01 17; Vir

V = 13.4;  Size 1.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 153”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): very faint, small, elongated NNW-SSE, low even surface brightness.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4012 = m 225 = Sf 108 on 15 Jan 1865 and recorded "vF, S, lE". His position matches UGC 6960.  Truman Safford independently found this galaxy on 12 Jun 1868 with the 18.5-inch refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.

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NGC 4013 = UGC 6963 = MCG +07-25-009 = CGCG 215-010 = PGC 37691

11 58 31.7 +43 56 48; UMa

V = 11.2;  Size 5.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 66”

 

17.5" (3/8/97): moderately bright, fairly large edge-on 5:1 WSW-ENE, 3.5'x0.7'.  A mag 12 star is superimposed very close to the actual center and masquerades as a bright stellar nucleus (similar to M108).  The galaxy bulges towards center but is only weakly concentrated, fades towards tips.  On the DSS the star is superimposed on a thin equatorial dust lane that was not seen.  Member of the NGC 4111 group in the UMa cloud.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4013 = H II-733 = h1041 on 6 Feb 1788 (sweep 810) and recorded "pB, mE, about 4' long and 3/4' br.  A pBSN and vF branches near the meridian." JH made two observations and logged on sweep 248 "B; mE; vsvmbM to a * = 10-11m; pos of extension = 62.3” by measure."

 

George Stoney, LdR's assistant, recorded it on 17 Mar 1849 as "E with a split or opening in the direction of major axis and a star a little following the center."  The dark lane was confirmed on 12 Apr 1861: "Brightest part preceding the star and certainly a narrow split going towards preceding end from the star."

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NGC 4014 = NGC 4028 = UGC 6961 = MCG +03-31-005 = CGCG 098-012 = PGC 37695

11 58 35.8 +16 10 38; Com

V = 12.3;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 120”

 

18" (4/5/03): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, 1.0'x0.5', weakly concentrated halo, rises suddenly to a very small brighter core.  Forms the eastern vertex of an equilateral triangle with a mag 10.8 star 6.5' NW and a mag 12 star 6.4' SW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4014 = h1042 on 26 Apr 1832 and logged "Not vF; R; pgbM; 35".  The next sweep is observed it again as"pB; psbM; 25"."  His position matches UGC 6961.  William Herschel made the original discovery on 26 Apr 1832 and recorded it as H. III-3 (later NGC 4028), but with an erroneous position.  Because of JH's unambiguous identification, this galaxy is known as NGC 4014.

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NGC 4015 = Arp 138 NED1 = VV 216a = UGC 6965 = MCG +04-28-109 = MCG +04-28-110 = CGCG 127-122 = WBL 368-010 = LGG 260-006 = KPG 314 = PGC 37703

11 58 42.6 +25 02 12; Com

V = 13.2;  Size 1.4'x1.4'

 

24" (3/22/14): moderately to fairly bright, moderately large, sharply concentrated with a very bright blazing core and a faint halo.  The superimposed or interacting companion (VV 216b) was just visible at 375x as an extremely faint, elongated patch jutting out on the north side!

 

17.5" (3/19/88): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated bright core.  First of three with NGC 4021 5' NE and NGC 4023 6' SE.  Located close to the Coma Berenices-Leo border within the NGC 4007 group.  This is a double galaxy but the companion on the north side was not seen.

 

J.L.E. Dreyer discovered NGC 4015 (along with NGC 4021 and 4023) on 24 Apr 1878 and described it as "F, vS, E pf, mbM."  With respect to NGC 4005, he placed it at a separation of 545.1" in PA 124.9” and it was labeled "Beta" on the constructed sketch of the cluster.  At this exact separation is Arp 138 = VV 216 = UGC 6965.  The summary table questions if this nebula is H III-323, but this Herschel number applies to NGC 3987.  The next night Lawrence Parsons (4th Earl of Rosse) commented "Beta has a tail n[orth] of nucleus."  The "tail" refers to the northern component (VV 216b = MCG +04-28-110) of the double system, which did not receive a separate NGC designation.

 

The PGC positions for the two components, PGC 37702 and 37703, are nearly identical, though the dimensions (0.9?x0.2?) and magnitude (15.6) of PGC 37702 apparently apply to the edge-on.  HyperLEDA assigns the PGC designation in order or RA, which puts the label PGC 37703 on the edge-on, while NED assigns PGC 37702 to the edge-on.

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NGC 4016 = Arp 305 NED1 = UGC 6954 = MCG +05-28-063 = CGCG 157-068 = PGC 37687

11 58 29.0 +27 31 44; Com

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 175”

 

48" (4/20/17): at 488x; moderately bright and large, slightly elongated but irregular shape.  Contains a brighter elongated bar through the center oriented ~E-W with a slightly brighter, very small nucleus.  The halo changed shape and size with averted version so I was probably picking up part of the spiral arms that extend north on the west side and south on the east side.  The "bowtie" structure visible around the bar on the SDSS was not seen.  A mag 17.3 star is superimposed just 15" N of center and a mag 16.2 star is at the southeast edge of the galaxy.  Forms a pair (Arp 305) with NGC 4017 6' SE.

 

17.5" (4/9/99): faint, fairly small, elongated ~ E-W, 0.8'x0.5', no noticeable concentration.  A mag 12 star lies 1.3' S of center.  First and fainter of pair with NGC 4017 6' SE.

 

R.J. Mitchell, LdR's assistant, discovered NGC 4016 at Birr Castle on 30 Mar 1854 and noted "another vF neb about 5' np or nearly north [of NGC 4017]."  At this offset is UGC 6954.  The following April this galaxy was also noted as "np [NGC 4017] is another F, R neb with stellar centre."  The CGCG confuses the identifications of NGC 4016 and 4017.

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NGC 4017 = Arp 305 NED2 = VV 424 = UGC 6967 = MCG +05-28-065 = CGCG 157-069 = PGC 37705

11 58 45.8 +27 27 10; Com

V = 12.2;  Size 1.8'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

48" (4/20/17): at 488x; beautiful 2-armed spiral with a very distinctive "S" shape.  Contains a bright, elongated core or bar oriented E-W, though it was not as narrow as a typical bar.  It brightened somewhat in the center to a rounder nucleus.  Two very easy, graceful spiral arms were visible; the eastern arm is a bit brighter and knotty (HII regions) near its root on the southeast side of the core.  It rotates clockwise, bending north on the east side of the galaxy and then curls towards to the west, ending nearly due north of the core.  The western arm was also easily seen as an extension south-southeast, while tapering and fading to the south of the core.  Forms a striking pair with NGC 4016 6' NW.

 

17.5" (4/9/99): fairly faint, elongated 3:2 WSW-ENE, 1.2'x0.8', weak concentration [face-on SBc spiral].  Forms a pair with NGC 4016 6' NW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4017 = H II-369 = h1043 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "F, E, pL.  The following part the brightest."  CH's reduction matches this barred spiral.  JH made three observations, although all positions are rough.

 

Six observations were made at Birr Castle.  On 30 Mar 1854, R.J. Mitchell noted "F, spiral?  Another vF neb [NGC 4016] about 5' np or nearly north."  The following spring he commented "Query, shaped like an "S"?  Its light is certainly patchy and the neb is lE nearly pf.  np this object is another F, R neb with stellar centre."  Finally on 16 Apr 1855, he wrote "my previous conjectoure as to shape is rather confirmed by Mr. Johnstone Stoney [on a visit between professorial duties], who saw the p branch turned off sharply to the south, while the f bend is not so sharp, but this latter branch reacher farther round and is rather fainter."

 

CGCG mislabels NGC 4017 as NGC 4016.

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NGC 4018 = UGC 6966 = MCG +04-28-108 = CGCG 127-123 = WBL 368-009 = LGG 261-003 = PGC 37699

11 58 40.7 +25 18 59; Com

V = 13.8;  Size 1.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 163”

 

24" (3/22/14): fairly faint to moderately bright, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 1.2'x0.4', broad weak concentration.  NGC 4022 lies 7' SE.

 

17.5" (3/19/88): faint, fairly small, edge-on NW-SE.  A pair of mag 13 stars at 25" separation is located 3' SSE.  Member of the NGC 4007 group with NGC 4022 7' SE.

 

J.L.E. Dreyer discovered NGC 4018 on 26 Apr 1878 in the last observation of the cluster from Birr Castle.  He placed it roughly 12' in PA 37” from NGC 4009 and it is labeled "Kappa" on the constructed diagram.  The actual separation is 10' in PA 37”, although NGC 4009 is a star.  The note"mE np sf, 2 st S" pins down the identification as UGC 6966 = PGC 37699.  The two stars are ~3' SSE and shown too close to the nebula on the sketch.

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NGC 4019 = IC 755 = UGC 7001 = MCG +02-31-014 = CGCG 069-024 = FGC 1347 = PGC 37912

12 01 10.3 +14 06 16; Com

V = 13.2;  Size 2.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 145”

 

24" (5/20/20): at 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, excellent very thin edge-on!  Extended ~10:1 NW-SE, ~80"x8", bright core, tapers at tips.  A mag 10.1 star is 5.6' SSE.

 

18" (4/9/05): fairly faint, edge-on NW-SE, 1.0'x0.2', low even surface brightness.  A mag 10 star is 5.5' SE and 2' following this star is CGCG 069-029.  The identification of this galaxy (IC 755) with NGC 4019 is very uncertain.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4019 = h1044 on 23 Apr 1832 (the last night he made a discovery at Slough, setting sail for the Cape of Good Hope the following year) and logged, "eF; has a *9m 5' sf".  There is nothing near his position.  A mag 15 star is 3.5' northwest of his position and a mag 10 star lies 6' southeast of this faint star (a good match with his description), so the faint star is one possible candidate for NGC 4019.

 

Harold Corwin identifies NGC 4019 as IC 755, an edge-on galaxy 2 min 16 sec of RA east and 6' south of JH's position.  It has a mag 10 star 5.5' southeast that matches his description, but it unusually off in both RA and Dec.  So, this identification is uncertain.

Update: Corwin checked JH's sweep records and it appears his offsets refer to Beta Leonis.  Rereducing yields a position 2 minutes of RA further east, which is within 20 seconds of RA within IC 755.  Hence the equivalnce is very likely.

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NGC 4020 = UGC 6971 = MCG +05-28-066 = CGCG 157-072 = LGG 279-012 = PGC 37723

11 58 56.6 +30 24 42; UMa

V = 12.7;  Size 2.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 15”

 

17.5" (5/4/02): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 1.8'x0.9', broad concentration but no well-defined core.  A mag 10.5 star lies 3.1' WSW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4020 = H II-725 = h1045 on 3 Feb 1788 (sweep 805) and recorded "pB, E, mbM, about 2' long from sp to nf, but nearer to the meridian."  John Herschel recorded "Not vF; bicentral or elongated; vgbM to a central axis pos = 199.5”, or pos of the two centres = 19.5”; 14" long and 25" br."  The Slough Catalogue has a typo; read H. II-725 for H. II-275.  He corrected the error in the GC. Bindon Stoney, observing on LdR's 72" on 26 Apr 1851, not "Bicentral appearance very indistinct.  Light mottled, E ssp-nnf."

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NGC 4021 = MCG +04-28-112 = CGCG 127-124 = WBL 368-011 = PGC 37730

11 59 02.6 +25 04 59; Com

V = 14.5;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  PA = 85”

 

24" (3/22/14): faint, fairly small, round, 24" diameter, slightly brighter core.  Located 5.2' NE of NGC 4015 in the NGC 4005 cluster.

 

17.5" (3/19/88): very faint, very small, slightly elongated ~E-W, 0.4'x0.3'.  Forms the northern vertex of an equilateral triangle with NGC 4015 5' SW and NGC 4023 6' SSE.  Member of the NGC 4007 group.

 

J.L.E. Dreyer discovered NGC 4021 on 26 Apr 1878, the last session "nebulae" were discovered at Birr Castle.   He recorded, "F, S, R or lE and placed this object 58.2" in PA 312.1” with respect to NGC 4015.  It was labeled "Delta" on the final compiled sketch of the cluster.  At Dreyer's micrometric offset is CGCG 127-124 = PGC 37730.  Dreyer made an incorrect assumption that William Herschel's III-323 = NGC 4015 and III-324 = NGC 4021, based on their separations - these numbers apply to NGC 3987 and NGC 3997.

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NGC 4022 = UGC 6975 = MCG +04-28-111 = CGCG 127-125 = WBL 368-012 = LGG 261-004 = PGC 37729

11 59 01.0 +25 13 21; Com

V = 13.0;  Size 1.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

24" (3/22/14): moderately bright, fairly small, round, small very bright core increases to the center.  Two mag 13 stars lies 2.2' WSW and 2.4' WNW.

 

17.5" (3/19/88): faint, small, slightly elongated, bright core.  Contains a stellar nucleus or a star is superimposed.  Member of the NGC 4007 group with NGC 4018 7.3' NW.

 

J.L.E. Dreyer discovered NGC 4022 on 26 Apr 1878 in the last observation of the cluster from Birr Castle.  He placed it approximately 6' in PA 144” from NGC 4018 (Kappa) and noted "pF, vS, stellar".  On the final constructed diagram NGC 4022 is labeled "Lambda".  The actual separation is 7' in PA 140”.

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NGC 4023 = UGC 6977 = MCG +04-28-113 = CGCG 127-127 = WBL 368-013 = PGC 37732

11 59 05.5 +24 59 20; Com

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 25”

 

24" (3/22/14): fairly faint, fairly small, round, weak concentration, slightly irregular surface brightness.  Situated 5.9' SE of NGC 4015.

 

17.5" (3/19/88): faint, small, slightly elongated ~N-S, weak concentration.  Member of the NGC 4007 group with NGC 4015 7' WNW.

 

J.L.E. Dreyer discovered NGC 4023 on 24 Apr 1878 on a late observation of the NGC 4005 group at Birr Castle.  He described the nebula as "pF, pL, diffuse" and placed it at 358.1" in PA 117.8” with respect to NGC 4015.  It was labeled "Gamma" on the final compiled sketch of the cluster.  At this offset is UGC 6977 = PGC 37732.  This was apparently the last night that nebulae were discovered at Birr Castle.

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NGC 4024 = ESO 572-031 = MCG -03-31-004 = LGG 263-006 = PGC 37690

11 58 31.2 -18 20 50; Crv

V = 11.7;  Size 1.9'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 70”

 

18" (3/19/04): moderately bright, slightly elongated, sharply concentrated with a bright 25" core that increases to the center.  The fainter outer halo measures ~1.4'x1.1'.  An isosceles triangle of mag 10-11.5 stars (sides 2', 2', 4.8') lies 6' W.  Located 1 degree NW of the Antennae (NGC 4038/39) in the NGC 4038 galaxy group.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4024 = H II-295 on 7 Feb 1785 (sweep 368) and recorded "F, vS, iF, bM."  His RA was 30 seconds too large.  Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 at Denver (repeated in the IC 2 notes) as well as Porter in 1908 at the Cincinnati Observatory.

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NGC 4025 = UGC 6982 = MCG +06-26-064 = CGCG 186-080 = DDO 107 = PGC 37738

11 59 10.2 +37 47 37; UMa

V = 13.6;  Size 2.8'x1.6';  Surf Br = 15.0;  PA = 40”

 

18" (3/30/05): picked up at 165x as a moderately large but very low surface brightness glow.  At 225x, it appears ~1.5' diameter with very little concentration.  The DSS images reveals a face-on irregular barred spiral with very low surface brightness arms.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4025 = H III-617 = h1046 on 17 Mar 1787 (sweep 714) and noted "eF, iR, about 1' in diameter."  JH's position is 1' too far north.

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NGC 4026 = UGC 6985 = MCG +09-20-052 = CGCG 269-029 = LGG 258-009 = PGC 37760

11 59 25.0 +50 57 42; UMa

V = 10.8;  Size 5.2'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 178”

 

17.5" (3/8/97): bright, large, excellent lens-shape edge-on 5:1 N-S, 4.0'x0.8'.  Sharply concentrated with a striking bulging core and non-stellar nucleus.  Extensions tapers at ends.  Located 7.2' SSW of mag 9.2 SAO 28211. NGC 4026 is a member of the NGC 3992 (M109) group = LGG 258.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4026 = H I-223 = h1047 on 12 Apr 1789 (sweep 919) and recorded "cB, E in the direction of the meridian, BN with vF branches, 3' long."  His RA was 20 seconds too large, but the NGC position (probably from John Herschel) is accurate.

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NGC 4027 = Arp 22 NED2 = VV 66 = ESO 572-037 = ESO 572-036 = MCG -03-31-008 = MCG -03-31-007 = VIII Zw 158 = UGCA 260 = PGC 37773

11 59 30.5 -19 15 44; Crv

V = 11.1;  Size 3.2'x2.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 167”

 

24" (4/10/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x this is a strange looking one-armed spiral.  Overall it appeared quite bright and large with a very irregular shape, 3'x2', and sharply concentrated with a fairly small, round core.  The core gradually increased to the center.  Emerging from the core on the NW end is a fairly well-defined arm that initially extends north in the direction of a mag 11.8 star located 3.7' NNW of the center of the galaxy.  This arm then sharply curves counter-clockwise ~135”, bending around to the N and NE, ending just outside a mag 14 star situated close NE of the core.  On the SE end of the core, a second arm begins to emerge but it suddenly terminates, creating a very asymmetric appearance with one long, wrapping arm.

 

A faint companion, NGC 4027A, lies 4' S.  At 260x, this galaxy appeared faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~N-S, 25"x20", low even surface brightness.  A very faint star is attached at the south end.  The Antennae galaxy, NGC 4038/4039, lies 40' NE.

 

48" (2/28/19): at 488x; the spectacular spiral arm on the north side of the galaxy wrapped around over 180” and faded out beyond a 14th mag star, nearly due east of the core of the galaxy.  The core of the galaxy was roundish but contained a brighter bar oriented E-W.  There was a darker region just south of the core, due to dust.  NGC 4027A, situated 4' S, appeared fairly faint, moderately large, elongated N-S, irregular, fairly low even surface brightness.  An extremely faint star is at the southeast edge.

 

13.1" (2/16/85): fairly bright, round, moderately large, broad concentration, possible stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star is off the ENE edge 1.0' from center.  NGC 4027 is an unusual interacting one-armed barred spiral.

 

13.1" (9/22/84): a spiral arm is suspected north of the nucleus trailing to the east. 

 

8" (3/28/81): faint, moderately large, no details.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4027 = H II-296 = h3371 on 7 Feb 1785 (sweep 386) and logged "pB, pL."  His RA was 1.0 minute of time too large.  John Herschel made an interesting description from the Cape of Good Hope: "Globular; F; pL; R; 2'; resolved; stars barely seen; but in a better night for definition would no doubt be clearly resolved into st 16m."  His position is accurate, though of course his description isn't valid. It was described as a single branched spiral with condensations in the Helwan Observatory bulletin for 1921, based on photos taken by Knox-Shaw in 1914-16 with the 30" reflector.

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NGC 4028 = NGC 4014 = UGC 6961 = MCG +03-31-005 = CGCG 098-012 = PGC 37695

11 58 35.8 +16 10 38; Com

 

See observing notes for NGC 4014.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4028 = H III-3 on 30 Dec 178 (sweep 72) and recorded "vF, not cometic tho' almost round.  It forms an isosceles triangle with 2 small stars [by a diagram these are about 6' sp].  It is probably of the resolvable kind but eF; it may be a very distant compressed cl of stars, but would require a great quantity of light to resolve."  There is nothing at his position (an early sweep prone to large errors) and III-3 was not found visually by Bigourdan or photographically by Reinmuth.

 

Harold Corwin equates NGC 4028 with NGC 4014, which matches WH's description of forming an isosceles triangle with two stars (6' sp and 6' np).  He notes this would require WH made offset errors on two different sweeps landing roughly at the same erroneous position.

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NGC 4029 = UGC 6990 = MCG +01-31-008 = CGCG 041-017 = PGC 37816

12 00 03.1 +08 10 54; Vir

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 150”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): faint, small, elongated NNW-SSE, small bright core.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.8' NE of center.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4029 = m 226 on 25 Mar 1865 and noted "vF, vS, lE, with stellar N."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 4030 = UGC 6993 = MCG +00-31-016 = CGCG 013-033 = PGC 37845

12 00 23.5 -01 06 01; Vir

V = 10.6;  Size 4.2'x3.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 27”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): bright, moderately large, oval SW-NE, halo increases to a small bright core, mottled halo with structure suspected.  Bracketed by a mag 10.5 star 2.2' SSW and a mag 11 star just off the NNW edge 1.6' from the center.  Visible in 16x80 finder.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4030 = H I-121 = h1048 on 1 Jan 1786 (sweep 507) and recorded "vB, cL, mbM.  Between, but a little following two pB stars." John Herschel made two observations and logged (sweep 145) "B; R; pL; psbM; r; 70"; has 3 or 4 large stars near."  Using the Great Melbourne Telescope, Joseph Turner sketched it on 10 Apr 1877 (p. 133 of his logbook) and noted it was gradually brighter to the center with no resolution.  Pietro Baracchi (in Feb 1886 with the GMT) logged it as "B; pS; R; vgpmbM".

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NGC 4031 = MCG +05-28-075 = CGCG 157-082 = PGC 37855

12 00 31.3 +31 56 51; UMa

V = 14.3;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3

 

17.5" (2/24/90): very faint, fairly small, elongated SSW-NNE.  A mag 15.5 star is at the SW end and a second mag 15 star is 0.7' N of center.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4031 on 6 Apr 1864 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position is an exact match with CGCG 157-082 = PGC 37855.  He mentioned the mag 15.5 star at the south end, though his magnitude estimate (17th) is too faint.

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NGC 4032 = UGC 6995 = MCG +03-31-010 = CGCG 098-019 = WAS 40 = PGC 37860

12 00 32.9 +20 04 27; Com

V = 12.3;  Size 1.9'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, round, fairly small, even surface brightness.  A mag 12 star is 3.4' NNE.  Located west of the NGC 4065 cluster.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4032 = H II-404 = h1049 on 27 Apr 1785 (sweep 403) and recorded "pB, pL, mbM, R, cometic." His position (CH's reduction) is 2' southeast of UGC 6995. John Herschel observed this galaxy on 6 sweeps and his brightness descriptions vary from "extremely faint" to "bright"!

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NGC 4033 = ESO 572-042 = MCG -03-31-011 = LGG 263-011 = PGC 37863

12 00 34.8 -17 50 34; Crv

V = 11.7;  Size 2.6'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 47”

 

13.1" (4/29/84): fairly bright, small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, small bright nucleus.  Located 1” north of the "Antennae" galaxies NGC 4038/NGC 4039 and a member of the group.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4033 = H II-508 on 31 Dec 1785 (sweep 503) and logged "pB, S, lE, bM."  Using the Great Melbourne Telescope on 11 Apr 1877, Joseph Turner sketched it as very elongated SW-NE with a brighter core (p. 133 of logbook).  Pietro Baracchi reported it as "B; S; lE; gpmb." (28 Feb 1886, GMT). Engelhardt measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4034 = UGC 7006 = MCG +12-11-044 = CGCG 335-002 = CGCG 334-058 = LGG 272-001 = PGC 37935

12 01 29.6 +69 19 26; Dra

V = 13.5;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 5”

 

17.5" (3/29/89): extremely faint, small, very low surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is 30" off the NW edge.  Located 9.5' NE of mag 7.3 SAO 15686.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4034 = H III-903 on 6 Apr 1793 (sweep 1036) and noted "eF, S, iF, vlbM."  CGCG misidentifies this galaxy (CGCG 334-058) as NGC 4043.

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NGC 4035 = MCG -03-31-010 = LGG 263-014 = PGC 37853

12 00 29.3 -15 56 53; Crv

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 0”

 

18" (4/9/05): very faint, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter, very low surface brightness with little or no concentration.  Located 5.8' SSW of mag 9 HD 104306.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4035 = H III-279 = h3372 on 8 Feb 1785 (sweep 372) and recorded "eF, pL.  Requires much attention to be seen.  I saw it also with 240, but its light was much lessened and the difficulty of seeing increasing."  CH's reduction is less than 2' northeast of PGC 37853.  JH made the single observation "eeF; pL; R; has a * 9m 0.9 radius of field dist; 45” +/- nf."

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NGC 4036 = UGC 7005 = MCG +10-17-125 = CGCG 292-059 = PGC 37930

12 01 26.7 +61 53 45; UMa

V = 10.7;  Size 4.3'x1.7';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 85”

 

24" (5/27/17): at 200x beautiful large spindle 4:1 ~E-W, 3'x0.8'.  Sharply concentrated with a small, very bright core/nucleus and tapered extensions.  Forms a bright pair with NGC 4041 15' NNE.

 

17.5" (5/2/92): very bright striking galaxy!  Fairly large, very elongated 3:1 E-W, 3.0'x1.0', halo increases to a bright core, very bright nucleus.  The eastern extension appears slightly brighter.  NGC 4041 lies 16' NNE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4036 = H I-253 = h1050 on 19 Mar 1790 (sweep 953) and logged "vB, vL, E."  CH's reduced position is 15 sec of RA east of UGC 7005.  JH called this galaxy "pB; R; pslbM; 25"."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 4037 = UGC 7002 = MCG +02-31-015 = CGCG 069-027 = PGC 37928

12 01 23.7 +13 24 03; Com

V = 11.9;  Size 2.5'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (5/19/01): very faint, moderately large, low surface brightness, ill-defined, ~2' diameter, slightly elongated N-S, very weak concentration.  Located 5' W of mag 9 SAO 99915.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4037 = H III-77 = h1051 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and recorded "eF, pL, R, r."  JH made two observations and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4038 = Arp 244 NED1 = VV 245b = ESO 572-047 = MCG -03-31-014 = UGCA 264 = PGC 37967 = The Antennae = Ringtail Galaxies

12 01 53.0 -18 52 05; Crv

V = 10.3;  Size 3.4'x1.7';  Surf Br = 11.9;  PA = 80”

 

82" (5/4/19, McDonald Observatory): at 613x; I was surprised to see the numerous high surface brightness knots lining the rim of NGC 4038 and the looping spiral arm on the east side. A total of 17 knots were counted; these were irregularly spread out with several in clumps.  The beginning of the spiral arm extending south was very noticeable exiting the eyepiece field.

 

48" (4/1/11 and 5/3/19): I took a quick look at the Antennae Galaxy on 4/1/11 to see the faint tidal tails that shoot north and south from the east end of NGC 4038/4039.  The tidal tail heading south from NGC 4038 (the northern component) was easily visible, sweeping 2' S but then quickly dimming.  The streamer heading north was also visible but appeared detached from the galaxies.  It was picked up ~2.5' NE of NGC 4038 and extended 2' N, terminating at a faint star.

 

On 5/3/19 we examined the galaxy using a NPB filter at 375x.  Overall the galaxy dimmed but a ring of HII knots extending 270” seemed to light up, providing a striking appearance!  They appeared to brighten and dim as individual knots "turned on" with averted vision and gave the impression of viewing car headlights through different layers of fog.

 

24" (4/10/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this was an amazing object in the 24" at 350x.  The main, bright northern component (NGC 4038) was partially annular, with a very bright knotty rim and a darker center giving a truly unique appearance for a galaxy.  At least 3 knots were visible embedded along its rim.  On the SE side is the brightest knot (the nucleus of the galaxy) which appeared faint, small, ~12" diameter.  A second fainter knot is on the west side and was only ~6" in size.  Finally, a third very faint 6" knot is on the north side.  The three knots were roughly spaced out 120” apart along the outer portion of this tortured galaxy.  An elongated "arm" (the interacting companion NGC 4039) is attached on the east end and curves around on the south side towards the southwest.  Another very faint, but slightly larger 20" knot is embedded along the main portion of NGC 4039, roughly halfway along its length.  At the southwest tip of the brighter portion of NGC 4039 was a relatively large, brighter knot (its nucleus) that at times appeared double.  Surrounding the southwest portion of NGC 4039 is a much fainter outer halo extended SW-NE.  This fainter halo extends further southwest for a few arc minutes and widens to a bulbous shape at the end. This was by far the most detailed view I've seen of the Antennae galaxy.  NGC 4027, another disturbed galaxy, lies SW.

 

17.5" (5/14/88): fairly bright, moderately large.  Forms a striking "shrimp-like" or "comma" shape with the tail attached at the east end and extending to the south.  Appears clearly darker between the two objects on the west side.

 

13" (5/21/82): appears as two irregular galaxies connected at the east end.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4038 = H IV-28.1 = h1052 on 7 Feb 1785 (sweep 368) and recorded "pB, L.  Two joined together [with NGC 4039], the smallest south; or one opening with a branch very faintly joined."  WH gave a single entry in class IV (planetary), though John Herschel separated these into IV 28.1 and IV 28.2 in the Slough catalogue.  Bindon Stoney sketched the galaxy pair on 14 Apr 1852 (included in LdR's 1861 publication).  It appears to show one of the long tidal tails.

 

The long "Antennae" tidal tails were first photographed by Carl Lampland with the 40-inch Lowell reflector in 1917.  J.C. Duncan remarked "Most remarkable of all, two faint extensions, like antennae" in the 1923 "Photographic studies of nebulae.III."   The Toomre's adopted the nickname "the Antennae" in their early 1972 computer simulation "Galactic Bridges and Tails".

 

 

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NGC 4039 = Arp 244 NED2 = VV 245a = ESO 572-048 = MCG -03-31-015 = UGCA 265 = PGC 37969 = The Antennae = Ringtail Galaxies

12 01 53.6 -18 53 11; Crv

V = 10.6;  Size 3.2'x2.1';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 130”

 

24" (4/10/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): attached on the east end of NGC 4038 (see detailed notes) is a long "tail" or arm (this is the interacting companion NGC 4039) that curves around on the south side towards the southwest.  Another very faint, but slightly larger 20" knot is embedded along the main portion of the tail roughly halfway.  At the tip of the main tail was a relatively large, brighter knot that at times appeared double.  Surrounding the SW portion of the tail is a much fainter outer halo extended SW-NE.  This fainter halo extends beyond the tail for a few arc minutes and widens to a bulbous shape at the end.  This was by far the most detailed view I've seen of the Ring-tail galaxy.

 

17.5" (5/14/88): this is the southern member of the striking "Ring-Tail galaxy".  Attached at the east side of NGC 4038 and forms a "tail" elongated NW-SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4039 = H IV-28.2 = h1053, along with NGC 4038, on 7 Feb 1785 (sweep 368) and assigned a single H-designation (IV-28).  See that number for more.

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NGC 4040 = UGC 7013 = MCG +03-31-018 = CGCG 098-028 = PGC 37993

12 02 05.4 +17 49 23; Com

V = 13.3;  Size 1.9'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 145”

 

17.5" (5/11/02): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 0.8'x0.7', broad weak concentration.  An isosceles triangle with sides 2'/2'/1' consisting of mag 12.5 stars is 2' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 4040 = Sw. VI-41 on 30 Mar 1887 and noted "forms nearly a square with 3 stars".  His position and description is a good match with UGC 7013.

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NGC 4041 = UGC 7014 = MCG +10-17-129 = CGCG 292-061 = PGC 37999

12 02 12.2 +62 08 14; UMa

V = 11.3;  Size 2.7'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

24" (5/27/17): at 200x; bright, large, roundish, nearly 2' diameter.  Sharply concentrated with a large, low surface brightness halo and an intensely bright core.  The core brightness towards the center but there was no distinct nucleus.  Forms a bright pair with NGC 4036 15' SSW.

 

17.5" (5/2/92): fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated 4:3 SW-NE, 2' diameter, broad concentration with an overall fairly high surface brightness.  Two mag 11 and 12 stars at 1.0' separation are 3.5' SSE.  NGC 4036 lies 16' SSW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4041 = H I-252 = h1054 on 19 Mar 1790 (sweep 953) and recorded "vB, cL, R."  CH's reduced position is 2' north of UGC 7014. JH made two observations and logged (sweep 411) "B; R; at first g, the psvmbM to a nuclear mass which seems resolvable." His position is accurate.

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NGC 4042 = 2MASX J12024674+2009478 = LEDA 3781394

12 02 46.8 +20 09 49; Com

V = 15.7;  Size 0.3'x0.2'

 

24" (3/22/14): very faint, very small, round, 12" diameter.  Cannot hold steadily at 375x but not difficult to see knowing the position.  The identification of this number is uncertain.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4042 = m 227, along with NGC 4056 and NGC 4060, on 18 Mar 1865 using William Lassell's 48" on Malta.  There is nothing near his position and his description "vF, vS" is not helpful.  Harold Corwin suggests NGC 4042 = LEDA 3781394 = 2MASX J12024674+2009478.  This galaxy is located 26 tsec of RA east and 1.8' N of Marth's position.  This offset in declination would also match the offsets for suggested identifications for NGC 4056 and 4060, though NGC 4042 is still further off in terms of RA.  See Corwin's notes.

 

Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 photographic survey "Die Herschel-Nebel", suggests the possible equivalent with NGC 4032, but this galaxy is 1.8 tmin of RA west and 4' south of Marth's position.  Carlson and RNGC also give this possible equivalence.

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NGC 4043 = UGC 7015 = MCG +01-31-012 = CGCG 041-026 = PGC 38010

12 02 22.9 +04 19 47; Vir

V = 13.6;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 135”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): faint, very small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4043 = h1055 on 9 Apr 1828 and recorded "S; R; preceds a double star about 30 sec, and is 3' south of it.  RA is a rough estimate only from the double star.  On the next sweep he logged "Not B; S; R; psbM; 15"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4044 = UGC 7018 = MCG +00-31-020 = CGCG 013-043 = PGC 38018

12 02 29.5 -00 12 45; Vir

V = 13.0;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (3/24/90): faint, small, slightly elongated, almost even surface brightness.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4044 = H III-491 = h1056 on 1 Jan 1786 (sweep 507) and noted "vF, S".  His position matches UGC 7018.

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NGC 4045 = NGC 4046 = UGC 7021 = MCG +00-31-022 = CGCG 013-046 = Todd 13b = Holm 320a = WBL 372-001 = PGC 38031

12 02 42.3 +01 58 38; Vir

V = 12.0;  Size 2.7'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 95”

 

17.5" (5/10/86): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, stellar nucleus offset to the SW of faint superimposed star.  Forms a close pair with NGC 4045A 1.5' SSE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4045 = H II-276 = h1057 on 20 Dec 1784 (sweep 349) and noted "pF, S, R, lbM."  JH made the single observation "F; R: sbM; 25"; a star sf." and measured an accurate position.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest found this galaxy on 10 Apr 1863, but his declination was 15' too far south.  Although he questioned if it was equal to h1057, Dreyer assumed it was new and catalogued it as GCS 5602 = NGC 4046.  This galaxy was found a 3rd time by David Todd (#13a) on 2 Jan 1878 in his search for a trans-Neptunian planet, along with NGC 4045A and MCG +00-31-023.  The RNGC position is 1.0 min of RA too far west.

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NGC 4046 = NGC 4045 = UGC 7021 = MCG +00-31-022 = CGCG 013-046 = PGC 38031

12 02 42.3 +01 58 38; Vir

 

See observing notes for NGC 4045.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4046 on 10 Apr 1863 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single observation (Latin translation copied from Harold Corwin's notes) reads "round; not small. Class II. It makes a triangle with 2 stars mag 13 and mag 16 to the south and following 6.6 sec.  However, the question remains if it is h1057 [NGC 4045] with a 15' error in declination."   In fact there is nothing at his position, but 15' north is NGC 4045, which matches his description.  The mag 16 "star" is likely NGC 4045A.  So, NGC 4046 = NGC 4045.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for more.

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NGC 4047 = UGC 7025 = MCG +08-22-058 = CGCG 243-037 = PGC 38042

12 02 50.6 +48 38 10; UMa

V = 12.2;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 105”

 

17.5" (4/25/98): moderately bright and large, ~1.3'x1.1', halo slightly elongated ~E-W.  Fairly well concentrated with a fainter halo surrounding a bright core and nucleus.  A mag 11 star lies 3.6' WSW.  Sky hazy with smoke.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4047 = H II-741 = h1058 on 9 Mar 1788 (sweep 816) and noted "pF, S, R, gbM."  CH's reduction is 1.6' northeast of UGC 7025.  JH logged "B; pL; R; pgbM; 40"."  The RNGC position is 1.0 min of RA too far west (see NGC 4045/4045A).

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NGC 4048 = UGC 7023 = MCG +03-31-020 = CGCG 098-030 = VV 384 = PGC 38040

12 02 50.0 +18 00 56; Com

V = 13.6;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 92”

 

17.5" (5/11/02): faint, very small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 0.5'x0.35', even surface brightness.  A mag 11.5 star lies 3.0' NW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4048 = h1059 on 23 Mar 1827 and on a second sweep noted "vF; S; R psbM; almost stellar."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 4049 = UGC 7027 = MCG +03-31-021 = CGCG 098-031 = PGC 38050

12 02 54.7 +18 45 09; Com

V = 13.3;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 52”

 

17.5" (5/11/02): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 1.0'x0.7', weak broad concentration.  A mag 11 star is 2.6' SE and another mag 11.5 star is 5' following.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4049 = H III-390 = h1060 on 27 Apr 1785 (sweep 403) and simply noted "suspected."  His position (CH"s reduction) is 28 sec of RA followoing UGC 7027. JH made 3 observations and measured a fairly accurate RA on one sweep.

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NGC 4050 = MCG -03-31-016 = LGG 263-015 = PGC 38049

12 02 54.0 -16 22 25; Crv

V = 12.2;  Size 3.1'x2.1';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 85”

 

18" (3/19/04): faint, fairly large, oval 4:3 E-W, 2.0'x1.5'.  Broad, weak concentration with a 15" brighter nucleus using direct vision.  Located 5.8' NE of mag 8.3 HD 104656.  Member of the NGC 4038/39 (Antennae) group.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4050 = H II-509 on 31 Dec 1785 (sweep 503) and logged "F, cL, iR, lbM."  His re-reduced position matches MCG -03-31-016 = PGC 38049

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NGC 4051 = UGC 7030 = MCG +08-22-059 = CGCG 243-038 = LGG 269-004 = PGC 38068

12 03 09.6 +44 31 53; UMa

V = 10.2;  Size 5.2'x3.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 135”

 

48" (5/10/18): at 375x; NGC 4051 is a highly structured S or Z-shaped barred spiral with easy HII knots and subtle details!  This Seyfert galaxy is very sharply concentrated with a brilliant quasi-stellar nucleus!   The bright core extends into a  slightly brighter central region or bar elongated 2:1 NW-SE and just over 1.5' in length.  The halo extends at ~4.5'x3.5' NW-SE.

 

A very obvious eastern arm is attached at the southeast end of the bar and angles at a 90” angle towards the northeast, pointing towards a mag 14.0 star [2.8' NE of center].  A low surface brightness thin arm [roughly 1.6' in length] angling SE to NW was visible on the north side.  On the DSS this arm appears to emanate from the bright eastern arm though visually it appeared straight and completely detached.

 

A large knotty arm, attached at the northwest end, bends sharply towards the south. This arm is thick or wide at its root with a large brighter knot or region embedded (catalogued as [EKS96] #31 and #28 in the 1996 "Atlas of HII Regions in Nearby Seyfert Galaxies").  As the arm dips south it terminates at a faint 10" knot (#10), 1.4' W of center.  In addition, an obvious, small bright knot (#52), ~8" diameter, is just south of the core [by 0.6'].  This knot resides in a very thin arm (not seen) just south of the central region. Overall, I was very impressed with this gorgeous galaxy!

 

17.5" (3/8/97): fairly bright, large, ~4.0'x2.5' NW-SE.  Nearly extends to a mag 11 star 2.2' W.  Very bright, very small core increasing to a bright stellar nucleus (original Seyfert galaxy list).  The galaxy shows signs of spiral structure and there appears to be a short outer spiral arm attached at the SE end hooking north separated by a slightly darker region between the main body (verified on photo).  This galaxy, along with NGC 3938 and NGC 4111, are the brightest members of the NGC 4111 group (LGG 269) in the UMa Cloud.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4051 = H IV-56 = h1061 on 6 Feb 1788 (sweep 810) and recorded "cB, iR, cBN with extensive chevelure about 5' dia."  His position matches UGC 7030.

 

Bindon Stoney sketched the galaxy on 3 May 1851 as an "S" shaped barred spiral (in LdR's 1861 publication). He captured the structure very accurately and noted, "Spiral.  I suspect the f branch extends to [star] alpha [on the northeast end]."  On 19 Apr 1857, R.J. Mitchell logged "The p branch seems to me the brighter rather of the two, and more suddenly curved than the f one, both of them look not quite so sharp as given in the drawing."

 

NGC 4051 is one of the original 6 galaxies studied by Seyfert in his seminal 1943 paper "Nuclear Emission in Spiral Nebulae".

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NGC 4052 = ESO 094-10 = Cr 251 = OCL-870

12 02 05 -63 13 24; Cru

Size 8'

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): this cluster is located in the field, just 10' NW of mag 4.3 Theta 1 and 15' W of mag 4.7 Theta 2 Crucis in the SW portion of the constellation!  At 105x, ~60 stars mag 10 and fainter are mostly scattered in a 9' diameter.  More striking, though, is a dense 3' subgroup of mostly mag 12-13 stars on the SE end of the cluster over a background of haze from unresolved stars.  A neat string of six stars oriented WNW-ESE is located on the south end with a brighter mag 9.5 star about 2.5' further west.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4052 = h3373 on 8 Mar 1837 and logged "Cluster VII class; loose and scattered but pretty rich."  There is nothing at his position, but 1 min of RA west is a scattered cluster.

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NGC 4053 = UGC 7029 = MCG +03-31-024 = CGCG 098-032 = PGC 38069

12 03 11.6 +19 43 44; Com

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 109”

 

17.5" (5/11/02): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, 0.7'x0.3'.  Brighter along the major axis and the very small core contains a stellar nucleus.  A mag 15 star is 1.6' W of center.  Located 33' SSW of NGC 4065 (brightest in a large group of NGC galaxies).

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4053 = m228 on 9 May 1864 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position, measured on 3 nights, matches UGC 7029.  He accurately placed the mag 15 star which precedes by 7 sec of time (though he estimaged its magnitude as 18).  Marth independently discovered the galaxy on 18 Mar 1865.  His position was good, though on the same night Marth also recorded NGC 4042, 4056 and 4060 which all have very uncertain identifications due to poor positions.

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NGC 4054 = VV 136 = MCG +10-17-131 = CGCG 292-062 = PGC 38078

12 03 12.4 +57 53 36; UMa

V = 14.2;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 90”

 

48" (4/20/17): at 488x; NGC 4054 is a close triple (VV 136) that fits in a 30" circle.  VV 136a is the largest component; it appeared moderately bright, fairly small, oval 4:3 or 3:2 E-W, ~24"x15".  The galaxy is diffuse with a fairly low surface brightness and only a weakly brighter nucleus.  VV 136b, on the southeast side [15" between centers], appeared fairly bright, very small, slightly elongated, ~12"x9".  The surface brightness is very high (easily the highest of the trio) and peaks at a stellar nucleus.  VV 136c, on the northeast side [20" between centers], appeared faint to fairly faint, very small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, ~15"x8".

 

24" (6/4/16): at 322x; the western and largest component (VV 136a) of the triple system NGC 4054 appeared faint, small, slightly elongated 20"x15", low surface brightness.  The southeast component (VV 136b) is smaller but significantly higher surface brightness and was noted as fairly faint, very small, elongated 12"x9" E-W.  The centers of these small galaxies are separated by just 15".  VV 136c, the northeast component, was not seen.

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): very faint, very small, slightly elongated, 20"x15" diameter.  This is a triple system, though it initially appeared single.  After careful viewing an extremely faint "star" occasionally popped out on the southeast edge.  This virtually stellar object is VV 136b = LEDA 3547623.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4054 = H III-794 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 923) and noted "eF, S, verified by 300." His position is 1.5' north of PGC 38078.  Bigourdan wasn't able to find this triple system with the 12-inch refractor at the Paris Observatory (too faint?).

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NGC 4055 = NGC 4061: = UGC 7044 = MCG +04-29-006 = CGCG 128-005 = CGCG 098-040 = VV 179 = PGC 38146

12 04 01.5 +20 13 57; Com

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 0”

 

See observing notes for NGC 4061.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4055 = h1062 on 29 Apr 1832, the same night he logged h1063 = NGC 4057 and h1064 = NGC 4059.  His coordinates were very uncertain ("PD very doubtful") and given to the nearest degree, although all three objects were described as "B[right]".  The description for h1064 also mentions "On meridian with two more".

 

As it seems very likely these are duplicates of brighter galaxies, Harold Corwin suggests (in response to my email about the identifications) that NGC 4055 = NGC 4061, NGC 4057 = NGC 4065, and NGC 4059 = NGC 4070.  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 photographic survey based on Heidelberg plates, misidentifed MCG +04-29-004 as NGC 4055 although he noted that "no PB nebula in Dreyer's place".  See Corwin's discussion under NGC 4055.

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NGC 4056 = PGC 38140

12 03 57.7 +20 18 45; Com

V = 15.8;  Size 0.3'x0.3'

 

24" (3/22/14): extremely faint and small, round, 6"-8" diameter.  At 375x, I could repeatedly glimpse this galaxy, though would not have picked it up without knowing the exact location.  Located 3.5' SW of NGC 4066 in the NGC 4065 cluster.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4056 = m 229, along with NGC 4042 and 4046, on 18 Mar 1865.  All of these objects have uncertain identifications because of imprecise positions and several faint nearby galaxies.  His description "eF, vS" adds no new information.  RNGC identifies PGC 38140 as NGC 4056.  This galaxy is located 12 tsec of RA east and 2.6' north of Marth's position.  If m 230 = NGC 4060 = CGCG 128-006 then the declination errors are similar.  Although this galaxy is extremely faint, Marth could have picked it up with Lassell's 48-inch. See Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 4057 = NGC 4065? = UGC 7050 = MCG +04-29-007 = CGCG 098-042 = CGCG 128-007 = VV 179 = PGC 38156

12 04 06.2 +20 14 07; Com

V = 12.6;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

See observing notes for NGC 4065.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4057 = h1063 on 29 Apr 1832, the same night he logged h1062 = NGC 4055 and h1064 = NGC 4059.  His coordinates were very uncertain ("PD very doubtful") and given to the nearest degree, although all three objects were described as "B[right]".  The description for h1064 also mentions "On meridian with two more".

 

Since it is very likely these are duplicates of brighter galaxies, Harold Corwin suggests NGC 4055 = NGC 4061, NGC 4057 = NGC 4065, and NGC 4059 = NGC 4070.  RNGC and PGC misidentify PGC 38278 as NGC 4057.  PGC 38278 is located 3.0' west of NGC 4090.  See Corwin's explanation under NGC 4055.

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NGC 4058 = UGC 7036 = MCG +01-31-017 = CGCG 041-032 = PGC 38124

12 03 49.1 +03 32 53; Vir

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 165”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, very small, elongated NW-SE, small bright core.  Located 15' W of mag 7.2 SAO 119207.

 

George Searle discovered NGC 4058 = HN 37 on 24 Mar 1868 with the 15-inch refractor at Harvard College Observatory (Annals of Harvard Observatory, Vol 13, #257).  His position matches UGC 7036.

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NGC 4059 = NGC 4070? = UGC 7052 = MCG +04-29-009 = CGCG 128-009 = WBL 374-008 = PGC 38169

12 04 11.3 +20 24 36; Com

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

See observing notes for NGC 4070.  Uncertain identification.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4059 = h1064 on 29 Apr 1832, the same night he logged h1063 = NGC 4057 and h1062 = NGC 4055.  His coordinates were very uncertain ("PD very doubtful") and given to the nearest degree, although all three objects were described as "B[right]".  The description for h1064 mentioned "On meridian with two more".

 

Since it is very likely these are duplicates of brighter galaxies,  Harold Corwin suggests (in response to my email about the identifications) that NGC 4055 = NGC 4061, NGC 4057 = NGC 4065, and NGC 4059 = NGC 4070.  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 photographic survey based on Heidelberg plates, misidentifes MCG +04-29-012 as NGC 4059.  See Corwin's discussion under NGC 4055.

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NGC 4060 = CGCG 128-006 = WBL 374-004 = PGC 38151

12 04 01.0 +20 20 15; Com

V = 14.6;  Size 0.4'x0.3';  PA = 85”

 

24" (3/22/14): faint, small, round, 15" diameter.  Located 2.1' WSW of NGC 4066.  Brightest of three companions to NGC 4066 on the southwest side.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): extremely faint, very small, round.  Located 2' WSW of NGC 4066 in the NGC 4065 cluster.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4060 = m 230 on 18 Mar 1865 (same night he found NGC 4042, NGC 4053 and NGC 4056).  Due to his poor positions, and density of galaxies in the cluster, only NGC 4053 has a secure identification.  Marth's position is 3 tsec of RA west and 2.3' south of CGCG 128-006 = PGC 38151 and this is the identification adopted in RNGC, CGCG and by Corwin.

 

It is also possible that NGC 4060 = PGC 38140.  This galaxy is identified as NGC 4056 in the RNGC.  PGC 38140 is only 0.6' N of Marth's position, though it is noticeably fainter visually and that would leave no other candidate for Marth's NGC 4056.  Finally, it is possible that NGC 4060 = PGC 38166.  PGC 38166 is identified as NGC 4069 in the RNGC and would imply Marth's position was 8 tsec too far W and 1.4' too far S.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 4061 = NGC 4055: = VV 179b = UGC 7044 = MCG +04-29-006 = CGCG 128-005 = CGCG 098-040 = WBL 374-003 = PGC 38146

12 04 01.5 +20 13 57; Com

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 0”

 

24" (3/22/14): fairly faint or moderately bright, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, brighter core but not as strongly concentrated as NGC 4065 just 1.1' ENE.  These form a striking pair with NGC 4065.  Nearby lies NGC 4072 ~3' SE and NGC 4076 7' ESE.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, small, almost round, brighter core.  Forms a pair with NGC 4065 1' ENE within the NGC 4065 cluster.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4061 = H III-394 = h1065 on 27 Apr 1785 (sweep 403) and recorded "Six nebulae. The times and numbers belong to the three first [III-391, III-392 and III-393]; but I saw three more [10 or 12'] south of them.  They were are all vF, vS."  I suspected many more besides."  The three nebulae which he did not measure positions, are likely NGC 4061, NGC 4065, and NGC 4076 (the three brightest).  John Herschel observed NGC 4061 on 3 sweeps and logged on 25 Mar 1830 (sweep 244), "vF; a double neb by diag, pos 20” sp, nearly equal.  They run together."

 

NGC 4055 = h1062, recorded by JH on 29 Apr 1832 (the same night he logged NGC 4057 = h1063 and NGC 4059 = h1064) is very likely a duplicate observation.  See that number for more.

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NGC 4062 = UGC 7045 = MCG +05-29-004 = CGCG 158-008 = PGC 38150

12 04 03.8 +31 53 44; UMa

V = 11.1;  Size 4.1'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 100”

 

17.5" (2/24/90): fairly bright, large, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, 4.0'x1.6', broadly concentrated.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4062 = H I-174 = h1066 on 20 Mar 1787 (sweep 722) and noted "cB, E, about 5' l and 1.5' broad."  His position matches UGC 7045.  John Herschel made 4 observations and logged on 11 Mar 1828 (sweep 131), "pB; vL; mE; 10” np to sf; vgbM; 3' l, 1' br."

 

George Johnstone Stoney, Lord Rosse's assistant, wrote "broad equable band; several consipicuous stars in it especially near the ends." (12 Mar 1850)

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NGC 4063 = MCG +00-31-026 = CGCG 013-055 = Todd 12d = WBL 372-007 = PGC 38154

12 04 05.9 +01 50 49; Vir

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 10”

 

17.5" (5/10/86): very faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S.  In a group with UGC 7042 3.9' NW, NGC 4073 6.0' ENE and NGC 4139 7.5' SE.

 

David Todd discovered NGC 4063 = Todd 12b on 2 Jan 1878 during his search of a trans-Neptunian planet using the 26-inch Clark refractor at the USNO.  ƒdouard Stephan found the galaxy again on 3 May 1881 and reported the discovery in list XI-15.  Stephan's position is accurate (he mentioned it was distinct from [N4073] and [N4077]) and Dreyer credited him with the discovery in the NGC.

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NGC 4064 = UGC 7054 = MCG +03-31-033 = CGCG 098-044 = PGC 38167

12 04 11.2 +18 26 36; Com

V = 11.4;  Size 4.4'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 150”

 

17.5" (4/6/91): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 3'x1.5', large bright core but no nucleus, sharper light cut-off on the SW side due to dust.  Two mag 14 stars are 1.6' SSW and 2.7' E of center.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4064 on 29 Dec 1861 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position matches UGC 7054 and he accurately placed the mag 14 star 82" southwest.  This is an unusually bright galaxy to have been missed by both Herschels.

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NGC 4065 = NGC 4057: = VV 179a = UGC 7050 = MCG +04-29-007 = CGCG 098-042 = CGCG 128-007 = WBL 374-006 = PGC 38156

12 04 06.2 +20 14 07; Com

V = 12.6;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

24" (3/22/14): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, well concentrated with a small bright core.  Forms a close pair with NGC 4061 just 1' W.  NGC 4072 lies 2.4' SE and NGC 4076 is 6.5' ESE.  NGC 4066 and 4070, two similar ellipticals, lie 6.8' N and 10.5' N.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, brighter core.  Brightest in the NGC 4065 cluster (a large group of NGC galaxies) with NGC 4061 1.1' WSW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4065 = H III-395 on 18 Mar 1865 (sweep 403) and recorded "Six nebulae. The places belong to the three first [III-391, III-392 and III-393]..."  The three galaxies to the south, which he did not measure positions, are likely NGC 4061, NGC 4065, and NGC 4076 (the three brightest).   John Herschel recorded this nebula twice as h1067 and noted "pB" on one sweep and "vF; R; the second of 5" on another.  His position on sweep 409 is at the southeast edge of the halo.

 

NGC 4057 = h1063, recorded on 29 Apr 1832 (the same night he logged h1062 = NGC 4055 and h1064 = NGC 4059), is very likely a duplicate observation.  See notes for that number.

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NGC 4066 = UGC 7051 = MCG +04-29-008 = CGCG 128-008 = WBL 374-007 = PGC 38161

12 04 09.4 +20 20 53; Com

V = 13.0;  Size 1.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

24" (3/22/14): moderately bright, fairly small, round, high surface brightness, strong concentration with a very bright nucleus that increases to the center.  NGC 4070 is 3.7' NNE and a trio of galaxies are close southwest: NGC 4060 2.1' WSW, NGC 4069 1.7' SSW and NGC 4056? 3.4' SW.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): faint, small, round, strong bright core.  In a tight trio with NGC 4060 2' WSW and NGC 4069 1.7' SSW.  Also in the field are NGC 4065 7' S and NGC 4070 3.8' NNE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4066 = H III-392 = h1068* on 27 Apr 1785 (sweep 403) and "Six nebulae.  The times and numbers belong to the three first (III-391, III-392 and III-393)..."  His position was 2.6' SE of UGC 7051 = PGC 38161, a similar offset as NGC 4070 = H III-391.  John Herschel observed this galaxy on 4 sweeps, first recording it on 24 Feb 1827 (sweep 59) and noted, "The third of 5."  JH equated this nebula with his father's H III-391 and misassigned H III-392 to NGC 4069 = h1070.

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NGC 4067 = UGC 7048 = MCG +02-31-019 = CGCG 069-036 = PGC 38168

12 04 11.5 +10 51 16; Vir

V = 12.5;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 35”

 

17.5" (1/23/88): fairly bright, fairly small, round, bright core.  Brightest in a group.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4067 = H III-37 = h1069 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and recorded "eF, vS, in a line with 2 small stars and followed by one that is larger.  I had some doubt with the sweeping power, but 240x showed it very plainly and of considerable extent."  There is nothing at his position but 1 min of RA west (similar error with several other nebulae discovered that night) and 3' south is UGC 7048.  JH made 5 observations and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4068 = IC 757 = UGC 7047 = MCG +09-20-079 = CGCG 269-031 = PGC 38148

12 04 00.8 +52 35 18; UMa

V = 12.5;  Size 3.3'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 30”

 

48" (4/20/17): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated SW-NE.  The surface brightness of this galaxy is fairly low but very irregular/patchy with a ragged outline and there is no core or zones.  A mag 12 star is superimposed near the center, which is not well defined, and a second mag 14 star is at the southwest end.  The brightest section is near the mag 12 star and to the NE.  The outline is irregular and spreads out more on the northeast half.  NGC 4102 lies 23' ENE.

 

17.5" (5/13/88): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated SW-NE.  A mag 12 star is superimposed and a mag 14 star is at the SW end 40" from the center.  A string of four mag 11-13.5 stars is just NW.  In a low power field with NGC 4102 24' ENE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4068 = H II-781 on 12 Apr 1789 (sweep 919) and recorded "pF, Stellar."  On 26 Apr 1789 (sweep 929), he logged, "A pS star involved in nebulosity of no great extent; the star does not seem to belong to it."  His position was about 15 sec of RA east and 2' south of UGC 7047.

 

According to Harold Corwin, Bigourdan misidentified a star as NGC 4068 on two nights and "rediscovered" the galaxy on 11 Mar 1886, though made an error in his position, and Big. 166 (later IC 757) is identical to NGC 4068.

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NGC 4069 = PGC 38166

12 04 06.0 +20 19 26; Com

V = 15.5;  Size 0.3'x0.2'

 

24" (3/22/14): faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Located 1.7' SSE of NGC 4066.  NGC 4060 lies 1.5' NW and an extremely faint galaxy (possibly NGC 4056) lies 2.0' SW.  Either I missed the mag 16 star just off the southeast edge (~10" from center) or the galaxy and star were merged together

 

17.5" (5/14/88): extremely faint and small, round.  Located 1.7' SSW of NGC 4066.  Forms an equilateral triangle with NGC 4060 and NGC 4066 within the NGC 4065 cluster.  The identification of this number with NGC 38166 is very certain.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4069 = h1070 on 24 Feb 1827 and described as "vF, R, 4th of 5; has another on same meridian, north".  This is one of the very faint galaxies near NGC 4066 and was not seen by his father, although JH equated h1070 with WH's III 392.  JH's position (single sweep) is 6 seconds of RA east of PGC 38166, a galaxy which is likely too faint to have been swept up.  If NGC 4069 = PGC 38166, then the nebula "on the same meridian, north" would refer to NGC 4066.  But then why did he miss NGC 4060 = CGCG 128-006, which is just 1.5' NW? See Harold Corwin's discussion in his identification notes.  Courtney Seligman classified NGC 4069 as a "lost or nonexistent object, commonly misidentified as PGC 38166."

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NGC 4070 = NGC 4059? = UGC 7052 = MCG +04-29-009 = CGCG 128-009 = WBL 374-008 = PGC 38169

12 04 11.3 +20 24 36; Com

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

24" (3/22/14): fairly faint to moderately bright, small, round, high surface brightness, very small bright nucleus.  NGC 4066 lies 3.7' S.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): faint, small, round, weak concentration.  Located 3.8' NNE of NGC 4066 within the NGC 4065 cluster.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4070 = H III-391 = h1071, along with 5 other nebulae, on 27 Apr 1785 (sweep 403) and noted together as "Six nebulae.  The times and numbers belong to the three first (III-391, III-392 and III-393)..."  His position (Auwer's reduction) is 2.4' southeast of UGC 7052, the same offset he made with NGC 4066 = H III-392.

 

Harold Corwin concludes that NGC 4059 = h1064 may be a duplicate observation of NGC 4070.  See that number.

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NGC 4071 = PK 298-4.1 = ESO 094-12 = PN G298.3-04.8

12 04 15.3 -67 18 35; Mus

V = 13.0;  Size 80"x51"

 

18" (7/6/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): I had a difficult time ferreting out this faint PN that is buried within a very rich Milky Way field.  It was finally picked up at 76x (27 Panoptic) and OIII filter as a faint, round disc at least 40" in diameter.  Removing the filter, a faint star was superimposed on the SW side of a low surface brightness glow.  Also viewed unfiltered at 228x which showed the faint star and the disc more easily, though this is quite faint for NGC planetary.  The best view was at 128x using an OIII filter, although NGC 4071 has a low-excitation level.  The disc appeared fairly faint with subtle irregularities in surface brightness and was likely brighter along portions of the rim.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4071 = h3374 on 4 Mar 1835 and recorded "vF; R; 40"; has a vS star in centre; in a field of at least 80 or 90 stars."  His position is accurate.  The "vS star" he mentions might be the one on the southwest side.

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NGC 4072 = CGCG 098-045 = CGCG 128-010 = WBL 374-009 = PGC 38176

12 04 13.8 +20 12 35; Com

V = 14.8;  Size 0.5'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 30”

 

24" (3/22/14): faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Not difficult to pick up 2.4' SE of NGC 4065.  A mag 13.6 star is 1' NE.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): extremely faint and small, round, at visual threshold.  A mag 13 star is 1.1' NE of center.  Located 2.6' SE of NGC 4065.  Member of the NGC 4065 cluster.

 

Ralph Copeland discovered NGC 4072 on 3 Apr 1872 using the 72" during an observation of GC 2686 = NGC 4061 and GC 2689 = NGC 4065.  He described "a third and much fainter neb south-following the second [NGC 4065], in pos 128.4”, dist 144.1"  At precisely Copeland's offset is CGCG 098-045 = PGC 38176.

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NGC 4073 = UGC 7060 = MCG +00-31-029 = CGCG 013-059 = WBL 372-011 = PGC 38201 = Todd 12a

12 04 27.0 +01 53 45; Vir

V = 11.4;  Size 3.2'x2.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 105”

 

17.5" (5/10/86): moderately bright, elongated WNW-ESE, moderately large, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Brightest of a poor cluster (MKW 4) with NGC 4063 6.0' SW, NGC 4075 11' N, NGC 4077 7.3' SSE, NGC 4139 = IC 2989 6.0' SSE and UGC 7042 8' W, all in the field.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4073 = H II-277 = h1072 on 20 Dec 1784 (sweep 349) and noted "F, S".  John Herschel made 4 observations (first on 7 Apr 1828). David Todd independently found this galaxy (#12a) on 2 Jan 1878 during his his search for a trans-Neptunian planet.

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NGC 4074 = MCG +04-29-011 = CGCG 128-013 = WBL 374-011 = PGC 38207

12 04 29.6 +20 18 59; Com

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.2';  Surf Br = 11.6;  PA = 105”

 

17.5" (3/28/87): faint, very small, round, even surface brightness.  Located within the NGC 4065 cluster with NGC 4076 7' S.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4074 = H III-393 = h1073, along with 5 other nebulae, on 27 Apr 1785 (sweep 403) and noted together as "Six nebulae.  The times and numbers belong to the three first [NGC 4072 = III-391, NGC 4070 = III-392 and NGC 4074 = III-393] which are vF, vS."  His position (Auwer's reduction) is 3.1' too far southwest (given the same RA as NGC 4072 = H III-391).  John Herschel made a single observation on 29 Mar 1832 (sweep 409), measured an accurate position, and noted "eF".

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NGC 4075 = MCG +00-31-032 = CGCG 013-064 = PGC 38216 = Todd 11

12 04 37.8 +02 04 22; Vir

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 60”

 

17.5" (5/10/86): fairly faint, fairly small, almost round, stellar nucleus.  Located 11' NNE of NGC 4073 within a group.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4075 = h1074 on 14 Apr 1828 and noted "F; S; R."  His position was 6 sec of RA west of CGCG 013-064 = PGC 38216.  David Todd found the galaxy again on 27 Dec 1877 during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet and reported it as object 11 in his 1885 AN paper.

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NGC 4076 = UGC 7061 = MCG +03-31-034 = CGCG 098-046 = CGCG 128-012 = WBL 374-010 = PGC 38209

12 04 32.5 +20 12 18; Com

V = 13.3;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

24" (3/22/14): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, small slightly brighter core.  Located 6.5' ESE of NGC 4065 (close pair with NGC 4061).  NGC 4072 lies 4.4' W.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, diffuse.  Located within the NGC 4065 cluster and the eighth galaxy in the field.  LEDA 213924 lies 2' NE and appeared very faint, very small, round.  Forms a right angle with NGC 4076 2.1' SW and a mag 13 star to the SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4076 = H III-396 = h1075 on 27 Apr 1785 (sweep 403) and recorded "Six nebulae. The times and numbers belong to the three first [III-391, III-392 and III-393]..."  The three nebulae [10 to 12'] to the south, which he did not measure positions, are likely NGC 4061, NGC 4065, and NGC 4076 (three brightest).  John Herschel recorded this galaxy on 24 Feb 1827 (sweep 59). He simply noted "the last of 5." and equated it with H III-396.  His position as 2.7' too far south-southeast.

 

Ralph Copeland, observing with LdR's 72" on 3 Apr 1872, notes "south following these nebulae [NGC 4061, 4065 and 4072] are two others, F, L, R, glbM and eF, L, R, lbM, pos 47.6”, Dist 133.6".  The last pair refers to NGC 4076 and PGC 213924.

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NGC 4077 = NGC 4140 = UGC 7063 = MCG +00-31-031 = CGCG 013-063 = PGC 38218

12 04 38.0 +01 47 16; Vir

V = 13.1;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 15”

 

17.5" (5/10/86): fairly faint, oval ~N-S.  A mag 14 star is attached at the north end.  Forms a pair with NGC 4139 = IC 2989 1.3' NW.  Located 7.5' NNE of NGC 4073 in a group.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4077 = H III-258 = h1076 on 20 Dec 1784 (sweep 349) and noted "vF, vS."  CH added the noted "goes in the same field with preceding [NGC 4073] conveniently." John Herschle logged on 10 Apr 1828 (sweep 143), "F; R; bM; 20"; the sf of two {with NGC 4073]."

 

Heinrich d'Arrest independently found this galaxy, as well as NGC 4139, on 10 Apr 1863, but his RA was exactly 5 min too large, and Dreyer recatalogued it as NGC 4140.  So, NGC 4077 = NGC 4140.  NGC 4077 was found again by David Todd 15 years later (5 Jan 1878) during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet and reported as object #16a and #14a.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 4078 = NGC 4107 = UGC 7066 = MCG +02-31-023 = CGCG 069-043 = WBL 375-001 = PGC 38238

12 04 47.6 +10 35 44; Vir

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 18”

 

17.5" (1/23/88): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, bright core.  Located in a group with NGC 4083 6.6' ENE, IC 2991 6.7' NE and NGC 4082 7.4' NE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest found NGC 4078 on 23 Mar 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position, measured on two nights, matches UGC 7066 = PGC 38238.  Albert Marth also found the galaxy just two nights later from Malta.  But d'Arrest made the earliest discovery on 17 Apr 1863, and it was catalogued as GC 5617 = NGC 4107, but he made a 2 minute error in RA.  So, NGC 4078 = NGC 4107.

 

The UGC notes misidentifies NGC 4083 as NGC 4078.

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NGC 4079 = UGC 7067 = MCG +00-31-034 = CGCG 013-067 = PGC 38240

12 04 49.9 -02 22 57; Vir

V = 12.4;  Size 2.2'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 125”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): faint, fairly small, diffuse, slightly elongated NW-SE, even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is off the NW end 1.7' from center.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4079 = h1077 on 15 Apr 1828 and recorded "not vF; L; R; 40"; has a * 10m, 60" north."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 4080 = UGC 7068 = MCG +05-29-006 = CGCG 158-012 = PGC 38244

12 04 51.8 +26 59 33; Com

V = 13.7;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 122”

 

18" (3/30/05): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 1.0'x0.4'.  The core appears to be offset SE of center as the galaxy appears to extend to the NW of this spot.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4080 = H III-355 = h1078 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "vF, pmE, S."  His position matches UGC 7068.  John Herschel made 4 observations, the first on 26 Mar 1827 (sweep 64).

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NGC 4081 = NGC 4125A = UGC 7062 = MCG +11-15-015 = CGCG 315-010 = PGC 38212

12 04 33.7 +64 26 13; UMa

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 135”

 

17.5" (3/20/93): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 1.2'x0.5'.  A nice evenly matched mag 10 double star (STI 739) is 4.7' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 4081 = Sw. I-20 on 18 Jun 1884 and recorded "F; S; vE; D * nr; preceding nearest bright star east 20 sec."  His position was 18 seconds of RA too large and 1' too far north, but his description matches.

 

Philip Keenan rediscovered NGC 4081 on a Yerkes Observatory plate and assumed it was new.  He labeled it NGC 4125A in a list of new nebulae in the 1935 paper "Studies of Extra-Galactic Nebulae, Part I: Determination of Magnitudes" (ApJ, 82, 62).  All objects were assigned NGC + letter designations based on the nearest NGC object on the plate.  His description reads, "13.8m; 1.2'x0.3' in PA 132”; Sa."

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NGC 4082 = MCG +02-31-026 = CGCG 069-046 = Holm 324b = WBL 375-004 = PGC 38274

12 05 11.4 +10 40 14; Vir

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 80”

 

17.5" (1/23/88): extremely faint, very small, round.  Forms a faint pair with NGC 4083 3.7' SSE within the NGC 4067 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4082 = m 232 on 25 Mar 1865 and noted "vF, vS, lE, lbM."

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NGC 4083 = MCG +02-31-024 = CGCG 069-044 = Holm 324c = WBL 375-002 = PGC 38275

12 05 14.0 +10 36 47; Vir

V = 14.1;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 35”

 

17.5" (1/23/88): very faint, very small, round, even surface brightness.  Located 2.2' NNW of a mag 10.5 star.  Forms a faint pair with NGC 4082 3.7' NNW.  Located within the NGC 4067 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4083 = m 233 on 25 Mar 1865 and noted "eF, vS."

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NGC 4084 = MCG +04-29-014 = CGCG 128-017 = PGC 38272

12 05 15.3 +21 12 52; Com

V = 14.4;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

17.5" (5/14/88): fairly faint, very small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Located less than 1” north of the NGC 4065 cluster.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4084 on 26 Apr 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position, measured on two nights, matches CGCG 128-017 = PGC 38272 and he accurately place a mag 13 star that precedes by 2 seconds of time and 3' north.

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NGC 4085 = UGC 7075 = MCG +09-20-086 = CGCG 269-032 = Holm 326b = LGG 258-040 = PGC 38283

12 05 22.9 +50 21 12; UMa

V = 12.4;  Size 2.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 78”

 

17.5" (4/13/91): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 4:1 WSW-ENE, 2.5'x0.6', weak concentration.  Forms an isosceles triangle with mag 7.6 SAO 28237 6' SW and mag 8.4 SAO 28247 7' SE.  NGC 4088 lies 11' NNE.  Member of the M109 (NGC 3992) group = LGG 258.

 

8" (3/28/81): faint, small, elongated WSW-ENE.  Two mag 8 stars are in the field to the SE and SW.  Located 11' SSW of NGC 4088.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4085 = H I-224 on 12 Apr 1789 (sweep 919) and recorded "pB, mE, the brightness confined to a small point."  His position is poor - about 6' too far southeast.  d'Arrest found it on 4 Dec 1861 but his position was nearly 3' too far south (he suspected it was identical to H I-224.  John Herschel still assigned two numbers in the GC, but Dreyer combined the two GC designations in the NGC.  d'Arrest later made two accurate measurements of NGC 4085.

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NGC 4086 = UGC 7076 = MCG +04-29-016 = CGCG 128-018 = WBL 374-012 = PGC 38290

12 05 29.3 +20 14 49; Com

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 85”

 

17.5" (3/28/87): faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  Located 13' E of NGC 4076.  Forms a pair with NGC 4090 3.9' N within the NGC 4065 cluster.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4086, along with NGC 4090, on 2 May 1864 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position is a fairly good match with UGC 7076 and he accurately places a mag 9 star as 7' to the west.  In his description he also mentions another nebula is 3' to the north.  This refers to NGC 4090, though his RA for this object is 10 sec too large.

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NGC 4087 = ESO 505-010 = MCG -04-29-005 = PGC 38303

12 05 35.3 -26 31 21; Hya

V = 12.1;  Size 2.1'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 39”

 

18" (4/29/06): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, small bright core.  A mag 10 star 5' SSW has two faint companions (RST 2777); a close mag 13 star at 1.8" and a wider 12" companion.  I'm surprised that neither one of the Herschels noted this interesting unequal triple.  Several brighter stars are scattered in the field.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4087 = H III-754 = h3375 on 24 Feb 1789 (sweep 911) and logged "Suspected, eF, too low to be verified, but I have not much doubt." John Herschel made an observation on 22 Mar 1836 (sweep 689) from the Cape of Good Hope and recorded "pB; R; gbM."  Lewis Swift found it again on 11 Apr 1898 and included in his large 11th discovery list (#132) at Lowe Observatory.  Howe reported Sw. XI-132, "this must be identical with 4087, since both are pretty bright, and their places agree within three seconds in right ascension and 1' in declination." As a result, Dreyer didn't assign a duplicate IC designation.

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NGC 4088 = Arp 18 = VV 357 = UGC 7081 = MCG +09-20-089 = CGCG 269-033 = Holm 326a = LGG 258-010 = PGC 38302

12 05 34.1 +50 32 23; UMa

V = 10.6;  Size 5.8'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 43”

 

48" (4/4/11): this is a showpiece spiral in the 48-inch with the startling eyepiece view matching the detail in the DSS image.  The galaxy extended 5.5'x2.0' SW-NE.  Near the center is an elongated, extremely bright core.  The very bright central portion extends from the core in a roughly 2'x0.5' region towards the southwest but is concave a bit, bending slightly towards the south.  This feature appears similar to a slightly distorted central bar.  Just south of this central bar is a dust lane extending SW to NE that parallels the bar, though it is more contrasty to the northeast of the core.

 

The dust lane separates the bright bar feature from a very long arm that extends the entire length of the galaxy along the south side and vaguely emerges from the southwest end of the bar.  This arm is clumpy with a couple of large, bright knots to the south of the core and another prominent knot towards the east end of the galaxy (1.7' NE of the core).  Beyond this knot the arm quickly dims, fans out a bit and bends to the north towards a mag 13.5 star.

 

Emerging from the northeast end of the core is a second prominent arm that immediately doubles back towards the southwest on the north side.  This arm nearly parallels the central bar to the north and is separated by a less contrasty darker strip or lane.  This clumpy arm contains a fairly prominent knot only 0.6' NW of the core.  After this point the arm dims dramatically continuing a bit further southwest.  The two main arms, along with the central bar create a squashed irregular "Z" appearance.

 

MCG +09-20-092, which lies 5' SE in the field, appeared faint, small, round, 20" diameter, fairly low even surface brightness.

 

18" (3/13/10): using 280x this striking, irregular spiral extends 5:2 SW-NE, rougly 5'x2'.  The surface is noticeably mottled and clumpy with a dark patch or dust lane that extends to the south of the core with a weaker darkening to the north of the core.  At the northeast end of the galaxy, a portion of what appears to be a spiral arm emerges from the main body and bends to the north.  A corresponding feature on the SW end of the galaxy, bending south, is much more subtle.

 

18" (5/3/08): at 280x appeared very bright, large, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 4.5'x1.8', contains a bright elongated core.  The galaxy is very asymmetric, with an unusually mottled or clumpy appearance and an irregular outline.  At the NE end is a faint extension (this is a disrupted arm on the DSS) that juts out or dangles from the NE end of the main body and hooks slightly towards a mag 13.5 star located 3.7' NE of center. A more subtle irregular extension is at the SW end.  Just east of the north side of the core the surface brightness drops, either due to a dust lane or large dust patch on the east side of the core and then brightens a bit again just following the dust patch. NGC 4085 lies 11' SSW.  Member of the M109 (NGC 3992) group = LGG 258.

 

17.5" (4/13/91): bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 5.0'x2.0', mottled patchy appearance, small elongated brighter core but no nucleus.  A mag 15 star is 2' off the NW side.  Faint spiral structure is visible with concentration.  An extremely faint arm is off the NE end curving towards a mag 14.5 star to the NE 3.7' from center and a second extremely faint arm is just visible off the SW end curving to the south.  Forms a pair with NGC 4085 11' SSW.

 

8" (3/28/81): fairly bright, elongated SW-NE, weak concentration, cigar-shaped.  Forms a pair with NGC 4085 11' SSW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4088 = H I-206 on 9 Mar 1788 (sweep 816) and logged "cF, E, about 4' long."  His summary description from 3 observations reads "cB, E, 45” np sf, 6' long, 4' br, almost equally bright."  Heinrich d'Arrest made 3 observation, the earliest on 4 Dec 1861.

 

Sir Robert Ball, observing assistant at Birr Castle on 28 Mar 1867, recorded "vB, vL, E 53.5”.  A new spiral with probably many details of interest, of an S shape.  There is certainly a brighter portion sf the nucleus with a dark lane between them.  Likewise, a similar brightness np the nucleus.  I thought the darkness did not extend all round the centre.  There can be little doubt of the curved branch following, it seems to proceed in the direction of a star nf."

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NGC 4089 = MCG +04-29-017 = CGCG 128-020 = WBL 374-014 = PGC 38298

12 05 37.5 +20 33 21; Com

V = 13.7;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (5/14/88): faint, very small, slightly elongated, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a very close pair with NGC 4091 37" E of center.  First of six in field within the NGC 4065 cluster.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4089, along with NGC 4901, on 2 May 1864 and described a double nebula separated by 3 sec in RA.  His mean position from 3 nights matches CGCG 128-020 = PGC 38298.

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NGC 4090 = UGC 7077 = MCG +04-29-015 = CGCG 128-019 = WBL 374-013 = PGC 38288

12 05 27.9 +20 18 32; Com

V = 13.9;  Size 1.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 38”

 

17.5" (3/28/87): faint, almost round, diffuse, fairly small.  A mag 14 star is 1.1' SE of center.  Located 3.7' N of NGC 4086 within the NGC 4065 cluster.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4090, along with NGC 4086, on 2 May 1864.  He mentioned this galaxy in his description for NGC 4086 as 3' to the north but his position is 10 sec of RA too large and 1.3' too far south.  He notes a mag 13 star 1.1' southeast, as mag 15-16 at 60" distance, so the identification is certain despite the poor position.

 

IC 2997, discovered by Bigourdan, is not identical to NGC 4090, as assumed in modern catalogues.  See Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 4091 = UGC 7083 = MCG +04-29-019 = CGCG 128-022 = WBL 374-015 = PGC 38308

12 05 40.1 +20 33 21; Com

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.25';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 43”

 

17.5" (5/14/88): faint, very small, elongated SW-NE.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.0' S.  Forms a very close pair with NGC 4089 37" W of center and the second of six in the field within the NGC 4065 cluster.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4091, along with NGC 4089, on 2 May 1864 and described a double nebula separated by 3 sec in RA.  His mean position from 4 nights matches UGC 7083 = PGC 38308.

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NGC 4092 = UGC 7087 = MCG +04-29-020 = CGCG 128-023 = WBL 374-016 = PGC 38338

12 05 50.2 +20 28 38; Com

V = 13.2;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (5/14/88): faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  A mag 11.5 star is close NW 0.9' from center.  This galaxy is the third of six in the field with NGC 4093 2.6' NNE in the NGC 4065 cluster.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4092 = H III-382, along with NGC 4095 and 4098, on 26 Apr 1785 (sweep 402) and recorded "Three, the time is that of the last [NGC 4098], which is vF and S.  The other two which are south-preceding are much fainter and smaller."  His single position is 11 seconds of time east and 2.5' north of NGC 4098 = UGC 7093. 

 

Heinrich d'Arrest measured an accurate position for UGC 7087 on 4 nights and questioned if it was one of WH's three objects.  Dreyer credited d'Arrest with the discovery of NGC 4092 and Dreyer states in his 1912 Scientific Papers that WH probably saw NGC 4093.  But Harold Corwin argues that NGC 4092 is brighter and most likely seen by WH, despite being further south.

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NGC 4093 = MCG +04-29-021 = CGCG 128-024 = WBL 374-017 = PGC 38323

12 05 51.4 +20 31 18; Com

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  PA = 50”

 

17.5" (5/14/88): very faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  A mag 14 star is close off the NW edge 1.1' from center.  Fourth of six in the field within the NGC 4065 cluster.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4093 on 4 May 1864.  Two nights earlier he discovered the pair NGC 4089 and 4091.  His position, measured on 3 nights, CGCG 128-024= PGC 38323.

 

In his 1912 revision of WH's catalogues, Dreyer suggests H III-382 is NGC 4093.  But more likely WH picked up NGC 4092, which is brighter.

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NGC 4094 = MCG -02-31-016 = UGCA 269 = PGC 38346

12 05 54.0 -14 31 35; Crv

V = 11.8;  Size 4.2'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 63”

 

18" (3/19/04): fairly faint, fairly large, elongated at least 5:2 SW-NE, 2.2'x0.8, fairly low even surface brightness.  The NE end of the galaxy points between a mag 10.5 star just following (2.2' E of center) and a mag 11 star close north (1.7' from center).  NGC 4114 lies 28' NE.  The galaxy is located 8' N of mag 9.3 HD 105063.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4094 = h3376 on 7 May 1836 and recorded "eF; L; pmE; vgbM.  The direction of elongation points between two stars 11m; very near, and nf the centre."  His position and description matches MCG -02-31-016 = PGC 38346.

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NGC 4095 = MCG +04-29-022 = CGCG 128-025 = WBL 374-018 = PGC 38324

12 05 54.3 +20 34 22; Com

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.9'

 

17.5" (5/14/88): faint, very small, round, small bright core.  A mag 14 star is 1.0' E.  Fifth of six in the field within the NGC 4065 cluster with NGC 4098 3.1' NE.  Located between NGC 4093 and NGC 4098.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4095 = H III-383 = h1079, along with NGC 4092 and 4098, on 26 Apr 1785 (sweep 402) and recorded "Three, the time is that of the last [NGC 4098], which is vF and S.  The other two which are south-preceding are much fainter and smaller."  His position is 11 tsec east and 2.5' north of NGC 4098 = UGC 7093.  The "other two" are likely NGC 4095 = CGCG 128-025 and NGC 4092 = UGC 7087, the next two brighter galaxies in the group.  John Herschel made two observation (sweeps 409 and 423) and his mean position is less than 1' too far north. Heinrich d'Arrest measured a very accurate position.

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NGC 4096 = UGC 7090 = MCG +08-22-067 = CGCG 243-043 = PGC 38361

12 06 01.0 +47 28 41; UMa

V = 10.8;  Size 6.6'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 20”

 

17.5" (4/7/89): bright, very large, almost edge-on 4:1 SW-NE, sharp concentration with a very small bright core embedded within the long extensions.  Member of the CVn II Group (brightest member M106).

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4096 = H I-207 = h1081 on 9 Mar 1788 (sweep 816) and reported "cF, mE about 4' long from sp to nf but nearer the meridian."  On 10 Apr 1788 (sweep 830) he recorded "cB; mE; 6 or 7' long, from sp to nf, about 70”."  In his 1811 PT paper, WH commented "it seems to join to imperceptible nebulosity on the south preceding side." The galaxy does extend further out and more gradually fade on the southwest side.  On 8 Mar 1831 (sweep 330), John Herschel logged, "B; vL; mE in pos 32”; seen through much fog."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 4097 = UGC 7092 = MCG +06-27-004 = CGCG 187-004 = PGC 38363

12 06 02.5 +36 51 49; UMa

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 98”

 

18" (4/5/03): fairly faint, small, round, 0.5' diameter, very small brighter core, occasional faint stellar nucleus.  Located 1.6' NNE of a mag 11.4 star, close to the UMa/CVn border.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4097 = H III-400 = h1080 on 1 May 1785 (sweep 405) and recorded "eF, vS, suspected, stellar; about 1 1/2' north of a small star."  His position and description of the nearby star points to UGC 7092. This was the first of 42 galaxies discovered on this night.  John Herschel made two observations describing it on 11 Mar 1831 (sweep 331) as, "vF; R; vsbM; has a * 10m, 45” sp, 90" dist."

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NGC 4098 = NGC 4099 = VV 61 = UGC 7093 = MCG +04-29-023 = MCG +04-29-24 = CGCG 128-026 = WBL 374-009 = PGC 38365

12 06 03.6 +20 36 28; Com

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  PA = 164”

 

17.5" (5/14/88): fairly faint, fairly small, round, bright core.  Last and brightest of six in the field within the NGC 4065 cluster.  Appears slightly brighter than NGC 4092 8.4' SSW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4098 = H III-384 = h1082, along with NGC 4092 and 4095, on 26 Apr 1785 and recorded "Three, the time is that of the last [NGC 4098], which is vF and S.  The other two which are south-preceding are much fainter and smaller."  His position is poor; 11 tsec east and 2.5' north of NGC 4098 = UGC 7093.   On 27 Dec 1786 (sweep 671) he recorded "Two, the place is that of the most north [NGC 4098], which is the largest.  Both vF."  This time his position was just 6 sec of RA west of NGC 4098.  The second object was either NGC 4095 or NGC 4092.   John Herschel made three observations (first on 25 Mar 1830) though mistakenly labeled it as III-383.

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NGC 4099 = NGC 4098 = VV 61 = UGC 7093 = MCG +04-29-023 = MCG +04-29-24 = CGCG 128-026 = WBL 374-009 = PGC 38365

12 06 03.6 +20 36 28; Com

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  PA = 164”

 

See observing notes for NGC 4098.

 

William Herschel found NGC 4099 on 26 Apr 1785 (sweep 402), recording three nebulae described as "Three, time is that of the last [NGC 4098], which is vF and S.  The other two [probably NGC 4092 and 4095] which are south preceding are much fainter and smaller."  John Herschel was confused trying to match his father's three objects with the two he observed and those discovered by d'Arrest.  He attributed the discovery of NGC 4092 to d'Arrest (instead of WH) and assigned III-384 separately to GC 2714 (later NGC 4099).  But III-384 applies to NGC 4098 = h1082 and Dreyer suggests in his 1912 update of WH's catalogues that NGC 4099 "is probably superfluous".  Since this number is a duplicate of one of WH's discovered, I've arbitrarily equated it with NGC 4098 here.

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NGC 4100 = UGC 7095 = MCG +08-22-068 = CGCG 243-044 = LGG 258-024 = PGC 38370

12 06 08.4 +49 34 59; UMa

V = 11.2;  Size 5.4'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 167”

 

17.5" (5/2/92): bright, very large, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 4.0'x1.5', large brighter core, faint stellar nucleus.  The northern extension appears slightly brighter.  Mag 8.2 SAO 44027 is 7' NW.  Member of the M109 (NGC 3992) group = LGG 258.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4100 = H III-717 = h1084 on 9 Mar 1788 (sweep 816) and logged cF, mE about 5' long near the meridian [N-S], about a little sf."  Caroline's reduction is 1.3' northeast of center.  John Herschel made two observations, recording on 7 Mar 1831 (sweep 329), "pB; vL; mE in pos 166.5”; 3' long, 1' broad, vgvlbM.  This cannot be either [NGC 4088] nor [NGC 4096], as neither of these agrees in its angles of position."

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NGC 4101 = UGC 7093 = MCG +04-29-025 = CGCG 128-027 = WAS 46 = PGC 38373

12 06 10.6 +25 33 25; Com

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 60”

 

17.5" (5/11/02): faint, small, irregularly round, 0.6'x0.5', weak even concentration to the center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4101 = H III-326 = h1083 on 6 Apr 1785 (sweep 393) and recorded "eF, vS.  240 verified it with great difficulty.  It was in the field I gaged, otherwise I should certainly have overlooked it."  John Herschel made two observations and his mean position is a good match with UGC 7093 = PGC 38373.

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NGC 4102 = UGC 7096 = MCG +09-20-094 = CGCG 269-036 = LGG 258-041 = PGC 38392

12 06 23.0 +52 42 40; UMa

V = 11.2;  Size 3.0'x1.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 38”

 

48" (4/20/17): at 488x; fascinating galaxy with unusual structure.  Overall, NGC 4102 is very bright, large, elongated at least 2:1 SSW-NNE, ~2.5'x1.1', very sharply concentrated with a small, intensely bright nucleus surrounded by a bright oval core SW-NE with a bar-like enhancement.  Just outside the core the surface brightness drops significantly forming a darker [dusty] annulus.   Surrounding this is a bright, thick, mottled ring oriented NNW-SSE (slightly offset in orientation from the core).  A brighter knot (SDSS J120625.26+524307.4) is at the NE end of the ring [32" NE of center].  On the SDSS this corresponds with the brightest star cloud in the galaxy and the site of supernova 1975E. A brighter mag 12.5 star is 50" WSW of center, just outside the halo.  When the seeing settled this star resolved into a close pair (~13.2/13.8 at 1.8" separation!)  NGC 4068 lies 23' WSW.  Member of the M109 (NGC 3992) group = LGG 258.

 

17.5" (5/13/88): fairly bright, moderately large, oval 3:2 SW-NE, small very bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 12.5 star is at the west end 48" from the center!

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4102 = H I-225 = h1085 on 12 Apr 1789 (sweep 919) and noted "pB, pL."  JH recorded "B; R; psbM; has a * 12m 35" sp, very near the edge." and measured an accurate position.

 

Bindon Stoney, Lord Rosse's assistant, noted on 13 Apr 1852, "I suspect a dark curved passage south of center, probably a new spiral."  Four years later R.J. Mitchell confirmed "I have little doubt this is a spiral" and he made two diagrams of the arm arrangement.

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NGC 4103 = ESO 130-5 = Cr 252 = Mel 109 = Lund 604

12 06 40 -61 15 00; Cru

Size 7'

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): at 105x, ~60 stars mag 9.5-13 are resolved in a 8' region including roughly ten mag 10 stars.  The cluster has a very interesting asymmetric arrangement with a perfect 5' string of five stars extending out of the cluster to the WSW. At the west end of the string is the 10th magnitude variable AI Crucis. Two other short strings on the eastern end of the cluster meet up and make a perfect arrow asterism.  NGC 4103 is located 12' ESE of mag 6.6 HD 104971 and two degrees WSW of mag 3.6 Epsilon Crucis.

 

10x30mm Canon IS (3/27/19 - Tasmania): moderately bright cluster, perhaps 8' diameter, mottled but no obvious resolution.  Situated within a large, glowing naked-eye patch of the Milky Way that includes two bright stars.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 4103 = D 291 = h3377 on 30 Apr 1826 and recorded "a cluster of small stars of mixt magnitudes, irregular figure, about 6' long and 4' broad."  His position was 12' too far west.

 

John Herschel observed the cluster on 3 sweeps.  On 14 Mar 1834 he logged "middle of a rich, large, irregularly round cluster; poor VI or rich VII, stars 10..14 mag; diam 5' with stragglers."  His second observation was made under poor conditions: "cluster of stars class VII, pretty rich and compact, stars 10..12 mag, and nearly equal; diameter 5'; the whole field is in a state of wavy fluctuation, owing to the southeast wind, and so bad that each star is dilated into a large puff ball." The final sweep was recorded as "A 10th mag star in centre of a pretty rich close cluster; 5' diameter; irregularly round; stars 10..13 mag."

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NGC 4104 = UGC 7099 = MCG +05-29-016 = CGCG 158-024 = PGC 38407

12 06 38.9 +28 10 26; Com

V = 12.1;  Size 2.6'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 35”

 

17.5" (3/20/93): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 1.8'x1.2', broad concentration.  Forms a close pair with MCG +05-29-015 = PGC 38387, 3.0' SW of center.  The companion appeared faint, small, round, broad weak concentration.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4104 = H II-370 = h1086 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "pB, cL, mb towards the nf side."  His position (CH's reduction) is 20 sec of time too far west.  JH made a total of 6 observations, so pinned down the position.

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NGC 4105 = ESO 440-054 = MCG -05-29-013 = PGC 38411

12 06 40.7 -29 45 38; Hya

V = 10.7;  Size 2.7'x2.0';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 151”

 

18" (5/28/06): western member of a close, moderately bright pair with NGC 4106, just 1.1' between centers.  Appears round, ~45" diameter, sharply concentrated with a bright, prominent core.  The halo is fairly faint and increases in size with averted vision to ~1' diameter.  This galaxy is slightly larger and the brighter of the duo.  Nearby galaxies include IC 2996 lies 17' SW, IC 3005 17' SE and IC 3010 38' SE.

 

8" (5/21/82): elongated glow resolves into NGC 4105 and NGC 4106 just following.  NGC 4105 is slightly brighter and larger but appears faint, small and round.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4105 = H II-865 = h3378, along with NGC 4106, on 7 Mar 1791 (sweep 998) and logged "Two, within a minute of two of each other.  Both F, S, R, bM.  Nearly in the same parallel."  John Herschel made two observations, recording on 10 May 1834 (sweep 452), "The first of a double nebula (pos 111.2” by means of 2 measures), B; R; pL; psbM; r; 25"."

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NGC 4106 = ESO 440-056 = MCG -05-29-014 = PGC 38417

12 06 45.3 -29 46 06; Hya

V = 11.4;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 77”

 

18" (5/28/06): eastern member of a close, striking pair with slightly brighter NGC 4105 just 1.1' west.  Appears moderately bright, round, ~40" diameter, well concentrated with a bright, prominent core.  The halo is fairly faint and increases in size with averted vision to ~55" diameter.  This galaxy is slightly smaller with a less condensed core than NGC 4105.

 

8" (5/21/82): faint, small, round.  This is a close companion to NGC 4105 and is the slightly fainter and smaller of the pair.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4106 = H II-866 = h3379, along with NGC 4105, on 7 Mar 1791 (sweep 998).  John Herschel made two observations, recording on 10 May 1834 (sweep 452), "The 2nd of a double nebula, B; R; pL; psbM; r; 25"."

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NGC 4107 = NGC 4078 = UGC 7066 = MCG +02-31-023 = CGCG 069-043 = PGC 38238

12 04 47.6 +10 35 44; Vir

 

See observing notes for NGC 4078.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4107 on 17 Apr 1863 and described (loosely translated) a "very small, slightly elongated planetary, a mag 10-11 star follows by 30.2 seconds of time and 1' south."  There is nothing at his position but Harold Corwin found that exactly two min of RA west is NGC 4078, which has a star at his required offset.  d'Arrest recorded the galaxy again on 23 Mar 1865 (and just two days later by Albert Marth) at the correct position and it was also catalogued NGC 4078. So, NGC 4107 = NGC 4078.

 

In the IC 1 notes, Sherburne Burnham states "delete planetary; the star is np".  This seems to imply Burnham found some object at the NGC position but in the IC 2 notes Dreyer comments "not found by Frost on plates of 4h exposure" [from Annals of Harvard College Observatory, Vol 88, No 1].  Reinmuth writes "=*13.5, no nebulosity seen.  *10 ssf 2.6', *13.2 spp 1.4'."  Dorothy Carlson classifies NGC 4107 as a star and this error is repeated in the RNGC.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for more.

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NGC 4108 = UGC 7101 = MCG +11-15-023 = CGCG 315-015 = WBL 379-002 = LGG 277-005 = PGC 38423

12 06 44.6 +67 09 47; Dra

V = 12.7;  Size 1.7'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 105”

 

17.5" (3/29/89): brightest in a quartet with UGC 7106 = NGC 4108B 5' NNE, UGC 7087 = NGC 4108A 8' NW and UGCA 272 = CGCG 315-017 15' NE.  Moderately bright, small, almost round, broad concentration.  A mag 11.5 star lies 1.9' SE.

 

NGC 4108A = PGC 38343 appeared very faint, small, elongated N-S and NGC 4108B = PGC 38461 is very faint, very diffuse, fairly small, irregularly round.  Finally, UGCA 272 = PGC 38504 was noted as fairly faint, fairly small, oval, brighter core.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4108 = h1087 on 3 Apr 1832 and recorded "B; R; gbM; 20"; first class".  His single position matches UGC 7101.

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NGC 4109 = MCG +07-25-024 = CGCG 215-027 = Holm 333b = WBL 380-002 = PGC 38427

12 06 51.1 +42 59 44; CVn

V = 14.2;  Size 1.0'x0.9'

 

24" (5/30/16): fairly faint, fairly small, roundish, 20" diameter, broad weak concentration.  Forms a close pair with LEDA 2210701 just 40" to the east.  A mag 13.5 star lies 1' NNW. NGC 4109 is situated 4.7' SSE and UGC 7094 is 7.7' SW.

 

LEDA 2210701 appeared extremely faint and small, ~6" diameter.  Once acquired, I could hold it nearly 50% of the time, despite a very low SDSS magnitude (V ~16.0).  The redshift of z = .086 implies a light-travel time of 1.1 billion years!

UGC 7094 is very faint, edge-on 4:1 SW-NE, 1.0'x0.25', very low surface brightness with no noticeable concentration.

 

13.1" (4/12/86): very faint, small, round.  Forms a pair with NGC 4111 5.0' NNE.  NGC 4117 lies 9' NE.  Located on the Ursa Major-Canes Venatici border.

 

George Johnstone Stoney or Bindon Stoney, LdR's assistants, discovered NGC 4109 on 21 Apr 1851. During an observation of NGC 4111, it was noted "the first [NGC 4109] is vF and 6' ssp the second [NGC 4111], which is vB and mE.  A double star is 5' nf, whose smaller component is blue."  Although mentioned in the 1861 publication, John Herschel did not include this galaxy in the GC so Dreyer added it to the GC Supplement (GCS 5618).

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NGC 4110 = UGC 7102 = MCG +03-31-040 = CGCG 098-058 = PGC 38441

12 07 03.5 +18 31 54; Com

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 128”

 

17.5" (5/11/02): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.5', low fairly even surface brightness.  A nice mag 12/13 double lies 5.5' S [separation 14"].  Globular cluster NGC 4147 is 43' following.

 

William Rambaut, Lord Rosse's first observing assistant, or possibly Lord Rosse himself, discovered NGC 4110 on 1 April 1848.  While observing the globular cluster NGC 4147 he found "a small nebula, RA 3 min less than that of [NGC 4147]."  Nearly 30 years later it was observed again and placed 3 min, 3.5 sec preceding and 35" south of NGC 4147.  This is the first galaxy discovered at Birr Castle.

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NGC 4111 = UGC 7103 = MCG +07-25-026 = CGCG 215-028 = Holm 333a = WBL 380-003 = LGG 269-006 = PGC 38440

12 07 02.6 +43 04 01; CVn

V = 10.7;  Size 4.6'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 150”

 

48" (3/1/19): at 488x; stunning edge-on ~8:1 NNW-SSE with a bulging core, ~4.0'x0.5'.  Sharply concentrated with an extremely bright, very elongated bulging core.  The nucleus is very small and brilliant!  Due to dust lanes that run perpendicular to the major axis, the galaxy was slightly brighter on the centerline of the major axis on both sides of the core. The arms taper slightly with a spindle appearance.  A very faint star (~17th mag) is at the SW end of the galaxy.

 

24" (5/30/16): at 225x; very bright, beautiful edge-on ~7:1 NNW-SSE, 3.5'x0.5'.  Sharply concentrated with a small very bright elongated core, with an unusually bright quasi-stellar nucleus.  An extremely faint star or stellar knot was suspected near the southeast end.  A very wide unequal pair (HJ 2596) with a orange mag 8.1 primary lies 3.7' NE.

 

NGC 4111 is the brightest in a group (LGG 269 = UMa NED4 Group) containing NGC 4109 4.8' SSW (background object), NGC 4117 8.6' NE, NGC 4118 9.4' NE, UGC 7094 11.6' SW and UGC 7089 12.8' NW.    All of these galaxies with the exception of UGC 7089 are roughly aligned in a 20' string oriented SW-NE.  UGC 7094 appeared very faint, very elongated 4:1 SW-NE, 1.0'x0.25', very low surface brightness with no noticeable concentration.

 

18" (5/14/07): this striking edge-on is extends 6:1 NNW-SSE, ~3.5'x0.6'.  Dominated by a small, sharply concentrated, intense core.  The core is only 24"x15" and brightens somewhat to the center.  The eastern flank possibly has a sharper edge, but no dust lane was visible.  Located 4' SW of a wide double star (8.2/10.7 at 34").

 

18" (6/4/05): fairly bright, fairly large, excellent edge-on at least 6:1 NW-SE.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright 20" core that increases to the center.  The extensions are very thin, ~3'x0.4', with a slightly bulging core.  A wide double star (HJ 2596 = 8.2/10.7 at 34") to the northeast is collinear with the core.

 

17.5": fairly bright, fairly large, edge-on 5:1 NW-SE, small very bright core, long thin extensions.  A double star with components mag 8.2/10.7 at 34" separation lies 3.8' NE.  Brightest in a group with NGC 4109 4.8' SW and NGC 4117 8.7' WSW.

 

13.1" (4/12/86): fairly bright, pretty edge-on, small very bright core, faint thin arms.  Located 5' SW of a mag 8 star.  In a group with NGC 4109 5' SSW and NGC 4117 8.5' WSW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4111 = H I-195 = h1088 on 14 Jan 1788 (sweep 798) and recorded "E sp nf, vBN with faint branches.  His position and description matches UGC 7103.  On 6 Feb 1788 (sweep 810) he made another observation and also discovered NGC 4117.  John Herschel first recorded (sweep 150) "B; S; mE; sbM; a double star point to its nucleus."

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NGC 4112 = ESO 321-006 = MCG -07-25-003 = AM 1204-395 = PGC 38452

12 07 09 -40 12 24; Cen

V = 12.0;  Size 1.6'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 5”

 

18" (5/15/10): at 175x, this southern galaxy appeared fairly faint (view diminished by low elevation), fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, ~45"x30", broad concentration.  Located just north of a group of 3 stars with the closer two (1' S and 1.5' S) collinear with the major axis of the galaxy and mag 9.25 HD 105253 2' SSW.  ESO 321-7, located just 2.5' ESE, was not seen.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4112 = h3380 on 2 Mar 1835 and recorded "F; S; R; at the end (or forming the continuation of an arc of 3 stars respectively, in order 8, 9 and 10m."

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NGC 4113 = NGC 4122 = MCG +06-27-011 = CGCG 187-009 = PGC 38451

12 07 08.5 +32 59 46; Com

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 55”

 

See observing notes for NGC 4122.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4113 = h1089 on 3 Apr 1831 and simply noted as "eF".  There is nothing at his position but Harold Corwin found that exactly one degree north is NGC 4122, which JH found earlier on 29 Apr 1827, but also with a poor position!  So, likely NGC 4113 = NGC 4122.

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NGC 4114 = MCG -02-31-018 = PGC 38460

12 07 12.3 -14 11 08; Crv

V = 13.1;  Size 1.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 135”

 

18" (5/8/04): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 NW-SE, 1.0'x0.6'.  Sharply concentrated with a small, prominent core which increases to a quasi-stellar nucleus. The low surface brightness halo requires averted to view.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4114 = H III-533 = h3381 on 27 Mar 1786 (sweep 548) and recorded "vF, S, iF.  Time uncertain to 5 or 6 seconds."  JH noted "F; S; R: gbM; 15"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4115

12 07 09.6 +14 24 24; Com

 

= *?, Gottlieb. Not found, RNGC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4115 = h1090 on 3 Apr 1826 and simply noted "a suspected neb.  Extremely faint."  There are no galaxies near his position, though a mag 14.8 star is 30" away.  So, either this number is lost or perhaps refers to this faint star.  See Harold Corwin's notes.

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NGC 4116 = UGC 7111 = MCG +01-31-022 = CGCG 041-041 = PGC 38492

12 07 37.2 +02 41 29; Vir

V = 12.0;  Size 3.8'x2.2';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 155”

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated NNW-SSE.  Appears brighter along the major axis.  NGC 4123 lies 14.1' NE.

 

George Johnstone Stoney or his brother Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 4116 on 6 Mar 1851.  While observing NGC 4123 it was noted "another also E and vF, about 18' south-preceding."  The actual separation is 14', but the identification NGC 4116 = UGC 7111 is certain.  On 18 Apr 1855, NGC 4116 was sketched "U" shaped (open at one end) with the comment "a wedge-shaped division running downwards?"  Christian Peters measured an accurate position and noted "RA and NPD in the GC [John Herschel's estimated position] not good."

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NGC 4117 = UGC 7112 = MCG +07-25-027 = CGCG 215-029 = Holm 334a = LGG 269-018 = PGC 38503

12 07 46.1 +43 07 35; CVn

V = 13.0;  Size 1.8'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 18”

 

24" (5/30/16): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, 0.9'x0.3', well concentrated with a small bright elongated core with faint extensions.  Forms a pair with NGC 4118 1.8' SE.  NGC 4111, the brightest member in a group, lies 8.6' SW and orange mag 8.1 HD 105288 (wide pair) is 5' WSW.  Member of the NGC 4111 Group = LGG 269.

 

17.5": fairly faint, fairly small, oval SSW-NNE, weak concentration.  Forms a close pair with faint NGC 4118 1.6' SE and NGC 4111 lies 8.5' WSW.  The double star h2596 = 8.2/10.7 at 34" is 5' WSW.

 

13.1" (4/12/86): fairly faint, small, elongated SSW-NNE, broadly concentrated.  Located on the opposite side of a mag 8 star from NGC 4111.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4117 = H III-708 = h1091 on 6 Feb 1788 (sweep 810) and logged vF, vS.  The foregoing nebula [NGC 4111], 2 stars [HJ 2598] and this are in a line from sp to nf."  John Herschel's position on 12 Apr 1830 was poor but d'Arrest measured an accurate position on 2 nights in May 1865.

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NGC 4118 = MCG +07-25-028 = CGCG 215-030 = Holm 334b = PGC 38507

12 07 52.8 +43 06 41; CVn

V = 14.6;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 150”

 

24" (5/30/16): at 225x; very faint, very small, slightly elongated NW-SE, ~14"x10".  Located just 1.5' SE of NGC 4117.  Member of the NGC 4111 group.

 

17.5": extremely faint, very small, requires averted to glimpse.  Forms a close pair with much brighter NGC 4117 1.6' NW.

 

13": not seen.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 4118 on 20 Apr 1857 using LdR's 72".  He noted "about 60" or 70" sff [of NGC 4117] is an eF nebulous knot which I at first took for a star."  The 1880 publication includes a sketch and this object is labeled "delta".  Dreyer credited Lawrence Parsons, the 4th Earl of Rosse, with the discovery.

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NGC 4119 = NGC 4124 = IC 3011 = UGC 7117 = MCG +02-31-036 = CGCG 069-058 = PGC 38527

12 08 09.7 +10 22 43; Vir

V = 11.3;  Size 4.3'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 114”

 

See observing notes for NGC 4124

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4119 = H II-14 on 18 Jan 1784 (only object in short sweep 85) and recorded "a nebula of a longish figure, not cometic; probably it consists of stars." There is nothing at his position (using 59 Vir as the reference star) and the galaxy could not be recovered by Bigourdan, Reinmuth or Frost (Annals of Harvard College Observatory, Vol 88, No 1).

 

According to Harold Corwin, NGC 4119 is likely another observation of NGC 4124 as originally suggested by Dreyer in his 1912 revision of Herschel's catalogues: "WH's final position is just 50 arcmin south of NGC 4124, and there are no other bright galaxies nearby that he might have picked up."

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NGC 4120 = UGC 7121 = MCG +12-12-001 = CGCG 335-004 = LGG 272-002 = PGC 38553

12 08 31.4 +69 32 35; Dra

V = 13.5;  Size 1.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 166”

 

17.5" (3/29/89): very faint, thin, very elongated NNW-SSE.  A mag 15 star is at the south end 0.5' from center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4120 = H III-904 on 6 Apr 1793 (sweep 1036) and noted "eF, vS, E from north to south."  CH's reduced position is 33 sec of RA west and 2.5' north of UGC 7121.

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NGC 4121 = MCG +11-15-026 = CGCG 315-018 = Holm 335b = PGC 38508

12 07 56.5 +65 06 50; Dra

V = 13.5;  Size 0.5'x0.45'

 

17.5" (3/20/93): fairly faint but very small, round, stellar nucleus surrounded by a small round halo.  Forms a pair with bright galaxy NGC 4125 3.6' NE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4121 on 9 Sep 1866 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position, measured on 3 nights, matches CGCG 315-018 = PGC 38508.

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NGC 4122 = NGC 4113 = MCG +06-27-011 = CGCG 187-009 = PGC 38451

12 07 08.5 +32 59 46; Com

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 55”

 

17.5" (2/24/90): very faint, very small, slightly elongated, small bright core.  Located at the NW edge of Coma Berenices border.  IC 3003 lies 12' SSE (not noticed).

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4122 = h1093 on 29 Apr 1827 and recorded "eF; vS; R; mbM."  There is nothing near his position, though 1.1 min of RA west is CGCG 187-009 = PGC 38451.  JH found the galaxy again on 3 Apr 1831, but his position on this sweep was 1 degree too far south!  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for NGC 4113.

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NGC 4123 = UGC 7116 = MCG +01-31-023 = CGCG 041-042 = Mrk 1466 = PGC 38531

12 08 11.2 +02 52 41; Vir

V = 11.4;  Size 4.4'x3.2';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 135”

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 3'x2', small bright core.  NGC 4116 lies 14.1' SW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4123 = H V-4 = h1092 on 23 Feb 1784 (sweep 158) and recorded "vF, of a considerable extent, being about 5 or 6' diameter.  To the north of the nebula at a distance of about 15' or more is a bright triangle of stars, the base where of is towards the nebula."  His position and description matches UGC 7116 = PGC 38531.

 

R.J. Mitchell, observing on 29 Mar 1856 at Birr Castle, noted "the n one [NGC 4123] is however a spiral like an "S", the arms being faint."

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NGC 4124 = NGC 4119: = UGC 7117 = MCG +02-31-036 = CGCG 069-058 = IC 3011 = PGC 38527

12 08 09.7 +10 22 43; Vir

V = 11.3;  Size 4.3'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 114”

 

17.5" (5/14/88): bright, fairly large, elongated WNW-ESE, bright elongated core.

 

17.5" (5/10/86): fairly bright, moderately large, attractive system, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, elongated large bright core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4124 = H I-33 = H II-60 = h1094 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and logged II-60 as "F, S, r."  Caroline's reduced position is 2' northeast of UGC 7117.  He logged it again as I-33 exactly a month later as "B, L, mE, mbM, r."  A note was added "by description not the same as [II-60].  Nevertheless, John Herschel combined both (correctly) H-designations in the GC.  John Herschel made an early observation on 11 Apr 1825 (sweep 3) and noted it was "extended in a north-preceding directions towards a star, 30" diameter."

 

William Herschel probably discovered this galaxy earlier on 18 Jan 1784 and listed it as H. II-14 (later NGC 4119).  See notes on this number. Finally Schwassmann's Sn. 124 = IC 3011, found on a Heidelberg plate on 23 Feb 1900, is an exact match.  So, NGC 3124 = NGC 4119 = IC 3011.

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NGC 4125 = UGC 7118 = MCG +11-15-027 = CGCG 315-019 = Holm 335a = PGC 38524

12 08 05.7 +65 10 24; Dra

V = 9.7;  Size 5.8'x3.2';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 95”

 

17.5" (3/20/93): bright, moderately large, very elongated almost 4:1 E-W, 2.5'x0.7'.  A very bright elongated core and nearly stellar nucleus dominates the galaxy with much fainter extensions but overall the surface brightness is high.  A mag 10 star is 2.4' ESE of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 4121 3.6' SW.

 

John Russell Hind discovered NGC 4125 = Au 28 on 5 Jan 1850 with a 7-inch Dolland refractor at George Bishop's private observatory in London. He noted "tolerably bright, but small."  This was the second deep sky object he discovered after NGC 6760.  In the next issue of Astronomische Nachrichten he added "of an elliptical form with a strong nuclear condensation."  Hind's Crimson star is mentioned in the same note!  Auwer listed this galaxy as #28 in his 1862 list of new nebulae.

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NGC 4126 = UGC 7123 = MCG +03-31-047 = CGCG 098-065 = PGC 38565

12 08 37.4 +16 08 34; Com

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 0”

 

17.5" (5/11/02): faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, 0.6'x0.5', weak even concentration to a faint, stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star lies 2' SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4126 = H III-68 = h1095 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 182) and noted "Two vS stars very near each other with suspected nebulosity between them.  240x left it doubtful."  Caroline's reduced position is 23 sec of RA east of UGC 7123, though interestingly there are two nearby stars that could possibly be WH's object.  Nevertheless, John Herschel's position on 23 Apr 1832 is within 30" of UGC 7123.

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NGC 4127 = UGC 7122 = MCG +13-09-012 = CGCG 352-019 = PGC 38550

12 08 26.3 +76 48 15; Cam

V = 12.7;  Size 2.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 140”

 

17.5" (5/2/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, broad mild concentration.  A mag 14.5 star is at the east end and second mag 14 star is close east.  Forms the east vertex of an isosceles triangle with mag 5.8 SAO 7500 13' NW and mag 7.4 SAO 7497 13' SW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4127 = H I-279 = h1096 on 12 Dec 1797 (sweep 1068) and noted "pB, cL, irr E, bM."  His RA is either 45 sec too large, or perhaps he reversed the polar distance of this object and NGC 4133 as the RA order is reversed.  In any case, John Herschel measured an accurate position on 2 sweeps.

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NGC 4128 = UGC 7120 = MCG +12-12-002A = CGCG 335-003 = Holm 337a = LGG 272-003 = PGC 38555

12 08 32.4 +68 46 04; Dra

V = 12.0;  Size 2.6'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 58”

 

17.5" (3/20/93): moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated 4:1 WSW-ENE, 1.5'x0.4'.  Contains a very bright core and almost stellar nucleus that dominates the much fainter extensions.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4128 = H I-263 on 6 Apr 1793 (sweep 1036) and noted "cB, lE."  CH's reduced position is 2' north of UGC 7120.  CGCG does not label  its 335-008 as NGC 4128.

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NGC 4129 = NGC 4130 = MCG -01-31-006 = PGC 38580

12 08 53.3 -09 02 12; Vir

V = 12.5;  Size 2.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 95”

 

17.5" (2/28/87): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated ~E-W, weakly concentrated.  A mag 13 star is 3.0' NW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4129 = H II-548 = h1097 = h3382 on 3 Mar 1786 (sweep 536) and recorded "F, pL, mE from np to sf, not far from the parallel."  John Herschel made two observations at Slough and once at the Cape of Good Hope. On sweep 136 he noted "F; vgbM; E in parallel; 30" l, 20" br."

 

NGC 4130, found by Heinrich d'Arrest on 15 Mar 1866, is a duplicate observation with an erroneous position.  See that number.

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NGC 4130 = NGC 4129 = MCG -01-31-006 = PGC 38580

12 08 53.3 -09 02 12; Vir

V = 12.5;  Size 2.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 95”

 

See observing notes for NGC 4129.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4130 on 15 Mar 1866 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His description mentions a mag 13 star precedes by 21.7 seconds of time, but no star matches that position.  Instead, Harold Corwin found his description fits NGC 4129, which is located exactly 5” south of d'Arrest's position, and a mag 13 star is exactly 21 sec of time west!  So, NGC 4130 = NGC 4129.

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NGC 4131 = UGC 7126 = MCG +05-29-019 = CGCG 158-029 = Holm 339c = WBL 382-001 = PGC 38573

12 08 47.3 +29 18 17; Com

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 73”

 

17.5" (3/20/93): fairly faint, small, fairly high surface brightness, elongated 2:1 ~E-W, small prominent core, stellar nucleus.  Located 4.0' NE of a mag 10.5 star.  First of three on a line and second brightest with NGC 4132 4.5' SE and NGC 4134 9' SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4131 = H III-356 = h1098, along with NGC 4132 and 4134 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and recorded the trio as "Three, the time and number belongs to the largest [NGC 4134] which is F, irregular.  I suspect a fourth, but could not stay to ascertain it, though I am pretty sure.  The other two are vF, S, mE."  John Herschel made two observations, the first on 31 Mar 1827 (sweep 66).

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NGC 4132 = MCG +05-29-020 = CGCG 158-030 = Holm 339a = WBL 382-002 = PGC 38593

12 09 01.4 +29 15 01; Com

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 20”

 

17.5" (3/20/93): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, small brighter core.  Second and faintest of three with NGC 4134 4.5' SSE and NGC 4131 4' NW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4132 = H III-357 = h1099, along with NGC 4131 and 4134, on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396). He recorded the trio as "Three, the time and number belongs to the largest [NGC 4134] which is F, irregular.  I suspect a fourth, but could not stay to ascertain it, though I am pretty sure.  The other two [NGC 4131 and NGC 4132] are vF, S, mE."  John Herschel made three observations (first on 31 Mar 1827) and his mean position is a good match with this galaxy.

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NGC 4133 = UGC 7127 = MCG +13-09-013 = CGCG 352-020 = PGC 38578

12 08 49.9 +74 54 15; Dra

V = 12.3;  Size 1.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 125”

 

17.5" (5/2/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, irregular surface brightness with one or two bright knots possibly including a substellar nucleus.  Forms the vertex of a right angle with a mag 12 star 2.5' N and a mag 13 star 2.2' E of center.  Located 18' NNW of mag 6.4 SAO 7512.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4133 = H I-278 = h1100 on 12 Dec 1797 (sweep 1068) and noted "cB, cL, iR, mbM."  His position matches UGC 7127, though Dreyer thought that WH exchanged the PD with this object and NGC 4127.  On 6 May 1831 (sweep 349), John Herschel called it "F; R; gbM.  Strong twilight" and measured an accurate position.  On a later sweep he logged "pB; R; gbM."

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NGC 4134 = UGC 7130 = MCG +05-29-023 = CGCG 158-031 = Holm 339b = WBL 382-003 = PGC 38605

12 09 10.0 +29 10 37; Com

V = 12.8;  Size 2.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 150”

 

17.5" (3/20/93): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, broad concentration, NGC 4132 5' NNW.  Brightest and third of three spiral galaxies almost collinear in a NW-SE direction!

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4134 = H II-371 = h1101, along with NGC 4131 and 4132, on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396).  He recorded the trio as "Three, the time and number belongs to the largest [NGC 4134] which is F, irregular.  I suspect a fourth, but could not stay to ascertain it, though I am pretty sure.  The other two [NGC 4131 and NGC 4132] are vF, S, mE."  John Herschel made three observations (first on 31 Mar 1827) and measured a fairly accurate position.

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NGC 4135 = MCG +07-25-032 = CGCG 215-034 = PGC 38601

12 09 08.9 +44 00 12; CVn

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 90”

 

17.5": very faint, small, elongated WSW-ENE, weak concentration.  Brighter of a pair with NGC 4137 5.5' NNE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 4135 = St XI-16, along with NGC 4137, on 4 May 1881. His position is accurate.

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NGC 4136 = UGC 7134 = MCG +05-29-025 = CGCG 158-034 = PGC 38618

12 09 17.7 +29 55 39; Com

V = 11.0;  Size 4.0'x3.7';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

13.1" (4/12/86): moderately bright, round, brighter core, stellar nucleus.  NGC 4131/NGC 4132 pair lies 38' SSW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4136 = H II-321 = h1108 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 387) and recorded "pB, L, gbM."  His position matches UGC 7134.  On 2 Apr 1827 (sweep 67), John Herschel wrote, "vF; vL; 5 or 6' diam."

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NGC 4137 = UGC 7135 = VV 454 = MCG +07-25-033 = CGCG 215-036 = PGC 38619

12 09 17.6 +44 05 26; CVn

V = 14.1;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 100”

 

17.5": very faint, small, slightly elongated ~E-W, even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with NGC 4135 5.5' SSW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 4137 = St XI-17, along with NGC 4135, on 4 May 1881.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 4138 = UGC 7139 = MCG +07-25-035 = CGCG 215-037 = LGG 269-008 = PGC 38643

12 09 29.9 +43 41 07; CVn

V = 11.3;  Size 2.6'x1.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 150”

 

13.1" (4/12/86): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated NW-SE, rises quickly to a small bright core, possible stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 2.0' NNW of center.  Member of the NGC 4111 Group = LGG 269.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4138 = H I-196 on 14 Jan 1788 (sweep 798) and recorded "cB, cL, vgbM, iF."

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NGC 4139 = IC 2989 = MCG +00-31-030 = CGCG 013-061 = WBL 372-013 = PGC 38213

12 04 34.0 +01 48 05; Vir

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 30”

 

17.5" (5/10/86): faint, very small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, small bright core.  Forms a close pair with NGC 4077 just 1.3' NW in a group.  Located 6.0' SSE of NGC 4073.  Listed as "not found" in RNGC and identified as IC 2989 in UGC, MCG and CGCG as d'Arrest's RA is 5 minutes too large.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4139 = IC 2989 = PGC 38213, along with NGC 4140, on 10 Apr 1863.  He described a double nebula, with the companion preceding by 4-5 seconds of time and somewhat north.  There is nothing at his position but Corwin found he made a 5 minute error in RA.  See NGC 4140 for the story.

 

David Todd rediscovered the galaxy on 6 Jan 1878 during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet and reported it as objects #16b and #14b.  Finally Guilllaume Bigourdan found it a third time on 29 Mar 1895 and reported it as Big. 287 (later IC 2989).  Both Dorothy Carlson and the RNGC misclassify NGC 4139 as nonexistent.  CGCG labels this galaxy as IC 2989, though RC3 gives NGC 4139 as an identity.

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NGC 4140 = NGC 4077 = UGC 7063 = MCG +00-31-031 = CGCG 013-063 = PGC 38218

12 04 38.0 +01 47 16; Vir

V = 13.1;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 15”

 

See observing notes for NGC 4077

 

Heinrich d'Arrest found NGC 4140 on 10 Apr 1863, along with NGC 4139, which was mentioned as 5 seconds of time preceding and somewhat north.  There is nothing near his usually accurate ring-micrometer position.  But Harold Corwin notes that exactly 5 minutes of RA west of d'Arrest's position is the pair NGC 4077 and IC 2989, matching his description.  So, NGC 4140 = NGC 4077 and NGC 4139 = IC 2989.  Dorothy Carlson classifies NGC 4140 as nonexistent in her NGC corrections list and this is repeated in the RNGC.  Listed in my RNGC Corrections #6.

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NGC 4141 = UGC 7147 = MCG +10-17-152 = CGCG 292-074 = PGC 38669

12 09 47.3 +58 50 57; UMa

V = 14.5;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  PA = 75”

 

17.5" (5/13/88): very faint, small, round, even surface brightness.  Two mag 15 stars are 1' W and 1' NW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4141 = H III-795 = h1102 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 923) and noted "vF, S, r, iF."  His RA was 20 seconds of time too small.  John Herschel made a single observation on 1 May 1831 (sweep 345) and logged, "F; pL; lE; gbM; 40"." His RA was 15 seconds of time too small.

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NGC 4142 = UGC 7140 = MCG +09-20-102 = CGCG 269-037 = LGG 258-037 = PGC 38645

12 09 30.2 +53 06 18; UMa

V = 13.3;  Size 2.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 175”

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 N-S, 1.0'x0.6', weak concentration.  Nearly collinear with a wide pair of mag 11/13 stars ~4' SW.  NGC 4181 is located 32' SE.   Member of the M109 (NGC 3992) group = LGG 258.

 

17.5" (5/13/88): faint, moderately large, diffuse, weak concentration, oval ~N-S.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4142 = H III-814 = h1103 on 26 Apr 1789 (sweep 929) and logged "vF, S, easily resolvable."  His position is accurate. John Herschel made a single observation on 4 May 1831 (sweep 347) and noted, "vF; irreg fig; vglbM; twilight."

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NGC 4143 = UGC 7142 = MCG +07-25-036 = CGCG 215-039 = LGG 269-007 = PGC 38654

12 09 36.1 +42 32 03; CVn

V = 10.7;  Size 2.3'x1.4';  Surf Br = 11.8;  PA = 144”

 

13.1" (4/12/86): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, very bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 5.0' NE of mag 7.6 SAO 44055.  Member of the NGC 4111 group = LGG 269.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4143 = H IV-54 = h1104 on 14 Jan 1788 (sweep 798) and noted "cB, Nucleus with faint chevelure (halo)."  His position is just off the east side of this galaxy.  On 1 May 1828 (sweep 150), John Herschel logged "R; sbM to nucleus."

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NGC 4144 = UGC 7151 = MCG +08-22-077 = CGCG 243-048 = PGC 38688

12 09 58.5 +46 27 28; UMa

V = 11.6;  Size 6.0'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 104”

 

17.5" (4/7/89): fairly bright, very large, edge-on 5:1 WNW-ESE, 5'x1', bright core.  Double star mag 13.5/13.5 at 8" separation is off the SE end 2.3' from center.  Located between two mag 9 stars 8' N (double) and SAO 44057 7.7' SW.   Member of the M94 Group (CVn I Cloud) or possibly the CVn II Group (brightest member M106).

 

8": faint, edge-on WNW-ESE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4144 = H II-747 = h1107 on 10 Apr 1788 (sweep 830) and recorded "pB, E, about 3' long, from np to sf about 15 or 20”."  John Herschel made two observations, logging on 26 Apr 1830 (sweep 255), "F; vmE in pos 109” by meaure; vgvbM; 4' long, 30 or 40" br."

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NGC 4145 = UGC 7154 = MCG +07-25-040 = CGCG 215-042 = Holm 342a = PGC 38693

12 10 01.6 +39 52 58; CVn

V = 11.3;  Size 5.9'x4.3';  Surf Br = 14.6;  PA = 100”

 

24" (5/30/16): at 200x; fairly bright, very large, roughly oval 4:3 ~E-W, 4'x3', contains a large brighter core and a noticeably patchy or irregular halo with a strong impression of spiral structure.  Two arms were fairly confident; one extending east of the core on its south side and another extending west of the core on its north side.  Otherwise, it seemed like slightly brighter HII patches in the low surface brightness halo were just resolving in the outer halo.  Located 9' due west of mag 6.8 HD 105824.

 

NGC 4145A = UGC 7175 lies 12' SE.  It appeared faint to fairly faint, fairly small as often only the 20" slightly elongated core was visible.  Sometimes very low surface brightness extensions E-W were seen, increasing the size to ~35"x20", but the full extension of the arms were not detected.

 

13.1" (3/17/86): fairly faint, fairly large, very diffuse, weak broad concentration, slightly elongated E-W.  Located 9' W of mag 6.9 SAO 44055, a distraction for the low surface brightness galaxy.  NGC 4151 lies 30' S.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4145 = H I-169 = h1105 on 18 Mar 1787 (sweep 717) and noted "cB, cL."  His position is within the halo on the northwest side.  On 28 Apr 1827 (sweep 73), John Herschel reported, "pB; vL; dilute; vglbM."

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NGC 4146 = UGC 7163 = MCG +05-29-028 = CGCG 158-036 = PGC 38721

12 10 18.3 +26 25 51; Com

V = 12.7;  Size 1.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (5/4/02): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter.  Weak concentration in halo but direct vision revealed a very small brighter core of ~10" (this is a Seyfert galaxy).  Located 22' ESE of mag 7.1 SAO 82152.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4146 = H III-327 on 6 Apr 1785 (sweep 393) and noted "vF, pS."  CH's reduction is 13 sec of time preceding UGC 7163.  There were no observations made by JH or at Birr Castle.

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NGC 4147 = NGC 4153

12 10 06.2 +18 32 32; Com

V = 10.4;  Size 4.4';  Surf Br = 0.1

 

48" (4/22/17): NGC 4147, a class IX globular, was well resolved and impressive at 488x.  It appeared very bright, fairly large, large bright core.  Over 100 stars were resolved including a number of relatively bright 14.5-15.5 stars.  The stellar density increases significantly towards the center where a large number of resolved stars are packed over a hazy, mottled background.  The loose halo was well resolved, a bit scraggly around the edges and extended to ~5' diameter.  The superthin galaxy UGC 7170 lies 18' NNE.

 

17.5" (4/13/96): moderately bright, fairly small, irregular 2'-2.5' diameter, very small bright core.  A few faint stars are resolved at 220x including one brighter star at the south edge.  Appears on the verge of more extensive resolution.  At 280x, the halo clearly has an irregular outline and several stars are resolved in extensions or star lanes.  The core is mottled and intense but not resolved.

 

17.5" (3/20/93): fairly bright, moderately large, round, 2.5' diameter.  Approximately six faint stars are just resolved around the edges of the halo including a single easy mag 14 star at the SSW edge.  The compact core is mottled and clumpy but has no clean resolution.  There is an impression of several star lanes in the halo just below the limit of resolution.

 

A 2010 journal article on the capture of globular clusters, mentions NGC 4147 may be associated with SagDEG (in addition to Terzan 7, Terzan 8, Arp 2 and Pal 12).

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4147 = H I-19 = h1106 on 14 Mar 1784 (sweep 170) and recorded "a very brilliant nebula.  Not cometic.  Brightest in the middle but the brightness extends a good way towards the extremes; pS."  His position was 20 seconds of time too large.  The NGC position is accurate (Engelhardt measured a micrometric position). John Herschel made 3 observations; on 23 Mar 1827 he wrote, "B; R; 80"; consists of distinct stars.  A globular cluster."

 

The first discovery was probably made a month earlier on 15 Feb 1784 (sweep 146) and recorded as H I-11 = NGC 4153, but his position was poor (not unusual in his early sweeps).  See that number and Harold Corwin's NGC identification notes.

 

Lord Rosse (or assistant William Rambaut) first observed NGC 4147 on 1 Apr 1848 and described it as "a very close cluster of faintish stars, preceded by a small nebula [NGC 4110]."

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NGC 4148 = UGC 7158 = MCG +06-27-018 = CGCG 187-016 = PGC 38704

12 10 08.0 +35 52 39; CVn

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 165”

 

17.5": faint, small, slightly elongated ~E-W, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star is 1.4' SE and a mag 12 star 4' W.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4148 on 7 Feb 1866 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position, measured twice, matches UGC 7158 and he accurately placed a mag 12 star at 3.8 seconds of time following (and 1.3' south).

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NGC 4149 = NGC 4154 = UGC 7167 = MCG +10-17-155 = CGCG 292-076 = PGC 38741

12 10 32.9 +58 18 14; UMa

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.3';  Surf Br = 11.8;  PA = 87”

 

17.5" (5/13/88): fairly faint, small, thin edge-on WNW-ESE, weak concentration.  This is a pretty system.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4149 = H II-802 = h1109 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 923) and noted "F, S, E."  His position was 3' northwest of UGC 7167 = PGC 38741.  He swept it up a second time on 18 Mar 1790 (sweep 951), but mistakenly assumed III-845 (later NGC 4154) was new.  So, NGC 4149 = NGC 4154.  John Herschel made a single observation on 9 Feb 1831 (sweep 323) and his position was 9 tsec west and 1' south of UGC 7167.

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NGC 4150 = UGC 7165 = MCG +05-29-029 = CGCG 158-037 = PGC 38742

12 10 33.7 +30 24 06; Com

V = 11.6;  Size 2.3'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 147”

 

17.5" (4/15/93): fairly bright, moderately large, small very bright core, stellar nucleus, faint halo extends NW-SE to 2.0'x1.3'.  Located 6' E of mag 9 SAO 62870.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4150 = H I-73 = h1110 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 387) and noted "vB, S."  His position is close off the southwest side of UGC 7165.  JH made the single observation "B; R: pgmbM; 25"; a * 8m 5' preceding."

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NGC 4151 = UGC 7166 = MCG +07-25-044 = CGCG 215-045 = Holm 345a = WBL 383-001 = PGC 38739

12 10 31.4 +39 23 19; CVn

V = 10.8;  Size 6.3'x4.5';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 50”

 

13.1" (3/17/86): very bright, very small or stellar nucleus, fainter halo.  A mag 11.5 star is 2.3' N and a closer mag 13 star is 1.3' N of center.  Forms a optical pair with NGC 4156 5.1' NE (the companion is in the background).  NGC 4145 lies 29' N.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4151 = H I-165 = h1111, along with NGC 4156, on 17 Mar 1787 (sweep 714) and recorded "vB, A bright nucleus, but the nucleus not in the middle, or perhaps two joined together, the northern on having the nucleus."  CH's reduction is on the northwest side of the halo.

 

On 26 April 1851 at Birr Castle, Bindon Stoney logged "Has a B, R centre with nucleus, then two dark spaces concentric with the nucleus and outside these faint nebulosity as in figure."  Two night laters he noted "Previous observation rather confirmed. The dark spaces certainly exist, but I cannot be sure that appendages are not parts of spiral branches."  The following year he wrote "Last year's observation confirmed as to dark curved spaces preceding and following centre and faint nebulosity outside them again."   A sketch was included in the 1861 publication (Plate XXVII, Fig. 20).

 

NGC 4151 is one of the 6 galaxies studied by Seyfert in his seminal 1943 paper "Nuclear Emission in Spiral Nebulae".

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NGC 4152 = UGC 7169 = MCG +03-31-052 = CGCG 098-077 = Mrk 759 = PGC 38749

12 10 37.5 +16 01 59; Com

V = 12.2;  Size 2.2'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 115”

 

17.5" (4/25/98): moderately bright, round, ~1' diameter, moderately concentrated with a brighter core ~20" in diameter.  Halo increases to nearly 1.5' diameter with averted vision.  Transparency poor due to smoke.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4152 = H II-83 = h1112 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 182) and noted "F, pL, r."  JH and d'Arrest both observed and measured this galaxy four times.

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NGC 4153 = NGC 4147

12 10 06.2 +18 32 32; Com

 

See observing notes for NGC 4147.  Identification uncertain.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4153 = H I-11 on 15 Feb 1784 (sweep 146) and recorded "a B nebula, not very large, however of some extent, it not R; the greatest brightness lies towards the middle but is not circular.  The whitishness of this nebula is of the milky kind of the unresolveable nebula such as that of [M42]."  There is nothing near his position (during an early sweep when his positions were much more prone to error) but 14' northwest is the globular cluster NGC 4147, which he recored just a month later (14 Mar 1784).

 

Harold Corwin notes that Walter Scott Houston may have suggested in one his Deep Sky Wonders columns that NGC 4133 might have been a comet, although offered no proof.  See Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 4154 = NGC 4149 = UGC 7167 = MCG +10-17-155 = CGCG 292-076 = PGC 38741

12 10 32.9 +58 18 14; UMa

 

See observing notes for NGC 4149.

 

William Herschel rediscovered NGC 4154 = H III-845 on 18 Mar 1790 (sweep 951) and recorded "vF, S, E in the parallel."  His offset from Delta UMa and description (elongated E-W) points to within 1' of UGC 7167.  He first discovered this galaxy on 17 Apr 1789 and recorded it as II-802 (and later became NGC 4149), but his position was 3' too far northwest.  So, NGC 4154 = NGC 4149.

 

Interestingly, Bigourdan was not able to recover this galaxy and using Heidelberg plates, Reinmuth apparently was confused and noted "*12?; no neb seen; BD +59 1426 nff 3.7'."  Because of Reinmuth's description, Dorothy Carlson identifies NGC 4154 as a star in her 1940 NGC correction list and RNGC classifies NGC 4154 nonexistent.  NGC 4154 is not equated with NGC 4149 in any major catalogue.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 4155 = UGC 7172 = MCG +03-31-058 = CGCG 098-082 = PGC 38761

12 10 45.7 +19 02 27; Com

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 81”

 

17.5" (5/11/02): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, moderate concentration to a small bright core.  Two mag 10 stars are 9'-10' SW near the edge of the 20' field.  Located 31' NNE of gc NGC 4147.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 4155 = Sw. I-21 on 6 Apr 1885. Although his description "vvF, vS" is not very helpful, his position is just 6 sec of RA east and 1' south of UGC 7172.

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NGC 4156 = UGC 7173 = MCG +07-25-045 = CGCG 215-047 = Holm 345b = WBL 383-003 = PGC 38773 = The Eye of Sauron

12 10 49.5 +39 28 22; CVn

V = 13.2;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

13.1" (3/17/86): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, possible faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 4151 5.1' SW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4156 = H II-642 = h1113, along with NGC 4151, on 17 Mar 1787 (sweep 714) and noted "pB, S."  JH logged "vF; lE; vgbM."

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NGC 4157 = UGC 7183 = MCG +09-20-106 = CGCG 269-038 = FGC 1380 = LGG 258-025 = PGC 38795

12 11 04.9 +50 29 07; UMa

V = 11.3;  Size 6.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 66”

 

17.5" (5/2/92): bright, moderately large, edge-on 7:1 WSW-ENE, 5.0'x0.7', elongated bright core, extensions taper at ends.  Located 4.3' SE of mag 8.0 SAO 28277.  Two mag 10/10.5 stars oriented N-S are 3.8' SW and 5.1' SW and a mag 11 star lies 4.9' NE.  This is a striking galaxy with several bright stars near adding to the view.  Member of the M109 (NGC 3992) group = LGG 258.

 

8" (3/28/81): faint, very elongated WSW-ENE, bright core.  A mag 8 star is close NW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4157 = H I-208 = h1114 on 9 Mar 1788 (sweep 816) and recorded "F, mE from sp to nf, nearer the parallel, about 3' l and 3/4' broad."  JH made the single observation "B; vmE; vglbM; 4' long." and d'Arrest measured the position twice.

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NGC 4158 = UGC 7182 = MCG +03-31-060 = CGCG 098-084 = PGC 38802

12 11 10.2 +20 10 32; Com

V = 12.1;  Size 1.9'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (5/14/88): moderately bright, fairly small, broad concentration, slightly elongated ~E-W.  A mag 11 star is 1.7' SE of center.  Located 25' SW of 5 Comae Berenices (V = 5.6).

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4158 = H II-405 = h1115 on 27 Apr 1785 (sweep 403) and noted "F, S, lE.  Preceding a pB star."  His position is 2' south of UGC 7182.  JH noted "vF; has a * nf.", but the star is southeast.

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NGC 4159 = UGC 7174 = MCG +13-09-015 = CGCG 352-022 = PGC 38777

12 10 53.6 +76 07 34; Dra

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 35”

 

17.5" (5/2/92): faint, small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, low almost even surface brightness.  Two mag 13 stars are 1.4' ESE and 1.0' NE of center.  The galaxy is elongated in the direction of the star to the NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4159 = H III-941 = h1116 on 12 Dec 1797 (sweep 1068) and recorded "vF, pS.  It has two stars nf making a triangle with it."  CH's reduced position is 1.7' southeast of UGC 7174 and the description is accurate.  JH called it "eF; R; makes equilateral triangle with 2 stars."

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NGC 4160

12 11 36 +43 45; CVn

 

= Not found, RNGC.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 4160 = Big 51 on 27 May 1886 and described "a star 13.3m accompanied by a little nebulosty."  There is nothing at his position (roughly midway between NGC 4138 and NGC 4183) and no modern catalogues carries this NGC number.  Harold Corwin was not able to recover this object.  See his identification notes.

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NGC 4161 = UGC 7191 = MCG +10-18-002 = CGCG 292-078 = PGC 38834

12 11 33.3 +57 44 14; UMa

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 50”

 

17.5" (5/13/88): fairly faint, fairly small, bright core, elongated SW-NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4161 = H II-803 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 923) and noted "F, S." His re-reduced position with respect to Delta UMa on 18 Mar 1790 (sweep 951) matches UGC 7191.

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NGC 4162 = UGC 7193 = MCG +04-29-046 = CGCG 128-051 = PGC 38851

12 11 52.5 +24 07 25; Com

V = 12.2;  Size 2.3'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 174”

 

17.5" (5/11/02): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, ~2'x1.3'.  Weak concentration except for a faint but distinct stellar nucleus (this is probably a superimposed star).  Located nearly midway between a mag 10.5 star 2.6' SW and a mag 12 star 2.2' NE.  A mag 14.5 star is 1' WNW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4162 = H II-353 = h1117 on 10 Apr 1785 (sweep 394) and recorded "pB, cL, bM, irr."  His position matches UGC 7193.  JH noted "B; L; E; bM; 60"."

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NGC 4163 = NGC 4167 = UGC 7199 = MCG +06-27-026 = CGCG 187-020 = PGC 38881

12 12 09.1 +36 10 09; CVn

V = 14.0;  Size 1.8'x1.6';  Surf Br = 15.1

 

17.5": faint, moderately large, slightly elongated, very diffuse, weak concentration, low surface brightness.  Located between mag 8.7 SAO 62893 7.0' NE and a double star STF 1607 = 8.9/9.8 at 27" oriented N-S, which is 9' SW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4163 = H III-399 on 28 Apr 1785 (sweep 404) and noted "vF, pL, R, r."  His position is 10 sec of RA west of UGC 7199.  He observed this galaxy again the next sweep (1 May) and added "lE; er."  NGC 4167, found by JH, is a duplicate observation.  See that number.

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NGC 4164 = CGCG 069-076 = PGC 38877

12 12 05.4 +13 12 20; Vir

V = 14.7;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 111”

 

17.5" (1/23/88): extremely faint, very small, round, only visible with averted vision.  Faintest in a trio and located 3' SSW of NGC 4165 and 2.9' W of NGC 4168.

 

Willhelm Tempel discovered NGC 4164 = T I-37 (as well as paper V) and placed it 2.5' south of d'Arrest's "nova" [NGC 4165].   He commented "but it is strange that he has not seen the second companion", though I'm not surprised as this galaxy is quite faint.  Interesting, the LdR observation of NGC 4168 on 17 Feb 1855 reads "vB, R, bM, 2 stars preceding."  One of the "stars" preceding must be NGC 4164, but it was seen as stellar.

 

This galaxy is mentioned in the UGC notes for NGC 4168, but not identified as NGC 4164.

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NGC 4165 = IC 3035 = UGC 7201 = MCG +02-31-045 = CGCG 069-078 = WBL 386-002 = PGC 38885

12 12 11.8 +13 14 47; Vir

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 160”

 

17.5" (1/23/88): very faint, fairly small, round, slightly elongated, diffuse.  Located 2.6' NW of NGC 4168 in a trio with NGC 4164.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4165 on 8 Apr 1864 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position is 1.4' too far southwest, unusually poor for his micrometric positions.  He mentions that LdR (or assistant) missed this nebula when he observed NGC 4168 in 1855.

 

Arnold Schwassmann found this galaxy again on 16 Nov 1900 on a plate taken by Wolf with the 6" astrograph at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory in Heidelberg. He measured an accurate position and reported Sn. 222 (later IC 3035) as new.  So, NGC 4165 = IC 3035.  CGCG misidentifies an extremely faint companion at the northwest side as IC 3035.

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NGC 4166 = UGC 7198 = MCG +03-31-068 = CGCG 098-096 = PGC 38882

12 12 09.6 +17 45 26; Com

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 20”

 

17.5" (5/11/02): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter, moderate concentration to a very small brighter core.  Very symmetrical appearance.

 

Willhelm Tempel discovered NGC 4166 = T IX-10 on 15 Mar 1885 with the 11-inch refractor at Arcetri while searching for the periodic Comet 1867 II.   Tempel's position is just 1' S of UGC 7198.

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NGC 4167 = NGC 4163 = UGC 7199 = MCG +06-27-026 = CGCG 187-020 = PGC 38881

12 12 09.1 +36 10 09; CVn

 

See observing notes for NGC 4163

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4167 = h1118 on 11 Mar 1831 and recorded "F; pL; R; vgbM; a double star south-preceding dist 10'.  The MS observation makes the polar distance decidedly 33'; but should it be a mistake for 52', this nebula would be identical to [NGC 4163]."  There is nothing at his position, but 30' south is NGC 4163, as he suspected, and 8.5' southwest of this galaxy is a double star.  So, NGC 4167 = NGC 4163.  Reinmuth writes "no pL neb with ** sp 10' found; NGC 4167 = NGC 4163? and Dorothy Carlson repeated this equivalence in her 1940 monograph on NGC corrections.

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NGC 4168 = UGC 7203 = MCG +02-31-046 = CGCG 069-081 = PGC 38890

12 12 17.2 +13 12 18; Vir

V = 11.2;  Size 2.8'x2.3';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (1/23/88): brightest of a trio with NGC 4164 2.9' W and NGC 4165 2.6' NW.  Fairly bright, moderately large, bright core, slightly elongated, stellar nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4168 = H II-105 = h1119 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and noted "pS but pB, roundish, resolvable, containing some stars visible."  Caroline's reduction is 4.7' southeast of UGC 7203.  John Herschel called this galaxy "B; R; psbM; irreg fig; r" and measured an accurate position. Both Herschels missed nearby NGC 4165, which was discovered by d'Arrest.

 

In the IC 2 Notes section, Dreyer mentioned "not found by Frost on plates of 4 hr exposure", although this bright galaxy was included in Adelaide Ames 1930 "A Catalogue of 2778 Nebulae, including the Coma-Virgo Group", based on plates taken with the Bruce astrograph at Arequipa.

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NGC 4169 = HCG 61A = KTG 42A = UGC 7202 = MCG +05-29-032 = CGCG 158-041 = The Box = Rose 10 = PGC 38892

12 12 18.8 +29 10 46; Com

V = 12.2;  Size 1.8'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 153”

 

48" (4/20/17): extremely bright, moderately large, very elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 1.5'x0.6'.  Sharply concentrated with a relatively large bright core that increases to an intensely bright nucleus.

 

24" (5/22/17): at 282x; bright, moderately large, oval 2:1 NNW-SSE, ~1.2'x0.6', highly concentrated with an intense, elongated core that increases to a quasi-stellar nucleus.

 

18" (6/17/06): brightest member of HCG 61 = "The Box".  Appears moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 1.2'x0.7'.  Well concentrated with a 25" bright core that increases to the center.

 

13.1" (4/12/86): brightest in a small group of four galaxies = HCG 61.  Moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, very small bright core.  Forms the west vertex of a nearly perfect rectangle with NGC 4173 1.7' NNE, NGC 4174 2.5' SE and NGC 4175 2.9' ESE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4169 = H III-358 = h1120, along with NGC 4173, 4174 and 4175, on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and recorded "Four, the time and number belongs to the largest [NGC 4170], which is F and S.  The other three are less and fainter; forming a small quartile, the largest being the most north of the preceding side; all within 3 arc minutes."

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NGC 4170

12 12 18 +29 12; Com

 

= Not found, Thomson.  =*?, Corwin.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4170 and 4171 on 10 May 1864, while observing the NGC 4169 quartet = HCG 61.  Under his description for H. II-372 = NGC 4173, he noted "In addition, I think I see two other nearby nebulae; clearer skies would help."  There was no position or offset given for these possible two nebulae and most likely he glimpsed a couple nearby eF stars.  The galaxy identified as NGC 4170 in the RNGC is NGC 4173.  Other sources apply the designations NGC 4170 = NGC 4171 to NGC 4173.

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NGC 4171

12 12 18 +29 11; Com

 

= Not found and ­ NGC 4173, Thomson.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4170 and 4171 on 10 May 1864, while observing the NGC 4169 quartet = HCG 61.  He did not provide a position or offset, so it is impossible to assign these numbers to a nearby faint star with any confidence. See notes for NGC 4170.

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NGC 4172 = UGC 7205 = MCG +09-20-109 = CGCG 269-039 = CGCG 292-080 = PGC 38887

12 12 15.0 +56 10 38; UMa

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (5/13/88): fairly faint, fairly small, bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4172 = H II-792 = h1123 on 14 Apr 1789 (sweep 920) and noted "F, S, R, bM."  His RA is 45 sec too small.  JH recorded "pF; S; E; gbM; 15" l, 12" br." and measured an accurate position (in the NGC).

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NGC 4173 = HCG 61B = KTG 42B = Holm 346a = NGC 4171 = UGC 7204 = MCG +05-29-033 = CGCG 158-043 = FGC 1382 = The Box = Rose 10 = PGC 38897

12 12 21.4 +29 12 25; Com

V = 13.0;  Size 5.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 134”

 

48" (4/20/17): fairly faint to moderately bright, very large, edge-on 6:1 NW-SE, 2.5'x0.4', fairly low surface brightness with only a modest central brightening and no distinct core or nucleus.

 

24" (5/22/17): at 282x; fairly faint, very large, very elongated ~6:1 NW-SE with averted, 2.0'x0.35', low surface brightness.  Only a broad weak concentration with no distinct core/nucleus.

 

18" (6/17/06): faint, fairly large, very elongated 4:1 NW-SE, 1.5'x0.4'.  Overall, low surface brightness with a very weak central brightening.  Faintest of the HCG 61 quartet though NGC 4173 lies in the foreground with a recessional velocity ionly 1/3 of the other members..

 

13.1" (4/12/86): very faint, very elongated NW-SE, low even surface brightness.  Faintest in the NGC 4169 group = HCG 61 and located just 1.7' NNE of NGC 4169.  Forms the north vertex of a rectangle with NGC 4174, and NGC 4175.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4173 = H II-372 = h1121 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396).  See description under NGC 4169.  The RNGC misidentifies this galaxy as NGC 4170, which is nonexistent (possibly a star).

 

Although NGC 4173 appears perfectly lined up with NGC 4175, it is apparently in the foreground with a redshift only 1/3 of the other three galaxies.

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NGC 4174 = HCG 61D = UGC 7206 = MCG +05-29-034 = CGCG 158-044 = Mrk 761 = The Box = Rose 10 = PGC 38906

12 12 26.9 +29 08 57; Com

V = 13.3;  Size 0.9'x0.35';  Surf Br = 11.7;  PA = 50”

 

48" (4/20/17): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 0.9'x0.3'. Sharply concentrated with a very small, very bright core that increases to an intensely bright stellar nucleus!

 

24" (5/22/17): at 282x; moderately bright, fairly small, oval 2:1 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.3'.  Contains a very small and very bright core with a sharp stellar nucleus (brighter than the nucleus of NGC 4169).

 

18" (6/17/06): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 0.9'x0.3', sharply concentrated with a bright 15"-20" rounder core with the extentions much fainter.  Smallest member of the striking HCG 61 quartet.

 

13.1" (4/12/86): fairly faint, prominent very small bright core.  Slightly elongated halo is faint and small.  This galaxy is the smallest in NGC 4169 group = HCG 61. Forms a small rectangle with NGC 4175 1.5' NE, NGC 4175 2.5' NW and NGC 4173  3.6' NNW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4174 = H III-359 = h1122 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396).  See notes under NGC 4169.

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NGC 4175 = HCG 61C = KTG 42C = Holm 346b = UGC 7211 = MCG +05-29-036 = CGCG 158-045 = The Box = Rose 10 = PGC 38912

12 12 31.0 +29 10 06; Com

V = 13.2;  Size 1.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 130”

 

48" (4/20/17): fairly bright, fairly large, edge-on 5:1 NW-SE, ~1.5'x0.3', contains a large, brighter bulging core.  The extensions taper at the ends giving a spindle appearance.  This galaxy is parallel to NGC 4173 and perpendicular to NGC 4174 to the southwest.

 

24" (5/22/17): at 282x; moderately bright, fairly large, thin edge-on 5:1 NW-SE.  1.25'x0.25'. Contains a brighter elongated core but not strongly concentrated and no nucleus.  NGC 4174, 1.5' SW, is orientated exactly perpendiculat to NGC 4175.

 

18" (6/17/06): fairly faint, moderately large, edge-on 5:1 NW-SE, 1.3'x0.25', broad weak concentration to a slightly brighter bulging core.  Fades at the tips.  Second of two edge-ons in HCG 61 = "The Box" with NGC 4173 3' NW.

 

13.1" (4/12/86): faint, edge-on NW-SE, bright core, similar in size to NGC 4173 but fainter.  Last of four in the NGC 4169 group = HCG 61 with NGC 4169 2.9' WNW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4175 = H III-360 = h1124 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396).  See notes under NGC 4169.

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NGC 4176 = PGC 38928

12 12 36.8 -09 09 37; Vir

V = 14.8;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 70”

 

18" (5/12/07): extremely faint, very small, round, 0.3' diameter, low even surface brightness.  A small group of stars follows in the field.  Located 12' SW of mag 8.7 HD 106225.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 4176 = LM 2-454 in 1886 and recorded "mag 16.0, 0.3' dia, R, slbMN, *10 follows 15 sec."  His position matches PGC 38928.  A mag 12 star is 12 sec following and is likely the one in his description.

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NGC 4177 = MCG -02-31-021 = PGC 38937

12 12 41.2 -14 00 52; Crv

V = 12.5;  Size 1.6'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 69”

 

18" (5/8/04): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 WSW-ENE, 1.0'x0.7', broad concentration.  With averted vision a very faint larger halo increases the size to perhaps 1.4'x1.0'.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4177 = H III-534 = h3383 on 27 Mar 1786 (sweep 548) and logged "vF, pL, of unequal light."  His position is 12 sec of time too far west.  JH recorded "vF; pL; R; vgbM; 60"." and measured a fairly accurate position.

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NGC 4178 = IC 3042 = UGC 7215 = MCG +02-31-050 = CGCG 069-088 = PGC 38943

12 12 46.4 +10 51 57; Vir

V = 11.4;  Size 5.1'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 30”

 

17.5" (5/14/88): fairly bright, large, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE.  Gradually increases to a small bright core and faint stellar nucleus.

 

17.5" (5/10/86): very large but diffuse, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, very little central concentration but a brighter knot appears along the SW edge.  Located 7.0' WNW of mag 7.6 SAO 99995.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4178 = h1125 on 11 Apr 1825 (sweep 3) and recorded, "vF; E nf to sp; 40"."  This object was only his third discovery (after NGC 7010 and NGC 7653), found while developing his sweeping technique.  On 2 May 1829 (sweep 191) he noted, "vF; vL; E; a * 7m follows 7' +/- distance."  His position matches UGC 7215 and the bright star follows by 7'

 

Arnold Schwassmann found this galaxy again on 6 Sep 1900 on a plate taken with the 6" astrograph at Heidelberg.  Neither he nor Dreyer noticed the equivalence in position with NGC 4178 and it was recatalogued as IC 3042.

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NGC 4179 = UGC 7214 = MCG +00-31-038 = CGCG 013-104 = Todd 15 = PGC 38950

12 12 52.1 +01 17 57; Vir

V = 11.0;  Size 4.0'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 143”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): bright, fairly small, very distinctive edge-on system oriented NW-SE, very bright core, sharp light cut-off along the SW flank.  A string of mag 11 stars trail off to the NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4179 = H I-9 = h1126 on 24 Jan 1784 (sweep 118) and recorded "F, vS, E."  JH logged "pB; S; mE; a ray with a nucleus pos 45” np to sf."  The NGC position (from JH) matches UGC 7215.

 

David Todd found this galaxy on 5 Jan 1878 during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet and recorded it as object 15 in his list of suspected objects.

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NGC 4180 = UGC 7219 = MCG +01-31-025 = CGCG 041-048 = PGC 38964

12 13 03.0 +07 02 20; Vir

V = 12.6;  Size 1.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 22”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): moderately bright, fairly small, pretty edge-on SSW-NNE, small bright nuclear bulge, stellar nucleus.  NGC 4191 lies 15' NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4180 = H II-133 = h1127 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and noted "not vF, S, E, r."  His position matches UGC 7219.  NGC 4182 may be a duplicate observation (see Harold Corwin's identification notes).

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NGC 4181 = MCG +09-20-111 = CGCG 269-041 = PGC 38938

12 12 48.9 +52 54 11; UMa

V = 14.0;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 10”

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  A mag 11 star lies 1.5' S.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4181 = H III-777 on 14 Apr 1789 (sweep 920) and noted "eF, S, stellar neb."  His re-reduced position is 1' south of MCG +09-20-111 = CGCG 269-041, so this identification is certain.  The RNGC data is confusing.  Based on the comment "companion 1' N" (but not the position), the RNGC misidentifies NGC 4187 as NGC 4181.

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NGC 4182

12 13 24 +04 03; Vir

 

= NGC 4180?, Corwin. Not found, Sulentic.  =* or *'s, Gottlieb.

 

Christian Peters discovered NGC 4182 around 1881 with the 13.5-inch refractor at the Hamilton College Observatory.  At his exact position is a mag 12 star.  Harold Corwin comments "NGC 4182 may be NGC 4180, or it may simply be a star at Peters's position".

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NGC 4183 = UGC 7222 = MCG +07-25-051 = CGCG 215-053 = FGC 1386 = LGG 269-009 = PGC 38988

12 13 17.0 +43 41 53; CVn

V = 12.3;  Size 5.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 166”

 

17.5": fairly faint, moderately large, edge-on about 7:1 NNW-SSE, 3.5'x0.5', broad concentration without a nucleus.  A mag 13.5 star is superimposed at the SE edge of the core 0.8' from the center.  Member of the NGC 4111 group = LGG 269 in the UMa Cloud.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4183 = H III-697 = h1128 on 14 Jan 1788 (sweep 798) and noted "cF, mE from np to sf, 3 or 4' long, 3/4' broad."  In his 1814 PT paper, he mentions "several small stars are contained in faint nebulosity about 3 or 4' long and 3/4' broad."  His sketch shows several stars, although only one star is evident on the DSS.

 

R.J. Mitchell, observing with LdR's 72" on 6 Apr 1856, noted "F, bM, a bright star in sf edge and a patch in np end which is the brighter.  Neb is fully 4' long."

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NGC 4184 = ESO 130-10 = Ru 102 = OCl 877 = vdB-Ha 128 = Lund 607

12 13 32 -62 43 18; Cru

Size 4'

 

14" (4/4/16 - Coonabarabran, 178x and 318x): about two dozen faint stars resolved in a 4' circle.  Flanked by a mag 10 star ~4' SW and a mag 10 star ~4' NE.  The richest part is a 30" clump on the east side with a half-dozen stars resolved at 318x.  Located 16' NNE of mag 6.0 HD 106068.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4184 = h3384 on 8 Mar 1837 and noted "Cluster class VI; vf, almost nebulous".  There is no obvious clustering at his position on the DSS1.

 

Brian Skiff comments "Looks like an absorption hole, and no more ridiculous than the typical Ruprecht cluster.  I make it just 0'.8 diameter at: 12 13 37  -62 43.2."  Ruprecht gives a diameter of 5' to include a larger scattered group.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.

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NGC 4185 = UGC 7225 = MCG +05-29-038 = CGCG 158-047 = LGG 276-006 = PGC 38995

12 13 22.1 +28 30 40; Com

V = 12.1;  Size 2.6'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 165”

 

18" (4/5/03): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 4:3 ~N-S, 1.5'x1.1', broad concentration.  Forms the southern vertex of a triangle with mag 7.7 SAO 82189 8.5' NW and a mag 11.5 star 10' NE.  NGC 4196 lies 16' ESE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4185 = H II-373 = h1129 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "F, L, bM."  CH's reduction is 18 sec of time preceding UGC 7225.  d'Arrest noted this object forms the western vertex of an equilateral triangle with two mag 12 stars and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4186 = NGC 4192B = UGC 7240 = MCG +03-31-081 = CGCG 098-111 = Holm 348b = PGC 39057

12 14 06.5 +14 43 33; Com

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 60”

 

17.5" (5/10/86): faint, small, slightly elongated.  Located 11.0' SSE of M98.

 

13.1" (4/29/84): faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 11' SSE of M98.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 4186 = T I-38 in 1887.  His position in this paper is 10 seconds of RA preceding and 10' south of M98.  But in list V (AN 2439) he states it is located 20 seconds of time east and 9.5' south of M98.  Dreyer used the latter position, but confused the direction of RA offset and placed NGC 4186 20 sec of RA preceding of M98, instead of following.  His offset in list V establishes NGC 4186 = UGC 7240, but the RA in the NGC is 40 seconds of RA too small.  The correct position was measured by Kobold in 1901 (Strasbourg Annales, Vol 3, 1907).

 

Because of erroneous NGC position, UGC and MCG misidentify UGC 7223 (which lies 22 sec of RA west of M98 and 7.4' south) as NGC 4186.  Also, CGCG misidentifies CGCG 098-119 as NGC 4186.  The correct identification was first given by Dorothy Carlson in 1940 paper and also given in RNGC and RC3.

 

It's possible NGC 4186 was first observed at Birr Castle on 10 Feb 1861.  Samuel Hunter noticed a "F, R neb with a * or Nucl in centre", which he described as 1/2 field of finder [13'] north of M98.  If he confused the direction, then the comment probably applies to NGC 4186.

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NGC 4187 = UGC 7229 = MCG +09-20-117 = CGCG 269-042 = Holm 347a = PGC 39004

12 13 29.2 +50 44 29; CVn

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 145”

 

17.5": faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, small bright core.  A mag 13 star is 1.0' WNW of center.  A mag 15.5 is superimposed on the south edge.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4187 = H II-813 on 26 Apr 1789 (sweep 929) and logged "pB, S, lE." His position is just 1' south of UGC 7229.

 

RNGC misidentifies a faint companion just north of NGC 4187 as NGC 4181.  There are several faint companions with a couple of arcminutes of NGC 4187.

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NGC 4188 = MCG -02-31-023 = PGC 39059

12 14 07.4 -12 35 10; Crv

V = 13.7;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

18" (5/8/04): faint, very small, round, 0.4' diameter.  A mag 14 star lies 30" N of center, barely off the north edge of the galaxy.  The star masks the galaxy a bit and it was not noticed initially.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 4188 = LM 1-193 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is just 0.5 tmin W of MCG -02-31-023 = PGC 39059.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 4189 = IC 3050 = UGC 7235 = MCG +02-31-054 = CGCG 069-092 = LGG 285-003 = PGC 39025

12 13 47.5 +13 25 33; Com

V = 11.7;  Size 2.7'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 85”

 

17.5" (1/23/88): fairly bright, fairly large, slightly elongated WSW-ENE, broad concentration.  Located northeast of the NGC 4164, NGC 4165, NGC 4168 group in Virgo.  NGC 4193 lies 15' S.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4189 = H II-106 = h1131 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and noted "vF, pL, r."  JH recorded "pB; L; lE; vgvlbM; 2' diam" and measured an accurate position.  Harold Corwin notes that WH's NGC 4209 (listed as lost) might be a duplicate observation, though both objects were found on the same sweep.

 

Schwassmann found NGC 4189 again on 16 Nov 1900 on a Heidelberg plate of the Virgo/Coma cluster.  His position for Sn. 227 (later IC 3050) matches NGC 4189, so its surprising Dreyer didn't catch the equivalence, but IC 3050 = NGC 4189.

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NGC 4190 = UGC 7232 = MCG +06-27-030 = CGCG 187-024 = VV 104 = PGC 39023

12 13 44.5 +36 38 05; CVn

V = 13.3;  Size 1.8'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.2

 

17.5": fairly faint, moderately large, broad weak concentration, pretty diffuse, slightly elongated N-S.  Located 7' S of mag 8.5 SAO 62902.  Member of the M94 Group (CVn I Cloud).

 

13.1" (4/12/86): fairly faint, moderately large, round, diffuse.  A mag 8 star lies 6' N.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4190 = H II-409 on 1 May 1785 (sweep 405) and logged "vF, S, r." His summary description (including a later sweep) reads "pB, pL, vgbM, r."

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NGC 4191 = UGC 7233 = MCG +01-31-026 = CGCG 041-049 = PGC 39034

12 13 50.4 +07 12 03; Vir

V = 12.8;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 5”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, fairly small, oval SSW-NNE, bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 12 star is 1.9' NW.  Forms a pair with NGC 4180 15' SW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4191 = h1130 on 19 Apr 1830 (sweep 251).  On the next night he logged "F; R; near a small star." and measured positions on four consecutive sweeps.

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NGC 4192 = M98 = UGC 7231 = MCG +03-31-079 = CGCG 098-108 = Holm 348a = PGC 39028

12 13 48.2 +14 54 01; Com

V = 10.1;  Size 9.9'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 155”

 

17.5" (5/10/86): bright, very large, very elongated 4:1 NNW-SSE, 6'x1.5', small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A faint knot was highly suspected near the south tip.  NGC 4186 lies 11' SSE.  Located 32' W of 6 Comae Berenices (V = 5.1).

 

13" (4/29/84): bright, large, very elongated, small bright nucleus, impressive.

 

Pierre MŽchain discovered M98 = NGC 4192 = h1132 on 15 Mar 1781.  Messier made a confirmation a month later.  William Herschel observed M98 on 30 Dec 1783 (sweep 73) and recorded "A large, extended, fine nebula.  It seems to be M98, but from the description in Connoissance des Temps it appears that Mechain has not seen the whole of it, for its feeble branches extend about 1/4”, of which no notice is taken.  Near the middle of it a few stars are visible and more suspected; my field will not quite take it in."  John Herschel recorded M98 on 4 sweeps, first describing it on 3 Apr 1826 as "B; vmE; a ray pos 70” sf to np; mbM almost to nucleus; 10' long."

 

Based on a photograph with the Crossley reflector, Heber Curtis (1918) described M98 as "An open, elongated spiral 8'x2' in p.a. 150”.  Bright stellar nucleus; numerous almost stellar condensations. Absorption effects on east side"

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NGC 4193 = IC 3051 = UGC 7234 = MCG +02-31-053 = CGCG 069-091 = LGG 285-009 = PGC 39040

12 13 53.6 +13 10 22; Vir

V = 12.3;  Size 2.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 93”

 

17.5" (1/23/88): moderately bright, fairly large, oval E-W, brighter core.  NGC 4189 lies 15' N over the border in Coma Berenices.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4193 = H II-163 = h1134 on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and noted "pS".  JH made the single observation "vF; pL; E; vgbM" and measured an accurate position.

 

Schwassmann found this galaxy again on 16 Nov 1900 on plate taken of the Virgo/Coma cluster with a 6" astrograph at Heidelberg.  His position for IC 3051 matches NGC 4193, so its surprising Dreyer didn't catch the equivalence, but there are several similar cases with Schwassmann's list of nebulae.

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NGC 4194 = Arp 160 = VV 261 = UGC 7241 = MCG +09-20-119 = CGCG 269-043 = Mrk 201 = I Zw 33 = PGC 39068 = Medusa Galaxy

12 14 09.6 +54 31 35; UMa

V = 12.5;  Size 2.3'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 170”

 

48" (4/20/17): at 697x; bright, fairly large, elongated ~2:1 NNW-SSE.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright elongated core enclosing an intensely bright nucleus.  The main halo is roughly oval with a weak, elongated brightening oriented SW-NW at the south end.  This low contrast feature is possibly the remnant of a past merger.  A very low surface brightness tidal plume was seen as an ill-defined haze spreading out to the north from the NNW side of the main halo and increasing the N-S dimension to over 1.5'.

 

17.5" (5/13/88): moderately bright, small, elongated NW-SE, very small bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4194 = H II-867 = h1135 on 2 Apr 1791 (sweep 1001) amd noted "pB, vS, stellar."  JH called it "F; vsmbM to a * 12m; 20"."  His position is at the northwest edge of the galaxy.

 

The nickname Medusa Galaxy was coined by V-V in his Atlas of Interacting Galaxies, Part II: "Of this 'Medusa', the structure of the "head" is as yet unresolved. In this case, three galaxies apparently are coalescent. "Behind", the dwarfs begin to separate."  William Keel repeats the nickname "Medusa" in his April 1993 article "The real astrophysical zoo - Colliding galaxies" in Mercury (ASP). Professional journal papers refer to it as "Medusa" since 2000.

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NGC 4195 = UGC 7244 = MCG +10-18-010 = CGCG 292-083 = CGCG 293-004 = PGC 39082

12 14 18.1 +59 36 55; UMa

V = 14.4;  Size 1.7'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.9

 

17.5" (5/13/88): extremely faint, fairly small, very diffuse, round, averted only.  Collinear with two mag 14 stars to the NW.  NGC 4199 lies 18' NNE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4195 = H III-796 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 923) and simply noted "eF".  His position is 2.7' northwest of UGC 7244 (only galaxy nearby).

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NGC 4196 = UGC 7245 = MCG +05-29-040 = CGCG 158-050 = LGG 276-007 = PGC 39098

12 14 29.7 +28 25 24; Com

V = 12.9;  Size 1.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 60”

 

18" (4/5/03): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, 0.5'x0.35', fairly well concentrated.  Higher surface brightness than larger NGC 4185 16' WNW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4196 = H II-374 = h1136 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "F, S."  His position is 20 sec of time too far west and 3' too far north but JH made 4 observations and d'Arrest provided a micrometric position, so the NGC is accurate.

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NGC 4197 = UGC 7247 = VV 520 = MCG +01-31-029 = CGCG 041-052 = FGC 1390 = LGG 278-002 = PGC 39114

12 14 38.6 +05 48 21; Vir

V = 12.8;  Size 3.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 36”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, moderately large, edge-on 5:1 SW-NE, low even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is south of the SW end 1.5' from the center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4197 = H II-134 = h1137 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and noted "F, mE."  JH recorded "pB; E; vgbM; 20"; like II. 133 [NGC 4180]." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4198 = IC 778 = UGC 7246 = MCG +09-20-123 = CGCG 269-045 = PGC 39090

12 14 22.0 +56 00 42; UMa

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 130”

 

17.5" (5/13/88): fairly faint, small, elongated NW-SE.  Situated between two mag 12 and 13 stars.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4198 = H II-793 = h1139 on 14 Apr 1789 (sweep 920) and noted "pF, pS, bM."  JH logged "pF; S; lE; gbM; like II. 792 [NGC 4172]." and measured an accurate position.

 

Swift probably found this galaxy again nearly a 100 years later, but his RA for Sw. VII-19 (later IC 778) is 5 minutes too large.  Once corrected Swift's position matches NGC 4198, which also is a good match with his description.

 

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NGC 4199 = VV 183a/b = UGC 7253 = MCG +10-18-011 = CGCG 292-084 = CGCG 293-005 = PGC 39135

12 14 48.6 +59 54 22; UMa

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (5/13/88): very faint, very small.  A mag 15 star is involved at the north end just 16" from center and a mag 16 "star" is involved at the east end 24" from the center.  NGC 4195 lies 18' SSW.  A later check on the POSS revealed the mag 16 star I recorded is an extremely faint and small galaxy (VV 183b)!  NGC 4199 is the brightest galaxy in AGC 1507.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4199 = H III-797 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 923) and noted "eF, S."  His position is 17 tsec west and 4' north of UGC 7253 = PGC 39135.  He observed this object again on 19 Mar 1790 (sweep 953) and his position (with respect to NGC 4036) was ~25 tsec too large.

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NGC 4200 = UGC 7251 = MCG +02-31-057 = CGCG 069-096 = PGC 39124

12 14 44.2 +12 10 51; Vir

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 98”

 

17.5" (1/23/88): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 E-W, brighter core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4200 = H II-164 = h1138 on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and noted "pS, vmE."  On 6 Apr 1831, JH logged "pB; R; pslbM; 40"."

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NGC 4201 = MCG -02-31-024 = PGC 39120

12 14 41.9 -11 34 58; Vir

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 80”

 

18" (5/8/04): faint, small, slightly elongated ~E-W, 0.5'x0.4', weak concentration to a very small brighter core.  An extremely faint halo was suspected.  A mag 13.5 star lies 0.8' S of center.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 4201 = LM 2-455 in 1886.  His position is 0.5 min of RA east of MCG -02-31-024.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 4202 = UGC 7337 = MCG +00-31-046 = CGCG 013-121 = Todd 18 = PGC 39495

12 18 08.6 -01 03 52; Vir

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 127”

 

17.5" (3/20/93): very faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ENE, low even surface brightness.  A mag 13.5 star is 2.0' NNE of center.

 

David Todd discovered NGC 4202 = Todd 18 on 6 Feb 1878 during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet (AN 2698).  Dreyer only included eight of the 30 objects which Todd sketched as many were considered doubtful or near nebulae already catalogued.  Todd's sketch of #18, which includes several nearby field stars, clearly identifies NGC 4202 = UGC 7337 at 12 18 08.6 -01 03 52 (2000).  This means that Todd's rough position was 3 tmin too far west although a number of his entries have large errors in RA.

 

The RNGC misidentifies CGCG 013-109 as NGC 4202, located at 12 14.9 -02 27 (2000).  Early versions of U2000.0 atlas have it misplotted at this position.  I described this galaxy as nonexistent in RNGC Corrections #5 but corrected the identification in #6.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 4203 = UGC 7256 = MCG +06-27-040 = CGCG 187-029 = PGC 39158

12 15 05.0 +33 11 50; Com

V = 10.9;  Size 3.4'x3.2';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 10”

 

17.5": bright, moderately large, round, sharp concentration with a prominent very bright core (LINER nucleus) a much fainter halo, possible stellar nucleus.  Located 3.7' SSE of mag 7.8 SAO 62912

 

8": fairly bright, small, small bright nucleus.  A mag 5 star (SAO 62928) is 20' SE at the edge of the field.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4203 = H I-175 = h1140 on 20 Mar 1787 (sweep 722) and recorded "vB, S, R, mbM."  His position is on the southwest side of the galaxy.  On 6 Apr 1855, R.J. Mitchell, observing with LdR's 72", logged "very like a distant Cl, vB Nucl with neby gradually fading off.  Star involved preceding Nucl and other stellar points suspected in the outlying faint neby."

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NGC 4204 = UGC 7261 = MCG +04-29-051 = CGCG 128-060 = PGC 39179

12 15 14.3 +20 39 31; Com

V = 12.4;  Size 3.6'x2.9';  Surf Br = 14.8;  PA = 130”

 

17.5" (5/14/88): fairly faint, fairly large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE.  Brighter along the major axis but no distinct core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4204 = H III-397 = h1141 on 27 Apr 1785 (sweep 403) and recorded "vF; vL, irr, about 5 or 6' from np to sf and 4 or 5' broad, unequally bright but brightest towards the middle."  JH noted "eF; L; vglbM; 45"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4205 = UGC 7258 = MCG +11-15-038 = CGCG 315-027 = PGC 39143

12 14 55.3 +63 46 55; Dra

V = 12.9;  Size 1.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 28”

 

17.5" (4/15/93): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, 1.4'x0.5', brighter along major axis.  A mag 13 star is just 20" west of the NNE tip.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4205 = Au 29 on 4 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position, measured on 3 nights, matches UGC 7258 and he mentions the nearby mag 13 star at the north edge.  Auwers included this object in his 1862 list of new nebulae.

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NGC 4206 = IC 3064 = UGC 7260 = MCG +02-31-066 = CGCG 069-107 = Holm 353b = PGC 39183

12 15 16.7 +13 01 26; Vir

V = 12.2;  Size 6.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 0”

 

17.5" (1/23/88): fairly faint, edge-on 6:1 exactly N-S, 4'x0.7', fairly large, weak concentration.  A mag 12 star lies 2.9' SE of center.  NGC 4216 lies 10' NE and NGC 4222 is 23' NE.  First of three edge-ons in a low power field!

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4206 = H II-165 on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and noted "F, vmE."  His position is poor -- 30 tsec west and 9' N of UGC 7260.  NGC 4216, the next nebula in the sweep, also has a poor position.  Wilhelm Tempel found NGC 4206 again in 1877 (as well as NGC 4222) while observing NGC 4216 and measured accurate positions (list I-39), though he was unsure if they applied to H II-165 and II-109.

 

Arnold Schwassmann found the galaxy again on two Heidelberg plates taken with a 6" astrograph (measured on 16 Nov 1900) of the Virgo/Coma cluster and reported Sn. 230 (later IC 3064) as new.  His position matches NGC 4206, so this galaxy also carries the designation IC 3064.

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NGC 4207 = UGC 7268 = MCG +02-31-069 = CGCG 069-107 = PGC 39206

12 15 30.4 +09 35 07; Vir

V = 12.5;  Size 1.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 124”

 

17.5" (5/14/88): fairly faint, fairly small, oval WNW-ESE, bright core.  A mag 13.5 star at the WNW end 1.2' from center.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4207 on 23 Mar 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position, measured on 3 nights. matches UGC 7268 and he accurately placed the nearby mag 13.5 star as preceding by 5 seconds of time.

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NGC 4208 = NGC 4212 = UGC 7275 = MCG +02-31-070 = CGCG 069-110 = PGC 39224

12 15 39.3 +13 54 05; Com

 

See observing notes for NGC 4212.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4208 = H II-107 = h1142 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and simply noted as "pL".  Caroline's reduced position is 5' north of NGC 4212 = UGC 7275.  Dreyer, in his 1912 revision of WH's catalogues, commented for H. II-107 and II-108, "there is only one nebula here (NGC 4212)...We may assume that H, after observing the star [6 Comae], again moved the telescope 1” south and took the nebula a second time without noticing it was the same object."

 

Strangely, John Herschel also recorded this galaxy twice (h1142 and h1144) on two nights and thought they were different objects because of his different positions and descriptions!  So, H. II-107 = H. II-108 = h1142 = h1144 = NGC 4208 = NGC 4212.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 4209

12 15 30 +28 31; Com

 

= Not found, Carlson.  = NGC 4185?, Corwin.  = *, Steinicke

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4209 = H II-375 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "F, pS."  Dreyer notes in his 1912 revision of WH's catalogues that this object was not found by JH, d'Arrest or Bigourdan.  With respect to NGC 4196, the previous object in the sweep, WH placed II-375 1 min 18 sec foll and 2' N, but there is no object at that position.   This sweep was WH's most productive -- with 74 discoveries -- and this is the only object that cannot be identified with a galaxy.

 

In an email correspondence (Jul 15 1998) Harold Corwin commented: I've been unable to find NGC 4209. I thought it might be a reobservation of NGC 4185, but both were found by WH on the same night. It is still not a completely impossible identity (e.g. N4208 = N4212, another nebula seen twice within a single sweep), but the chances are against it. I don't see any object aside from N4185 (just over 2 arcmin west) at any reasonable systematic offset (e.g. +- 1 deg, +-10 min, etc) from WH's position.

 

Wolfgang assigns the number to a star 2 arcmin south-southwest of WH's position. That is certainly possible, but I'd be happier with it if WH had left us a description more complete than "F, pS".

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NGC 4210 = UGC 7264 = MCG +11-15-039 = CGCG 315-028 = PGC 39184

12 15 15.9 +65 59 07; Dra

V = 12.5;  Size 2.0'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 105”

 

17.5" (4/15/93): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 4:3 NNW-SSE, 1.8'x1.4'.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.0' off the WNW edge.  Located 11' SE of mag 6.7 SAO 62870.  NGC 4221 lies 16' NNE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4210 = H III-850 = h1143 on 20 Mar 1790 (sweep 954) and noted "vF, pS."  JH recorded (single observation) "Not vF; pL; R; vgbM; 30"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4211 = Arp 106 NED1 = VV 199a = UGC 7277 = MCG +05-29-042 = CGCG 158-053n = PGC 39221 = PGC 39297

12 15 35.8 +28 10 39; Com

V = 14.1;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 105”

 

24" (5/30/16): NGC 4211 is an interacting system (Arp 106) oriented NW-SE (separation 35"), with the brighter component (VV 196a) on the northwest side.  At 225x it appeared fairly faint to moderately bright, round, 24" diameter, increases rapidly to a very small brighter core and stellar nucleus.  The fainter southeast component (NGC 4211A = VV 196b) is faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, 15"x10", slightly concentration at the center.  The tidal tail to the south was not seen.  Situated 9' NW of mag 8.2 HD 106678.

 

UGC 7287 lies 8' SE.  It appeared faint, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, 24"x18", low even surface brightness.

 

18" (4/5/03): faint, very small, round, 25" diameter.  This is a double, interacting system (Arp 106) with a small, faint companion 0.55' SE.  At 300x, the companion (VV 196b) appeared extremely faint and small (0.2' diameter) and just resolved from NGC 4211. A mag 12.4 star lies 2.8' NE.  Third of three with NGC 4196 and NGC 4185 20' NW and  35' NW, respectively.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 4211 = St XI-18 on 30 Apr 1881.  His position matches UGC 7277 = Arp 106.

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NGC 4212 = NGC 4208 = UGC 7275 = MCG +02-31-070 = CGCG 069-110 = PGC 39224

12 15 39.3 +13 54 05; Com

V = 11.2;  Size 3.2'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 75”

 

17.5" (4/25/98): fairly bright, fairly large, 2.2'x1.4' oriented WSW-ENE.  Moderate concentration to a large bright core which appears mottled.  The nucleus is not well defined although the core is broadly concentrated and at times a stellar center was glimpsed.  A mag 11.5 star is 2.3' S. IC 3061 lies 11' NW.  Poor transparency due to smoke.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4212 = H II-108 = h1144 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and noted  "mE, resolvable."  His position (CH's reduction) is 6.5' too far northeast.  He apparently also recorded it as the previous object "pL" in the sweep.  JH also recorded this galaxy twice (h1142 = h1144) on different nights.  See notes for NGC 4208.

 

The LdR observation on 8 Mar 1856 (by R.J. Mitchell) reads "Irregular shaped neb with ncl excentric and some sort of knot or appendage following.  Possibly another knot in preceding end.  The former one is likely connected with the neb forming a sprial arm."  The same month he logged "Much better seen.  There are 4 knots or stars in the neb besides the bright patch south-following."

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NGC 4213 = UGC 7276 = MCG +04-29-054 = CGCG 128-065 = PGC 39223

12 15 37.6 +23 58 55; Com

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (4/17/88): faint, fairly small, round, gradually brighter halo, small bright core.  Located 9.9' WNW of 7 Comae Berenices (V = 4.9) which detracts from viewing.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4213 = H II-354 = h1145 on 10 Apr 1785 (sweep 394) and noted "F, vS."  His position matches UGC 7276.

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NGC 4214 = NGC 4228 = UGC 7278 = MCG +06-27-042 = CGCG 187-032 = PGC 39225

12 15 38.9 +36 19 50; CVn

V = 09.8;  Size 8.5'x6.6';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

13.1" (4/12/86): bright, large, slightly elongated NW-SE, bright core.  There is a strong impression of curvature at the ends of the major axis.  A mag 11 star lies 4.3' SE of center.  Member of the M94 Group (CVn I Cloud).

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4214 = H I-95 = h1146 on 28 Apr 1785 (sweep 404) and recorded "cB, cL.  A blunt parallelogram, faintest towards the edges; from np to sf about 4'; the other way about 3'.  Position not above 15 or 20” from the meridian."  His position is on the northwest side of this Irregular-type galaxy.  The next sweep (1 May) he noted "Can hardly be called a parallelogram for want of corners; but rather irregularly elongated."

 

John Herschel reported this galaxy as new (h1157) on 27 Apr 1827 and logged,"vF, L, R, gbM, 90"."  His RA, though, was 1 minute too large and he didn't make the connection with his father's H. I 95, so Dreyer later catalogued this entry as NGC 4228.  So NGC 4214 = NGC 4228.

 

JH reobserved the galaxy 4 years later on 11 Mar 1831 and logged "B, L, gbM, 50", has a double nucleus very indistinct.  The diagram makes it a double neb, the two running together. See fig 71."  The second "nucleus" is a bright HII complex southeast of the core.  At Birr Castle it was also noted in 1856, "Irreg shaped neb with Nucleus excentric and some sort of knot or appendage following.  Possibly another faint knot in preceding end."  Two weeks later, "Much better seen.  There are 4 knots of stars in the neb besides the bright patch south-following."  Hermann Kobold measured an accurate position for this knot in 1893 at Strasbourg. 

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NGC 4215 = UGC 7281 = MCG +01-31-031 = CGCG 041-055 = PGC 39251

12 15 54.5 +06 24 04; Vir

V = 12.1;  Size 1.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 174”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly bright, moderately large, pretty system very elongated NNW-SSE, small bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4215 = H II-135 = h1147 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and noted "S, E, pBM."  JH made three observations, recording on sweep 250 "vB; mE; vsbM to a * 11m."

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NGC 4216 = UGC 7284 = MCG +02-31-072 = CGCG 069-112 = Holm 353a = PGC 39246

12 15 54.2 +13 08 59; Vir

V = 10.0;  Size 8.1'x1.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 19”

 

18" (6/17/06): very bright, very large, extremely thin edge-on 8:1 SSW-NNE, 7'x0.9'.  Sharply concentrated with a striking high surface brightness core with dimensions ~0.9'x0.3', which dominates the extensions.  A mag 14 star is just following the core.  A dust lane appears to run along the eastern edge of the galaxy, mostly evident by a sharp light cut off along this edge.  Brightest of three edge-ons in the field with NGC 4206 and NGC 4222!

 

17.5" (1/23/88): very bright, very large, edge-on 5:1 SSW-NNE, small very bright core.  A mag 14 star is close east of the core.  This is a striking galaxy and is the second of three edge-on galaxies in the same field with NGC 4206 11' SW and NGC 4222 12' NE in Coma Berenices!

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4216 = H I-35 = h1148 on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and recorded "vmE, vbM and the brightness also elongated.  The whole not less than 9 or 10' long."  John Herschel made 5 observations, the earliest 10 and 11 Apr 1825 (sweeps 2 and 3).  On sweep 3 he logged, "A very remarkable long ray, extended 70” nf to sp, 1/2 field in length [7 1/2'], smbM.  It has a star nf of center."

 

Samuel Hunter, LdR's assistant on 23 Apr 1860, recorded "a fine E neb, vBM like a globular cluster (I think too it is resolvable?), small star following nucl, where I also think there is very dilute nebulosity, parallel to neb [beyond the dust lane].  The neb is either twisted at n end in p direction or it has a faint companion there?  Dark space around centre?  perhaps only the contrast of the bright centre.  15' long."  The possible nebula Hunter mentions to the north is likely CGCG 069-113.

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NGC 4217 = UGC 7282 = MCG +08-22-087 = CGCG 243-053 = Holm 354a = LGG 258-026 = PGC 39241

12 15 50.9 +47 05 30; CVn

V = 11.2;  Size 5.2'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 50”

 

48" (4/23/17): bright, very large, striking edge-on ~4.5'x1.0' SW-NE, large bright core that bulges near the center but no distinct nucleus.  The galaxy is bisected by a beautiful, relatively wide dust lane that slices through the entire length of the galaxy, only losing contrast at the very tips!  The brightest portion, including the core, is on the north side (northwest facing) of the dust lane.  The cut off section of the galaxy on the south side (southeast facing) of the the dust lane is fairly thin and low surface brightness, though slightly brighter at the center/core.  A mag 14.8 star is at the southwest tip of the galaxy. A mag 11.6 star is at the edge of the halo on the north side [50" from center] and a 9th magnitude star is 2.3' NNE of center.  The galaxy is situated 6' E of mag 7.2 HD 106556, though this star was kept outside the field.  NGC 4226 lies 7' SE. Member of the M109 (NGC 3992) group = LGG 258.

 

13.1" (4/12/86): moderately bright, pretty edge-on 4:1 SW-NE.  A mag 9 star is off the NE edge 2.2' from the center and a mag 11.5 star is just north of the core 0.8' from center.  Located 6.2' E of mag 7.3 SAO 44092.  Forms a pair with NGC 4226 7' SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4217 = H II-748 = h1149 on 10 Apr 1788 (sweep 830) and recorded "pB, pL, sp and in a line with two stars."  JH made 5 observations and logged (sweep 255) "pB, vmE in pos = 225” by measure; 5' long, 1' br; 2 stars near and a large star preceding."  on 15 Mar 1849, LdR or observing assistant George Stoney described it as a "Ray with split [dark lane] in the direction of the major axis".

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NGC 4218 = UGC 7283 = MCG +08-22-088 = CGCG 243-054 = PGC 39237

12 15 46.3 +48 07 53; CVn

V = 12.5;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 142”

 

13.1" (4/12/86): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE.  Located 2.6' NW of mag 8.3 SAO 44096.  NGC 4220 lies 16' SSE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4218 = H III-718 on 9 Mar 1788 (sweep 816) and noted "vF, vS."  d'Arrest measured an accurate position as well as noting the mag 9-10 star that follows by 15 sec and 55" south.

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NGC 4219 = ESO 267-037 = MCG -07-25-005 = PGC 39315

12 16 27.3 -43 19 26; Cen

V = 11.9;  Size 4.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 36”

 

24" (4/12/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 220x appeared bright, large, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, broad concentration but no distinct core, ~2.5'x1'.  Direct vision revealed a very faint stellar nucleus.  The arms (extensions) dim towards the ends and seem irregular in surface brightness (DSS shows an irregular, knotty appearance).  NGC 4219A lies 21' SE.

 

At 220x, NGC 4219A appeared moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:3 SSW-NNE, 0.6'x0.35', weak concentration, irregular surface brightness.  Situated in a group of stars.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4219 = h3385 on 3 Jun 1834 and recorded "pF; pL; pmE; vgbM; 2' l, 45" br.  His position (measured on 4 nights) and description matches ESO 267-037.

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NGC 4220 = UGC 7290 = MCG +08-22-089 = CGCG 243-055 = LGG 258-027 = PGC 39285

12 16 11.7 +47 53 00; CVn

V = 11.4;  Size 3.9'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 141”

 

13.1" (4/12/86): moderately bright, edge-on 7:2 NW-SE, brighter core, stellar nucleus.  Located 12' S of mag 8.3 SAO 44096.  NGC 4218 lies 15' NNW.  Member of the M109 (NGC 3992) group = LGG 258.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4220 = H I-209 = h1151 on 9 Mar 1788 (sweep 816) and noted "cB, cL."  John Herschel made the single observation "pB; pmE in pos 314.4”; psbM. (Foggy)"  His position is accurate.

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NGC 4221 = UGC 7288 = MCG +11-15-040 = CGCG 315-029 = PGC 39266

12 15 59.9 +66 13 51; Dra

V = 12.3;  Size 2.2'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 25”

 

17.5" (4/15/93): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, prominent core, stellar nucleus at moments, very faint larger halo slightly elongated SSW-NNE extends with averted to 1.5'-2.0'.  NGC 4210 lies 16' SSW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4221 = h1150 on 3 Apr 1832 and recorded "pB; S; R; psbM; 15"." His single position is accurate.

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NGC 4222 = UGC 7291 = MCG +02-31-075 = CGCG 069-119 = FGC 1396 = Holm 353c = PGC 39308

12 16 23.0 +13 18 29; Com

V = 13.3;  Size 3.3'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 56”

 

17.5" (1/23/88): faint, moderately large, very thin edge-on SW-NE.  A mag 15 star is at the east end.  Located 5' W of mag 8.7 SAO 100016.  This is the third of three edge-ons with NGC 4206 23' SW and NGC 4216 12' SW in Virgo.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4222 = H II-109 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and simply noted "resolvable".  Dreyer commented in his 1912 "Scientific Papers of WH" that the observation was probably rushed as the polar distance is 20' too far south, though my reduction is 10' south. Wilhelm Tempel corrected the position in his first list (T I-40) and in paper V providing an offset from NGC 4216.

 

CGCG, UGC, MCG and PGC incorrectly equate IC 3087 (from Schwassmann) with NGC 4222.  IC 3087 refers to two stars to the southeast of the galaxy.

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NGC 4223 = IC 3102 = UGC 7319 = MCG +01-31-038 = CGCG 041-0653 = LGG 278-004 = PGC 39412

12 17 25.8 +06 41 24; Vir

V = 11.9;  Size 2.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 128”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated WNW-ESE, bright core, larger faint extensions with averted.  Located 5' N of mag 7.9 SAO 119308.

 

The galaxy described above is misidentified as NGC 4241 in modern catalogues. It forms a pair with IC 3115 (the "real" NGC 4241) 8' ESE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4223 = H II-137 = h1152 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and simply noted "r[esolvable]."  Although he was probably rushed (the nearby entries in the sweep were rapidly found), his position is just 2' north of UGC 7319. He reobserved the field on 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 498) and his RA was 20 seconds of time too large, but he also discovered H. III-480 = UGC 7333, which was missed on the earlier sweep. 

 

John Herschel made two observations of H II-137 and one of H III-480.  On 4 Apr 1830 (sweep 250) he recorded "vF; vgbM; a *7m to south".  The description and position clearly points to II-137 = NGC 4223, but he calls it III-480.  JH made a second observation on 24 Apr 1830 (sweep 254), recording both II-137 and III-480, and here's where the problem occurs.  He catalogued the preceding object as h1152 = II-137, but the position is about 1 tmin too far west.  He noted, though, that the position was only estimated from III-480.  Unfortunately, his position for the eastern galaxy (III-480) happens to be a close match (1.4' south) with II-137.  The result is that JH's entry in the Slough catalogue for NGC 4241 = h1165 = III-480 contains two observations -- one for II-137 and one for III-480, with a position matching II-137.  Furthermore, his entry for h1152 = NGC 4223 = II-137 points to a blank part of the sky, 1 tmin of RA west of II-137.  In the NGC notes, Dreyer mentions NGC 4223 was not found by d'Arrest, obviously because of the poor position.

 

The two galaxies were later picked up by Arnold Schwassmann in 1899 on a Heidelberg plate, placed accurately, and catalogued as IC 3102 (brighter west-northwest galaxy) and IC 3115 (fainter east-southeast galaxy).   Modern catalogues generally identify the brighter galaxy as NGC 4241 = H II-137 and the fainter galaxy as IC 3115 = H III-480, leaving NGC 4223 = h1152 without an identification.  Dreyer recommended "h1152 (rough place only) is to be struck out" in his notes to "Scientific Papers of William Herschel".

 

But, Harold Corwin argues that since WH and JH observed both galaxies, the correct assignment should be NGC 4223 = H II-137 = h1152 = h1165 (sweep 250) = IC 3102 and NGC 4241 = H III-480 = h1165 (sweep 254) = IC 3115.  This changes, though, the long-standing identification of NGC 4241 as the brighter western galaxy.  See Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 4224 = UGC 7292 = MCG +01-31-034 = CGCG 041-060 = PGC 39328

12 16 33.8 +07 27 42; Vir

V = 11.8;  Size 2.6'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 57”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated SW-NE, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 4233 13' SW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4224 = H II-136 = h1153 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and logged "F, S, iF, r."  His position matches UGC 7292.  JH made two observation and noted on sweep 251 "pB; pL; lE; gbM."

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NGC 4225 = MCG -02-31-027 = PGC 39337

12 16 38.4 -12 19 40; Crv

V = 14.0;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 60”

 

18" (5/28/06): faint, very small, round, 15"-20" diameter.  Located 1.6' N of a mag 10 star.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4225 = h1154 on 9 Mar 1828 and recorded "F; eS; R; 5"; has a * 8m 80” sf, dist 60"."  His position is 1' too far north and the bright star is 1.6' distant.

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NGC 4226 = UGC 7297 = MCG +08-22-090 = CGCG 243-057 = Holm 354b = PGC 39312

12 16 26.3 +47 01 31; CVn

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 127”

 

13.1": faint, small, elongated NW-SE.  Forms a pair with NGC 4217 7' WNW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4226 = h1155 on 19 Mar 1828 and recorded "F; S; lE; the second of 2 in field [with NGC 4217]."

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NGC 4227 = UGC 7296 = MCG +06-27-043 = CGCG 187-033 = Holm 355a = PGC 39329

12 16 33.7 +33 31 19; CVn

V = 12.7;  Size 1.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 70”

 

17.5": fairly faint, small, strong bright core.  A mag 15 star is 0.9' NE of center.  Forms the brighter of a pair with NGC 4229 2.6' NNE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4227 = H II-518 = h1156, along with NGC 4229, on 2 Jan 1786 (sweep 508) and recorded "Two, both eF, vS.  The preceding [NGC 4227] is the largest, about 3 or 4' distance from each other."  His position is accurate. JH made two observations, recording on sweep 131, "pF; R; psbM; the sp of 2."

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NGC 4228 = NGC 4214 = UGC 7278 = MCG +06-27-042 = CGCG 187-032 = PGC 39225

12 15 38.9 +36 19 50; CVn

 

See observing notes for NGC 4214

 

John Herschel found NGC 4228 = h1157 on 27 Apr 1827 and recorded "vF; L; R; gbM; 90"."  There is nothing at his position and d'Arrest could not find this object.  Karl Reinmuth questioned if NGC 4228 = NGC 4214 and this is probably the case as JH's position is exactly 1.0 min of RA east and the description applies.  The primary designation should be NGC 4214.

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NGC 4229 = UGC 7299 = MCG +06-27-044 = CGCG 187-034 = Holm 355b = PGC 39341

12 16 38.8 +33 33 39; CVn

V = 13.2;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 3”

 

17.5": fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S, bright core, fairly faint stellar nucleus.  Fainter of a pair with NGC 4227 2.6' SSW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4229 = H II-519 = h1158, along with NGC 4227, on 2 Jan 1786 (sweep 508) and recorded "Two, both eF, vS.  The preceding [NGC 4227] is the largest, about 3 or 4' distance from each other."  JH made two observations, recording on sweep 131, "F; R; psbM; 65” nf the neb [NGC 4227]."

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NGC 4230

12 17 09 -55 17 12; Cen

Size 6'

 

14" (4/4/16 - Coonabarabran, 73x and 178x): roughly 40 stars are resolved in a 7'x5' region (the outline is pretty arbitrary), roughly elongated SW-NE.  Appears as an unimpressive asterism with no rich subgroups.  A mag 11.5/13 pair at 13" separation is southwest of center with several mag 13-14.5 stars to its northeast.  A mag 12 star 2' SW and a mag 11 star 4' SW of the central pair are all collinear.  Located 18' SW of mag 5 Delta Crucis.

 

Note the group of stars described here is 12' S of ESO 171-SC14, the cluster identified as NGC 4230 in most sources including SIMBAD and ESO.  ESO 171-SC14 is a cluster of roughly two dozen mag 13-14 stars in a 3' region just southeast of mag 8.4 HD 106826.  A couple of mag 11 stars are 2' E and 3.5' NE of the mag 8.4 star, but these are detached.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4230 = h3386 on 5 Apr 1837 and described a "Cluster class VI.  F; pL; irreg; 6'; resolved into stars 13, 14, 15m.  Place of a * 12m, chief and near the middle of cluster."  At his position is an unimpressive 5' group of star that is likely an asterism, with the brightest star 12th magnitude.  This is the "cluster" identified by Harold Corwin as NGC 4230.  Corwin notes that ESO (and SIMBAD) misidentify  ESO 171-SC14 as NGC 4230.  This group of stars is scattered southeast of a mag 8 star -- too bright not to have been mentioned by JH.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for more on this number.

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NGC 4231 = UGC 7304 = MCG +08-22-094 = CGCG 243-060 = Holm 356a = PGC 39354

12 16 48.9 +47 27 27; CVn

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

13.1" (4/12/86): faint, small, round.  Forms a very similar close pair with NGC 4232 1.1' S!  NGC 4248 lies 10' E.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4231 = H III-719, along with NGC 4232, on 9 Mar 1788 (sweep 816) and recorded both as "Two both vF, vS, from north to south about 1' distance."  CH's reduction is 20 sec of time following this pair.

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NGC 4232 = UGC 7303 = MCG +08-22-093 = CGCG 243-059 = Holm 356b = PGC 39353

12 16 49.0 +47 26 20; CVn

V = 13.6;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 155”

 

13.1" (4/12/86): faint, small, almost round.  This galaxy is a close twin in brightness and size to NGC 4231 located just 1.2' N.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4232 = H III-720, along with NGC 4231, on 9 Mar 1788 (sweep 816) and recorded both as "Two both vF, vS, from north to south about 1' distance."

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NGC 4233 = UGC 7311 = MCG +01-31-037 = CGCG 041-063 = PGC 39384

12 17 07.6 +07 37 26; Vir

V = 11.9;  Size 2.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 174”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): moderately bright, small, slightly elongated, bright core, high surface brightness.  Forms a pair with NGC 4224 13' SW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4233 = H II-496 = h1161 on 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 498) and simply noted "F".  Despite the sparce description, his position falls on the north side of the galaxy.  JH made the single observation "pB; R; vsbM to a small nucleus; 20"."

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NGC 4234 = UGC 7309 = MCG +01-31-035 = CGCG 041-061 = Holm 358a = PGC 39388

12 17 09.0 +03 40 58; Vir

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, fairly small, round, even surface brightness.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4234 = h1160 on 7 Apr 1828 and recorded "pB; L; R; gbM; 60"."  His single position matches UGC 7309.

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NGC 4235 = IC 3098 = UGC 7310 = MCG +01-31-036 = CGCG 041-062 = Holm 359a = PGC 39389

12 17 09.8 +07 11 28; Vir

V = 11.6;  Size 4.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 48”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly bright, fairly large, almost edge-on SW-NE, broadly concentrated halo.  Cradled along the north side by three mag 12-13 stars 2.2' NW, 1.8' N and 3.0' ENE of center.  NGC 4246 lies 12' E.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4235 = H II-17 = h1159 on 23 Jan 1784 (sweep 104) and recorded a "longish nebula, not cometic."  JH called it (sweep 253) "vB; pmE; vsbM; among small stars."  Schwassmann found it again on a plate taken with the 6" astrograph at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory on 30 Oct 1899 and listed it as new (Sn. 5), missing the earlier NGC identity, so it also carries the designation IC 3098.

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NGC 4236 = UGC 7306 = MCG +12-12-004 = CGCG 335-008 = Holm 357a = LGG 176-005 = PGC 39346

12 16 43.5 +69 27 34; Dra

V = 9.6;  Size 21.9'x7.2';  Surf Br = 15.0;  PA = 162”

 

18" (4/26/08): this huge, low surface brightness galaxy extends roughly 12'x3', oriented NNW-SSE.  There is only a very weak central brightening with no obvious core.  A very faint star appears to be superimposed near the geometric center and just to the south is a slightly elongated brightening (possibly the core).

 

Another brighter region is near the north end of the galaxy.  This patch seems elongated at 45” to the major axis, appearing to extend out to the west of the main glow on the north end.  Images reveal this is a gigantic HII complex and is catalogued in the Hodge-Kennicutt Atlas of HII regions (1983AJ, 88, 296) as NGC 4236:[HK83] 15, 16 and 17.

 

The south end is also splotchy and at the very south tip were two very faint "stars" oriented SW-NE that seemed slightly fuzzy (probably small HII knots).  The first is also known as VII Zw 446, considered by Zwicky as a "blue patchy compact [galaxy]."

 

17.5" (3/29/89): faint, extremely large, edge-on 5:1 NNW-SSE.  Appears as a ghostly streak about 20' length with only a broad, weak concentration!  Best at low power due to size and low surface brightness.

 

13.1" (5/27/84): faint, very large, very elongated NNW-SSE, weak concentration.  In a field with five mag 8-9 stars.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4236 = H V-51 = h1163 on 6 Apr 1793 (sweep 1036) and recorded "vF, mE, lbM, about 25' long, and losing itself imperceptibly, about 6 or 7' broad, from about 70” np to sf."  His position, measured again on the next sweep, is accurate.  John Herschel reported, "immensely large; vF; mE; vgbM; it fills more than a field, but is hardly distinguishable.  Hazy."  He incorrectly labeled his h1163 as H. V-17 in the Slough Catalogue.

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NGC 4237 = UGC 7315 = MCG +03-31-091 = CGCG 098-130 = PGC 39393

12 17 11.4 +15 19 26; Com

V = 11.6;  Size 2.1'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 108”

 

17.5" (4/25/98): moderately bright and large, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 1.5'x1.0'.  Moderate concentration to a 30" irregular core which appears mottled.  Located 15' NE of mag 6.3 SAO 100023.  Poor transparency due to smoke.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4237 = H II-11 = h1162 on 30 Dec 1783 (sweep 73) and recorded "another nebula about full 1/2” nf 6 Coma Ber.  pL, very feeble, almost round, but not cometic.  It is not a Messier, for being too feeble it could not be seen by an achromatic of 3 1/2 ft, which I suppose is the maximum of his light."  No offsets in time and PD were measured, but the offset from 6 Com matches this galaxy.  JH logged "B; L; lE; vgbM" and measured a fairly accurate position.

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NGC 4238 = UGC 7308 = MCG +11-15-041 = CGCG 315-031 = PGC 39366

12 16 55.8 +63 24 37; Dra

V = 13.6;  Size 1.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 36”

 

17.5" (4/15/93): very faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, 1.5'x0.5', low even surface brightness, no central concentration.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4238 = H III-851 = h1164 on 20 Mar 1790 (sweep 954) and logged "eF, S, iF."  His position is 3.6' too far north.  JH recorded "vF; not vS; R; vglbM; 15"-20"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4239 = UGC 7316 = MCG +03-31-092 = CGCG 098-129 = PGC 39398

12 17 14.9 +16 31 53; Com

V = 12.8;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 120”

 

17.5" (5/23/98): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 0.9'x0.6', weak concentration.  Easy to locate as situated between two mag 10.5 stars 2.9' WSW and 2.1' NE.

 

Carl Frederick PechŸle discovered NGC 4239 in 1884 with an 11-inch refractor at the Copenhagen Observatory. His position is 1.6' south of UGC 7316.

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NGC 4240 = NGC 4243 = MCG -02-31-029 = PGC 39411

12 17 24.4 -09 57 06; Vir

V = 12.4;  Size 1.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

18" (5/28/06): fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter.  Contains a very small bright core ~10" diameter which increases to a bright substellar nucleus. Located just east of a mag 13 star (24" from the center).

 

18" (3/13/04): faint, small, round, 30" diameter, strongly concentrated with a very small bright core and stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star is barely off the west edge.  Observation made through thin clouds.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 4240 on 20 May 1875.  His micrometric position and description (mag 12 star 1/2' southwest) matches MCG -02-31-029 = PGC 39411.

 

Andrew Ainslie Common found the galaxy again in 1880, assumed it was new and recorded it as #25 in his Copernicus discovery list.  He noted "Like a pair of stars 90”; the f one is a nebulous star."  His RA is 11 sec too large (estimated positions using setting circles) and his description is a perfect match.  Dreyer, who edited the journal Copernicus, added a footnote that Common's #25 was identical to Tempel's nebula.

 

Finally, Lewis Swift probably found this galaxy again on 27 Apr 1886 and described it in list III-62 as "pB; eS; pB * nr p; Looks a first like a double star.  Curious object."  There is nothing at his position but 1.4 degrees due north is the same galaxy found by Tempel and Common, and his description fits (very similar to Common's!).  Dreyer assumed Swift's object was new and catalogued it as NGC 4243.  So, NGC 4240 = NGC 4243.

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NGC 4241 = IC 3115 = UGC 7333 = VV 431 = MCG +01-31-040 = CGCG 041-069 = PGC 39483

12 17 59.8 +06 39 16; Vir

V = 13.1;  Size 1.7'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

17.5" (3/24/90): extremely faint, oval, very low surface brightness.  Forms a pair with NGC 4223 8' WNW.  This galaxy is identified as IC 3115 in modern catalogues and the brighter, western galaxy is usually catalogued as NGC 4241.  My identification (NGC 4241 = IC 3115 = UGC 7333) follows the historical record.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4241 = H III-480 = h1165 on 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 498) and recorded "vF, L. Would not have been seen if it had not been for the preceding [H II-137 = UGC 7319].  His position is just 1' from UGC 7333 = PGC 39483.  JH made a single observation on 24 Apr 1830 (sweep 254) and simply recorded "vF."  Unfortunately, JH's position is poor, and lands very close to UGC 7319, causing much confusion in modern catalogues.

 

Arnold Schwassmann found both galaxies on a Heidelberg plate of the Virgo region in 1899 and measured accurate positions.  Schwassmann assumed they were new and Dreyer recatalogued the pair as IC 3102 and IC 3115.  So, NGC 4241 = IC 3115 = UGC 7333 and NGC 4223 = IC 3102 = UGC 7319.  Modern catalogues, though, identify UGC 7319 as NGC 4241 and UGC 7333 as IC 3115.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes on NGC 4223 for the full story.

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NGC 4242 = UGC 7323 = MCG +08-22-098 = CGCG 243-061 = PGC 39423

12 17 30.1 +45 37 08; CVn

V = 10.8;  Size 5.0'x3.8';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 25”

 

13.1" (4/12/86): very large but very diffuse, 4' diameter, broad weak concentration, large core appears offset to the west, almost round.  A mag 11.5 star lies 3.2' E of center and a faint mag 14 star is at the south edge 2.0' from center.    Member of the CVn II Group (brightest member M106).

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4242 = H III-725 = h1166 on 10 Apr 1788 (sweep 830) and recorded "eF, cL, bM, iR."  JH made two observations and logged (sweep 256), "F; vL; R: vgbM; diam in RA = 15s of time."

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NGC 4243 = NGC 4240 = MCG -02-31-029 = PGC 39411

12 17 24.4 -09 57 06; Vir

 

See observing notes for NGC 4240.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 4243 = Sw. III-62 on 27 Apr 1886 and described "pB; eS; pB * near preceding; Looks at first like a double star.  Curious object."  There is nothing near his position, although the description implies a relatively bright galaxy.

 

Harold Corwin identifies NGC 4240, located 1” 21" due north of Swift's position, as the most likely object.  Swift's "pB* close p" applies to a mag 13 star 25" southwest of center.  NGC 4240 was discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1875.

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NGC 4244 = UGC 7322 = MCG +06-27-045 = CGCG 187-035 = FGC 1402 = PGC 39422 = Silver Needle Galaxy

12 17 29.4 +37 48 24; CVn

V = 10.4;  Size 16.6'x1.9';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 48”

 

18" (6/4/05): beautiful, extremely large ray extends at least 3/4 across the 20' field, ~15'x1' SW-NE.  The galaxy is broadly concentrated without a well-defined core or nucleus and bulges only very slightly at the center.  The surface brightness is fairly low and only varies gradually over the entire length, though it has a grainy texture.  A mag 13.5 star is near the NE end.  Member of the M94 Group (CVn I Cloud).

 

13.1" (4/12/86): fairly bright, extremely large edge-on about 10:1 SW-NE.  Extends to 15' diameter (fades at the ends of the extensions).  Appears as a narrow ray with only a weakly concentrated core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4244 = H V-41 = h1167 on 17 Mar 1787 (sweep 714) and recorded "cB or vB, vgbM, 18 or 20' l, about 2' broad, from about 60 degrees sp to nf."  Member of the CVn I cloud (distance ~15 million light years)

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NGC 4245 = UGC 7328 = MCG +05-29-049 = CGCG 158-059 = PGC 39437

12 17 36.8 +29 36 29; Com

V = 11.4;  Size 2.9'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 145”

 

17.5" (4/25/98): fairly bright, elongated ~4:3 NW-SE, 1.5'x1.1', strong concentration with a prominent roundish core.  The core steadily increases to a stellar nucleus with direct vision.  A string of mag 11 stars from the SW leads to the galaxy.  Located 29' W of NGC 274 and 40' N of double star O· 245 = 5.7/9.8 at 9".  Observed in poor transparency.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4245 = H I-74 = h1168 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 387) and noted "cB, R, mbM."  JH made 3 observations and first logged "vB; R; sbM; 60"."

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NGC 4246 = IC 3113 = UGC 7334 = MCG +01-31-041 = CGCG 041-070 = Holm 359b = PGC 39479

12 17 58.1 +07 11 08; Vir

V = 12.7;  Size 2.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 83”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): faint, moderately large, elongated ~E-W, very low surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is off the east edge 2.0' NE of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 4247 5.4' N.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4246 = H III-91 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded "Two, the first [NGC 4235] mE.  The second [NGC 4246] eF."  His position is 4' south of UGC 7334.

 

Arnold Schwassmann found the galaxy again on 30 Oct 1899 using the 6-inch astrographic refractor at Heidelberg and measured an accurate position.  Schwassmann and Dreyer assumed it was new and it was catalogued again as IC 3113.

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NGC 4247 = MCG +01-31-042 = CGCG 041-071 = Holm 359c = PGC 39480

12 17 58.0 +07 16 26; Vir

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (3/24/90): faint, very small, round, weak concentration, low surface brightness.  Forms a pair with NGC 4246 5.4' S.

 

George Searle discovered NGC 4247 = HN 35 on 25 Feb 1868 using the 15-inch Merz Refractor at the Harvard Observatory (Annals of Harvard Observatory, Vol 13, #265).  His offset from GC 2821 = NGC 4235 is just 4 sec of time preceding and 1' north of MCG +01-31-042.

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NGC 4248 = UGC 7335 = MCG +08-22-099 = CGCG 243-064 = CGCG 244-001 = Holm 363b = LGG 290-020 = PGC 39461

12 17 50.4 +47 24 31; CVn

V = 12.5;  Size 3.0'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 108”

 

13.1" (3/17/86): faint, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, moderately large, 1.5'x0.5'.  A mag 14.5 is at the NW edge.  Located 10' W of NGC 4231 and NGC 4232 and 13' NW of M106. Member of the CVn II Group (brightest member M106).

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4248 = H II-742 = h1169 on 9 Mar 1788 (sweep 816) and recorded "F, S, E."  CH's reduction is 17 sec of RA following UGC 7335.  JH made two observations and called it "vF; pmE; psbM."

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NGC 4249 = MCG +01-31-039 = CGCG 041-068 = PGC 39481

12 17 59.4 +05 35 55; Vir

V = 13.8;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.2

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly faint, small, round, 24" diameter, weak concentration to the center.  NGC 4252 lies 8.2' ESE and CGCG 041-072 ("very faint, round, 12" diameter, low surface brightness") is 5.5' NNE. 

 

17.5" (3/24/90): very faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S, low surface brightness.  Forms a pair with NGC 4252 7' ESE.  Located at the west edge of the large NGC 4261 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4249 = m 234 on 26 May 1864, along with NGCs 4252, 4266, 4282 and 4287.  His position is an exact match with CGCG 041-068 = PGC 39481.

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NGC 4250 = UGC 7329 = MCG +12-12-005 = CGCG 335-009 = VII Zw 447 = PGC 39414

12 17 26.2 +70 48 09; Dra

V = 11.8;  Size 2.7'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 168”

 

17.5" (5/2/92): moderately bright, small, round, broad concentration with overall high surface brightness.  The halo appears to extend further on the north side of the core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4250 = H I-264 = h1170 on 7 Apr 1793 (sweep 1037) and noted "cB, S, bM."  His position is 1.0 tmin west of UGC 7329.  John Herschel logged "pF S; R pgbM; 15"."

 

Philip Keenan apparently found NGC 4250 on a Yerkes Observatory plate and assigned it the designation NGC 4250A.  It was included in a list of new nebulae in the 1935 paper "Studies of Extra-Galactic Nebulae, Part I: Determination of Magnitudes" (ApJ, 82, 62).  All objects were assigned NGC + letter designations based on the nearest NGC object on the plate.  He assigned a magnitude of 13.5.

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NGC 4251 = UGC 7338 = MCG +05-29-050 = CGCG 158-060 = PGC 39492

12 18 08.4 +28 10 31; Com

V = 10.7;  Size 3.6'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 100”

 

17.5" (5/23/98): bright, moderately large, elongated ~5:2 WNW-ESE, 2.2'x0.8'.  Well concentrated with a roundish prominent core within fainter extensions which dim towards the tips.  At 280x the core contains a substellar nucleus.  A mag 13-13.5 star is 2.9' ESE of center and 9 Com (V = 6.3) follows by 18'.  IC 777 lies 18' NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4251 = H I-89 = h1171 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "vB, S, lE."  His position is just off the north side of the galaxy. JH made 3 observations and noted on sweep 417 "vB; vsvsbM; has a *6.7 1.5 min (of time) following."

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NGC 4252 = UGC 7343 = MCG +01-31-045 = CGCG 041-076 = PGC 39537

12 18 30.9 +05 33 34; Vir

V = 14.1;  Size 1.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 48”

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 42"x14". even surface brightness.  NGC 4249 lies 8' WNW, NGC 4257 is 13' NE and NGC 4266 is 18' E.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): extremely faint, small, edge-on SW-NE, low surface brightness.  Forms a pair with NGC 4249 7' WNW.  Located at the west side of the large NGC 4261 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4252 on 26 May 1864, along with NGCs 4249, 4266, 4282 and 4287.  He noted "F, E." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4253 = UGC 7344 = MCG +05-29-051 = CGCG 158-061 = Mrk 766 = PGC 39525

12 18 26.5 +29 48 46; Com

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (4/25/98): fairly faint, very small, irregularly round, 20" diameter.  Fairly high surface brightness, quasi-stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star lies 1' N.  Located 22' NW of NGC 474.  Observation in hazy conditions.  Contains a Sy 1 nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4253 = H III-702 = h1172 on 3 Feb 1788 (sweep 805) and noted "vF, vS."  CH's reduction is 5 sec of time preceding and 2.5' north of UGC 7344.  JH called this galaxy "vF; R; 20".", but did not measure a very accurate position either.

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NGC 4254 = M99 = UGC 7345 = MCG +03-31-099 = CGCG 098-144 = CGCG 099-011 = LGG 285-011 = PGC 39578 = Coma Pinwheel Galaxy

12 18 49.6 +14 24 59; Com

V = 9.9;  Size 5.4'x4.7';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

48" (4/1/11): stunning view of this beautiful, asymmetric two-armed spiral at 375x. The galaxy is sharply concentrated with a brilliant 1' core that increases to a sharp stellar nucleus. The brighter more open arm is attached on the east side of the very bright core.  It unwinds beautifully and expands counterclockwise for ~225” where it ends to the NW of center.  As the arm passes south of the core there is a bright, well defined knot (sketched and later measured 0.9' S of the nucleus) with two additional diffuse knots in this arm 1.2' SW of center and 1.9' W of center.  The arm continues to sweep north on the west side, where it is well separated from the main body.

 

A second long sweeping fainter arm is attached on the west side of the core and unfolds counterclockwise towards the NE.  It contains a diffuse knot ~1.2' NNW of center and terminates near an ill-defined knot 2' NE of center.  The halo of the galaxy is more extensive on this side and contains a prominent knot 1.8' E of center.  This knot is at the end of another more ill-defined arm on the north side of the core heading east that contains additional mottled clumps.

 

24" (5/24/20): at 225x and 375x; relatively large bright circular core, ~1' diameter, increased to a very bright, small mottled nucleus.  The irregular outer halo extended ~4' diameter. The brighter and larger arm was easily visible; it emerged from the east side of the core and curved counterclockwise to the south of the core and then extended to the WSW before dimming out.  A very subtle brightening or knot was seen within the arm [50" S of center]. A second arm of much lower contrast began on the west side of the core and headed in the NNE direction for ~1.5' before fading into the halo.  A very faint knot (NGC 4254:[HK83] 1), was visible in the outer halo on the east side [1.8' ENE of center] and was easily seen with averted.  A mag 13.5 star is just outside the halo, 2' ESE of center.

 

18" (4/10/04): a fairly prominent arm is attached at the southeast end of the large, bright core and winds along the south side towards the southwest.  This arm is clearly detached from the core with a dark gap between the arm and the core.  The northern arm is ill-defined and appears more like a couple of short "brush-strokes" close north of the core.

 

17.5" (5/10/86): very bright, large, bright core, stellar nucleus.  There is an obvious spiral arm attached at the SE side of the core and winding along the south side towards the west.  There is a dark gap between the spiral arm and the core along the south and west side.  A second shorter, diffuse arm is visible on the north side.

 

13.1" (4/29/84): bright nuclear region.  A spiral arm is easily visible attached at the SE side of core and winding almost 180” to the west.  Located 10' SW of mag 6.5 HD 10710.

 

Pierre MŽchain discovered M99 = NGC 4254 = h1173 on 15 Mar 1781. William Herschel observed M99 on 14 Jan 1787 (sweep 691) and recorded, "vB. vL. vgmbM, and the brightness taking up a great space. John Herschel logged on sweep 419, "B; R; gbM; r; 5' diam."

 

William Parsons, the third Earl of Rosse, discovered spiral structure in April of 1846 using the 72" Leviathan of Parsonstown.  The observation was made a full year after the spiral nature of M51 was discovered as LdR's attention was diverted to the Irish potato famine.  M99 was the second confirmed spiral, though a month earlier NGC 2903 was noted as having a "tendency" to an "annular or spiral arrangement".  On 11 Mar 1848, observing assistant William Rambaut described M99 as a "Spiral with a bright star above; a thin portion of the nebula reaches across this star and some distance past it.  Principal spiral at the bottom, and turning towards the right.Ó Lord RosseÕs outstanding sketch showed at least 4 arms. It was published in the Philosphical Transactions of 1850 (plate XXXV, figure 2), alongside his sketch of M51. A good copy of the sketch is at http://www.wsanford.com/~wsanford/exo/rosse/index.html.

 

William Lassell sketched M99 on 31 Mar 1862 from Malta with his 48-inch and included three principal arms and one or two offshoots .  He noted "Viewed with power 285.  The spiral form is very evident, more so, I think than in any other nebula I have seen."

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NGC 4255 = UGC 7348 = MCG +01-31-047 = CGCG 042-004 = PGC 39592

12 18 56.1 +04 47 11; Vir

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 115”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated WNW-ESE, small bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

Auguste Voigt discovered NGC 4255 in 1865 with the 31-inch silver-on-glass Marseille reflector.  C.H.F. Peters independently found it with the 13.5-inch refractor at Hamilton College Observatory (discovery date unknown) and listed it as a "nova" in his 1881 Copenicus article.  Peters' position matches UGC 7348.  As Voigt's discoveries weren't published, Peters is credited in the NGC.

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NGC 4256 = UGC 7351 = MCG +11-15-045 = CGCG 315-032 = PGC 39568

12 18 42.9 +65 53 54; Dra

V = 11.9;  Size 4.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 42”

 

17.5" (3/20/93): bright striking galaxy, large, very thin edge-on 4.0'x0.5' SW-NE, elongated bright core, almost stellar nucleus, thin tapering extensions.  NGC 4210 lies 21' WNW and NGC 4332 25' ESE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4256 = H II-846 = h1174 on 20 Mar 1790 (sweep 954) and logged "pB, mE, BN, 5' long and 1/2' broad from sp to nf."  JH recorded "pB; vmE in pos 218.2”; 90" l." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4257 = MCG +01-31-049 = CGCG 042-006 = PGC 39624

12 19 06.5 +05 43 33; Vir

V = 14.0;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 75”

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated nearly 3:1 WSW-ENE, 32"x12", pretty smooth surface brightness.  Two mag 14/15 stars 1.2' S and 1.8' S are collinear with the galaxy.  Located 7' SW of NGC 4261 and 10' SW of NGC 4264 in a field with numerous NGCs.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): very faint, small, edge-on WSW-ENE, low even surface brightness.  Located in a large group with NGC 4261 7' NNE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4257 on 21 Apr 1862 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen Observator while observing nearby NGC 4261.  His description mentions a mag 18 star 2' south, though the star is closer to mag 14-14.5.  The discovery was listed in his sample preliminary results published in 1862 (AN 57, 337).

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NGC 4258 = M106 = UGC 7353 = VV 448 = MCG +08-22-104 = CGCG 243-067 = CGCG 244-003 = Holm 363a = LGG 290-004 = PGC 39600

12 18 57.5 +47 18 15; CVn

V = 8.4;  Size 18.6'x7.2';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 150”

 

18" (6/4/05): two spiral arms are evident emerging from the large, very bright core.  On the west side of the core, a thin, gently sweeping arm defines the western edge of the galaxy.  At the southern end of this arm is a brighter knot or HII region (identified as SDSS J121901.36+471525.0 in NED).  On the east side of the core, a well-defined, thin arm juts out from the core towards the NNW as a linear extension.  The arm is brightest at the root, where it attaches to the core.  The core is concentrated to a fairly small, very bright central nucleus and the extensions/arms have a slightly mottled or lively appearance.

 

This is a Seyfert 2 galaxy with a very active galactic nuclei.  The standard model for the core assumes a massive black hole.

 

17.5" (4/7/89): very bright, very large, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 14'x4', large bright core concentrated to a very small brighter central region.  A thin bright spiral arm attached at the core extends towards the NNW on the following side of the galaxy.  There is a sharp edge along the west side of this arm.

 

13.1" (4/12/86): bright, very large, bright core, substellar nucleus, mottling near core.  A large bright knot is at end of the southern arm.

 

13.1" (3/17/86): very bright, very large, impressive!  Contains a nearly stellar core in a high surface brightness oval disk.

 

8": bright, very large, elongated, bright core.

 

Pierre MŽchain discovered M106 = NGC 4258 = H V-43 = h1175 in July 1781. It was discovered after Messier's final catalogue was sent to publication but was included in a letter dated 6 May 1783  to Johann Bernoulli, the editor of the Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch and published in the 1786 Jarbuch volume. MŽchain wrote, "In July 1781, I have found another one close to Ursa Major near the star No. 3 of Canes Venatici & 1 deg more or less to the south; I estimate its right ascension 181d 40' & its declination about 49d."

 

William Herschel independently discovered this galaxy on 9 Mar 1788 and recorded H. V 43 as "v brilliant.  BN with much fainter branches from np to sf, about 15' long, and the sf running out into vF nebulosity extending a great way."  On 1 Apr 1788 (sweep 823) he logged "vB, mE directly in the meridian [N-S] with faint branches 10 or 12' long, BNM with the nucleus not ground."

 

John Herschel made 4 observations and recorded (sweep 330) "vB; vL; vsvmbM to an oval nucl; 8 or 9' long; 4 or 5' broad."  The 20 Apr 1857 observation at Birr Castle (by R.J. Mitchell) reads "a vL, B, E neb np sf, much mottled.  The f edge is comparatively sharp and well defined, but in the p and n edge there is a great inequality of light.  Nucleus elongated, vB part to north of nucleus."

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NGC 4259 = UGC 7359 = MCG +01-31-051 = CGCG 042-012 = Holm 368e = WBL 397-001 = PGC 39657

12 19 22.2 +05 22 35; Vir

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 143”

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated nearly 5:2 NW-SE, 28"x12", fairly high surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is off the NE flank, 0.4' from center.  A number of galaxies are in the field to the east, including IC 3513 3.9' ENE, NGC 4268 8.4' SE, NGC 4270 8.6' NE and NGC 4273/4277 pair 9' ESE.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, small, almost round, bright core.  A mag 15 star is at the NE edge 0.5' from center.  First of seven in the NGC 4273 group and forms a pair with IC 3153 3' ENE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4259 = h1178 on 27 Dec 1827 and noted as "precedes four more, nearly in parallel."  His position is 2.3' south of UGC 7359, but the north polar distance was marked as approximate.  The four galaxies are probably NGC 4268, 4273, 4277 and 4281 (nearly collinear).

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NGC 4260 = UGC 7361 = MCG +01-31-054 = CGCG 042-015 = PGC 39656

12 19 22.2 +06 05 55; Vir

V = 11.8;  Size 2.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 58”

 

24" (4/28/14): bright or very bright, large, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 2'x1', sharply concentrated with a very bright round nucleus.  A mag 14.7 star is just off the NE edge of the halo.  CGCG 042-007 lies 5.4' W ("very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, low even surface brightness"), IC 3136 is 8' NW ("fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, 30"x12", even surface brightness") and NGC 4269/IC 3155 pair is 8' SE, just south of a mag 7.7 star.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated SW-NE, broadly concentrated halo.  A mag 14.5 star is off the NE end 1.4' from center.  Located 7' NW of mag 7.7 SAO 11933.  NGC 4261 lies 17' S.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4260 = H II-138 = h1177 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and simply noted "F".  His position is 3.8' northwest of UGC 6361.  JH noted "B; E; psbM." and measured an accurate position (2 sweeps).

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NGC 4261 = UGC 7360 = MCG +01-31-052 = CGCG 042-015 = 3C 270 = PGC 39659

12 19 23.2 +05 49 29; Vir

V = 10.4;  Size 4.1'x3.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 160”

 

24" (4/28/14): very bright, very large, oval 4:3 NNW-SSE, 2.4'x1.8'.  Sharply concentrated with a large, intensely bright core that brightens to a quasi-stellar nucleus.  A mag 15 star is near the edge of the halo on the ENE side.  VCC 344 is 1.8' S, just outside the halo, and was logged as "faint, very small, round, 12" diameter, high surface brightness."  Forms a pair with NGC 4264 3.3' NE and brightest of 30 galaxies viewed within 35'!

 

17.5" (3/24/90): bright, fairly large, slightly elongated NW-SE, very bright core with stellar nucleus embedded.  Brightest in a large group of 13 NGC galaxies.  In a field with NGC 4264 3.4' ENE, NGC 4257 7' SSW and CGCG 042-014 5' N.  NGC 4260 lies 17' N.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4261 = H II-139 = h1176 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded "Two. The first [NGC 4261] is the largest. The 2nd [NGC 4264] very faint."  JH called the galaxy "vB; pL; R; psmbM; 40"."  His single position is 10 sec of RA too far west, but Schšnfeld and d'Arrest both measured accurate positions.

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NGC 4262 = UGC 7365 = MCG +03-31-101 = CGCG 099-014 = PGC 39676

12 19 30.6 +14 52 39; Com

V = 11.6;  Size 1.9'x1.7';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (5/23/87): moderately bright, small, slightly elongated, strong bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with IC 781 9' NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4262 = H II-110 = h1179 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and noted "S, r."  In his 1811 PT paper, he commented "this star with a bur is probably one that formerly a planetary nebula with a pretty strong haziness on the borders."  JH also called it "B; S; R; like a * 11m with a burr."

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NGC 4263 = NGC 4265 = MCG -02-32-001 = PGC 39698

12 19 42.2 -12 13 32; Crv

V = 12.6;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 125”

 

18" (5/28/06): fairly faint, moderately large, slightly elongated, roughly 1.2'x0.9', only a weak broad concentration.  The halo is irregular with averted vision and appears elongated 3:2, though at other times appears rounder.  On the DSS there is a faint extension to the west and perhaps I was picking up this section with averted.

 

18" (3/13/04): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, 0.6'x0.3', low even surface brightness.  Observation made through thin clouds.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4263 = H III-535 on 27 Mar 1786 (sweep 548) and recorded "vF, pS, iF."  His position (CH's reduction) is 1.5' southwest of PGC 39698.

 

Lewis Swift independently discovered the galaxy on 6 May 1886 and reported it in list III-63, close to WH's position. Dreyer assumed it was new and catalogued NGC 4263 again as NGC 4265.  Dreyer equated the two numbers in his 1912 version of WH's catalogues.  By prior discovery, NGC 4263 should be the primary designation.

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NGC 4264 = UGC 7364 = MCG +01-32-001 = CGCG 042-020 = PGC 39687

12 19 35.8 +05 50 48; Vir

V = 12.8;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

24" (4/28/14): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, broad weak concentration.  Forms a pair with much brighter NGC 4261 3.5' WSW.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, small, round, broad concentration.  Located at the north edge of a large galaxy group and 3.4' NE of NGC 4261.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4264 = H II-140 = h1180 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded "Two. The first [NGC 4261] is the largest. The 2nd [NGC 4264] very faint."  John Herschel called the galaxy "pF; R; gbM; 30"." Henrich d'Arrest measured the position 6 times and noted the separation with NGC 4261 was 13 seconds of time.

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NGC 4265 = NGC 4263 = MCG -02-32-001 = PGC 39698

12 19 42.2 -12 13 30; Crv

 

See observing notes for NGC 4263.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 4265 = Sw. III-63 on 6 May 1886.  His position is only 2' south of NGC 4263 = H III-535 so I'm not sure why Dreyer assumed it was a different object.  In any case, he noted that NGC 4265 was identical to NGC 4263 in the IC 2 Notes section as "Howe saw only one."  The primary designation should be NGC 4263.

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NGC 4266 = UGC 7368 = MCG +01-32-002 = CGCG 042-021 = WBL 397-003 = PGC 39699

12 19 42.3 +05 32 18; Vir

V = 13.7;  Size 2.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 76”

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly faint, thin edge-on 6:1 WSW-ENE, 1.2'x0.2', even surface brightness.  Although this is a nice streak, the galaxy is partially masked by mag 9.1 HD 107228 just off the NW flank (40" from center).  In a rich region of galaxies, with NGC 4270 4.9' SSW, IC 4153 8.6' SSW, NGC 4282 10' ENE, NGC 4259 11' SSW, NGC 4281 13' SE and more. Mag 7.3 HD 107258 lies 9' NNE.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): very faint, small, edge-on WSW-ENE.  The view is hampered by mag 8.5 SAO 119331 at the NW edge of the galaxy!  Faintest of 8 galaxies in the field including NGC 4282, NGC 4270, NGC 4259, NGC 4268, NGC 4273, NGC 4281 and IC 3153.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4266, along with NGCs 4249, 4252, 4282 and 4287, on 26 May 1864.  His position matches UGC 7368.

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NGC 4267 = UGC 7373 = MCG +02-32-004 = CGCG 070-013 = PGC 39710

12 19 45.2 +12 47 54; Vir

V = 10.9;  Size 3.2'x3.0';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

24" (5/29/14): very bright, moderately large, round, 1.3' diameter, sharply concentrated with an intense core that gradually increases to a stellar nucleus. Contains a much fainter outer halo.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): bright, fairly small, very diffuse round halo.  Sharp concentration as increases suddenly to a small very bright core and stellar nucleus.  NGC 4305/NGC 4306 pair lies 33' E.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4267 = H II-166 = h1181 on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and noted "pB; vS."  His position at the north edge of the halo of UGC 7373.  JH made two observations, calling this galaxy "pB, R, vsmbM, almost to a star."

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NGC 4268 = UGC 7371 = MCG +01-32-004 = CGCG 042-023 = Holm 368d = WBL 397-004 = PGC 39712

12 19 47.2 +05 17 01; Vir

V = 12.8;  Size 1.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 48”

 

24" (4/28/14): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 0.8'x0.4', contains a small bright core.  A mag 14.5-15 star lies 0.8' NW of center.  NGC 4273 lies 4.2' NE, NGC 4277 5.4' NE and NGC 4281 10.6' NE with a total of 8 galaxies (7 NGCs) in a 15' field.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated SW-NE, brighter core.  A mag 14.5 star is 0.8' NW of center.  Third of seven in a group with NGC 4273 4.3' NE.

 

Eduard Schšnfeld discovered NGC 4268 on 1 Apr 1862 with the 6" Steinheil refractor at Mannheim Observatory while observing the NGC 4273 group.  The primary source 1862 "Astronomische Beobachtungen auf der Grossherzoglichen Sternwarte zu Mannheim" is not scanned online.  It was independently discovered by d'Arrest at Copenhagen on only 5 days later and included it in his sample of preliminary results published in 1862 AN, 57, 337.  It was also listed it as an example of a double nebulae.  John Herschel must have missed both 1862 announcements as he didn't include this galaxy in the GC.  Dreyer credited Schšnfeld, d'Arrest and Engelhardt in the NGC.

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NGC 4269 = UGC 7372 = MCG +01-32-005 = CGCG 042-024 = Holm 365a = WBL 392-012 = PGC 39719

12 19 49.2 +06 00 54; Vir

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 137”

 

24" (4/28/14): moderately bright, small, round, 12" (core) surounded by a much fainter elongated halo 20"x14" NW-SE.  The core has a very high surface brightness and contains a very bright stellar nucleus.  Located 1.6' SE of mag 7.7 HD 107238 and 8.4' SE of NGC 4260.  Forms a close pair with fainter IC 3155 1.2' SW.  IC 3155 appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 SW-NE, very weak concentration, 30"x18".  Slightly larger than NGC 4269, though a lower surface brightness.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, very small, very small and bright core, slightly elongated.  Located 1.7' SSE of mag 7.7 SAO 119333 which interferes with viewing.  Forms a pair with IC 3155 1.2' SW.  NGC 4260 lies 10' WNW.  Located at the north edge of the NGC 4261 group.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4269 on 4 Mar 1862 with an 11" refractor.  His position, measured on 2 nights, matches UGC 7372 = PGC 39719 and he measured nearby mag 7.7 HD 107238 at 1.7 sec of time preceding and 85" north.  d'Arrest missed nearby IC 3155. The discovery was listed in his sample preliminary results published in 1862 (AN 57, 337).

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NGC 4270 = UGC 7376 = MCG +01-32-007 = CGCG 042-026 = Holm 368c = WBL 397-005 = PGC 39718

12 19 49.5 +05 27 48; Vir

V = 12.2;  Size 2.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 110”

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, 1.2'x0.6', sharply concentrated with a very bright core increasing to a bright stellar nucleus.  Eight additional NGC galaxies lie within 10'!   NGC 4266 is 3.8' NNW, NGC 4273 7.3' SSE, NGC 4281 is 9' SE.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly bright, elongated WNW-ESE, bright core, fainter arms, moderately large.  Located 5.4' SSE of mag 9 SAO 119335.  Fifth of seven in a group including NGC 4273 7.5' S, NGC 4266 4' NNW and NGC 4281 9.4' SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4270 = H II-568 on 17 Apr 1786 (sweep 553) and recorded "Four [NGC 4270, 4273, 4277 and 4281], the time and number is that of the last.  They are scattered about."  There is nothing near his position (10 min 14 sec following and 34' north of 11 Virginis), but exactly one degree south is NGC 4281, the last of the 4 bright galaxies.  According to Wolfgang Steinicke, Eduard Schšnfeld resolved the discrepancy and also discovered nearby NGC 4268, which was missed by WH and JH.

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NGC 4271 = UGC 7375 = MCG +10-18-025 = CGCG 293-010 = Holm 366a = PGC 39683

12 19 32.7 +56 44 12; UMa

V = 12.6;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 55”

 

17.5" (5/13/88): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, sharp bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 14.5 star is off the west edge 1.1' from center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4271 = H II-804 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 923) and recorded "pB, pL, iF."  His position matches UGC 7375.

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NGC 4272 = UGC 7378 = MCG +05-29-059 = CGCG 158-072 = PGC 39715

12 19 47.6 +30 20 20; Com

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (4/25/98): faint, small, round, 30" diameter, weak concentration.  A nice wide pair of mag 11 stars (47" separation) lie 5' SSE.  Observation in hazy conditions.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4272 = H III-299 = h1182 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 387) and simply noted "eF".  JH made the single observation "eF; vS; R; 10"." and measured an accurate position.  The UGC declination is 10' too far south.

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NGC 4273 = UGC 7380 = MCG +01-32-008 = CGCG 042-028 = Holm 368a = WBL 397-006 = PGC 39738

12 19 56.0 +05 20 35; Vir

V = 11.9;  Size 2.3'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 10”

 

24" (4/28/14): bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 N-S, 1.6'x0.8', well concentrated, brighter along the major axis (bar?).  Among numerous NGC galaxies including NGC 4277 2' E, NGC 4268 4' SW, NGC 4281 7' NE, NGC 4270 7.5' N and NGC 4259 9' WNW.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, bright core.  Forms a close pair with NGC 4277 2' ESE.  Brightest in a group of 7 galaxies with NGC 4281 6' ENE, NGC 4268 3.8' SW and NGC 4270 7.5' N.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4273 = H II-569 = h1183 = h1189 on 17 Apr 1786 (sweep 553) and recorded "Four [NGC 4270, 4273, 4277 and 4281], the time and number is that of the last [NGC 4281].  They are scattered about."  There is nothing near his position, but exactly one degree south is NGC 4281, the last of the 4 bright galaxies.  Because of WH's error, JH recorded the nebula as a "nova" (h1189) on 27 Dec 1827, but his RA was ~40 sec too large.  On a later sweep, he recorded it as a nova again (h1183) and measured an accurate position.  Dreyer combined these identities together in the NGC.

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NGC 4274 = UGC 7377 = MCG +05-29-060 = CGCG 158-071 = PGC 39724

12 19 50.6 +29 36 51; Com

V = 10.4;  Size 6.8'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 102”

 

17.5" (4/25/98): bright, very large, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, ~5'x2' though difficult to trace the full extent as the outer halo fades into background.  Well concentrated with a bright roundish core ~1' diameter which increases to a very small or stellar nucleus.  NGC 4253 lies 22' NW, NGC 4245 29' W and NGC 4278/NGC 4283/NGC 4286 ~20' SSE.  Observation in hazy skies.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4274 = H I-75 = h1185 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 387) and simply noted "vB".  JH made the single observation "vB; vL; E in parallel (E-W); 2' l, 1.5' br."  On 24 Apr 1849, LdR or assistant George Stoney suspected a "faint tail following".  This probably refers to part of the ring surrounding the core.

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NGC 4275 = UGC 7382 = MCG +05-29-058 = CGCG 158-073 = PGC 39728

12 19 52.6 +27 37 16; Com

V = 13.1;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.3

 

18" (5/30/03): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.7' diameter, brighter core, fairly high surface brightness.  A mag 13 star lies 1.1' E.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4275 = H II-376 = h1184 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "pF, S, almost R, bM."   JH made two observations and noted on sweep 417, "F; lE; near a * 15m."

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NGC 4276 = UGC 7385 = MCG +01-32-010 = CGCG 042-032 = PGC 39765

12 20 07.4 +07 41 30; Vir

V = 12.4;  Size 1.6'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (3/24/90): faint, fairly small, round, even surface brightness, no noticeable core.

 

Christian Peters discovered NGC 4276 around 1881 (Copenicus paper, 1881) with the 13.5-inch refractor at Hamilton College Observatory.  His position matches UGC 7385.

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NGC 4277 = MCG +01-32-009 = CGCG 042-029 = Holm 368f = WBL 397-007 = PGC 39759

12 20 03.7 +05 20 28; Vir

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

24" (5/20/20): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 ~NW-SE, 30"x24", very weak concentration.  A mag 14 star is 1' S.  Situated among several brighter Virgo cluster members and forms a close pair with NGC 4273 2' W.

 

SN 2020ftl, a Type Ia supernova in NGC 4277, was discovered on Apr 2nd. It reached nearly 14th magnitude but had faded to only mag 15.5 at the time of this observation.  As the SN is located only 6" N of the nucleus, it was tough to pick out, but it was seen consistently as a faint stellar point.

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, broad concentration.  A mag 14-14.5 star lies 1.2' S of center.  Forms a close pair with NGC 4273 2' W and nearly at the midpoint of NGC 4281 5' NE and NGC 4268 5' SW.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): faint, small, diffuse.  A mag 14 star is 1.2' S of center.  Located just 2.1' E of NGC 4273.  Second faintest of 7 in the NGC 4273 group.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4277 = H II-570 = h1190 on 17 Apr 1786 (sweep 553) and recorded "Four [NGC 4270, 4273, 4277 and 4281], the time and number is that of the last [NGC 4281].  They are scattered about."  There is nothing near his position, but exactly one degree south is NGC 4281, the last of these four galaxies.  Because of WH's error, John Herschel recorded h1190 (later NGC 4277) as a "nova" on 27 Dec 1827.  But his RA was 47 seconds too large!  In addition, his descriptions for h1189 and h1190 are reversed.  Hermann Kobold measured an accurate micrometric position in 1893 (published in 1907) with the 18-inch refractor at Strasbourg.

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NGC 4278 = UGC 7386 = MCG +05-29-062 = CGCG 158-077 = Holm 369a = WBL 399-001 = PGC 39764

12 20 06.8 +29 16 50; Com

V = 10.2;  Size 4.1'x3.8';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (4/25/98): bright, roundish, fairly large, the outer halo increasing to ~3.5' diameter with averted vision.  The halo surrounds a well-defined very prominent core which increases to a quasi-stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 4283 3.5' NE.  Poor transparency.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4278 = H I-90 = H II-322 = h1186 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 387) and recorded II-322 as "Three [with NGC 4283 and 4286], all in a row, but of unequal size and brightness.  The most following [NGC 4286] vF."  His single position is 14 sec of time following NGC 4278.  He found NGC 4278 again a month later (11 Apr), assumed it was new and recorded I-90 as "Two [with NGC 4283], the time is that of the brightest and preceding [NGC 4278], which is cB, pL, nearly R.  The other is sf, pB, S, about 6' distance."  JH made two observations and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4279 = MCG -02-32-003 = PGC 39812

12 20 25.0 -11 40 00; Vir

V = 13.6;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 35”

 

18" (5/8/04): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, very small brighter core.  Brighter of a close pair with NGC 4285 4' NE.  A couple of faint stars are between the two galaxies (these are possibly Swift's NGC 4280).

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 4279 = Sw. III-64, along with NGC 4280 and 4285, on 6 May 1886.  His description reads "eeF; vS; R; 1st of 3."  There are only two galaxies near his positions for these three objects and only his position for NGC 4285 = Sw. III-66 lands directly on a galaxy.  His first two positions are both to the south of MCG -02-32-003 = PGC 39812.  Modern catalogues assign NGC 4279 = PGC 39812.  See NGC 4280.

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NGC 4280

12 20 31 -11 39 06; Vir

 

18" (5/8/04): this number may apply to a trio of mag 15 stars situated between NGC 4279 and NGC 4285.  The two brighter stars were noted, although I was not looking for the fainter third star.  This identification is uncertain and listed as nonexistent in RNGC.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 4280 = Sw. III-65, along with NGC 4279 and 4285, on 6 May 1886.  There are only two galaxies here and either NGC 4279 or 4280 is nonexistent or refers to a faint star(s).  Assuming NGC 4279 = PGC 39812 , then Swift's offsert to NGC 4280 falls close to a 45" string of 3 mag 14.5/15.5/16.5 stars.   His description "eeeF; vS; R; 2nd of 3" is not helpful in pinning down the identification.  So, this number is lost or might apply to one of more of these stars.

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NGC 4281 = UGC 7389 = MCG +01-32-012 = CGCG 042-034 = Holm 368b = WBL 397-008 = PGC 39801

12 20 21.5 +05 23 11; Vir

V = 11.3;  Size 3.0'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 88”

 

24" (4/28/14): bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 E-W, 1.8'x0.9', sharply concentrated with an intensely bright core that increases to quasi-stellar nucleus.  NGC 4268, 4273 and 4277 in a 10' string to the SW and NGC 4270 and 4266 lie to the NW.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly bright, moderately large, bright core, elongated 2:1 E-W.  This galaxy is the last of 7 in a 15' circle and the brightest in the group along with NGC 4273 6.9' ESE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4281 = H II-571 = H II-573 = h1187 = h1194 on 17 Apr 1786 (sweep 553) and recorded "Four [NGC 4270, 4273, 4277 and 4281], the time and number is that of the last [NGC 4281].  They are scattered about."  There is nothing near his position, but exactly one degree south is NGC 4281, the last of these four galaxies.  He swept the field again 6 days later and measured an accurate position for NGC 4281, and simply noted (for II-573) "a nebula, but cloudy."

 

JH recorded the nebula as a "nova" on 27 Dec 1827 with the description "vB; E; bM; 60"."  His RA was 47 sec too large (same error he made with NGC 4277 and 4273), so he didn't realize the equivalence with II-573.  On a later sweep he observed H II-573 again, measured an accurate position and reported "vB, vL, R, pgbM, 3', 3 more seen." So, errors were made by both WH and JH, though Dreyer sorted things out pretty well in his 1912 publication of WH's catalogues.

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NGC 4282 = MCG +01-32-013 = CGCG 042-035 = WBL 397-009 = PGC 39809

12 20 24.3 +05 34 22; Vir

V = 13.9;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 100”

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated ~2:1 ~E-W, 0.7'x0.3', gradually increases to a slightly brighter core, brighter along the major axis.  On a line between NGC 4270 11' SW and NGC 4287 7' NE.  Also NGC 4266 lies 11' WSW.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): very faint, very small, slightly elongated E-W, low even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is 1.8' S of center.  Located in the large NGC 4261 group with NGC 4287 6' NE and NGC 4270 10' SW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4282 = m 237, along with NGC 4249, 4252, 4266 and 4287 on 26 May 1864.  His position is 2' north of CGCG 042-035 = PGC 39809.

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NGC 4283 = UGC 7390 = MCG +05-29-063 = CGCG 158-080 = Holm 369b = WBL 399-002 = PGC 39800

12 20 20.8 +29 18 39; Com

V = 12.1;  Size 1.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (4/25/98): moderately bright, round, 1' diameter.  Fairly well concentrated with a small, bright core and stellar nucleus.  Second of three in trio with brighter NGC 4278 3.5' SW and NGC 4286 5' NE.  Poor transparency due to smoke.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4283 = H II-377 = H II-323 = h1188 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 387) and recorded II-323 as "Three [with NGC 4278 and 4286], all in a row, but of unequal size and brightness.  The most following [NGC 4286] vF."  His single position is 14 sec of time following NGC 4278.  He found NGC 4283 again a month later (11 Apr), assumed it was new and recorded II-377 as "Two [with NGC 4283], the time is that of the brightest and preceding [NGC 4278], which is cB, pL, nearly R.  The other [NGC 4283] is sf [error: should read nf], pB, S, about 6' distance."  JH made two observations and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4284 = UGC 7393 = MCG +10-18-026 = CGCG 293-011 = Holm 373b = PGC 39775

12 20 12.6 +58 05 34; UMa

V = 13.5;  Size 2.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.5;  PA = 102”

 

17.5" (5/13/88): faint, small, bright core, elongated NW-SE.  Forms a right angle with two mag 13 stars 1.3' S and 1.1' E of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 4290 5' E.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4284 = H III-798 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 923) and recorded "cF, lE, iF.  The preceding of two [with II-805 = NGC 4290].  His re-reduced position is 2' northwest of UGC 7393.

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NGC 4285 = MCG -02-32-004 = PGC 39842

12 20 39.8 -11 38 31; Vir

V = 14.1;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 50”

 

18" (5/8/04): very faint, small, elongated ~3:2 SW-NE, 35"x20", weak concentration.  Forms a pair with slightly brighter NGC 4279 4' SW.  Between the galaxies are a couple of faint stars (possibly NGC 4280).

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 4285 = Sw. III-66, along with NGC 4279 and 4280, on 6 May 1886 and recorded "eF; pS; R; 3rd of 3."  There are only two galaxies here, but his position clearly establishes NGC 4285 = MCG -02-32-004 = PGC 39842.  See NGC 4280.

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NGC 4286 = UGC 7398 = MCG +05-29-065 = CGCG 158-083 = IC 3181 = WBL 399-003 = PGC 39846

12 20 42.1 +29 20 45; Com

V = 13.1;  Size 1.6'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 150”

 

17.5" (4/25/98): very faint, very low surface brightness.  No details visible but appears as an elongated haze ~N-S, located just north of a mag 15.5 star.  On a line with NGC 4283 5' SW and NGC 4278 8.5' SW.  Transparency poor.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4286 = H III-300 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 387) and recorded "Three [with NGC 4283 and 4286], all in a row, but of unequal size and brightness.  The most following [NGC 4286] vF.

 

On 24 Apr 1849, LdR (or observing assistant George Stoney), noted "a third nebula about 8.5' nf [NGC 4278]."  Assuming it was new, John Herschel (who missed this galaxy) assigned it GC 2863, although Dreyer realized the equivalence with NGC 4286 and combined the two GC designations in the NGC.  Henrich d'Arrest measured an accurate micrometric position. 

 

Max Wolf found this galaxy again on a Heidelberg plate on 23 Mar 1903 and reported it in his list IV-28 (later IC 3181).  His position matches d'Arrest's, so it's surprising that Dreyer didn't catch the equivalence.  So, NGC 4286 = IC 3181.

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NGC 4287 = MCG +01-32-014 = CGCG 042-037 = PGC 39860

12 20 48.5 +05 38 23; Vir

V = 14.5;  Size 1.1'x0.2';  PA = 75”

 

24" (4/28/14): faint to fairly faint, fairly small, edge-on 4:1 or 5:1 WSW-ENE, 35"x8", fairly low even surface brightness.  A mag 14.3 star is attached on the northwest side and detracts from viewing.  NGC 4282 lies 7' SW and IC 782 is 14' NE (the trio is collinear).  In addition, NGC 4266 and 4270 are both ~18' SW.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): extremely faint, very small, slightly elongated E-W, low surface brightness.  A mag 14.5 star on the west edge slightly hampers the view.  NGC 4282 lies 6' SW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4287 = m 238, along with NGC 4249, 4252, 4266 and 4282 on 26 May 1864.  His position is 1' south of CGCG 042-037 = PGC 39860.

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NGC 4288 = UGC 7399 = MCG +08-23-006 = CGCG 244-006 = Holm 371a = PGC 39840

12 20 38.1 +46 17 31; CVn

V = 12.9;  Size 2.1'x1.6';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 130”

 

17.5": fairly faint, moderately large, oval NNW-SSE, gradually brighter halo.  Located almost at the midpoint of a mag 13 star 3.3' NNW and a mag 13.5 star 3.7' SSE of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 4288A 2.3' S.  The companion appeared extremely faint, very small, round.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.3' S.  Member of the CVn II Group (brightest member M106).

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4288 = H III-726 = h1191 on 10 Apr 1788 (sweep 830) and noted "eF, pS."  JH made 3 observations and reported on sweep 138 "pF; R; vgbM; 60"."

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NGC 4289 = UGC 7403 = MCG +01-32-015 = CGCG 042-038 = FGC 1418 = LGG 281-010 = PGC 39886

12 21 02.3 +03 43 20; Vir

V = 13.8;  Size 3.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 1”

 

18" (5/8/04): very faint, thin edge-on 5:1 N-S, 1.0'x0.2', very weak concentration.  This delicate sliver required some care in first acquiring.  A mag 8.4 star (HD 107473) just 3.1' E detracts from viewing.  Located 47' SSW of M61.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 4289 = T I-42 in 1877.  His position and description (BD +4”2606 follows by 12 sec of time) matches UGC 7403.

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NGC 4290 = UGC 7402 = MCG +10-18-029 = CGCG 293-012 = Holm 373a = PGC 39859

12 20 47.5 +58 05 33; UMa

V = 11.8;  Size 2.3'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 90”

 

17.5" (5/13/88): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated WSW-ENE, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 4284 4.6' W.  A wide double star = M40 lies 15' E.  Located 15' N of 70 Ursa Majoris (V = 5.6).

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4290 = H II-805 = h1193 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 923) and recorded "pB, pL, mbM.  The following of two [with H III-798 = NGC 4284]."  His offset from NGC 4284 is an exact match with UGC 7402.  JH observed this object on a single sweep and noted "pB; L; R; gbM; 60"."

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NGC 4291 = UGC 7397 = MCG +13-09-024 = CGCG 352-028 = PGC 39791

12 20 17.7 +75 22 15; Dra

V = 11.5;  Size 1.9'x1.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 110”

 

13.1" (2/23/85): fairly bright, small, round, small bright nucleus, possible stellar nucleus at 312x.  A mag 14 star is at the west edge 25" from the center.  Form a pair with NGC 4319 6' SE.  Located 13' NNE of mag 5.4 SAO 7540.  NGC 4386 lies 20' NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4291 = H I-275 = h1192, along with NGC 4319, on 10 Dec 1797 (sweep 1066) and noted "cB, S, R."  JH made four observations and logged on sweep 349 "pF; R; gbM; 20"; followed and almost surrounded by 3 stars 10m, one of which is double; has also a vS * sp dist 30"."

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NGC 4292 = UGC 7404 = MCG +01-32-016 = CGCG 042-040 = Holm 375a = PGC 39922

12 21 16.4 +04 35 44; Vir

V = 12.2;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 7”

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, small, bright core, slightly elongated halo.  Located 1.3' SSE of a mag 10 star.  Forms a close pair with NGC 4292A 2' N.  The companion appeared very faint, very small, almost round, requires averted.  M61 lies 11' SE.

 

13" (2/23/85): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated ~N-S, brighter core.  A mag 9 star is 1' NW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4292 = h1196 on 7 Apr 1828 and logged "F; S; near a bright star; precedes M61 about half a field."  A few nights later he logged "F; R; vglbM; has a star 70” np; 1' dist.  Taken for H I-139, but this nebula does not exist, or is identical with M61."  The latter is the case.

 

On 1 Mar 1851, Bindon Stoney (LdR's assistant) recorded "bM and has a vF companion".  While compiling the 1880 publication, Dreyer added the note "2' north by diagram."  At this offset from NGC 4292 is NGC 4292A = PGC 213977, another pre-NGC discovery which should have recieved a NGC designation.

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NGC 4293 = UGC 7405 = MCG +03-32-006 = CGCG 099-023 = PGC 39907

12 21 13.0 +18 23 00; Com

V = 10.4;  Size 5.6'x2.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 72”

 

17.5" (5/23/98): fairly bright, large, elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, ~4.5'x1.5'.  The core is more oval, ~1.2' diameter.  The galaxy has an irregular surface brightness and there appears to be a dark band following the core.  A mag 13.5 star is just off the following end 2.7' from center and a trio of mag 12-13 stars are off the NE end as well as another mag 13 star 2' N of center.  Located 36' N of 11 Comae Berenices (V = 4.7).

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4293 = H V-5 = h1195 on 14 Mar 1784 (sweep 170) and recorded "L, E, r, 6 or 7' in length."  JH made two observations and logged (sweep 61) "F; vL; E; bM; 5' l, 1.5' br."  Bindon Stoney, LdR's assistant on 10 Apr 1852, noted a "faint knot at end of the preceding branch."

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NGC 4294 = UGC 7407 = MCG +02-32-009 = CGCG 070-024 = Holm 376a = PGC 39925

12 21 17.8 +11 30 37; Vir

V = 12.1;  Size 3.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 155”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 2.0'x0.7', fairly weak concentration.  A mag 14.5 star is at the north end 1.1' from center.  Forms a pair with NGC 4299 5.6' E.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4294 = H II-61 = h1197 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and recorded "Two [with NGC 4299] considerable, E, F nebula; their situation is in the same parallel; and they are near fixed pB stars."  CH's reduced position is about a min of RA following UGC 7407 and the description fits.  JH's description on sweep 242 is interesting: "F; vmE; like a double neb composed of 2 R nebulae."

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NGC 4295 = MCG +05-29-068 = CGCG 158-085 = PGC 39906

12 21 09.8 +28 09 54; Com

V = 13.6;  Size 0.6'x0.5'

 

18" (6/23/09): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 30"x25", increases gradually to a very small brighter core.

 

17.5" (4/25/98): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star lies 3.3' NNE.  Poor transparency due to smoke.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4295 on 6 Apr 1864 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position is just off the east side of CGCG 158-085 = PGC 39906.

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NGC 4296 = UGC 7409 = MCG +01-32-017 = CGCG 042-041 NED2 = PGC 39943

12 21 28.4 +06 39 12; Vir

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 15”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, very small, bright core, very faint elongated halo N-S mostly visible to the south of the core.  Forms a pair with NGC 4297 1.1' NNW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4296 = H III-92, along with NGC 4297, on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded both as "vF, vS; and one still smaller and fainter suspected just by."  His single offset is just 5 sec of RA following UGC 7409.

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NGC 4297 = MCG +01-32-018 = CGCG 042-041 NED1 = PGC 39940

12 21 27.4 +06 40 16; Vir

V = 14.2;  Size 0.5'x0.2';  Surf Br = 11.5;  PA = 175”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): extremely faint and small, round, requires averted.  Located 1.1' N of NGC 4296.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4297 = H III-93, along with NGC 4296, on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded both as "vF, vS; and one still smaller and fainter suspected just by."  His single offset is just 5 sec of RA following UGC 7409 (taken as III-92 = NGC 4296) with fainter CGCG 042-041 (taken as III-93 = NGC 4297) just 1.1' NNW.

 

But III-93 was not seen by Heinrich d'Arrest or Guillaume Bigourdan and Frost missed it on a Harvard plate, so he classified it as nonexistent (Annals of Harvard College Observatory, Vol 88, No. 1).  The CGCG has a single entry and calls this a double system.

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NGC 4298 = UGC 7412 = MCG +03-32-007 = CGCG 099-024 = Holm 377a = PGC 39950

12 21 32.8 +14 36 24; Com

V = 11.3;  Size 3.2'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 140”

 

48" (4/7/13): very bright, large, oval 2:1 NW-SE, 2.5'x1.5'.  Contains a very bright core, which increases to a small bright nucleus.  The core is offset a bit to the NW side.  The halo extends further to the southeast side and a weakly defined spiral arm is evident in the outer halo on the west side, extending to the southeast end.  A mag 13.5 star is at the east side, 0.8' from the core.  Forms a striking pair with NGC 4302 2' E.  M99 lies 40' WSW.

 

17.5" (5/23/87): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated NW-SE, broadly brighter center.  A mag 13 star is at the east end 0.8' from center.  Forms a close pair with edge-on NGC 4302 2' E.

 

13.1" (3/24/84): fairly faint, slightly elongated NW-SE.  A mag 13 star is at the east end.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4298 = H II-111 = h1198, along with NGC 4302, on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and recorded "Two resolvable nebula.  The first [NGC 4298] R.  The second [NGC 4302] E.  About 2' from each other.  JH noted "F; L; E; vgbM; a star follows; the p of 2."

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NGC 4299 = UGC 7414 = MCG +02-32-010 = CGCG 070-025 = Holm 376b = PGC 39968

12 21 40.8 +11 30 03; Vir

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 26”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): moderately bright, moderately large, overall fairly diffuse with a broad concentration, slightly elongated.  A group of mag 12-13 stars is SE.  Forms a pair with NGC 4294 5.6' W.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4299 = H II-62 = h1200 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174)  and recorded "Two [with NGC 4294] considerable, E, F nebula; their situation is in the same parallel; and they are near fixed pB stars."  JH made 3 observations and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4300 = UGC 7413 = MCG +01-32-021 = CGCG 042-044 = PGC 39972

12 21 41.5 +05 23 05; Vir

V = 12.9;  Size 1.5'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 42”

 

24" (4/28/14): moderately bright, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 1.0'x0.4', fairly well concentrated with a bright, elongated core.  At the southern vertex of an isosceles triangle with two mag 9.2 stars 8.4' NNE and 9.2' NW.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, elongated SW-NE, weak concentration.  Located 20' E of NGC 4281 and 11' WNW of 17 Virginis (·1636 = 6.6/9.4 at 21").

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4300 = H II-572 = h1201 on 17 Apr 1786 (sweep 553) and only noted "a nebula, [position] very badly taken."  Despite WH's comment just previously in the sweep that "a slop occasioned by the same blundering person", his position is just off the southwest end of the galaxy.

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NGC 4301 = NGC 4303A = UGC 7439 = MCG +01-32-027 = CGCG 042-053 = Holm 379b = PGC 40087

12 22 27.2 +04 33 58; Vir

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, fairly small, almost round, fairly even surface brightness.  Located 10' NE of M61.  NGC 4292 lies 11' NW. 

 

13.1" (2/23/85): faint, fairly small, diffuse, roundish.

 

13.1" (5/26/84): very faint, small, diffuse, slightly elongated, no concentration.

 

Here are my notes on UGC 7411, the galaxy identified as NGC 4301 in the MCG, PGC and RC3:

Fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, broad weak concentration.  Located 19' NNW of M61.

 

George Johnstone Stoney or Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 4301 on 21 Apr 1851.  While observing the field of M61 he noted, "Another neb 10' nf."  This could be interpreted as 10' NE of M61 or 10' NE of NGC 4292, but UGC 7439 (= NGC4303A ) is 10' NE of M61, which suggests NGC 4301 = UGC 7439.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest and Herman Schultz were unable to find NGC 4301 at the GC position.  Because of this, Dreyer assumed Stoney's object was 10' northeast of NGC 4292 (the other object grouped together) and modified the position of NGC 4301 in the NGC.  As a result, UGC 7411 (located 12' NNE of NGC 4292) assumed to be new when it was found on plates taken by Keeler with the Crossley reflector in 1898-1900 and catalogued in the 1908 list of new nebulae (Publ Lick Obs, Vol VIII).  UGC 7411 was misidentified as NGC 4301 in the MCG, PGC, RC3, NGC 2000.0 and RNGC.  UGC identified UGC 7439 as NGC 4301.  Malcolm Thomson investigated the identifications (WSQJ 10/92) and Harold Corwin has a very thorough analysis in his NGC/IC notes.

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NGC 4302 = UGC 7418 = MCG +03-32-009 = CGCG 099-027 = Holm 377b = PGC 39974

12 21 42.3 +14 35 59; Com

V = 11.6;  Size 5.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 178”

 

48" (4/7/13): at 610x; beautiful, thin edge-on stretches at least 8:1 N-S, ~5.0'x0.5'.  Contains a brighter, elongated, mottled core.  A very thin dust lane extends along the major axis!  The core is slightly brighter on the east side of the dust lane.  The northern tip extends beyond a mag 14.2 star off the northwest end.  A mag 14.3 star is just west of the southern tip.  Forms a superb pair with NGC 4298 just 2' W.

 

17.5" (5/23/87): fairly faint, large edge-on 7:1 N-S, 4.5'x0.6', low surface brightness, weak concentration.  A mag 14 star is off the north edge 2.0' from center.  Forms a close pair with NGC 4298 2.4' W.

 

13.1" (3/24/84): faint edge-on streak N-S close following NGC 4298.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4302 = H II-112 = h1199, along with NGC 4298, on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and recorded "Two resolvable nebula.  The first [NGC 4298] R.  The second [NGC 4302] E.  About 2' from each other."  On 26 Apr 1832, JH noted "L; vmE nearly in the meridian [N-S]; the f of 2."

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NGC 4303 = M61 = UGC 7420 = MCG +01-32-022 = CGCG 042-045 = Holm 379a = PGC 40001

12 21 54.9 +04 28 25; Vir

V = 9.7;  Size 6.5'x5.8';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

48" (4/5/13) and 5/1/19) at 375x and 488x, the visible structure was similar to photographic detail!  A bright bar extends north-south and is sharply concentrated with a very small, round, intense nucleus.  A bright arm is attached right at the north side of the bar and sweeps counterclockwise 180” to the south end, along the east side.  A brighter region was visible in the arm east of the nucleus, which include HII regions NGC 4303:[HK83] #35/39/41/45/49, from the Hodge-Kennicutt "Atlas of H II regions in 125 galaxies".  At this location, the arm has a sharp turn [63”] and angles towards the SW. The arm dims rapidly on the south end, but I was able to follow it much further SW in the outer halo, where it passes just north of a mag 14.0 star [2.4' SW of center].

 

The western arm is attached at the southern end of the bar and sweeps north on the west side.  A bright, elongated patch is on the southern end of this arm, which includes [HK83] #155, ~45" SSW of the nucleus.  The arm extends inside a mag 14 star in the west side of the halo [1.2' WSW of center] and then sharply dims but extends towards #242, a nearly detached faint knot 1.2' WNW of center.

 

A partial outer arm, not attached to the core, was easily visible on the north side, angling southwest to northeast.  At the NE end of this short bright arm is the HII knot [HK83] #91, a very bright, 15" knot, 1.2' NNE of center.  The arm dims suddenly on the northeast end but a diffuse extension continues to wrap counterclockwise to the southeast at the edge of the eastern halo.

 

24" (5/20/20 and 5/24/20): viewed SN 2020jfo (Type II), discovered on May 6th 1.1' W and 0.5' N of the center of the galaxy.  This is the 8th SN discovered in M61 since 1926, the most of any Messier.  It appeared very close in brightness to a mag 14.2 star that is 1.2' W of center and collinear with another mag 14 star 2.4' SW of center.

 

M61 appeared strongly concentrated with a bright elongated core or bar oriented N-S that increased to an intense, very small nucleus.  Three arms were easily visible. A short but well defined arm angled SW-NE on the north side (outside the eastern arm). It ended at a relatively bright HII knot [HK83] #91, which was well defined and noticed immediately. The eastern arm, which emerged from the north side of the bar, was very well defined and extended east of the core, then headed south and angled towards the southwest. The western arm began on the south or southeast side of the bar and rotated counterclockwise towards to the west and bent in the northwest direction. It past inside a 14th mag star [1.1' W of center]. A subtle brightening or knot, [HK83] #155, was seen along this arm 40" S of center (collinear with the northern knot and the center).

 

18" (5/12/07): spiral structure was easily visible.  One arm is attached at the north end and sweeps towards the northeast and then hooks to the south along the east side.  A bright knot ([HK83] #91) is within the arm at the northeast end.  A second broader arm is attached at the south end and sweeps towards the southwest and then hooks towards the north on the west side.  The central region contains a bright, stellar nucleus.

 

13.1" (5/26/84): very bright, large, bright stellar nucleus.  Two spiral arms are faintly visible; one arm is attached south of the nucleus and winds towards the west and then north.  A slightly brighter arm is attached north of the nucleus and winds along the east side towards the south.  In the field with NGC 4292 11' NW and NGC 4301 10' NE.

 

Italian astronomer Barnaba Oriani discovered M61 = NGC 4303 = H I-139 = h1202 on 5 May 1779 while observing the Comet of 1779.  It was independently found by Messier the same night, though initially he mistook it for the comet, finally recognizing it was a nebula on 11 May.  William Herschel found M61 on 17 Apr 1786 (sweep 553), assumed it was new, and catalogued it as I-139 with the summary description (2 observations) "eB; vBN; r, 6 or 7' dia."  John Herschel observed in on 3 consecutive sweeps in 1828, describing it on 10 April as "very faintly bicentral.  The two nuclei 90" distance in position angle 45 to 50” north-following."  This comment was the source of the GC and NGC description "bi-nuclear" and the second nucleus is very likely the bright knot on the northern spiral arm.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered spiral structure on 1 Mar 1851 and noted "spiral, 2 knots, centre bright.  There is another neb. 10' nf."  A sketch made of M61 on 14 Apr 1852 was included in the 1861 publication, though misidentified as h1196 [NGC 4292].  The two knots clearly included in the sketch are [HK83] #91 and [HK83] #155, mentioned in my 24-inch observation. The neb 10' nf probably refers to NGC 4301 = NGC 4303A = UGC 7439.  See that number.

 

Host of 8 supernovae since 1926 (six of these since 1961), making M61 the current record holder among Messier galaxies.  The first (SN 1926A) was found by Max Wolf and Karl Reinmuth at the Heidelberg Observatory.

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NGC 4304 = ESO 380-020 = MCG -05-29-034 = LGG 280-003 = PGC 40055

12 22 12.7 -33 29 04; Hya

V = 11.6;  Size 2.6'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

18" (5/28/06): very faint, fairly large, round, 2' diameter, broad weak concentration.  Appears as a diffuse glow of low surface brightness though seems mottled or one or more very faint stars is superimposed. Located 6.9' NW of mag 8.2 SAO 203407.

 

On the DSS, this galaxy is a face-on barred spiral similar to NGC 1300.  A bright HII region lies on the south side and this probably contributed to the appearance of "mottled" or having a superimposed "star".

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4304 = h3387 on 28 Apr 1834 and logged "vF; pL; R; vgvlbM; 90"; r."  His position is accurate.  Based on a photograph taken with the 30-inch Reynolds reflector between 1912-14, Harold Knox-Shaw stated it was a "S-Shaped spiral".

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NGC 4305 = UGC 7432 = MCG +02-32-013 = CGCG 070-031 = Holm 381a = PGC 40030

12 22 03.6 +12 44 27; Vir

V = 12.6;  Size 2.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 32”

 

24" (5/29/14): moderately bright, moderately large, oval 5:3 SW-NE, 1.0'x0.6'.  Contains a brighter, elongated core.  Brighter of a pair with NGC 4306 2.8' N.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated SSW-NNE, diffuse arms, weak concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 4306 2.8' N.  NGC 4267 lies 33' W.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4305 = h1203 on 2 May 1829 and simply noted "vF; R."  His position is just 45" south of center, though he missed nearby NGC 4306.

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NGC 4306 = UGC 7433 = MCG +02-32-014 = CGCG 070-032 = Holm 381b = PGC 40032

12 22 04.1 +12 47 15; Vir

V = 13.2;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  PA = 140”

 

24" (5/29/14): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 40"x32", weak concentration.  Fainter of a pair with NGC 4305 2.8' S.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, diffuse, no concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 4305 2.8' S.

 

George Johnstone Stoney, LdR's assistant, discovered NGC 4306 on 13 Apr 1849, while viewing the central region of the Virgo cluster.  He labeled the galaxy Beta on the diagram and recorded "Alpha [NGC 4305] and Beta [NGC 4306] nearly in merdian [N-S], both F, Alpha the larger."  Henrich d'Arrest independently discovered NGC 4306 on 16 Apr 1865 and measured an accurate position.  d'Arrest is credited with the discovery in the NGC as no positions or offsets were determined at Birr Castle.

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NGC 4307 = UGC 7431 = MCG +02-32-012A = CGCG 070-029 = Holm 380a = PGC 40033

12 22 05.6 +09 02 38; Vir

V = 12.0;  Size 3.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 24”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): moderately bright, large, edge-on SSW-NNE, broad moderate concentration.  Forms a pair with IC 3211 3.2' S.  The companion (identified as NGC 4307A in the RNGC) appeared extremely faint and small, round.  NGC 4316 lies 20' NNE.

 

Christian Peters discovered NGC 4307 around 1881 with the 13.5-inch refractor at Hamilton College Observatory.  He noted "pL, not vF" and his position is 2.5' south of UGC 7431. Wilhelm Temepel independently found NGC 4307 on 17 Mar 1882 and reported it in list VII (AN 2522).

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NGC 4308 = UGC 7426 = MCG +05-29-069 = CGCG 158-088 = PGC 40011

12 21 56.8 +30 04 27; Com

V = 13.4;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (4/25/98): faint, small, round, 30" diameter, very weak concentration.  Located 13' NW of NGC 4314.  Observation hampered by poor transparency.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 4308 = Sf 107 on 11 Jun 1868 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  The discovery was not published until 1887, too late to be credited in the NGC.  Wilhelm Tempel independently discovered the galaxy on 17 Feb 1882, recorded it in list V-16, and was credited with the discovery in the main NGC listing. Tempel's and Safford's position matches UGC 7426.

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NGC 4309 = UGC 7435 = MCG +01-32-025 = CGCG 042-051 = Holm 382a = PGC 40051

12 22 12.4 +07 08 39; Vir

V = 12.7;  Size 1.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 85”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): faint, elongated E-W, diffuse, gradually increases to a small bright core.  A mag 13 star is 2.9' E.  Located 20' W of the NGC 4343 group.

 

Christian Peters discovered NGC 4309 around 1881 with the 13.5-inch refractor at the Hamilton College Observatory in New York.  Peters' position matches UGC 7435. The discovery was not published in his two lists in Copernicus 1881 and 1882, so was probably communicated directly to Dreyer.

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NGC 4310 = NGC 4338 = UGC 7440 = MCG +05-29-074 = CGCG 158-092 = PGC 40086

12 22 26.3 +29 12 31; Com

V = 12.2;  Size 2.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 165”

 

17.5" (5/23/98): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 1.2'x0.6', weak concentration.  A wide pair of mag 12 stars [1.3' separation] lies 4' S.  The nearer star has a mag 14 companion at 24".

 

17.5" (4/25/98): fairly faint, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 1.4'x0.7', broad concentration.  The trio of NGC 4278, NGC 4283 and NGC 4286 lies ~30' NW.  Observation affected by hazy skies.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4310 = H II-378 = h1205 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and recorded "F, cL, lE."  CH's reduction is 2' northwest of UGC 7440.  There is only a single galaxy here, although on sweep 68, JH called it "vB.  The np of 2 [with h1206 = NGC 4611]."

 

d'Arrest made 3 accurate measurements of the positions, with a 4th exactly 1.0 min of time too large.  Dreyer assumed it was new and catalogued it as NGC 4338.  So, NGC 4310 = NGC 4338.

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NGC 4311

12 22 26 +29 12 24; Com

 

= Not found, Corwin.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4311 = h1206 on 19 Apr 1827 and recorded "F; the sf of two [with NGC 4310]."  There is only a single galaxy here, so it is not clear what JH was referring to.  Curiously, his position is a very close match with NGC 4310.  Harold Corwin was unsuccessful in searching for other pairs that JH might have misidentified.  UGC, RNGC and MCG label the single galaxy as NGC 4310 = NGC 4311.

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NGC 4312 = UGC 7442 = MCG +03-32-014 = CGCG 099-029 = Holm 387b = PGC 40095

12 22 31.4 +15 32 16; Com

V = 11.7;  Size 4.6'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 170”

 

17.5" (5/23/87): moderately bright and large, very elongated N-S, 2.5'x0.6', brighter the along major axis.  A pair of mag 12.5/13 stars at 21" separation lies 2.5' ESE.  Located 18' SSW of M100.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4312 = H II-628 = h1209 on 14 Jan 1787 (sweep 691) and logged "pB, cL, E."  CH's reduced position is 6 sec of RA east of UGC 7442.

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NGC 4313 = UGC 7445 = MCG +02-32-016 = CGCG 070-034 = PGC 40105

12 22 38.6 +11 48 04; Vir

V = 11.6;  Size 4.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 143”

 

24" (5/29/14): fairly bright, fairly large, very elongated 7:2 NW-SE, 2.1'x0.6', bright, elongated core increases to a faint stellar nucleus, mottled surface.  The northwest extension seems slightly brighter and longer and in addition is slightly tilted with respect to the major axis of the core.

 

17.5" (4/18/87): moderately bright, moderately large, very elongated NW-SE, very small bright core.  Located 22' NE of the NGC 4294/NGC 4299 pair in the same low power field.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4313 = H II-63 = h1207 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and noted "E, resembling the former two [NGC 4294 and 4299].  His position on this sweep is 1.0 tmin too large. A similar error was made on several nebulae discovered on that night including NGCs 3810, 4067, 4294, 4313, 4352, 4371, and 4429.  John Herschel made two observations, recording on 11 Apr 1823 (only his 3rd registered sweep), "eF; E 45” np, resolved in middle."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 4314 = UGC 7443 = MCG +05-29-075 = CGCG 158-093 = PGC 40097

12 22 32.0 +29 53 44; Com

V = 10.6;  Size 4.2'x3.7';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (4/25/98): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated ~3:1 NNW-SSE, ~3'x1' [prominent central bar].  The halo fades at the tips and rises fairly abruptly to an oval core.  A mag 13 star is at the northwest tip and a mag 14/15 star is embedded on the southeast side.  The observation was hampered by poor transparency and the faint outer halo of this barred spiral was not seen.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4314 = H I-76 = h1204 = Sf 20 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 387) and recorded "cB, L, E."  His position matches UGC 7443. Truman Safford rediscovered this galaxy on 16 May 1886 with the 18.5" Clark refractor at the Dearborn Observatory, though noted "vB, probably well known."

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NGC 4315

12 22 39.5 +09 17 10; Vir

 

= *, Corwin.  "Not found", Carlson.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 4315, along with NGC 4316, on 17 Mar 1882.  He mentioned a fainter nebula to the south 1.5' and 2 sec of RA west.  There is nothing at this offset, except a mag 15 star which is 2.8' south and 3 sec of RA west or perhaps a mag 14 star 1.6' south and 2.5 sec of RA east.  Tempel apparently confused one of these stars as being nebulous.

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NGC 4316 = UGC 7447 = MCG +02-32-017 = CGCG 070-035 = PGC 40119

12 22 42.3 +09 19 56; Vir

V = 12.9;  Size 2.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 113”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated WNW-ESE, weak concentration.  A double star is off the WNW end with components 13.2/13.5 at 19".  NGC 4307 is 21' SW.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 4316, along with NGC 4315, on 17 Mar 1882.  He reported it in his 5th discovery list and noted the 20" pair of stars off the northwest end so the identification with UGC 7447 is certain, although there are only a couple of stars near his offset for NGC 4315.  ƒdouard Stephan independently found NGC 4316 on 1 Apr 1884 and reported it as new in his 13th discovery list (#68).  His position was accurate.

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NGC 4317

12 22 36 +31 02; Com

 

= Not found, Corwin.  = *, Reinmuth and Carlson.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4317 = H II-324 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 387) and logged "F, S."  There is nothing at his position and Corwin was not able to find a likely candidate.

 

Karl Renimuth identifies NGC 4317 with a mag 13.7 star and this is repeated by Dorothy Carlson.  But Corwin feels II-324 probably does not refer to a star as the description would more likely be vS or eS.  So, he calls it "lost".

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NGC 4318 = UGC 7446 = MCG +02-32-015 = CGCG 042-059 = CGCG 070-033 = PGC 40122

12 22 43.3 +08 11 54; Vir

V = 13.3;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 65”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated SW-NE, bright core.  Located 4.4' S of mag 8.8 SAO 119363.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4318 = h1208 on 18 Jan 1828 and noted "eF; a star 8m 5' dist, on meridian to north."  His position is within 30" of the center of UGC 7446 and HD 107744 is 4.4' due north.  Schwassmann reported (IC 2 Notes section) "it looks on the plate like a *11-12, not nebulous". on a Konigstuhl-Heidelberg plate.

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NGC 4319 = NGC 4345 = UGC 7429 = MCG +03-09-025 = CGCG 352-029 = PGC 39981

12 21 43.9 +75 19 20; Dra

V = 11.9;  Size 3.0'x2.3';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 160”

 

13.1" (2/23/85): fairly faint, small, bright core, stellar nucleus.  The quasar Markarian 205 (controversial quasar with an apparent discordant redshift) appears as a faint mag 14.5 stellar object 0.7' south of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 4291 6' NW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4319 = H I-276 = h1210, along with NGC 4291, on 10 Dec 1797 (sweep 1066) and recorded "cB, cL, mbM, iF."  JH made three observations and recorded (sweep 413) "pB; pL; bM.  Follows [NGC 4291]."

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NGC 4320 = UGC 7452 = MCG +02-32-018 = CGCG 070-036 = VIII Zw 184 = PGC 40160

12 22 57.8 +10 32 55; Vir

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 170”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): very faint, very small, round, bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 4325 4.9' NNE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4320 on 15 Apr 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position, measured on 4 nights, matches UGC 7452 and he mentions the mag 15 star (called mag 17) which precedes by 5.6 sec of RA.  In the IC 2 Notes section, Dreyer mentions that Frost was unable to identify this galaxy on a Harvard plate of 4 hours exposure, although it was included in Adelaide Ames' 1930 "A Catalogue of 2778 Nebulae, including the Coma-Virgo Group", based on plates taken with the Bruce astrograph at Arequipa.

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NGC 4321 = M100 = UGC 7450 = MCG +03-32-015 = CGCG 099-030 = Holm 387a = WBL 401-001 = PGC 40153

12 22 55.0 +15 49 21; Com

V = 9.3;  Size 7.4'x6.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 30”

 

82" (5/4/19, McDonald Observatory): at 400x; this superb spiral nearly filled the 10' eyepiece field and displayed two main high contrast, very thin and beautiful spiral arms.  They wrapped towards the center, which was sharply concentrated with an extremely bright nucleus.

 

48" (4/18/15): stunning view of this gorgeous spiral at 375x and 488x.  M100 was sharply concentrated with an intensely bright circular nucleus.  Two prominent, high contrast arms (fairly narrow) each rotated ~270” and could be clearly traced to within 1' of the center.  The south and north outer tips of the arms are between 5.5'-6' apart with the overall size ~6'x5'.

 

One arm begins off the WNW side of the core with a bright mottled section angling nearly north-south for ~25".  This section contains multiple HII sites NGC 4321:[HK83]220/223/229/230 from Hodge and Kennicutt's 1983 "An Atlas of H II regions in 125 galaxies".  The arm curls clockwise around the south side.  A small (~8" dia.) HII knot (#160/171/172) is within this arm, 1.0' S of center.  Just to the east [1.5' SE of center] is a brighter, mottled section that contains a close pair [18" separation] of compact HII knots (#110 and #69/87).  The surface brightness of the arm abruptly drops as it shoots due north on the east side of the halo for ~3'.  The arm dims further as it curves west on the northeast side of the outer halo and ends just southeast of mag 15 star situated 2.9' NNW of center.

 

The second arm begins ~1' SE of center as a thicker, much brighter region.  The Hodge-Kennicutt Atlas catalogues numerous HII designations in this region, but none stood out individually.  The arm sharply narrows and rotates clockwise around the north side of the core towards the west.  It passes just south of two mag 15.5 stars, where there is a slightly brighter mottled section containing HII regions #252/253.  The arm dims significantly as it heads south on the west side of the halo.  Finally, it weakens further and spreads out at the end on the southwest side of the galaxy [2.6' from center].

 

18" (5/15/10): very bright, large, ~4.0-4.5' diameter, sharply concentrated with a very bright round core.  Spiral structure was evident at 220x with a spiral arm attached on the southwest side of the core region.  This arm sweeps east on the south side, heading in the direction of a mag 14 star just off the southeast end of the galaxy, but bending north.  On the north side off of the core, a portion of the inner spiral arm is visible oriented E-W and extending to the northwest of the core region.

 

17.5" (5/23/87): bright, very large, almost round, well-defined bright core surrounded by a large, fainter halo.  Two faint galaxies NGC 4323 and NGC 4328 lie 5' N and 6' E, respectively.  This is the brightest spiral in the Coma-Virgo cluster.

 

Pierre MŽchain discovered M100 = NGC 4321 = h1211, along with M98 and M99, on 15 Mar 1781 and Messier verified it a month later.  William Herschel described "a vL nebula of about 10' in diameter, with a small bright cluster of supposed stars in the middle.  It is followed at the distance of 6 or 8' by another distinct F, S, R, r nebula [NGC 4328] which is nearly in the same parallel with the great one."  His description obviously refers to the sharply concentrated core, though he gave this as an example in his 1814 publication of a nebula probably consisting of a cluster of stars.

 

Lord Rosse discovered spiral structure in M100 on 9 Mar 1850 (or earlier) and included M100 in his list of "Spiral or curvilinear" nebulae in the 1850 PT paper.   William Lassell published two sketches of M100 using his 48-inch on Malta on 24 and 26 Apr 1862.  The second one is an excellent rendering of the spiral arms, which both wrap about 1 1/2 revolutions around the core.  Dreyer's comment "(L): 2-branched spiral", is based on this sketch.

 

M101 is one of the largest and brightest spirals in the Virgo cluster.  It was the fist Virgo cluster member that the HST observed Cepheid variables (1993) and derived a distance of 55 million light years (since revised to ~50 million light years).  Five supernovae have been recorded: 1901B, 1914A, 1959E, 1979C, 2006X.  The first two were found on archived plates and announced by Heber Curtis in Lick Observatory Bulletin 300 (1917LicOB...9..108C). SN 1901B was found on a photograph taken on 17 Mar 1901 and SN 1914A was found on a photograph taken 2 Mar 1914.

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NGC 4322

12 22 42.0 +15 54 13; Com

 

24" (5/22/17): this number *possibly* applies to a 13th magnitude star 5.7' NW of the center of M100 and 4.8' due west of NGC 4323 (CGCG 099-031).  This single star clearly appeared stellar 200x-375x and was bright enough that I'm surprised if Tempel would have confused it as a nebulous object unless the seeing was very poor.  Most catalogues assign both NGC 4322 and 4323 to the single galaxy to the north of M100.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 4322, along with NGC 4323 and NGC 4327, in 1882, during an observation of M100.  In the text section of his 5th discovery list (AN 2439) he mentions "on my drawing are three other very faint nebula in the vicinity, two north and close to M100 and the third south of [NGC 4328]."  There is only a single galaxy close north of M100 and none to the south of NGC 4328.  RNGC and MCG equate NGC 4322 = NGC 4323 although Corwin suggests NGC 4323 should apply to the (single) galaxy and NGC 4322 to a star further west, whose position is given here.  This assignment for NGC 4322 is really just a guess, though, so I've left the designation as "Not Found".  Of course, the galaxy listed here could be identified as NGC 4322 with NGC 4323 left as "Not Found".

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NGC 4323 = MCG +03-32-016 = CGCG 099-031 = Holm 387f = WBL 401-002 = PGC 40171

12 23 01.6 +15 54 20; Com

V = 14.7;  Size 1.1'x0.8'

 

24" (5/22/17): at 375x; very faint, fairly small, roundish, ~0.4' diameter, very low surface brightness with no structure.  Could often hold with averted but required concentration to pick up.  Located 5.3' NNE of the center of M100.  A mag 13 star is 4.8' due W.  This galaxy was marginal in Carter Scholz's 16", which makes me question if Wilhelm Tempel would have picked it up in an 11" refractor.

 

18" (5/15/10): this faint galaxy is located just 5.2' NNE of the center of the face-on spiral M100.  At 220x it appeared very faint, fairly small, ~0.5'x0.4' (difficult to determine the orientation), very low surface brightness with no central brightening.  This galaxy is the fainter of two companions of M100 with NGC 4328 6' E of center.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 4323, along with NGC 4322 and NGC 4327, in 1882, during an observation of M100.  He mentions "on my drawing are three other very faint nebula in the vicinity, two north and close to M100 and the third south of [NGC 4328]."  But there is only a single galaxy north of M100, namely CGCG 099-031 = PGC 40171.  RNGC and MCG label this galaxy as NGC 4322 = NGC 4333 but Harold Corwin argues that NGC 4322 is probably a star 4.8' west of the galaxy, which implies only NGC 4323 should be used for the galaxy (placing the numbers in order of RA).  See Corwin's identification notes.

 

In 1908 this galaxy was reported as a new "nebula" based on photographs taken by Keeler and Perrine in 1898-1900 and catalogued (#423) in the 1908 Publications of Lick Observatory, Vol VIII.

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NGC 4324 = UGC 7451 = MCG +01-32-032 = CGCG 042-063 = Holm 388a = PGC 40179

12 23 06.2 +05 15 01; Vir

V = 11.6;  Size 2.8'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 53”

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, small bright core, elongated WSW-ENE, fainter extensions.  Located 9' ESE of double star 17 Virginis (·1636 = 6.6/9.4 at 21").

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4324 on 4 Mar 1862 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position (measured on 4 nights) is accurate.  Eduard Schšnfeld independently found the galaxy less than a month later on 1 Apr 1862 with a 6-inch refractor at the Mannheim Observatory.

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NGC 4325 = NGC 4368? = MCG +02-32-019 = CGCG 070-037 = PGC 40183

12 23 06.6 +10 37 16; Vir

V = 13.3;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 5”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): faint, small, irregularly round, weak concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 4320 4.9' SSW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4325 on 15 Apr 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  He made 4 observations and noted the mag 14.5 star (he called it mag 16) that follows by 7.6 seconds of time.

 

WH's III-38 = NGC 4368 is probably another observation, though this identification is somewhat uncertain as his position is 1.5 minutes of RA further east.  See that number.

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NGC 4326 = UGC 7454 = MCG +01-32-033 = CGCG 042-064 = PGC 40192

12 23 11.6 +06 04 19; Vir

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 145”

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3, 0.6'x0.45', small bright core.  Bracketed by a mag 10.5 star 3' N and a mag 11.5 star 2' S.  Located 5.8' W of NGC 4339 in a trio with NGC 4333 3.3' SE in the Virgo cluster.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, small, round, bright core.  First of three and forms a right angle with NGC 4333 3.3' SE and NGC 4339 5.7' E.  A mag 11 star is 3.0' N.  Located within the NGC 4339 group.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4326 = H II-141 = h1213 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded "Three [with NGC 4333 and 4339], the last [NGC 4339] is the largest."  JH logged "vF; S; R; bM; 10"; the first of 3 in a triangle." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4327

12 23 07.5 +15 44 11; Com

 

= not found, Gottlieb and Carlson.  =*, Corwin.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 4327, along with NGC 4322 and 4323, in 1882, during an observation of M100.  In the notes section of paper V (AN 2439) Tempel commented, "There are three other, very subtle nebulae in the vicinity [of M100], two to the north, near to M100, and the third to the south of NGC 2894." There is no nebula to the south of NGC 2894 (and only one to the north of M100) and it was not found visually or photographically by Bigourdan, Frost, Carlson and the RNGC.  Corwin suggests a star that might have been picked up by Tempel, but the magnitude (roughly 16.5) seems too faint, so I've classified it as "not found".

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NGC 4328 = MCG +03-32-019 = CGCG 099-034 = Holm 387d = WBL 401-003 = PGC 40209

12 23 20.0 +15 49 13; Com

V = 13.0;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 90”

 

18" (5/15/10): faint, fairly small, very diffuse with just a weak concentration, ~0.8' diameter, no distinct core or zones.  Located just 6' due east of the center of M100 and the brighter of two companions in the field with NGC 4323.

 

18" (4/5/03): very faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~E-W, 0.8'x0.6', very low surface brightness (although catalogued surface brightness is 13.1), very weak concentration.  A mag 14.5 star lies 1.4' NE.  Located 6.0' E of M100.

 

17.5" (5/23/87): extremely faint, small, round.  A mag 14.5 star is 1.4' NE of center.  Located 6' due east of M100!

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4328 = H II-84 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 182) and noted "It [M100] is followed at the distance of 6 or 8' by another distinct F, S, R, r nebula which is nearly in the same parallel with the great one."  The NGC RA is 9 seconds too small, but the identification is certain.  Nevertheless, it was found again on plates taken with the Crossley reflector in 1898-1900, and catalogued as a new nebula (#465 of 744) in the 1908 Publications of Lick Observatory, Vol VIII.

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NGC 4329 = MCG -02-32-009 = PGC 40212

12 23 20.7 -12 33 31; Crv

V = 11.5;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 11.5;  PA = 45”

 

17.5" (5/19/01): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, moderate surface brightness, 25" diameter.  Seems fainter than listed blue magnitude of 12.5.  MCG -02-32-006 lies 24' WNW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4329 = h1214 on 9 Mar 1828 and recorded (single observation) "F; sB; R; bM to nucleus. His position is 1.4' north of PGC 40212.

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NGC 4330 = UGC 7456 = MCG +02-32-020 = CGCG 070-039 = FGC 1423 = PGC 40201

12 23 16.6 +11 22 07; Vir

V = 12.4;  Size 4.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 59”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): faint, fairly large, edge-on SW-NE, even surface brightness.  NGC 4353 lies 14' SE.

 

George Johnstone Stoney or Bindon Stoney, LdR's assistants, discovered NGC 4330 on 14 Apr 1852.  During an observation of NGC 4294 and 4299 he mentioned "another vF and thin ray about 30' following." John Herschel catalogued this object as GC 2909 ("R. nova").  Heinrich d'Arrest independently found this galaxy on 15 Apr 1865 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen and measured an accurate position (3 nights).  Dreyer catalogued this observation as GC 5639 with the note ""Probably = [GC] 2909."  The two GC entries were combined in the NGC.

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NGC 4331 = UGC 7449 = MCG +13-09-026 = CGCG 352-031 = VII Zw 451 = LGG 284-007 = PGC 40085

12 22 35.9 +76 10 21; Dra

V = 14.1;  Size 2.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 2”

 

18" (3/5/05): extremely faint, moderately large, edge-on 5:1 N-S.  A mag 14-14.5 star is at the north tip and the galaxy appears as a ghostly dagger hanging to the south.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4331 = H III-942 = h1220 on 12 Dec 1797 (sweep 1068) and noted "eF, E near the meridian.  Verified with 320x."  CH's reduced position is 1.8' southeast of UGC 7449 and his description applies to this galaxy.

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NGC 4332 = UGC 7453 = MCG +11-15-048 = CGCG 315-033 = PGC 40133

12 22 46.8 +65 50 37; Dra

V = 12.2;  Size 2.1'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 130”

 

17.5" (3/20/93): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, weak concentration.  A mag 11.5 star is 2.1' ENE of center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4332 = H II-847 = h1216 on 20 Mar 1790 (sweep 954) and logged "pB; S; lE."  JH recorded (single observation) 'F; R; vgbM; 20"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4333 = MCG +01-32-034 = CGCG 042-065 = PGC 40217

12 23 22.2 +06 02 26; Vir

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): fairly faint, small, round, faint stellar nucleus, 20" diameter.  Located 4' SW of NGC 4339 in a trio with NGC 4326 3.3' NW.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, small, round, weak concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 4339 4' NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4333 = H II-142 = h1215, along with NGC 4326 and 4329, on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191).  JH logged "F; pS; R; bM; 15"; the second of 3 in a triangle." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4334 = UGC 7458 = MCG +01-32-035 = CGCG 042-066 = PGC 40218

12 23 24.0 +07 28 23; Vir

V = 13.0;  Size 2.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 135”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): faint, very small, small bright core, faint extensions NW-SE.  A mag 11.5 star is just 0.7' SSE of center.  NGC 4365 lies 18' SE.  The IC 3256/NGC 4343 group is located 30' S.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4334 = h1218 on 24 Apr 1830.  His single observation reads "pF; R; S; close to a star [on the south side]" and his position is very accurate.

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NGC 4335 = UGC 7455 = MCG +10-18-035 = CGCG 293-015 = PGC 40169

12 23 01.9 +58 26 40; UMa

V = 12.4;  Size 1.9'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 145”

 

17.5" (5/13/88): first of four and brightest in the group.  Moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, bright core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4335 = H II-806 = h1217 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 923) and simply noted "pB".  His re-reduced position is 2.5' northwest of UGC 7455.  JH made two observations, recording on sweep 345 "pB; S; E; gbM; good obs of place."

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NGC 4336 = IC 3254 = UGC 7462 = MCG +03-32-020 = CGCG 099-035 = Holm 389a = PGC 40231

12 23 29.8 +19 25 36; Com

V = 12.5;  Size 2.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 162”

 

17.5" (5/23/98): fairly faint, elongated 4:3 NNW-SSE (PA 160”) in the direction of a mag 10 star 3.5' SSE, 60"x45".  Weak concentration to center but the surface brightness appears irregular.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4336 = H II-406 = h1219 on 27 Apr 1785 (sweep 403) and recorded "pF, pL, mbM.  It either has a small one almost joined to it to the north, or else the light of it is a little brighter in that place, but not nearly so bright as the other part."  No such structure is apparent on the DSS.  John Herschel measured a fairly accurate position on 23 Mar 1827 (sweep 61).

 

Royal Frost found the galaxy on 7 May 1904 at Arequipa on a Bruce 24-inch plate (taken on the night of 9 May 1904) and reported as number 884 in Harvard Annals 60.  His position is 2' north of NGC 4336.  So, NGC 4336 = IC 3254.  See Harold Corwin's IC identification notes for the full story.

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NGC 4337 = ESO 131-2 = Cr 254

12 24 02.3 -58 07 12; Cru

V = 8.9;  Size 4'

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): at 105x, ~15 stars are arranged in a striking 4.5' diameter partial oval for ~270 degrees and open on the west side.  A few stars are situated both in the interior and outside of this three-fourth completed ring.  In the center of the loop are a few mag 13-14 stars and a fairly bright background glow from a dense group of unresolved stars in the core of the cluster.  A gorgeous, equal mag double star Brs 8 = 7.6/7.9 at 5" is located 6' E.  The cluster is located midway between Delta and Gamma Crucis along one side of the Southern Cross.  This group may be an asterism an not a physical cluster.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4337 = h3388 on 1 Apr 1834 and reported "a p rich cl; not much compressed in the middle; stars 12...14m, in curved branches.  A fine double star follows [Brs 8]."  His position is just west of center of this cluster.

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NGC 4338 = NGC 4310 = UGC 7440 = MCG +05-29-074 = CGCG 158-092 = PGC 40205

12 22 26.3 +29 12 31; Com

 

See observing notes for NGC 4310.  Here are my notes on IC 3247, often misidentified as NGC 4438 --

24" (5/30/16): at 225x; extremely faint, thin edge-on ~5:1 N-S, very low surface brightness, very slightly brighter elongated core, ~45"x9".  Only visible part of the time, though pops clearly and can hold for a few seconds.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest found NGC 4338 on 19 May 1863 and described "vF, E, cometary, quite difficult to see because of dusk. The place has not yet been verified."  There is nothing at his position, but exactly 1.0 min of time west is NGC 4310, discovered by WH.  d'Arrest measured NGC 4310 on 3 other nights, but not the one he recorded NGC 4338.  Harold Corwin equates NGC 4338 = NGC 4310.

 

RNGC, RC3, SIMBAD and secondary sources such as WikiSky, Uranometria 2000. Atlas and Megastar misidentify IC 3247 as NGC 4338.  IC 3247 is located 20' south of d'Arrest's position.  Reinmuth also questioned if NGC 4338 = IC 3247 but Malcolm Thomson feels this galaxy is too faint and would not have been visible in d'Arrest's 11-inch refractor in twilight -- I agree.

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NGC 4339 = UGC 7461 = MCG +01-32-036 = CGCG 042-068 = LGG 289-026 = PGC 40240

12 23 35.0 +06 04 54; Vir

V = 11.3;  Size 2.4'x2.3';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): fairly bright, moderately large, round, 1' diameter, bright core increases evenly to center.  A mag 11 star lies 1.5' S of center.  Brightest of three with NGC 4326 and NGC 4333.  This Virgo cluster member harbors an active galactic nucleus.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly bright, fairly small, round, small very bright core.  Forms a trio with NGC 4333 4' SW and NGC 4326 6' WSW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4339 = H II-143 = h1222, along with NGC 4326 and 4333, on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191).  JH logged (sweep 254) "B; R; pL; psbM; 30"; the third in a triangle."

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NGC 4340 = UGC 7467 = MCG +03-32-021 = CGCG 099-036 = Holm 391b = PGC 40245

12 23 35.2 +16 43 21; Com

V = 11.2;  Size 3.5'x2.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 102”

 

17.5" (5/23/87): moderately bright, almost round, fairly small, small well defined core.  Forms a pair with NGC 4350 5.6' ESE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4340 = H II-85 = h1212, along with NGC 4350, on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 182) and described both as "Two nebula, the following [NGC 4350] is the brightest, both S and the last pB."  Heinrich d'Arrest measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4341 = IC 3260 = UGC 7472 = MCG +01-32-042 = CGCG 042-076 = PGC 40280

12 23 53.5 +07 06 25; Vir

V = 13.2;  Size 1.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 96”

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated ~E-W, even surface brightness.  Member of the NGC 4343 group and midway between IC 3259 4.9' NNW and IC 3267 5.0' SSW.  NGC identification uncertain and identified as IC 3260 in CGCG and MCG.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4341 = H III-95 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded "Three [along with H. III 94 = NGC 4343 and H. III 96 = NGC 4342], all eF and vS, R nebula."  His single position is between NGC 4343 and 4342. H III-95 = UGC 7472 is the faintest of the three brightest galaxies (out of five) that WH likely viewed.

 

Bigourdan observed the group on 23 Apr 1895 and measured the position of this galaxy (UGC 7472).  Likewise, Arnold Schwassmann measured a very accurate position (Sn. 17) on a Heidelberg plate on 27 Nov 1900.  Dreyer assumed they found a new object, but IC 3260 = NGC 4341.

 

Because of the ambiguity with the identification of NGC 4341, the CGCG and MCG label this galaxy IC 3260.  UGC and RNGC use both designations. See Harold Corwin's identification notes for the full story.

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NGC 4342 = IC 3256 = UGC 7466 = MCG +01-32-039 = CGCG 042-071 = PGC 40252

12 23 39.1 +07 03 14; Vir

V = 12.5;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 168”

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, very small, elongated NNW-SSE, bright core, stellar nucleus.  NGC 4342 = IC 3256 has the highest surface brightness of the members in the NGC 4343 group.  NGC 4343 is 6.0' S, NGC 4341 = IC 3260 4.8' NE, IC 3267 6.6' E, IC 3259 8.3' NNE.  See notes on the identification.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4342 = H III-96 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded "Three [along with III-94 = NGC 4343 and III-96 = NGC 4342], all eF and vS, R nebula."  His single position is between NGC 4343 and 4342. As there are 5 galaxies in this group, there has been considerable confusion on the correct identifications.  Harold Corwin assumed Herschel observed the three brightest galaxies here and suggests the identifications NGC 4341 = IC 3260 = UGC 7472, NGC 4342 = IC 3256 = UGC 7466 and NGC 4343 = UGC 7465, though the CGCG (Herzog) argues the NGC designations should be dropped and the unambiguous IC designations used exclusively.

 

Bigourdan found this galaxy again on 23 Apr 1895 and his B. 291 (later IC 3256) matches this galaxy and the CGCG and MCG use the IC designation.   The identifications are discussed in CGCG Vol 5, the RC 2 notes, Webb Society Quarterly Journal articles in Jan 1986 and Jan 1990, Herzog's 1967 paper "On the Identification of Five Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster" (1967PASP...79..627H), as well as Harold Corwin's identification notes!

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NGC 4343 = UGC 7465 = MCG +01-32-038 = CGCG 042-070 = PGC 40251

12 23 38.8 +06 57 15; Vir

V = 12.1;  Size 2.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 133”

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, moderately large, brighter core, elongated NW-SE.  Brightest member of a group of five along with NGC 4342 = IC 3256 6.0' N.  Nearby are IC 3259 14' NNE, IC 3267 8' NE and NGC 4341 = IC 3260 10' NNE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4343 = H III-94 = h1223 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded "Three [along with III-95 = NGC 4341 and III-96 = NGC 4342], all eF and vS, R nebul."  His single position is between NGC 4343 and 4342.  JH catalogued only a single nebula in the group that he called III-94, noting "pB; E; or has a F neb on the s f side."  His position matches UGC 7465.  See Corwin's identification notes for more on this group.

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NGC 4344 = UGC 7468 = MCG +03-32-022 = CGCG 099-037 = Holm 390a = PGC 40249

12 23 37.5 +17 32 28; Com

V = 12.3;  Size 1.7'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (5/23/98): faint, small, round, 30" diameter.  Appears as a diffuse glow with weak concentration forming an isosceles triangle with two mag 13 and 14 stars 2.0' SE and 2.0' NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4344 = H III-31 = h1224 on 14 Mar 1784 (sweep 170) and noted "eF.  It forms a triangle with 2 small stars."  JH logged "F; not vS; R; vglbM; 25"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4345 = NGC 4319 = UGC 7429 = MCG +03-09-025 = CGCG 352-029 = PGC 39981

12 21 43.9 +75 19 20; Dra

 

See observing notes for NGC 4319.

 

Gerhard Lohse found NGC 4345 in 1886 with the 15.5-inch refractor at Wigglesworth's observatory near Scarborough, England.  There is nothing at his position, but 1.0 min of RA west is NGC 4319 = H I-276.  So, likely NGC 4345 = NGC 4319 with a 1 tmin error in RA.  Dorothy Carlson identifies NGC 4345 as a star near Lohse's position, but since the description mentions "pL" this is very unlikely.

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NGC 4346 = UGC 7463 = MCG +08-23-016 = CGCG 244-009 = PGC 40228

12 23 27.9 +46 59 38; CVn

V = 11.1;  Size 3.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 99”

 

13.1" (4/12/86): fairly bright, very elongated 3:1 E-W, rises sharply to a small very bright core, stellar nucleus highly suspected.  Located roughly 50' SE of M106.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4346 = H I-210 = h1225 on 1 Apr 1788 (sweep 823) and recorded "cB, S, BN with irregular chevelure, lE near the parallel".  CH's reduction is 8' north of UGC 7463.  On 10 Apr 1788 (sweep 830) he recorded "vB, vS, lE nearly in the parallel; a BN with eF branches."  JH made six observations and d'Arrest made a single observation with a precise position.

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NGC 4347

12 23 54 -03 14; Vir

 

= *?, Gottlieb and Corwin.  = NGC 4348??, Corwin.  = Not found, Sulentic.

 

Christian Peters discovered NGC 4347 around 1881 with the 13.5-inch refractor at the Hamilton College Observatory.  The only objects close to his position are faint stars.  Perhaps coincidentally, 13' south of his position is NGC 4348 (discovered by WH).  He expressly mentions in his description "this can hardly be GC 2911 [NGC 4348]", due to the discrepany in position.  Assuming that's the case, this object is probably lost, though may refer to one or more faint stars.

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NGC 4348 = MCG +00-32-003 = CGCG 014-023 = PGC 40284

12 23 53.9 -03 26 36; Vir

V = 12.5;  Size 3.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 40”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): moderately bright, fairly small, edge-on SW-NE, increases to a brighter core.  A mag 14 star is located 1.2' W of center and a brighter mag 12 star lies 3.2' S.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4348 = H II-625 = h1226 on 29 Dec 1786 (sweep 674) and recorded "F, E from sp to nf, about 2' long."  His position is off the east side of CGCG 014-023 = PGC 40284.  John Herschel made two observations and logged on sweep 21 "F; irreg R; a small star preceding."

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NGC 4349 = ESO 131-3 = Cr 255 = Mel 110 = Lund 611

12 24 06 -61 52 12; Cru

V = 7.4;  Size 16'

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): at 105x, ~150 stars are resolved in a 15' field.  This cluster is rich and uniform in magnitudes except for a single mag 8.4 star (HD 107944) on the SE side which stands out over the large number of mag 10.5-12.5 stars.  The outline is elongated NW to SE but the stars are distributed fairly evenly within the boundaries.  This is a very pleasing group and an easy binocular object.  Located along the western side of the Southern Cross and 75' NNW of Alpha Crucis (Acrux)!

 

10x30mm Canon IS (3/27/19 - Tasmania): fairly faint, large glow, appears oval or elongated.  No resolution except for a star at the edge.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 4349 = D292 on 30 Apr 1826 and described "a pretty cluster of extremely small stars, resembling a pretty large faint nebula, about 6' or 7' diameter: the compression is very gradual to the centre; a pretty bright star is in the following side of the cluster, round figure."  His position was quite accurate (about 4' SE of the center of the cluster near the brightest member).  The position here corresponds with the densest portion of the cluster.

 

JH observed the cluster on three sweeps.  On 14 Mar 1834 he logged "chief star 10m of a fine rich cluster which fills field."  Two weeks later (31 Mar 1834) he noted "a large loose cluster of small stars 12..14th mag; irregularly round; not very rich; little compressed in the middle; diam. 10'." His final sweep three years later described a "cluster class VI. Very large, very bright, A star about 8..9 mag taken but the brightest part of the cluster is about 4' N.p. Fills field; not much compressed in the middle; stars 12..13th mag; This cluster was found by Mr Maclear in this sweep made with him, not being aware at the time of its having been seen in Sweep 432."

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NGC 4350 = UGC 7473 = MCG +03-32-023 = CGCG 099-038 = Holm 391a = PGC 40295

12 23 57.8 +16 41 36; Com

V = 11.0;  Size 3.0'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 28”

 

17.5" (5/23/87): fairly bright, edge-on 4:1 SSW-NNE, fairly small, very small bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 4340 5.6' WNW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4350 = H II-86 = h1221, along with NGC 4340, on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 182) and described both as "Two nebula, the following [NGC 4350] is the brightest, both S and the last pB."  Heinrich d'Arrest measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4351 = NGC 4354 = UGC 7476 = MCG +02-32-024 = CGCG 070-045 = PGC 40306

12 24 01.6 +12 12 16; Vir

V = 12.6;  Size 2.0'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 80”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): fairly faint, diffuse, fairly even surface brightness with only a slight broad concentration, slightly elongated ~E-W.  IC 3258 lies 16' NNW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4351 on 19 May 1863 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  He measured the position on 5 different nights and estimated the size as 40"-45" in diameter.

 

Lewis Swift independently found the galaxy on 17 Apr 1887 and reported it as new in list VI-42.  His position is nearly identical to d'Arrest's, so it's surprising that Dreyer recatalogued it as NGC 4354. In any case, NGC 4351 = NGC 4354.  See Corwin's identification notes for more.

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NGC 4352 = UGC 7475 = MCG +02-32-023 = CGCG 070-044 = PGC 40313

12 24 05.0 +11 13 05; Vir

V = 12.6;  Size 2.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 102”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): fairly faint, small, oval ~E-W, small brighter core.  NGC 4330 lies 14' NW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4352 = H II-64 = h1227 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and logged "F, vS."  His RA was 1 min too large (roughly the same error was made on this sweep with several others objects).  JH measured an accurate RA and logged "vF; S; lE.", though he used his father's erroneous RA in the GC.  Heinrich d'Arrest independently found the nebula on 23 Mar 1865, measured an accurate RA again and Dreyer catalogued it again as GC 5642.  Bigourdan noted the equivalence and Dreyer combined the two GC and GCS entries (2929 and 5642) into NGC 4352.

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NGC 4353 = IC 3266 = MCG +01-32-043 = CGCG 042-077 = PGC 40303

12 24 00.2 +07 47 05; Vir

V = 13.6;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 67”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): faint, oval SW-NE.  A mag 13 star is 1.2' NNW.

 

Christian Peters discovered NGC 4353 around 1881 with the 13.5-inch refractor at the Hamilton College Observatory.  His position in Copernicus (1861) is 0.1 min of RA east and 2' north of CGCG 042-077 = PGC 40303.

 

Arnold Schwassmann found the galaxy again on 20 Nov 1899 using a Heidelberg plate taken with the 6" astrograph and assumed Sn. 49 was new.  In addition his Sn. 48 (later IC 3265) refers to a single star 1.2' NNW of the galaxy (mentioned in my observation).  So, NGC 4353 = IC 3266.  Instead of identifying the galaxy as NGC 4353, CGCG mislabels the galaxy as IC 3265 = IC 3266.

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NGC 4354 = NGC 4351 = UGC 7476 = MCG +02-32-024 = CGCG 070-045 = PGC 40306

12 24 01.6 +12 12 16; Vir

 

See observing notes for NGC 4351.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 4354 = Sw. VI-42 on 17 Apr 1887 and described as "eeF; pL; in vacancy; v diff."  His position is 1' from NGC 4351 = UGC 7476 (discovered by d'Arrest on 19 May 1863).  It's surprising that Dreyer didn't equate the two discoveries.  Dorothy Carlson states NGC 4354 = NGC 4351.  See Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 4355 = NGC 4418 = UGC 7545 = MCG +00-32-012 = CGCG 014-039 = Todd 17 = PGC 40762

12 26 54.6 -00 52 40; Vir

 

See observing notes for NGC 4418.

 

David Todd found NGC 4355 = Todd 17 on 5 Feb 1878 with the 26" refractor at the U.S. Naval Observatory during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet.  This is one of the 8 galaxies in his list that Dreyer credited to Todd.  His rough RA is 4.0 tmin too far west but his field sketch and offsets match UGC 7545 = PGC 40762.  WH discovered this galaxy (III-492) on 1 Jan 1786 and it was catalogued as H III-492 = NGC 4418, so NGC 4355 = NGC 4418.

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NGC 4356 = IC 3273 = UGC 7482 = MCG +02-32-026 = CGCG 070-048 = FGC 1427 = PGC 40342

12 24 14.9 +08 32 16; Vir

V = 13.3;  Size 2.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 40”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): faint, edge-on SW-NE, low surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is involved at the east edge of the core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4356 = H III-481 on 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 498) and simply noted "vF".  CH's reduction is at the southwest tip of UGC 7482, so there is not doubt about the identification.  Arnold Schwassmann found it again in 1899 on a Heidelberg plate taken with a 6" astrograph and measured an accurate position.  He assumed it was new and Dreyer recatalogued this edge-on as IC 3273, although the NGC and IC positions are very close.  So, NGC 4356 = IC 3273.

 

UGC, CGCG and MCG label this galaxy as IC 3273 and ignore the NGC designation.

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NGC 4357 = NGC 4381 = UGC 7478 = MCG +08-23-017 = CGCG 244-010 = PGC 40296

12 23 58.9 +48 46 47; CVn

V = 12.4;  Size 3.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 77”

 

17.5": fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, increases to a small brighter core.  Located 10' ESE of mag 7.7 SAO 44149.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 4357 = Big 52 on 8 Mar 1886.  His position matches UGC 7478.  This galaxy was discovered earlier by WH on 9 Feb 1788 (II-743 = NGC 4381) but his position was 66 tsec too far east.  So, NGC 4357 = NGC 4381.

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NGC 4358 = UGC 7479e = MCG +10-18-038 = CGCG 293-017e = PGC 40309

12 24 02.1 +58 23 07; UMa

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (5/13/88): faint, small, round, small bright core.  Brightest of a triple group with stellar MCG +10-18-037 just 40" WSW of center and NGC 4362 1.9' SE.  MCG +10-18-037 = PGC 40314 appeared as a mag 15.5 "star" just 40" WSW of center of NGC 4364 and almost attached.

 

This galaxy described above is identified as NGC 4364 in all modern catalogues.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4358 = H III-799 = h1230 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 923) and logged "vF, vS."  His re-reduced position is just 11 sec of RA preceding UGC 7479.  This is a double galaxy with a very faint companion off the southwest edge -- too faint to have picked up by WH and JH certainly did not see it.  The next objects in the sweep were H III-800 = NGC 4362 and H III-801 = NGC 4364, described together as "two, both cF, cS, R".  There are only two galaxies here that were likely seen by WH, and Dreyer notes in the 1912 Scientific Papers that "very probably the word 'two' refers to III 799 and III 800, as nobody [including JH, Bigourdan and d'Arrest] seems to have seen three nebulae in the place."

 

JH, Bigourdan and d'Arrest only found two galaxies (h1230 and h1231) with his first position matching III-799 = UGC 7479 and his second position clearly referring to CGCG 293-018 = PGC 40350.  CGCG identifies the two components to UGC 7479 as NGC 4358 + 4364 and MCG and RNGC both identify the stellar western component as NGC 4358 and the main eastern component as NGC 4364.

 

Corwin concludes only the two brighter galaxies should receive NGC designations (and WH was mistaken on the third nebula he reported).  In which case, NGC 4358 = UGC 7479 and NGC 4362 = NGC 4364 = CGCG 293-018 = PGC 40350.  This leaves the southwest component of UGC 7479 without a NGC designation.  See Corwin's notes for the complete story.

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NGC 4359 = UGC 7483 = MCG +05-29-079 = CGCG 158-099 = PGC 40330

12 24 11.7 +31 31 20; Com

V = 12.7;  Size 3.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 108”

 

17.5" (4/25/98): very faint, elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, appears as large as 3'x1' at times, low surface brightness with weak central brightening, fades at tips.  Located 34' NW of NGC 4414. Transparency poor.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4359 = H III-648 = h1229 on 20 Mar 1787 (sweep 722) and logged "vF, E, about 1' length in the direction of the parallel."  JH made a single observation, noting "F; pmE; nearly in parallel; vlbM; 25"."  His position is just 25" south of center.

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NGC 4360 = UGC 7484 = MCG +02-32-028 = CGCG 070-052 = Holm 393a = WBL 404-009 = PGC 40363

12 24 21.7 +09 17 34; Vir

V = 12.3;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 145”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated, small bright core.  Located 1.3' SE of a mag 10 star.  Forms a pair with IC 3274 2' SW.  The companion (identified often as NGC 4360B) appeared very faint, extremely small, round, low surface brightness, just non-stellar.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 4360 = T I-43 on 22 Mar 1878.  His micrometric position in discovery list V (+4.87 sec of RA and -47" dec from HD 107953) matches UGC 7484.  ƒdouard Stephan independently found NGC 4360, as well as 4316, on 1 Apr 1884 and reported it as new in his 13th discovery list (#69).  His position was accurate.

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NGC 4361 = PK 294+43.1 = PN G294.1+43.6

12 24 30.8 -18 47 05; Crv

V = 11.0;  Size 93"x37"

 

48" (5/3/19): at 488x; fascinating bright blue planetary with a very bright mag 13 central star.  Unfiltered, the unusual feature are two opposite "handles" or thick arcs that are attached just outside the central region on the WNW and ESE sides.  Adding a NPB filter, two arms or loops lit up on the SW and NE sides.  These loops appeared similar to spiral arms attached to the main body and rotated counterclockwise!

 

48" (2/20/12): the unusual structure in this planetary shocked me at 488x as previous views in my 17.5" and 18" had only showed a hint of detail.  The two main components are large bulbous lobes or wings with an irregular surface brightness that jut out of the central region in a WNW and ESE direction, with the WNW lobe slightly brighter.  More surprising were two arms and loops, similar to spiral arms in a galaxy, that extend out to the NE and SW and curve clockwise.  The arm to the southwest is very thin where it emerges from the central portion, so it appeared partially detached!  The arm on the NE side clearly bends south but was not as sharply defined.  Between the lobes (WNW and ESE) and arms (SW and NE) were darker gaps or regions creating a unique, basically symmetric shape that is elongated SW-NE (arms are longer), ~1.8'x1.4'.  At the center is a very bright mag 13 central star.  A fainter, more roundish halo envelops the brighter components.

 

17.5" (5/15/99): 100x easily reveals the bright central star surrounded by a moderately high surface brightness halo ~1' in size. At 220x, the central star appears 13th magnitude and the halo gradually brightens towards the center.  With averted vision, the halo increases to roughly 90"x60", extended SW-NE, with an ill-defined edge.  I had the strong impression of an extension or hook on the southwest end of the PN, which was confirmed on the DSS image (a similar extension is also on the NE end).

 

13": moderately bright, fairly large, slightly elongated.  The mag 13 central star is fairly easy at 165x.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4361 = H I-65 = h1231 on 7 Feb 1785 (sweep 368) and recorded "vB, pL, mbM.  The central brightness not round but as if it had two nucleuses pretty closely joined; the chevelure [halo] iR."  John Herschel wrote, "vB, L, R, vsmbM to nucl = *11, 90" diameter.  R[esolved] with power 320, and is no doubt a globular cluster; fades away to nothing.  So, JH was convinced it was a globular.  Surprisingly it was misclassified as a galaxy in de Vaucoleurs' 1st "Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies" (RC1)!

 

Based on Crossley photographs at Lick, Curtis described NGC 4361 as "central star about mag 10; this is surrounded by an irregular oval mass whose brighter parts are about 44"x39" in pa 103”.  From this central portion two arms (spiral whorls?) go out in pa 20” and portions of a very faint ring 81" can just be made out."  (1918PLicO..13...55C).  Early photographs were taken with the 30-inch Reynolds reflector between 1912-14 at the Helwan Observatory near Cairo.  The director Harold Knox-Shaw also described a "Round nebula 1' diameter from which proceed spiral arms."

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NGC 4362 = NGC 4364? = MCG +10-18-039 = CGCG 293-018 = PGC 40350

12 24 11.3 +58 21 38; UMa

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

17.5" (5/13/88): very faint, small, slightly elongated, even surface brightness.  A mag 13.5 star is 0.8' S.  Located 1.9' SE of NGC 4364.  Possible identification mix-up.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4362 = H III-800 = h1233 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 923) and recorded "Two [with III-801 = NGC 4364], both cF, vS, R."  His position is 3 sec of RA following and 1' north of III-799 = NGC 4358.  But there is only a single galaxy (CGCG 293-018 = PGC 40350), which is 9 sec of RA following and 1.5' south of NGC 4358.  So, there was clearly some confusion with the orientation and/or description.  JH reported "eF, the last of 2 [with h2914 = NGC 4358]." 

 

Notes on the identifications of NGC 4358, 4362 and 4364 are under NGC 4358.

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NGC 4363 = CGCG 352-032 = PGC 40233

12 23 28.4 +74 57 08; Dra

V = 13.5;  Size 1.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

18" (3/5/05): very faint, fairly small, round, very low surface brightness.  Appears as a hazy disc with with no evident concentration.  Located 23' SE of NGC 4319 and Markarian 205.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4363 = H III-938 on 10 Dec 1797 (sweep 1066) and noted "eF, pL, iF."   Dreyer mentions an error in WH's reduction of the position though CH's position is less than 1' from the center.

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NGC 4364 = NGC 4362? = MCG +10-18-039 = CGCG 293-018 = PGC 40350

12 24 11.3 +58 21 38; UMa

 

See observing notes for NGC 4362.  Uncertain identification.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4364 = H III-801 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 923) and recorded "Two [with III-800 = NGC 4362], both cF, vS, R."  There is only a single galaxy (h1233 = CGCG 293-018 = PGC 40350) situated 2' southeast of III-799 = NGC 4358, so WH's observation is clearly in error.  Dreyer suggest that perhaps "Two" should be interpreted as "Two with III-799", as there are only two galaxies that were likely seen.

 

See discussion under NGC 4358 and Corwin's notes for the identifications of NGC 4358, 4362 and 4364.  CGCG 293-018 is labeled NGC 4364 in all modern catalogues.

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NGC 4365 = UGC 7488 = MCG +01-32-048 = CGCG 042-083 = PGC 40375

12 24 28.3 +07 19 03; Vir

V = 9.6;  Size 6.9'x5.0';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 40”

 

17.5" (3/28/87): very bright, large, elongated SW-NE, bright core, very small or stellar nucleus.  The NGC 4343 group is close SW and NGC 4370 lies 10' NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4365 = H I-30 = h1232 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded "pB, pL, or an iR form, mbM, r."  His position is within 1' east of UGC 7488.

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NGC 4366 = MCG +01-32-050 = CGCG 042-087 = PGC 40421

12 24 47.0 +07 21 11; Vir

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  PA = 51”

 

17.5" (3/28/87): very faint, small, diffuse, even surface brightness.  Located 5' NE of NGC 4365.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4366 = H III-97 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded "Two unequal nebula [the other is II-144 = NGC 4370]; one of them [III-97 = NGC 4366] eF."  Dreyer notes that III-97 was observed one only 1 sweep and not seen again when nearby II-144 = NGC 4370 was reobserved on 28 Dec 1785.  It was also not seen by JH, d'Arrest, or by Samuel Hunter with the 72".  So, Dreyer suggested NGC 4366 = NGC 4370 and this was repeated by Dorothy Carlson in her 1940 list of NGC errata.

 

But 5' northeast of NGC 4365 is CGCG 042-087 = PGC 40421, a faint galaxy that WH might have picked up.  This galaxy is identified as NGC 4366 in the RNGC, PGC and Deep Sky Field Guide though not in CGCG or MCG.   But this galaxy is slightly further from NGC 4370 than NGC 4365, so it seems odd WH would record it together with NGC 4370.  So, the identification NGC 4366 = PGC 40421 is very uncertain.

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NGC 4367

12 24 35.1 +12 10 56; Vir

 

= **, Corwin.  = Not found, Dreyer.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4367 on 19 Apr 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen and also measured 3 nights later.  There is nothing at his position except a mag 15 star with a mag 17.5 companion at 13" separation (likely too faint to have been seen by d'Arrest).  On the second observation, he mentions this object follows NGC 4351 by 35 seconds of time, so the identification with this star is nearly certain.

 

Royal Frost reported NGC 4367 was not found on a 4-hour Bruce plate (Annals of Harvard College Observatory, Vol 88, No. 1).  Karl Reimuth equates NGC 4367 with IC 3311, neglecting the difference of 0.9 tmin in RA.

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NGC 4368 = NGC 4325 = MCG +02-32-019 = CGCG 070-037 = PGC 40183

12 23 06.6 +10 37 16; Vir

 

See observing notes for NGC 4325.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4368 = H III-38 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and noted "vF, vS."  There is nothing at his position and Bigourdan was unsuccessful in locating NGC 4368, and neither was Frost photographically (Harvard College Observatory, Vol 88, No 1, Virgo-Coma survey).  Dreyer notes in the 1912 "Scientific Papers of William Herschel" that the RA is possibly 1 tmin too great.  Several nebulae discovered by WH that night (including NGCs 3810, 4067, 4294, 4313, 4352, 4371, and 4429) have comparable errors.  So, it's reasonable that NGC 4368 is a duplicate of NGC 4325 (located 1.5 min of RA west of WH's position). See Corwin's identification notes for more.

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NGC 4369 = UGC 7489 = MCG +07-26-004 = CGCG 216-002 = Mrk 439 = PGC 40396

12 24 36.2 +39 22 58; CVn

V = 11.7;  Size 2.1'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

13.1" (4/12/86): moderately bright, fairly small, round, bright core with a distinct stellar nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4369 = H I-166 = h1234 on 17 Mar 1787 (sweep 714) and noted "vB, S, R."  CH's reduced position is 1.4' north of this galaxy.  JH made two observations, calling it "pB; R; smbM almost to a *."

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NGC 4370 = NGC 4366: = UGC 7492 = MCG +01-32-051 = CGCG 042-089 = PGC 40439

12 24 55.0 +07 26 40; Vir

V = 12.6;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 83”

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~E-W, weak concentration.  NGC 4365 lies 10.1' SW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4370 = H II-144 = h1236 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded "Two unequal nebula; one of them [III-97 = NGC 4366] eF."  His position is 14 sec of RA west of UGC 7492 = PGC 40439.

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NGC 4371 = UGC 7493 = MCG +02-32-033 = CGCG 070-057 = PGC 40442

12 24 55.4 +11 42 15; Vir

V = 10.8;  Size 4.0'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 95”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): bright, small, sharp concentration with a very small very bright core, stellar nucleus, diffuse outer halo elongated E-W.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4371 = H I-22 = h1235 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and noted "pB, not vL."  There is nothing at his position, but 45 seconds of RA west is UGC 7493. Several nebulae discovered that night including NGCs 3810, 4067, 4294, 4313, 4352, 4368 and 4429 have comparable errors so this identification is very likely.  John Herschel made 4 observations, the earliest on 10 Apr 1825, his second formal sweep.

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NGC 4372 = ESO 064-006

12 25 45.4 -72 39 32; Mus

V = 7.5;  Size 18.6';  Surf Br = 1.2

 

24" (4/12/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x, NGC 4372 is a highly-resolved, low-concentration class globular.  A mag 6.6 star just 5.5' NW of center was a bit distracting but scores of stars were resolved over the 4' core, appearing to criss-cross the center in numerous lanes.  The outer halo was very large, nearly 15' in diameter, and resolved into a couple of hundred stars.  Except for the brighter and denser core, this globular appeared similar to a very large, fully resolved open cluster.

 

18" (7/6/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 171x, this large, bright globular was an impressive object and beautifully resolved into 150-200 stars mag 13 and fainter, within a 13'-14' diameter.  The unresolved background glow was relatively faint for such a well-resolved globular.  The large 4' core was only slightly brighter and there was no nucleus (class 12 concentration), although a close pair of brighter mag 12.5 stars is near the center.  Scores of stars appeared linked in chains and loops, particularly in the outer halo, which is quite irregular and ragged.  Mag 6.6 HD 107947 lies 5.5' NW of center at the edge of the halo and provided a striking contrast although it detracted somewhat from viewing.  A dust lane appeared to pierce the cluster on the north side for a few arc minutes (east of the bright star) and this dark intrusion may be an extension of the "Dark Doodad" (see notes).

 

18" (7/7/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x, this large, loose globular was well-resolved into ~100 stars mag 12-15 with a 12' diameter.  The roundish core is ~4' in size with many faint stars sprinkled across the core.  The halo is elongated and irregular in shape. A starless dark lane appears to wind into the cluster towards the core from the NW side angling roughly NW-SE (later verified on the DSS).  A mag 6.8 star lies 5' NW of the core and interferes with viewing!  Located 44' SW of mag 3.8 Gamma Muscae.

 

10x30mm Canon IS (3/28/19 - Tasmania): faint, low surface brightness glow with no core. Attached to the south of a mag 6.6 star that is close to the end of the "Dark Doodad".

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 4372 = D 67 = h3390 on 30 Apr 1826 using his 9-inch f/12 speculum reflector from Parramatta, NSW.  He described "a star of the 6th magnitude, with a beautiful well-defined milky ray proceeding from it south following; the ray is conical, and the star appears in the point of the cone, and the broad or south following extremity is circular, or rounded off. The ray is about 7' in length, and nearly 2' in breadth at the broadest part, near the southern extremity. With the sweeping power this appears like a star with a very faint milky ray south following, the ray gradually spreading in breadth from the star, and rounded off at the broader end. But with a higher power it is not a star with a ray, but a very faint nebula, and the star is not involved or connected with it: I should call it a very faint nebula of a long oval shape, the smaller end towards the star; this is easily resolvable into extremely minute points or stars, but I cannot discover the slightest indications of attraction or condensation towards any part of it. I certainly had not the least suspicion of this object being resolvable when I discovered it with the sweeping power, nor even when I examined it a second time; it is a beautiful object, of a uniform faint light."  Dunlop's position is 24' too far WNW (a fairly large error), but the mag 6.6 star near the NW edge clinches the identification.  His sketch is shown in Fig. 2 of his catalogue.

 

John Herschel described it (1 Apr 1835) as "a globular cluster, very faint; large; very gradually brighter in the middle; 6' diameter; resolved into stars of 15th magnitude; rich in stars; a delicate and faint object; has a star 45 N.p., distance 5' from centre. Almost perfectly insulated in a very large space almost entirely devoid of stars, being the smaller and southern lacuna below the great 'coal sack'."

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NGC 4373 = ESO 322-006 = MCG -06-27-025 = LGG 298-002 = PGC 40498

12 25 17.8 -39 45 35; Cen

V = 10.9;  Size 3.4'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 43”

 

18" (3/28/09): fairly bright and large, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, 1.5'x1.0'.  Contains a large bright center that increases to a small, bright core.  A number of stars surround the galaxy.

 

NGC 4373 is the brightest in a subgroup of at least 7 galaxies on the northwest side of the Centaurus Cluster (AGC 3526), including IC 3290 and IC 3370.  IC 3290, just 2' SW of NGC 4373, appeared faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter.  It seems odd that John Herschel missed this galaxy.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4373 = h3391 on 8 Jun 1834 and logged "pB; S; R; pgvmbM."  His position is accurate.  Joseph Turner sketched the galaxy on 16 Apr 1877 (p. 136 of his logbook) with the 48" Melbourne Telescope and also discovered IC 3290, though he never announced the discovery and Lewis Swift, who rediscovered it in 1898, was credited in the IC.

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NGC 4374 = M84 = UGC 7494 = MCG +02-32-034 = CGCG 070-058 = Holm 403b = PGC 40455

12 25 03.8 +12 53 13; Vir

V = 9.1;  Size 6.5'x5.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 135”

 

24" (4/28/14): extremely bright, large, slightly elongated, ~4'x3.5', sharply concentrated with a very intense core that increases gradually to a nonstellar nucleus.  The large halo gradually fades out.  A mag 14.5 star is superimposed on the SW side of the halo, 1.2' from center.  In the 23' field (at 260x) is M86 17' ENE, NGC 4438 17' SE, NGC 4387 10' ESE, IC 3303 11' SSE

 

18" (6/12/10): at 175x, very bright, fairly large, slightly elongated, ~2.8'x2.4' NW-SE.  The halo gradually brightens from the edge and then suddenly increases dramatically to a very bright 45" core that increases to a sharp stellar nucleus.  A faint star is just off the SW edge, 1.3' from center.  At 280x the halo appears slightly mottled.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): very bright, moderately large, almost round, very bright core, very small bright nucleus, halo gradually fades into background sky so there is no sharp edge.  Nearly an identical twin of M86 17' ENE but rounder.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): very bright, very bright core.  Located in the core of the Virgo cluster.

 

Charles Messier is credited with the discovery of M84 = NGC 4374 = h1237 on 18 Mar 1781, along with M86, and described a "Nebula without star, in Virgo; the center it is a bit brilliant, surrounded with a slight nebulosity: its brightness and its appearance resemble that of those in this Catalog, No.s 59 & 60."  But Wolfgang Steinicke recently found (email Oct '16) that Johann Gottfried Koehler made the original discovery on 5 May 1779 using a Dolland refractor of 6-ft focal length.  WH only recorded it on sweep 199 from 17 Apr 1784 and simply noted "B.  Is No. 84 of the Connoissance des Temps." JH also recorded it only a single sweep, noting "vB; R; psbM; 60"; r."

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NGC 4375 = UGC 7496 = MCG +05-29-080 = CGCG 158-100 = PGC 40449

12 25 00.4 +28 33 31; Com

V = 12.8;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 5”

 

17.5" (4/13/02): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, 0.8'x0.6'.  A mag 14.5 star lies 1.2' NE of center.  Located 30' NW of a mag 4.3 SAO 82313 in a field with very few stars.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4375 = H II-379 = h1238 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "F, S."  JH made two observations and logged (sweep 66) "F; R: has a small star 35” nf, 90" dist."

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NGC 4376 = UGC 7498 = MCG +01-32-053 = CGCG 042-093 = LGG 289-027 = PGC 40494

12 25 18.2 +05 44 29; Vir

V = 13.4;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 157”

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 1.0'x0.5', broad, weak concentration with no noticeable core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4376 = H II-530 on 2 Feb 1786 (sweep 521) and noted "F, S."  CH's reduction is 2' southwest of UGC 7498.

 

The RNGC misidentifies NGC 4378, located 50' south of UGC 7498, as NGC 4376.  Listed in my RNGC Corrections #2.

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NGC 4377 = UGC 7501 = MCG +03-32-025 = CGCG 099-041 = III Zw 65 = PGC 40477

12 25 12.4 +14 45 44; Com

V = 11.9;  Size 1.7'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 177”

 

17.5" (5/23/87): moderately bright, fairly small, almost round or slightly elongated N-S, small very bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4377 = H I-12 = h1239 on 19 Feb 1784 (sweep 149) and recorded "pB, but not vL; I saw it only through a very strong haziness and only a single moment."  JH made the single observation "B; S; vsmbM" and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4378 = UGC 7497 = MCG +01-32-052 = CGCG 042-092 = PGC 40490

12 25 18.1 +04 55 30; Vir

V = 11.7;  Size 2.9'x2.7';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 167”

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly bright, fairly small, very bright core, very slightly elongated.  Forms an obtuse angle with mag 9 stars SAO 119386 3.9' N and SAO 119388 3.5' ESE.  NGC 4376 lies 49' N.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4378 = H I-123 = h1228 on 2 Feb 1786 (sweep 521) and noted "F, S".  CH's reduction is at the south edge of the halo.  JH made the single observation "B; visible in strong twilight; has a * 8-9 mag 20” sf dist 3'."  Heinrich d'Arrest measured an accurate position (single observation) and noted the error in RA in the GC.

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NGC 4379 = UGC 7502 = MCG +03-32-026 = CGCG 099-042 = PGC 40484

12 25 14.7 +15 36 27; Com

V = 11.7;  Size 1.9'x1.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 105”

 

17.5" (5/23/87): moderately bright, small, round, strong bright core.  NGC 4396 is located 11' ENE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4379 = H II-87 = h1240 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 182) and noted "S, resolvable, brightest in the middle."  There is nothing at his position, though UGC 7502 is 10' northwest.  JH independently discovered this galaxy on 6 May 1826 and assumed h1240 was a new object.  In the GC, he questioned the equivalence with II-87.  Heinrich d'Arrest also observed NGC 4379 and discovered nearby NGC 4396.  He was uncertain which one was WH's II-87.  In the NGC, Dreyer concluded II-87 = h1240 and noted WH's early sweeps were often poor in position.

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NGC 4380 = UGC 7503 = MCG +02-32-037 = CGCG 070-061 = LGG 289-041 = PGC 40507

12 25 22.1 +10 00 59; Vir

V = 11.7;  Size 3.5'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 153”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): moderately bright, fairly large, fairly diffuse but gradually increases to a very small brighter core.  A mag 14 star is off the south end 2.4' from center.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4380 = h1241 on 10 Mar 1826 and logged "vF; pL; R; lbM."  In the IC 2 Notes section, Dreyer mentions that Frost was unable to identify this galaxy on a Harvard plate of 4 hours exposure, although it was included in Adelaide Ames' 1930 "A Catalogue of 2778 Nebulae, including the Coma-Virgo Group", based on plates taken with the Bruce astrograph at Arequipa.

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NGC 4381 = NGC 4357 = UGC 7478 = MCG +08-23-017 = CGCG 244-010 = PGC 40296

12 23 58.9 +48 46 47; CVn

 

See observing notes for NGC 4357.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4381 = H II-743 on 9 Mar 1788 (sweep 816) and logged "F, S." There is nothing at his position, but 70 sec of RA west is NGC 4357 = UGC 7478 and the equivalence was suggested by Dreyer in his 1912 revision of WH's catalogues.  NGC 4357 was found again by Bigourdan (II-52) on 8 Mar 1886 and placed accurately.  NGC 4381 should be the primary designation by historical precedence.

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NGC 4382 = M85 = UGC 7508 = MCG +03-32-029 = CGCG 099-045 = Holm 397a = PGC 40515

12 25 24.0 +18 11 28; Com

V = 9.1;  Size 7.1'x5.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 5”

 

17.5" (5/23/87): very bright, moderately large, small very bright core.  A mag 13 star is superimposed near the NNE edge and a mag 10 star is off the SE side 2.7' from center.  Forms a pair with NGC 4394 7.6' ENE.

 

Pierre MŽchain discovered M85 = NGC 4382 = h1242 on 4 Mar 1781.  William Herschel made an observation on 14 Mar 1784 (sweep 170) and recorded "Two resolvable nebulae; the preceding is the largest and with 157 seems to have another small nebula joining to it [NGC 4394], but with 240 it appears to be a star."  John Herschel recorded on 23 Mar 1827 (sweep 61), "vB; R; bM; 2' diam; has a * 80” np dist 30" from edge."

 

Based on a photograph taken with the Crossley reflector, Heber Curtis called it a "Very bright oval, 4'x2'; very slight traces of spiral structure."

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NGC 4383 = UGC 7507 = MCG +03-32-030 = CGCG 099-044 = Mrk 769 = PGC 40516

12 25 25.4 +16 28 12; Com

V = 12.1;  Size 1.9'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 28”

 

17.5" (5/23/87): moderately bright, very small, bright stellar nucleus, small faint extensions SW-NE.  A mag 12 star is 1.8' SW of center.

 

Eduard Schšnfeld discovered NGC 4383 on 23 May 1862 with a 6" Steinheil refractor.  This galaxy is not listed in the GC (JH missed the discovery announcement in Schšnfeld's "Beobachtungen von Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen") but Dreyer added it to the GSC (5644).  Engelhardt measured an accurate micrometric position.

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NGC 4384 = UGC 7506 = MCG +09-20-168 = CGCG 269-055 = Mrk 207 = PGC 40475

12 25 12.0 +54 30 22; UMa

V = 13.0;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 90”

 

18" (3/30/05): moderately bright, fairly small, irregularly round, 0.8'x0.7'.  Fairly well concentrated to a small, brighter core and a quasi-stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Located 11' SW of mag 7.5 HD 108316.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4384 = H III-879 = h1243 on 2 Apr 1791 (sweep 1001) and logged "cF, S, iF."  His position is 1' north of UGC 7506.  This is an active galaxy with a UV excess.

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NGC 4385 = UGC 7515 = MCG +00-32-009 = CGCG 014-034 = Mrk 52 = PGC 40564

12 25 42.8 +00 34 21; Vir

V = 12.5;  Size 2.2'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 82”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated E-W, small bright core.  Located 4' N of mag 9 SAO 119390.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4385 = m 239 on 22 Mar 1865 and noted "vF, vS, alm stell."  His position is 1' south of UGC 7515.

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NGC 4386 = UGC 7491 = MCG +13-09-027 = CGCG 352-033 = LGG 284-006 = PGC 40378

12 24 28.3 +75 31 44; Dra

V = 11.7;  Size 2.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 135”

 

18" (3/5/05): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 NW-SE.  Contains a small bright core which increases to the center, surrounded by an oval halo 1.2'x0.8'.  Third in an impressive trio with NGC 4291 and NGC 4319.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4386 = H I-277 = h1247 on 10 Dec 1797 (sweep 1066) and recorded "cB, cL, mbM."  JH made two observations and logged (sweep 348) "pB; lE; psmbM; 25"."  His position matches UGC 7491.

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NGC 4387 = UGC 7517 = MCG +02-32-039 = CGCG 070-065 = PGC 40562

12 25 41.7 +12 48 38; Vir

V = 12.1;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 140”

 

24" (4/28/14): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:4 NNW-SSE, 25"x20", gradually increases to a stellar nucleus.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.5' NNW and a mag 15.5 star is 50" S of center.  At the center of M84, M86 and NGC 4388, ~10' from each galaxy.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): moderately bright, very small, slightly elongated NW-SE, brighter core.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.4' NNW.  This member of the Virgo cluster is located in the center of the triangle formed by M84, M86 and NGC 4388 with NGC 4388 9' S, M84 10' NW and M86 11' NE.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): fairly faint, slightly elongated N-S.  A faint star is close north.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4387 = H II-167 = h1250, along with NGC 4388, 4413 and 4425, on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and recorded "Two nebulae [NGC 4388 and 4387]. The most southern [NGC 4388] extended."  His position is between the two galaxies.  Heinrich d'Arrest measured an accurate position on 4 different nights (#255 in AN 1537).

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NGC 4388 = UGC 7520 = MCG +02-32-041 = CGCG 070-068 = Holm 403c = PGC 40581

12 25 46.7 +12 39 41; Vir

V = 11.0;  Size 5.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 92”

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly bright, large, edge-on 4:1 E-W, well concentrated with a mottled, very bright core.  Fairly sharp light cutoff on the south side (dust lane) of the core.  Faint, stellar knots are at the west and east ends of the core.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): moderately bright, edge-on streak E-W, fairly large, brighter core, thin extensions.  A faint mag 14.5 star lies 1.3' NE of center.  Located 16' SE of M84 in the core of the Virgo cluster.  On a line between IC 3303 8.4' WNW and NGC 4413 11.4' ESE.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): fairly bright, very elongated E-W.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4388 = H II-168 = h1244, along with NGC 4387, 4413 and 4425, on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and recorded "Two nebulae [NGC 4388 and 4387]. The most southern [NGC 4388] extended."  His position is between the two galaxies.  John Herschel noted "vF; E; the p of 2 [with NGC 4413], dist about 30s in RA."  He didn't realize this was the same as his father's II-168, so listed it as a "nova" and included separate listings in the GC for II-168 and h1244.  Dreyer combined the listings in the NGC.

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NGC 4389 = UGC 7514 = MCG +08-23-028 = CGCG 244-014 = PGC 40537

12 25 35.4 +45 41 03; CVn

V = 11.7;  Size 2.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 105”

 

13.1" (3/17/86): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, brighter along the major axis.  A mag 13.5 star is off the SE edge 1.1' from center and a mag 12.5 star lies 2.1' NNW.  Similar view on 4/12/86.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4389 = H II-749 = h1245 on 10 Apr 1788 (sweep 830) and recorded "pB, S, iF."  JH made 3 observations, noting on sweep 255 "F; vL; E; vglbM; 2' l, 1.5' br."

 

On 30 Mar 1856, R.J. Mitchell logged at Birr Castle "pB, E, Nucl, a bright streak runs through the nucleus, growing broader at the preceding end, on either side of this I suspect dark spaces and outside them again faint nebulosity, especially to south side of the nucleus."  His sketch was included in LdR's 1861 publication.

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NGC 4390 = IC 3320 = UGC 7519 = MCG +02-32-040 = CGCG 070-067 = PGC 40597

12 25 50.7 +10 27 33; Vir

V = 12.6;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 95”

 

17.5" (4/20/87): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, diffuse, even or almost even surface brightness.  Located 26' NNE of NGC 4380.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4390 = H III-39 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and noted "vF; near some bright stars."  His re-reduced position is 5' northeast of UGC 7519, though the nearest stars as bright as mag 10 and 11 are roughly 10' away.  Heinrich d'Arrest measured an accurate position on 3 nights and noted the discrepancy of 20 sec in RA and 2.9' in declination, so he wasn't certain if it was the same object.  Dreyer used d'Arrest's mean position in the NGC.

 

Schwassmann "rediscovered" this galaxy on a Heidelberg plate in 1900 and it was catalogued again as Sn. 155 (later IC 3320).  Apparently he was unaware of the NGC identification (a number of his objects have NGC designations) and Dreyer missed the equivalence.

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NGC 4391 = UGC 7511 = MCG +11-15-053 = CGCG 315-037 = VII Zw 454 = PGC 40500

12 25 18.8 +64 56 00; Dra

V = 12.7;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (4/15/93): fairly faint, small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  A fairly bright triple star is 2' WSW consisting of three mag 10.5-12 stars with separations 34", 50" and 68".  NGC 4441 lies 14' SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4391 = H III-852 = h1248 on 20 Mar 1790 (sweep 954) and logged "vF, stellar, north following a small triangle of B stars."  JH made two observations, first recording on sweep 411 "pB; S; bM; 12".  Near a pB triple star."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 4392 = MCG +08-23-023 = CGCG 244-012 = I Zw 35 = PGC 40499

12 25 18.8 +45 50 51; CVn

V = 13.7;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

13.1" (3/17/86): fairly faint, small, elongated, bright core.  Located 10' NNW of NGC 4389.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4392 = H III-729 = h1249 on 27 Apr 1788 (sweep 833) and noted "vF, S."  Caroline's reduction is within 1' of CGCG 244-012 = PGC 40499.  John Herschel made the single observation, "F; S; R; vgbM.  RA from II. 749 [NGC 4389], which it follows 10 sec."  But NGC 4392 is west of NGC 4389 by 17 sec of RA (3' north of JH's position), so there must have been some confusion.  JH used his position in the GC and Dreyer followed, so the NGC position is poor.  As a result, Curtis reportd in the 1918 "Descriptions of 762 Nebulae and Clusters Photographed with the Crossley Reflector", "There is nothing in just this position, though there are several small nebulae near."  He did finger the correct galaxy, though: "The NGC description accords best with a very small, moderately bright oval 9' n: and 2' w. of 4389."

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NGC 4393 = UGC 7521 = MCG +05-29-083 = CGCG 158-104 = PGC 40600

12 25 51.6 +27 33 43; Com

V = 12.1;  Size 3.2'x3.0';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 0”

 

18" (5/30/03): faint, large, diffuse glow, approximately 2.5'x2.0' in diameter, extended N-S, very low surface brightness with just a broad, weak concentration.  A neat string of 6 mag 11-12.5 stars running NNW-SSE passes 6'-7' W.  Located 19' NNW of mag 4.9 14 Comae Berenices.  NGC 4408 lies 19' NNE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4393 = H III-361 = h1246 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "vF, vL."  Caroline's reduced position is on the west edge of the galaxy.  John Herschel called it "F; irreg fig; has a line of bright stars preceding."

 

Harold Corwin notes that IC 3329, found by Max Wolf on a Heidelberg plate, is an HII knot in NGC 4393.  IC 3323 is a nearby star.

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NGC 4394 = UGC 7523 = MCG +03-32-035 = CGCG 099-047 = Holm 397b = PGC 40614

12 25 55.6 +18 12 50; Com

V = 10.9;  Size 3.6'x3.2';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (5/23/87): moderately bright, fairly small, brighter core, slightly elongated NNW-SSE.  Forms a pair with M85 7.6' W.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4394 = H II-55 = h1251 on 14 Mar 1784 (sweep 170) and noted "Two resolvable nebula.  The preceding [M85] is the largest and with 157 seems to have another small nebula joining to it, but with 240 it appears to be a star."  He only measured a single position (matching M85).  JH made two observations and his mean position matches UGC 7523.

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NGC 4395 = UGC 7524 = MCG +06-27-053 = CGCG 187-042 = PGC 40596

12 25 48.9 +33 32 51; CVn

V = 10.2;  Size 13.2'x11.0';  Surf Br = 15.4;  PA = 147”

 

17.5" (5/15/99): this chaotic galaxy is dominated by several bright HII regions. At 100x, the large low surface brightness glow is clearly clumpy with a couple of faint knots evident on the east side of the haze. At 220x, the glow of the galaxy is more difficult to view and several nonstellar knots and a couple of very faint superimposed stars are more prominent. The brightest HII region is NGC 4401 located 2' SE of the core, ~25" in size, with a second smaller 15" knot (NGC 4400) close south. The core of the galaxy appears as an ill-defined, low surface brightness glow, larger than the individual HII knots.  A mag 14.5 star is superimposed NE of the core. On the SW side of the core is a third difficult knot, about 15" in diameter (NGC 4399) requiring averted vision to confirm.  Member of the M94 Group (CVn I Cloud).

 

17.5": faint, very large, extremely low surface brightness, must use low magnification to view.  Three knots are involved (one of these observed "knots" may be the core) within a very diffuse glow.  The brightest knot (NGC 4401) is at the SE end about 2' SE of center with NGC 4400 close SSW of NGC 4401.  A mag 14.5 star is at the north end.  Also see description for NGC 4399.

 

13.1" (4/12/86): at 62x appears very large, diffuse, slightly elongated glow, broad very weak concentration.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4395 = H V-29.1 = h1252 on 2 Jan 1786 (sweep 508) and recorded "eF, vL, vlbM, resolvable, about 10' long and 8 or 9' broad."  JH made two observations, logging on 29 Apr 1827, "two nebulae running into one another; both eF, vL, the f rather the brighter. Place that of the preceding."  Dreyer catalogued the two components as NGC 4395 = V 29.1 and NGC 4401 = V 29.2.  On a second observation, JH wrote "vL; extremely ill defined, may perhaps be 10' l, 3' br; pslbM to an irregular centre.  On closer inspection bicentral; pos of the nuclei 30” np; dist 2'."

 

This galaxy was viewed on three occasions at Birr Castle by Bindon Stoney, who recorded "a cluster of nebulae found" on 13 Apr 1850 and "there are 4 nebulae.  The 3 f ones seem to be inv in a mass of F neby."  Based on these observations, Dreyer included two additional entries: NGC 4399 and NGC 4400. The sketch of these condensations match up well with my own observations with a 17.5" and can be identified on the POSS.

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NGC 4396 = UGC 7526 = MCG +03-32-034 = CGCG 099-049 = Holm 400a = PGC 40622

12 25 58.9 +15 40 19; Com

V = 12.6;  Size 3.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 125”

 

17.5" (5/23/87): faint, fairly small, edge-on NW-SE, even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is at the NW end [probably IC 3310] 1.1' from center and a brighter mag 12 star is 1.4' NNE of center.  Located 11' S of mag 6.9 SAO 100095 which is at the north edge of a 220x field.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4396 on 20 Apr 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen and measured the position on 2 nights. He also observed NGC 4379 and was uncertain which was H II-87 (likely NGC 4379, see that number).

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NGC 4397

12 25 58.1 +18 18 04; Com

 

= ***, Carlson.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 4397 = T I-44 and placed "5 sec following, 6 arcmin north of II 55 [NGC 4394]".  Very close to this offset is a triple star, including a 4"-5" close pair, with the third component at 18".  Dorothy Carlson also identifies NGC 4397 as this triple star.

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NGC 4398

12 26 07.5 +10 41 10; Vir

 

= *14.5, Reinmuith and Corwin.  = *, Carlson.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4398 on 19 Apr 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position corresponds with a mag 13.8 star and his description of two mag 11/13 stars (closer to mag 10/11.5) that precede by 11.6 sec and 16.35 sec of time is a perfect match.  d'Arrest was uncertain if his object was the same as WH's III-39, and noted the descrepancy in declination.  Neither Bigourdan (visually) nor Frost (on photographic plate) found NGC 4398, but Karl Reinmuth identified it as a mag 14.5 star using a Heidelberg plate.

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NGC 4399

12 25 42.8 +33 30 57; CVn

 

17.5" (5/15/99): faintest of three HII knots observed in NGC 4395.  Appeared extremely faint and small, 10"-15" in size and situated 2.3' SW of the ill-defined core on a line with a mag 14.5 star to the NE of the core.  Required averted vision to confirm.

 

George Johnstone Stoney, Lord Rosse's assistant, discovered NGC 4399, along with NGC 4400, on 13 Apr 1850, while observing NGC 4395.  On 14 Apr 1855, R.J. Mitchell noted "there are 4 nebulae.  The 3 following ones seem to be involved in a mass of faint nebulosity.  A sketch shows 4 "nebulae" along with a couple of stars.  One of these (furthest north on the sketch) is the core of NGC 4395 and the other three (NGC 4399, NGC 4400 and NGC 4401) are HII knots in the galaxy.  John Herschel recorded NGC 4401, the brightest of the knots.

 

Francis Pease assigned NGC 4399 to the knot identified here as NGC 4400 in his 1920 paper on nebulae photographed with the Mt Wilson 60-inch.  Corwin lists the position for NGC 4399 as 12 25 42.8 +33 30 57, which is just following a mag 15 star.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent with the description "Part of NGC 4395."

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NGC 4400

12 25 55.9 +33 30 54; CVn

 

17.5" (5/15/99): very small HII knot in NGC 4395 situated 0.9' SSW of brighter NGC 4401.  Shows up well at 220x, although only 15" in size and no other details.

 

17.5": one of a pair of knots in the SE end of galaxy NGC 4395.  The smaller and fainter of the pair (probably NGC 4400) is very faint, fairly small and is close SSW of NGC 4401.

 

George Johnstone Stoney, Lord Rosse's assistant, discovered NGC 4400, along with NGC 4399, on 13 Apr 1850.  See notes on NGC 4399.

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NGC 4401

12 25 57.5 +33 31 42; CVn

 

17.5" (5/15/99): this number refers to the brightest HII region in NGC 4395, located ~2' SE of the ill-defined core.  Fairly easy at 220x (the galaxy loses its identity at this power!), appearing as an irregular 25" knot.  Off the south side is a second fainter knot (NGC 4400).

 

17.5": brightest of three knots in the galaxy NGC 4395 along with NGC 4399 and NGC 4400.  Appears fairly faint and fairly small.  Forms a close pair with knot NGC 4400 just SSW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4401 = h1252 on 29 Apr 1827, while observing NGC 4395 (discovered by WH).  He described "Two nebulae running into one another; both eF, vL, the following rather the brighter."  JH's description most likely applies to the core of NGC 4395 and the brightest of the HII knots in this galaxy.  Two additional knots (NGC 4399 and NGC 4400) were sketched at Birr Castle.

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NGC 4402 = UGC 7528 = MCG +02-32-044 = CGCG 070-071 = Holm 403d = PGC 40644

12 26 07.7 +13 06 48; Vir

V = 11.8;  Size 3.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 90”

 

24" (4/28/14): moderately bright, fairly large, very elongated 7:2 E-W, 2.1'x0.6'.  Very mottled, patchy appearance implying a dusty equatorial plane and HII regions, though individual knots were not resolved.  M86 is 10' N.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): fairly faint, fairly large, very elongated 3:1 E-W, fairly even surface brightness. Located 10' N of M86 in core of the Virgo cluster.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): faint, fairly large, even surface brightness.

 

George Johnstone Stoney, Lord Rosse's assistant, discovered NGC 4402 = Au 30 on 13 Apr 1849 and labeled it Eta on the diagram of the central core of the Virgo cluster.  He also noted "Eta hollow in the middle [dust lane], probably a ring seen obliquely, faint star north of its middle, seen best with the single lens."

 

Arthur Auwers independently discovered NGC 4402 on 5 Mar 1862 with the 6.2-inch Fraunhofer heliometer at the Kšnigsberg Observatory and recorded "faint, gradually brighter in the middle, much elongated in the parallel [east-west], 3' long and 1.5' broad."  Auwers is credited with the discovery in the GC and NGC as no positions or offsets were measured at Birr Castle.

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NGC 4403 = MCG -01-32-008 = Holm 402a = PGC 40656

12 26 12.8 -07 41 05; Vir

V = 13.0;  Size 2.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 30”

 

17.5" (5/19/01): NGC 4403 is the preceding and fainter member of close pair with NGC 4404 just 0.9' NE.  Appears fairly faint, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, 1.2'x0.4' with a brighter core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4403 = H III-75, along with NGC 4404, 5 on 20 Mar 1789 (sweep 913) and recorded both as "Two, both vF, vS, E, within 1 1/2' of each other."  Neither galaxy was observed by JH.

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NGC 4404 = MCG -01-32-009 = Holm 402b = PGC 40666

12 26 16.2 -07 40 51; Vir

V = 11.2;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 11.7

 

17.5" (5/19/01): this is the following member of a close pair with NGC 4404 just 0.9' SW.  Moderately bright, round, fairly small, 0.8'x0.6' SW-NE.  Contains a sharp, brighter core.  Although smaller than NGC 4403 this galaxy is the brighter of the pair with a higher surface brightness.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4404 = H III-756, along with NGC 4403, on 20 Mar 1789 (sweep 913) and recorded both as "Two, both vF, vS, E, within 1 1/2' of each other."  His single position is less than 1' from NGC 4404.

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NGC 4405 = IC 788 = UGC 7529 = MCG +03-32-036 = CGCG 099-050 = LGG 289-059 = PGC 40643

12 26 07.1 +16 10 52; Com

V = 12.0;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 20”

 

17.5" (5/23/87): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S.  IC 787 lies 11' WSW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4405 = H II-88 = h1254 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 182) and noted "S, resolvable, brightest in the middle."  CH's reduced position is 11 sec of RA east of UGC 7529.  JH called this galaxy "pB; R; vsbM; 30"." and measured an accurate position.

 

Stephane Javelle independently discovered this galaxy on 19 May 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory, measured an accurate position and included it in his second discovery list, #748 (later IC 788).  Javelle's offset point directly to this galaxy. So, NGC 4405 = IC 788.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 4406 = M86 = UGC 7532 = MCG +02-32-046 = CGCG 070-072 = Holm 403a = PGC 40653

12 26 11.7 +12 56 46; Vir

V = 8.9;  Size 8.9'x5.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 130”

 

24" (4/28/14): at 260x appeared extremely bright, very large, oval 3:2 NW-SE, 4.5'x3.0'.  Sharply concentrated with a very intensely bright core that increases down to the center.  The halo increases in size with averted and gradually fades out at the periphery.  Brightest galaxy in the central core of the Virgo cluster.

 

18" (6/12/10): at 175x appears very bright, very large, elongated 4:3 or 5:3 NW-SE, ~4.3'x3.0'.  The outer halo gradually brightens then dramatically increases to a very intense 45" core that increases down to a stellar nucleus.  The nucleus is fairly well defined as a 20" brighter inner zone.  A mag 14.6 star is at the ENE edge of the halo, 2.0' from center.  Brighter of a 17' pair with M84 in the core of the Virgo cluster.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): very bright, fairly large, slightly elongated 4:3 NW-SE, 4'x3', intense core, substellar nucleus, large diffuse halo.  One of the two brightest galaxies in the core of the Virgo cluster along with M84 17' W.  NGC 4402 lies 10' N.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): very bright, larger and more elongated than M84.

 

Charles Messier is credited with the discovery of M86 = NGC 4406 = h1253 on 18 Mar 1781, along with M84, and described a "Nebula without star, in Virgo, on the parallel and very near to the nebula above, No. 84: their appearances are the same, & both appear together in the same field of the telescope."  But Wolfgang Steinicke recently found (email Oct '16) that Johann Gottfried Koehler made the original discovery on 5 May 1779.  WH only recorded it on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and simply noted "B.  Is No. 74 of the Connoissance des Temps." JH listed M86 as a "Nova", probably due to the poor positions of his father.  On sweep 22 he logged "vB; R; gbM to nearly a star" and on sweep 243 "vB; L; pgmbM; r."

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NGC 4407 = NGC 4413 = UGC 7538 = MCG +02-32-049 = CGCG 070-076 = Holm 403f = PGC 40705

12 26 32.2 +12 36 39; Vir

 

See observing notes for NGC 4413.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4407 = h1255 on 4 May 1829 and simply noted "the following of 2" with h1244 = NGC 4388.  There is nothing at his approximate position, but the description for NGC 4388 mentions the second nebula follows by roughly 30 sec in RA.  NGC 4413 follows by 47 sec in RA and is the only reasonable candidate nearby.  This identification was suggested by Frost, based on Harvard plates and Harold Corwin concurs NGC 4407 = NGC 4413.  See Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 4408 = CGCG 158-107 = PGC 40668

12 26 17.2 +27 52 16; Com

V = 13.9;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 30”

 

18" (5/30/03): faint, small, elongated 4:3, 0.4'x0.25', brighter along the major axis.  There appears to be a faint star at the SE edge.  Located 19' NNE of NGC 4393.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4408 on 21 Apr 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position is accurate.

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NGC 4409 = NGC 4420 = UGC 7549 = MCG +01-32-064 = CGCG 042-106 = PGC 40775

12 26 58.5 +02 29 39; Vir

 

See observing notes for NGC 4420.

 

William Herschel found NGC 4409 = H III-17 on 23 Feb 1784 (sweep 158) and noted "vF, pS, it seems to be resolveable."  There is nothing at his position, but 25 sec of RA east is NGC 4420 = UGC 7549, which WH discovered just a month earlier and catalogued as H. II 23.  JH suggested the equivalence in his observation of this galaxy.  As WH's positions in his early sweeps were prone to errors and there are no other nearby candidates, this equivalence is certain.

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NGC 4410 = UGC 7535 = MCG +02-32-047 = CGCG 070-073 = Mrk 1325 = WBL 408-004 = PGC 40694 = PGC 40697

12 26 28.9 +09 01 11; Vir

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  PA = 110”

 

24" (6/4/16): at 225x; NGC 4410 is a merged, interacting pair at 20" separation in a common halo.  NGC 4410B, the brighter eastern component, appeared moderately bright, small, round, 20"-25" diameter (the halos overlap), very small bright core.  NGC 4410A, the western galaxy, appeared fairly faint, small, round, 15" diameter, weak concentration, lower surface brightness than NGC 4410B.

 

IC 790 = NGC 4410C, located 1.8' ENE, appeared fairly faint, small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 24"x16", very small brighter nucleus.  A very diffuse tidal plume (not seen) connects IC 790 with NGC 4410A/B.  CGCG 070-079, 2.3' ENE of IC 790 (and also connected by a tidal plume), is faint, small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, 24"x12".

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated E-W, weak concentration.  This double system (NGC 4410A and 4410B) was not resolved.  NGC 4410A is the brightest in a quartet with IC 790 1.9' NE and CGCG 070-079 4' ENE (not seen).  NGC 4411A lies 9' S.  IC 790 appeared very faint, very small, elongated E-W.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4410 = h1256 on 18 Jan 1828 and recorded "eF; vL; R; gbM; 2.5' diameter."  His position is 7 sec if RA too far west.

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NGC 4411 = NGC 4411A = IC 3339 = UGC 7537 = MCG +02-32-048 = CGCG 070-074 = WBL 408-006 = PGC 40695

12 26 30.0 +08 52 20; Vir

V = 12.7;  Size 2.0'x1.9';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

24" (6/4/16): at 225x; faint or fairly faint, moderately large, round, low surface brightness, ~1.2' diameter.  The view is confused by a superimposed mag 13.5 star, slightly west of center.  A diffuse but uneven glow encompasses the star, with the very weak core just east of the star.  The halo has a very low surface brightness and it was difficult to estimate the diameter.

 

Forms a pair with (similar) low surface brightness NGC 4411B 4.4' ENE.  It appeared faint or fairly faint, fairly large, round, low surface brightness, weak concentration, ~1.6' diameter.  The halo fades out gradually with no distinct edge (increases in size with averted vision) but doesn't reach a mag 13 star off the northwest edge (1.3' from center).

 

CGCG 070-087, located 11' NE, appeared fairly faint, small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 24"x15", sharply concentrated with a brighter 15" core that gradually increases to the center and very low surface brightness extensions.  A mag 9.5 star (HD 108384) is 1.2' NE.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): very faint, round, fairly small, very diffuse glow.  Unusual appearance as a mag 13 star is superimposed on the core and the galaxy appears as a low surface brightness halo surrounds this star.  Forms a close pair with NGC 4411B 4' ENE.

 

Christian Peters discovered NGC 4411 around 1881 with the 13.5-inch refractor at Hamilton College Observatory.  His position matches UGC 7537 (generally known as NGC 4411A).  Arnold Schwassmann rediscovered the galaxy on a Heidelberg plate in 1900 and assumed it was new.  Dreyer missed the nearly identical positions, so IC 3339 is another designation. Gerard de Vaucouleurs used the letter suffix NGC 4411A in the 1964 "Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies".

 

When Bigourdan observed the field, he found B. 298, which was described as "very large and diffuse, about 2.5' dia, slbM.  Could be NGC 4411 with an error of 17 sec in RA."  In the IC 2 notes Dreyer mentions this is probably the same as NGC 4411, but B. 298 refers to NGC 4411B = UGC 7546, situated 4.5' east-northeast.  Because of Dreyer's error, this galaxy did not receive an IC designation.  See Corwin's notes for more on the story.

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NGC 4412 = UGC 7536 = MCG +01-32-062 = CGCG 042-104 = LGG 281-017 = PGC 40715

12 26 36.1 +03 57 52; Vir

V = 12.4;  Size 1.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly faint, moderately large, slightly elongated N-S, weak concentration at center to a small brighter core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4412 = H II-34 = h1257 on 23 Feb 1784 (sweep 158) and noted "vF, pS.  Seems to be resolveable and resembles the former [NGC 4409 = NGC 4420]."  His position is 30 sec of RA east of UGC 7536, the only nearby galaxy.  JH made two observations, calling it "; L; R; vgbM" on sweep 238 and measured an accurate RA.

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NGC 4413 = NGC 4407 = UGC 7538 = MCG +02-32-049 = CGCG 070-076 = PGC 40705

12 26 32.2 +12 36 39; Vir

V = 12.3;  Size 2.3'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 60”

 

24" (4/28/14): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 0.9'x0.6'.  Unusual appearance with a brighter bar and a small, bright rounder nucleus.  The bar and halo are not aligned along the same axis.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, slightly brighter along major axis.  A mag 12 star is off the north edge 1.4' from center and a mag 11 star is 2.9' N.  Located 12' ESE of NGC 4388 in the core of Virgo cluster with NGC 4425 12.7' NE.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): faint, small, slightly elongated, diffuse.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4413 = H II-169 = h1259, along with NGC 4387, 4388 and 4425, on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199).  He noted "S.  It may be taken into the field with other [NGC 4387 and 4388].  Caroline's reduced position is 17 seconds of RA east of UGC 7538.

 

On 11 Apr 1825 (early sweep 3), John Herschel recorded, "eF; gbM; has 2 stars, n and n p."  His position is 2.8' too far south, although the description clearly applies.  Four years later he recorded it again as h1255 = NGC 4407 and simply noted "the following of 2 [with NGC 4388].  His position was marked as very uncertain or approximate but was noted as ~30 seconds following NGC 4388 (the actual RA difference is 47 sec).  So, NGC 4413 = NGC 4407, with NGC 4413 the primary designation.

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NGC 4414 = UGC 7539 = MCG +05-29-085 = CGCG 158-108 = PGC 40692

12 26 27.0 +31 13 23; Com

V = 10.1;  Size 3.6'x2.0';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 155”

 

17.5" (4/25/98): bright, elongated NNW-SSE, ~3'x2'.  Sharp concentration with a prominent rounder core which increases to a stellar nucleus.  There appears to be a sharper light cutoff along the preceding edge and an hint of spiral structure in the outer halo.  Observation hampered by hazy skies.

 

8": fairly bright, elongated NW-SE, small bright nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4414 = H I-77 = h1258 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 387) and recorded "vB, L, E, broadly [concentrated] to a mbM."  JH made two observations and logged (sweep 342) "vB; L; pmE; first gb and the vsvmbM to a nucleus = 11m; 3' l, 90" br."

 

Spiral structure was not described at Birr Castle, though on 12 Apr 1849, LdR or assistant George Stoney recorded "uncertain whether double nucleus or nucleus and star; neby decidely darker in middle, following the nucleus and rather brighter outside this."  The 7 Mar 1856 observation by R.J. Mitchell also mentions "Has a double nucl or a nucl and a star which are excentric, being nearer the sp side; light uneven and patchy.  I suspect especially a darkness north of the main nucleus."

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NGC 4415 = UGC 7540 = MCG +02-32-052 = CGCG 070-078 = LGG 292-013 = PGC 40727

12 26 40.5 +08 26 08; Vir

V = 12.1;  Size 1.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 0”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, weak concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is 2.4' NNW of center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4415 = H III-482 on 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 498) and simply noted "eF".  His position (CH's reduction) is just 3 sec of RA too small.

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NGC 4416 = UGC 7541 = MCG +01-32-063 = CGCG 042-105 = LGG 289-056 = PGC 40743

12 26 46.7 +07 55 08; Vir

V = 12.4;  Size 1.7'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (4/21/90): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, gradually increases to small bright core.  Located 4' NE of mag 8 SAO 119397.  M49 lies 45' E and NGC 4434 20' NE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4416 = h1260 on 27 Dec 1827 (sweep 117) and recorded "vF; L; R; 60"; has a * 7m, 5' sp."  His position and description matches this galaxy.

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NGC 4417 = UGC 7542 = MCG +02-32-053 = CGCG 070-080 = LGG 292-019 = PGC 40756

12 26 50.6 +09 35 03; Vir

V = 11.1;  Size 3.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 49”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): bright, moderately large, elongated lens-shape SW-NE, bright bulging core containing a bright stellar nucleus.  NGC 4424 lies 11' SSE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4417 = H II-155 on 15 Apr 1784 (sweep 194) and logged "F, pL, lE and lb towards the preceding side, r."  CH's reduction is 3' northeast of UGC 7542.

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NGC 4418 = NGC 4355 = UGC 7545 = MCG +00-32-012 = CGCG 014-039 = PGC 40762

12 26 54.6 -00 52 40; Vir

V = 13.1;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 59”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, small, oval SW-NE, broad concentration.  A mag 15 star is just off the SW end 0.9' from center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4418 = H III-492 = h1261 on 1 Jan 1786 (sweep 507) and recorded "vF, mE, cL, r."  His position is 3' south of UGC 7545 = PGC 40762.  JH made two observations, noting on sweep 146 "F; S; R; near a star" and measured an accurate position.

 

David Todd independently discovered this galaxy on 5 Feb 1878 and recorded it as object #17 in his search for a trans-Neptunian planet.  Todd's rough RA is 4.0 tmin too far west but his field sketch and offsets to nearby stars clearly match this galaxy.

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NGC 4419 = UGC 7551 = MCG +03-32-038 = CGCG 099-054 = PGC 40772

12 26 56.3 +15 02 51; Com

V = 11.2;  Size 3.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 133”

 

17.5" (5/23/87): fairly bright, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 2.4'x0.8', bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4419 = H II-113 = h1262 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and noted "E, resolvable."  JH called this galaxy "B; E; np to sf; sbM" and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4420 = NGC 4409 = UGC 7549 = MCG +01-32-064 = CGCG 042-106 = PGC 40775

12 26 58.5 +02 29 39; Vir

V = 12.1;  Size 2.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 8”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): moderately bright, moderately large, very elongated N-S, almost even surface brightness, nuclear bulge.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4420 = H II-23 = h1263 on 24 Jan 1784 (sweep 119) and logged "F, E."  His position is 30 sec of RA east and 5' south (positions in his early sweeps often have larger errors) of UGC 7549.  He recorded the galaxy again a month later as III-17 and it later received the designation NGC 4409, although JH, who measured an accurate position, suspected it was a duplicate observation.  So, NGC 4420 = NGC 4409.

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NGC 4421 = UGC 7554 = MCG +03-32-039 = CGCG 099-055 = PGC 40785

12 27 02.6 +15 27 41; Com

V = 11.6;  Size 2.7'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 20”

 

17.5" (5/19/01): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S.  The 1.5' diameter halo is punctuated by a 30" prominent core.  Located 2.4' SE of mag 9.5 SAO 100101.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4421 = H II-89 = h1264 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 182) and noted "S, resolvable, brightest in the middle, near a bright star."  There is nothing at CH's reduced position but 10' northwest (similar error as  NGC 4379) is UGC 7554 as well as the bright star."  JH made two observations and measured a fairly accurate position.

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NGC 4422 = MCG -01-32-010 = PGC 40813

12 27 12.1 -05 49 52; Vir

V = 13.8;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.4

 

18" (5/8/04): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter.  Symmetric appearance as this round galaxy increases steadily to a small brighter core and stellar nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4422 = H III-114 = h1265 on 25 Apr 1784 (sweep 207) and recorded "Two very small stars with nebulosity.  240 rather confirmed it, but there is too much moonlight to see it perfectly.  It makes a vS nebula."  On a later sweep (706) he logged "vF, vS, stellar" and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4423 = UGC 7556 = MCG +01-32-065 = CGCG 042-107 = LGG 292-108 = PGC 40801

12 27 08.9 +05 52 47; Vir

V = 13.5;  Size 2.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 18”

 

17.5" (4/21/90): faint, moderately large, very elongated 4:1 SSW-NNE, low even surface brightness.  NGC 4430/NGC 4432 pair lies 25' NNE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4423 = H II-145 = h1266 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and noted "eF, E."  His position is 28 sec of RA east of UGC 7556.  JH logged "vF; vS; E" and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4424 = UGC 7561 = MCG +02-32-058 = CGCG 070-090 = LGG 288-008 = PGC 40809

12 27 11.7 +09 25 13; Vir

V = 11.7;  Size 3.6'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 95”

 

48" (3/1/19): at 488x; very bright, fairly large, elongated ~5:2 E-W, ~2.5'x1', asymmetric appearance.  Contains a larger bright elongated core that appears brightest on the east end (possibly a HII region).  The brighter central part extends further to the west than to the east of center.  The outer halo has a low surface brightness and dims out gradually, so there was no distinct edge.  A 16th mag star is off the south side [35" from center].  IC 3366, only 0.3' SW of this star, was almost fairly faint, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, ~15"x7".

 

17.5" (4/18/87): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated E-W, bright core.  NGC 4417 is at the edge of the 220x field 11' NNW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4424 on 27 Feb 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.   His position, measured on 4 nights, matches UGC 7561 and he estimated the size as 80".

 

SN 1895A was discovered in 1925 by Max Wolf on a plate taken on 16 Mar 1895 and reported as a variable star (assigned VW Vir) or a nova.  This supernova and 1895B (Z Cen) in NGC 5253 are the oldest known extragalactic supernovae after S And in M31, which occurred 10 years earlier.

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NGC 4425 = UGC 7562 = MCG +02-32-059 = CGCG 070-091 = Holm 403e = LGG 286-003 = PGC 40816

12 27 13.4 +12 44 05; Vir

V = 11.8;  Size 3.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 27”

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly bright, moderately large, very elongated 7:2 SSW-NNE, ~1.4'x0.4', small bright core.  A mag 13.8 star is 1.2' W of center and a mag 15.3 is 1.3' SE.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, small brighter core.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.2' W and a mag 11 star 4.4' ENE of center.  Located in the core of the Virgo cluster with NGC 4413 12.7' SW.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): fairly faint, very elongated, weak concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is 1' W and a mag 11 star to the east.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4425 = H II-170 = h1267, along with NGC 4387, 4388 and 4413, on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199).  He simply noted "F" and his position is ~18 sec of RA too far east (similar offsets with the others nearby).  JH recorded "pB; S; R; bM" and measured an accurate position (on a second sweep).

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NGC 4426 = NGC 4427

12 27 10.5 +27 50 17; Com

 

= **, Corwin and Dreyer

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4426 on 21 Apr 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  At his position is a 14" pair of mag 14.5/15 stars.  Interestingly, Bigourdan independently found this pair again 21 years later and also thought it was mixed with some nebulosity.  Both measured nearly identical positions and Dreyer realized the equivalence NGC 4426 = NGC 4427 = **, after compiling the NGC.

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NGC 4427 = NGC 4426

12 27 10.5 +27 50 17; Com

 

= **, Corwin and Dreyer

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found NGC 4427 = Big 53 on 22 Apr 1886 and described "vF, 2 or 3 stars mixed with nebulosity."  At his position is pair of stars separated by ~14".  The same pair was discovered earlier by Heinrich d'Arrest on 21 Apr 1865 and both positions are nearly identical in the NGC.  Dreyer must have realized the equivalence before publication of the NGC, as he added the note "These are evidently identical (note added in press)."

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NGC 4428 = MCG -01-32-012 = Holm 407b = PGC 40860

12 27 28.3 -08 10 04; Vir

V = 12.6;  Size 1.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 75”

 

17.5" (2/28/87): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated ~E-W, broad concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 4433 7' SSE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4428 = h1269 on 16 Mar 1828 and logged "pL; vF; very ill defined."  His position is close off the south side of MCG -01-32-012 = PGC 40860.

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NGC 4429 = UGC 7568 = MCG +02-32-061 = CGCG 070-093 = LGG 292-009 = PGC 40850

12 27 26.4 +11 06 29; Vir

V = 10.0;  Size 5.6'x2.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 99”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): very bright, fairly large, very bright core, stellar nucleus, faint extensions E-W.  Located 2.0' SSW of a mag 9.5 star.  Mag 9.2 HD 108453 lies 5' SSE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4429 = H II-65 = h1271 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and logged "pB, not vS."  His position is 40 sec of RA east of UGC 7568 (a similar error as a number of objects in the sweep).  On sweep 191, JH recorded "B; L; pmE; psbM; has a *10m nf, 1' distance."  He was uncertain if this was his father's object and noted "Nova, or II 65" in the Slough catalogue.

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NGC 4430 = UGC 7566 = MCG +01-32-067 = CGCG 042-111 = Holm 406a = LGG 289-033 = PGC 40851

12 27 26.2 +06 15 45; Vir

V = 12.0;  Size 2.3'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 80”

 

17.5" (4/21/90): fairly faint, fairly large, diffuse, elongated 3:2 E-W.  There is a sharp light cut-off on the east end.  The surface brightness is asymmetric with the brightest portion offset to the east of center with a more extensive faint halo towards the north and west.  Forms a close pair with NGC 4432 2.5' SE.  Located 8' N of mag 7.9 SAO 119411.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4430 = H II-146 = h1270 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and logged "F, pL."  He also logged this galaxy  just two objects earlier in the sweep, though suspected they were the same object, so assigned a single discovery number.  JH noted (sweep 253) "vF; L; R; gbM; 90"."  Both missed nearby NGC 4432, which was discovered by Albert Marth.

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NGC 4431 = UGC 7569 = MCG +02-32-062 = CGCG 070-094 = Holm 408c = LGG 292-006 = WBL 409-001 = PGC 40852

12 27 27.4 +12 17 24; Vir

V = 12.9;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 177”

 

24" (5/29/14): fairly faint to moderately bright fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 40"x25", broad concentration with a slightly brighter core.  A mag 14.4 star is 1.2' E.  First of three with fainter NGC 4436 3.8' NE and brighter NGC 4440 6.4' E.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): faint, very diffuse, slightly elongated.  This galaxy is slightly brighter and larger than NGC 4436 4.0' ENE.  NGC 4440 lies 6.5' E.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4431 = H II-171 = h1268 on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and recorded "Three F nebulae; the two first vS [NGC 4431 and 4436], the third [NGC 4440] S."  His single position is roughly 30 sec of RA too large, but the identifications are certain.  JH noted "vF; oval gbM; 50"."

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NGC 4432 = UGC 7570 = MCG +01-32-068 = CGCG 042-114 = Holm 406b = PGC 40875

12 27 33.0 +06 14 00; Vir

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (4/21/90): extremely faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S.  A mag 15 star is 0.7' NW of center.  Forms a close pair with NGC 4430 2.5' NW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4432 = m 240 on 22 Mar 1865 with Lassell's 48-inch on Malta and noted "2* in a F nebulosity."  His position matches NGC 4432 = UGC 7570, just 2.5' southeast of NGC 4430, though the brighter galaxy is not mentioned.

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NGC 4433 = MCG -01-32-013 = Holm 407a = PGC 40894

12 27 38.7 -08 16 45; Vir

V = 12.7;  Size 2.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 5”

 

17.5" (2/28/87): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated ~N-S, broad concentration. Bracketed by two mag 14 stars at the north edge and 1.0' SW of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 4428 7' N.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4433 = h1273 on 16 Mar 1828 and noted "not vF; pL; lE; very ill-defined."  His position is at the south edge of MCG -01-32-013 = PGC 40894.

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NGC 4434 = UGC 7571 = MCG +01-32-069 = CGCG 042-115 = LGG 292-014 = PGC 40886

12 27 36.6 +08 09 15; Vir

V = 12.2;  Size 1.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (4/21/90): moderately bright, small, round, small very bright core dominates small round halo, sharp stellar nucleus.  Located 35' WNW of M49.  NGC 4416 lies 20' SW.  UGC 7580 is 7' SE but I didn't look for this faint galaxy.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4434 = H II-497 on 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 498) and noted "pF, vS."  Heinrich d'Arrest measured an accurate micrometric position on two nights (used in the NGC).

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NGC 4435 = VV 188 = Arp 120 NED1 = UGC 7575 = MCG +02-32-064 = VV 188 = Holm 409b = PGC 40898 = The Eyes

12 27 40.5 +13 04 44; Vir

V = 10.8;  Size 2.8'x2.0';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 13”

 

24" (4/28/14): very bright, moderately large, oval 3:2 N-S, ~1.5'x1.0', sharply concentrated with an intensely bright core that increases to the center.  Forms a prominent pair ("The Eyes") with NGC 4438 4.4' SSE.

 

18" (6/12/10): at 175x appears bright, moderately large oval, elongated at least 2:1 SSW-NNE, 1.6'x0.8'.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright, 20"x10" core and stellar nucleus.  This galaxy is the NW member of the "Eyes" with highly disrupted NGC 4438 4.3' SSE.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): bright, fairly small, oval SSW-NNE, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms a striking pair called the "Eyes" with slightly fainter NGC 4438 4.5' SSE.  Located 20' E of M86 in the central core of the Virgo cluster.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): bright, prominent small bright core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4435 = H I-28.1 = h1274, along with NGC 4438, on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and recorded "two bright, considerably large nebula. One is 86 of the Connois des Temps."  His single position matches the pair NGC 4435/4438 and was confused about the position of M86.  He made the same mistake on 8 Apr 1784, though it that case his positions fall close to NGC 4458/4461 (if he viewed NGC 4435/4438 instead, his position was 17' off).  John Herschel repeated this error in the Slough catalogue, but in the GC JH split the pair into  h1274 = H 1-28.1 (NGC 4435) and h1275 = H 1-28.2 (NGC 4438).

 

NGC 4435 and 4438 was nicknamed "The Eyes" by Leyland S. Copeland (first author of the Deep Sky Wonders column) in a February 1955 article titled "Adventures in the Virgo Cloud."; the likeness to a pair of eyes is emphasized by the fact that NGC 4435 and 4438 are both elongated in a SSW-NNE direction.

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NGC 4436 = UGC 7573 = MCG +02-32-066 = CGCG 070-096 = Holm 408a = LGG 289-010 = WBL 409-002 = PGC 40903

12 27 41.2 +12 18 57; Vir

V = 13.2;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 116”

 

24" (5/29/14): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 30"x20", weak concentration.  A mag 12.5 star is off the NW side, 0.9' from center.  Faintest of three with NGC 4440 3.4' ESE and NGC 4431 3.8' SW.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): very faint, diffuse, low even surface brightness.  A mag 11.5 star is just off the NW edge 1.0' from center.  Forms a pair with NGC 4440 3' SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4436 = H II-172 = h1272 on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and recorded "Three faint nebulae; the two first vS [NGC 4431 and 4436], the third [NGC 4440] S."  His single position is roughly 30 sec of RA too large, but the identifications are certain.  JH noted "vF; gbM; 40"."

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NGC 4437 = NGC 4517 = UGC 7694 = MCG +00-32-020 = CGCG 014-063 = PGC 41618

12 32 45.6 +00 06 59; Vir

 

See observing notes for NGC 4517.

 

John Herschel found NGC 4437 = h1277 on 14 Apr 1828 and recorded "F; vmE; pos 15” nf to sp; a long ray; it is south preceding a * 10m.  The place is that of the star." There is nothing near his position, but 5 min of RA east is NGC 4517 and his description is a perfect match with this galaxy.  Karl Reinmuth may have first suggested the equivalence in his 1926 photographic Heidelberg survey "Die Herschel Nebel".  Various sources (including the RNGC) mistakenly equate NGC 4437 with NGC 4417, instead of NGC 4517.

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NGC 4438 = Arp 120 NED2 = VV 188 = UGC 7574 = MCG +02-32-065 = CGCG 070-097 = Holm 409a = PGC 40914 = The Eyes

12 27 45.5 +13 00 32; Vir

V = 10.2;  Size 8.5'x3.2';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 27”

 

24" (4/28/14 and 5/29/14): very bright, very large, very elongated 5:2 or 3:1 SSW-NNE, 3.0'x1.0'.  Contains a large, bright elongated core that increases to a very small, very bright nucleus.  With averted vision, much fainter irregular extensions (with an uneven surface brightness) significantly increase the outer diameter.  The southwest "plume" is not aligned with the major axis of the galaxy and spreads further towards the west.

 

18" (6/12/10): bright, large, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, 2.4'x1.0'.  Contains a bright, elongated core that increases to a small, very brighter, rounder nucleus.  The outer halo appears warped with very faint extensions that increase the overall size to nearly 5'x1.5'.  The southwest extension is more noticeable and appears to bend or curve to the southwest (counterclockwise).  The NNE extension is extremely faint and slightly offset to the axis of the core.  This highly disrupted galaxy forms an excellent pair with NGC 4435 4.3' NNW along Markarian's Chain.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): bright, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, small bright core.  Forms a striking pair with NGC 4435 4.5' NNW.  The core is not as large or bright as NGC 4435.  Located in the center of the Virgo cluster 23' E of M86.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): bright, bright core, larger but more diffuse than NGC 4435.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4438 = H I-28.2 = h1275, along with NGC 4435, on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and recorded "two B, cL nebula."  His single position matches the pair NGC 4435 and 4438.  See NGC 4435 for more on the confusion with the identifications. JH made 3 observations and recorded (sweep 242) "pB; L; lE; 60".", along with an accurate position.

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NGC 4439 = Cr 259 = ESO 131-006

12 28 26 -60 06 12; Cru

V = 8.4;  Size 4'

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): at 105x, 20 stars mag 10-13 are arranged in a perfect semi-circle (180 degree arc) open towards the west, with the endpoints directly N-S.  A string of three collinear stars, oriented WNW-ESE, sits right in the middle of the semicircle!  A wide bright double (HJ 4524 = 8/9.5 at 30") situated less than 5' NW is aligned directly with the center of the cluster!  Situated in the middle of the Southern Cross, 55' ENE of mag 3.6 Epsilon Crucis.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 4439 = D 300 on 30 Apr 1826 and described "a triangular group of very small stars, about 3' long, resembling faint nebulae. A star of the 9th magnitude near the north following extremity [the bright star is NW of the cluster]."  His position is 7' too far east, but the identification is certain.

 

JH observed the cluster on 31 Mar 1834 and noted "Cluster taken for Dunlop 300; a semi-elliptic group of stars 11..12th mag, diameter 2'."

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NGC 4440 = UGC 7581 = MCG +02-32-067 = CGCG 070-099 = Holm 408b = LGG 292-007 = WBL 409-003 = PGC 40927

12 27 53.6 +12 17 36; Vir

V = 11.7;  Size 1.9'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

24" (5/29/14): fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.8'x0.6'.  Sharply concentrated with a small, very bright core containing a bright stellar nucleus.  Brightest in trio with NGC 4436 3.4' NW and NGC 4431 6.4' W.  Nearly at the midpoint of mag 9.2 HD 108469 5.7' SW and mag 9.6 HD 108577 6.5' ENE.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): fairly faint, small, small bright core, diffuse fainter halo.  Third of three with NGC 4436 3.2' NW and NGC 4431 6.5' W.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4440 = H II-173 = h1276 on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and recorded "Three faint nebulae; the two first vS [NGC 4431 and 4436], the third [NGC 4440] S."  His single position is roughly 30 sec of RA too large, but the identifications are certain.  JH noted "B; R; bM; 50"; resolvable."

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NGC 4441 = UGC 7572 = MCG +11-15-056 = CGCG 315-039 = PGC 40836

12 27 20.3 +64 48 06; Dra

V = 12.7;  Size 3.2'x2.5';  Surf Br = 14.8

 

17.5" (4/15/93): fairly faint, fairly small, round, broad concentration, faint stellar nucleus.  NGC 4391 lies 14' NW.  NGC 4441 is thought to be an advanced galactic merger with optical tidal tails and two shells.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4441 = H II-848 = h1278 = h1291 on 20 Mar 1790 (sweep 954) and logged "F, bM, iF, stellar."  JH recorded h1278 "pF; R; vgbM; 25"." and measured an accurate position.   The next night he viewed this galaxy again, but placed h1291 1 min of RA too far east and was unsure if it was new.  His two h and GC designations were combined int he GC.

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NGC 4442 = UGC 7583 = MCG +02-32-068 = CGCG 070-100 = LGG 288-001 = PGC 40950

12 28 03.8 +09 48 13; Vir

V = 10.4;  Size 4.6'x1.8';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 87”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Two mag 14.5 star are at the east end and just south of the core 1.5' E and 0.9' SSW of center.  Located in the core of the Virgo cluster with NGC 4417/NGC 4424 pair roughly 30' SW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4442 = H II-156 = h1279 on 15 Apr 1784 (sweep 194) and logged "F, pL, lE, r."  CH's reduction is 28 sec of RA east of UGC 7583.

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NGC 4443 = NGC 4461? = UGC 7613 = MCG +02-32-084 = PGC 41111

12 29 03.0 +13 11 02; Vir

 

See observing notes for NGC 4461.  NGC identification very uncertain.

 

George Johnstone Stoney, Lord Rosse's assistant, discovered NGC 4443 on 13 Apr 1840 while observing the central region of the Virgo cluster.  He simply noted "F, S" and labeled this object "Kappa" and on the diagram of the field.  No positions were measured, but the sketch places this object close to the NGC 4458/4461 pair.

 

Frost reported NGC 4443 not found in the Virgo-Coma survey (Harvard College Observatory, Vol 88, No 1) and Reinmuth also reported a negative result.  Harold Corwin suggests NGC 4443 may be a duplicate discovery of NGC 4461 (despite missing fainter NGC 4458), and I agree.  See Corwin's notes for story.

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NGC 4444 = ESO 268-010 = MCG -07-26-007 = PGC 41043

12 28 36.4 -43 15 43; Cen

V = 12.3;  Size 2.5'x2.3';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

14" (4/2/16 - Coonabarabran, 160x): fairly faint, moderately large, round, ~1.4' diameter, weak concentration with a very small brighter nucleus.  A mag 13.2 star is just off the NE edge [1.0' from center].  NGC 4444 forms the northeast vertex of a triangle with a mag 8 star 4.8' ENE and a mag 10 star 4.6' S.  In addition two mag 9.6 stars are 7' SW and 8' SSW!

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4444 = h3393 on 15 Mar 1836 and recorded "eF; L; R; vgbM; 3' diam."  His single position is very accurate.

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NGC 4445 = IC 793 = UGC 7587 = MCG +02-32-072 = CGCG 070-104 = LGG 288-013 = PGC 40987

12 28 16.0 +09 26 11; Vir

V = 12.8;  Size 2.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 106”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): fairly faint but pretty edge-on WNW-ESE, moderately large, weak concentration.  NGC 4451 lies 12' SE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4445 on 24 Apr 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position, measured on 2 nights that he also observed NGC 4424, is accurate.

 

Lewis Swift probably found this galaxy again on 6 May 1888 and reported it as new in this 8th list, #63 (later IC 793) with description "eF; S; eE; 3 others in field."  His position is 15 seconds of RA too far west, but his description "extremely elongated (or extended)" matches.  Dorothy Carlson equates NGC 4445 = IC 793 in her 1940 list of NGC/IC corrections.

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NGC 4446 = UGC 7586 = MCG +02-32-069 = CGCG 070-103 = PGC 40962

12 28 06.8 +13 54 43; Com

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 82”

 

24" (5/29/14): faint, very small, slightly elongated E-W, 0.5'x0.4', low even surface brightness.  Fainter of a pair(lower surface brightness) with NGC 4447 1.6' SE.  Located 13' WSW of NGC 4459.

 

18" (4/5/03): very faint, very small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 0.6'x0.4'.  Forms a similar pair with NGC 4447 1.6' ESE.  Two mag 12.5/13 stars are 2' and 3' N of the pair.  Located 7' WSW of a mag 9.6 star and 13' WSW of NGC 4459.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 4446 = Sw. VI-43, along with NGC 4447 close southeast, on 17 Apr 1887 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; ee difficult; Double; triplicity suspected; 2 = mag stars range with it n and s; [NGC 4459] in field following."  His position is 10 sec of RA following and 1' north of UGC 7586.  This galaxy is single, though forms a pair with NGC 4447, so his comment "triplicity suspected" is not valid.

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NGC 4447 = MCG +02-32-073 = PGC 40979

12 28 12.5 +13 53 57; Com

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 117”

 

24" (5/29/14): faint to fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter, weak concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 4446 1.6' WNW.  Located 12' WSW of NGC 4459.

 

18" (4/5/03): very faint, very small, round, 0.4'.  Slightly smaller of a close pair with NGC 4446 1.6' WNW.  In a galaxy-rich area 12.5' WSW of NGC 4459 and 6' SW of a mag 9.6 star.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 4447 = Sw. VI-44, along with NGC 4446 close northwest, on 17 Apr 1887 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; ee difficult."  His position is 7 sec of RA following and 2' north of MCG +02-32-073 = PGC 40979 (comparable offset as NGC 4446).

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NGC 4448 = UGC 7591 = MCG +05-29-089 = CGCG 158-113 = CGCG 159-002 = PGC 40988

12 28 15.4 +28 37 13; Com

V = 11.1;  Size 3.9'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 94”

 

18" (4/5/03): bright, large, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, 2.8'x1.2'.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright, well-defined 35"x25" oval core.  Located 27' NE of mag 4.3 15 Gamma Comae Berenices.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4448 = H I-91 = h1280 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and recorded "vB, E in the direction of the parallel [east-west].  It has a B, pL nucleus sending forth a ray to each side."  JH made 4 observations, describing it on sweep 343 "B; L; mE exactly in parallel; smbM."

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NGC 4449 = UGC 7592 = MCG +07-26-009 = CGCG 216-005 = LGG 290-017 = PGC 40973 = The Box Galaxy

12 28 11.2 +44 05 36; CVn

V = 9.6;  Size 6.2'x4.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 45”

 

48" (2/20/12, 3/1/19, 5/1/19): NGC 4449 is a boxy-shaped Magellanic-type Irregular containing several bright, giant HII regions that are sites of active star formation.  The galaxy has been intensively studied as one of the strongest galaxy-wide starbursts in the nearby universe.  The overall surface brightness of the galaxy was unusually high at 375x.  The very bright central region is elongated SW-NE, irregular in surface brightness and contains a small, intense "nucleus".  This object is identified in SIMBAD as [GHG2001] 1 and described as a 10 Myr old super star cluster in the 2001 study by Gelatt et al, "The Star Clusters in the Irregular Galaxy NGC 4449".

 

To the southwest is a fairly large, bright patch that mimics a second core.  This region is catalogued as #27/28/30 in Hodge-Kennicutt's 1983 "Atlas of HII regions in 125 galaxies" [HK83].  Several addition patches are on the north end of the galaxy.  The largest and brightest is #15, a high surface brightness irregular glow at the north end of the galaxy, 20"x12", with a mottled surface and a stellar knot (#11) at the north tip.  Roughly 35" SW is #25, a moderately bright roundish knot of ~12" diameter.  20" W is #31, a fairly faint, small HII knot, less than 10" in diameter.  At the northeast tip of the galaxy is #2, nearly 1' SE of #15.  It appeared as a moderately bright knot, ~15"-20" in size.  A small knot (#16) was noted on the southeast side of the galaxy. A faint 12" knot is nearly detached at the SW end of galaxy (#6 in the 1969 "Kinematic study of ionized hydrogen in NGC 4449").  Very low surface brightness haze extends west off the SW end. A mag 14 star is superimposed [44" ENE of the nucleus].

 

On 5/1/19, I had the strong impression of an extremely low surface brightness glow nearly 10' SE of the galaxy (and 2.4' W of LEDA 2233323). This is the location of a tidal star stream, discovered in 2011.

 

18" (5/14/07): very mottled, irregular appearance, elongated ~2:1 SW-NE, ~5'x2.5'.  The core is quite splotchy in appearance with a couple of bright knots; the most prominent is attached to the southwest of the core.  The main body is roughly rectangular with an extension at the northwest "corner" that ends with a bright knot or knots ([HK83] #15).  Another extension or knot ([HK83] #2) is off the northeast corner.  A mag 13 star lies 2.4' E of the core and 1 or 2 additional very faint stars or knots are superimposed in the central region.

 

18" (5/8/04): fascinating view of this "Magellanic" system at 323x!  The galaxy is very irregular in appearance and surface brightness with a large, bright, elongated core oriented SW-NE.  The core appears offset to the south side of the galaxy.

 

Several knots (giant HII regions) are visible outside the core.  The brightest is a well-defined obvious patch on the north edge of the galaxy, 1.5' from the center.  This object is #15 in Hodge-Kennicutt's 1983 "Atlas of HII regions in 125 galaxies" ([HK83]) and it is nearly comparable in surface brightness to the core.  Roughly 1' SE is #2, a smaller, faint knot that is collinear with #15 and a mag 13.5 star 2.4' E of the core.  #25, a third difficult knot, can sometimes be glimpsed about 40" SW of #15.  Finally, attached on the south end of the core is a larger, bright knot, although initially I thought this was just part of the core.

 

13.1" (4/12/86): very bright, very large, elongated SW-NE, bright core, stellar nucleus.  A knot is involved at the north end and the galaxy generally appears brighter to the north of the core.  A star is superimposed close east of the core.

 

8": bright, moderately large, elongated, bright core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4449 = H I-213 = h1281 on 27 Apr 1788 (sweep 833) and recorded "very brilliant, cL, E from sp to nf, difficulty r, seems to have 3 or 4 B nuclei."  His sketch at the end of 1811 PT paper (reproduced in Stenicke's book) clearly shows 4 condensations or HII knots within the glow, though one of these may be the nucleus.  He used this an illustration of "Nebulae which are brighter in more the one Place."  According to Wolfgang Steinicke, Caroline Herschel was next to find the object on 8 Jul 1793 in her 4.2-inch reflector, "and assumed it to be a comet!"

 

On sweep 150, John Herschel recorded "B; L; gbM; E in pos 75” nf to sp, a fine cluster; well resolved; I see several of the stars; 3' l, 2' br."  On sweep 248 (last of 4 observations), JH wrote "vF; vL; vmE; it is either a double nebula or the nf end is bifid.  If double the companion is F; R; bM; nearly north 1.5' or 2'.  A fine object."  So, clearly WH and JH resolved several HII regions in this galaxy.  Lord Rosse or assistant Johnston Stoney noted on 17 Mar 1849, "3 nuclei or 2 nuclei and star, and faint neb outlying."

 

Based on photographs taken with the 60-inch reflector at Mt Wilson, Francis Pease (1917) described NGC 4449 as "..an irregular nebulous mass in which many nebulous stars [HII regions] are distributed unevenly.  The greater part of the nebula is roughly rectangular, about 4.5'x2.5', p.a. = 40”, there being an assemblage of some dozen nebulous stars W of the SW corner.  On the original negative there are 230 nebulous stars or patches...Two-thirds of them are in the N half.  The nebulosity proper is weak toward the edge, gradually increases inward, and culminates along a central ridge, where it is as strong as the stars themselves.  A number of dark irregular rifts appear here and there in it."

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NGC 4450 = UGC 7594 = MCG +03-32-048 = PGC 41024

12 28 29.6 +17 05 06; Com

V = 10.1;  Size 5.2'x3.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 175”

 

17.5" (5/23/87): bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 N-S, 4'x2', diffuse halo, increases suddenly to a high surface brightness core.  Located 3.9' NE of mag 8.9 SAO 100115.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4450 = H II-56 = H II-90 = h1282 on 14 Mar 1784 (sweep 170) and recorded "A resolvable nebula of an irreg shape of about 2 or 3' diam.  It is near a pB star."  CH's reduced position is 30 sec of RA preceding and 2.4' north of UGC 7594.  He recorded it again a week later on sweep 182 as "pL, r, bM", measured an accurate position, and noted this nebula was observed in sweep 170.  But his next entry (H II-90) was placed 1.0 min following and there is only one galaxy here, so he must have recorded NGC 4450 a second time in the sweep!  JH made 8 observations, apparently looking for a second nebula, but found only one and combed the two H-designations in the GC.

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NGC 4451 = UGC 7600 = MCG +02-32-079 = PGC 41050

12 28 40.5 +09 15 33; Vir

V = 12.5;  Size 1.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 162”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): fairly faint, fairly small, oval NNW-SSE, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is 1.5' S of center.  NGC 4445 lies 12' NW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4451 on 19 Mar 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  He measured the position on 4 nights and noted the mag 13 star, measured at 83" south.

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NGC 4452 = UGC 7601 = MCG +02-32-080 = PGC 41060

12 28 43.3 +11 45 18; Vir

V = 12.0;  Size 2.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 32”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): moderately bright, fairly small, thin pretty edge-on SW-NE, brighter core.  Located 8' SE of mag 7.7 SAO 100114.  IC 3381, situated 7.1' WNW, appeared faint, small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  The IC is located 2.2' S of a mag 7.7 SAO 10014 that detracts from viewing.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4452 = H I-23 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and recorded a "B, S, much E nebula, or bright dash."  CH's reduced position is 10 sec of RA east of UGC 7601.

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NGC 4453 = MCG +01-32-073 = PGC 41072

12 28 46.7 +06 30 42; Vir

V = 14.8;  Size 0.5'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.2

 

17.5" (4/21/90): very faint, extremely small, round.  Unusual appearance with mag 14 star nvolved near the south edge and also an extremely faint 16th magnitude star or companion superimposed.  NGC 4430/NGC 4432 lie 25' SW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4453 = H II-26 = h1283? on 28 Jan 1784 (the only nebula discovered on sweep 131) and recorded "pB, not vS.  It is not cometic.  The brightest part of it lies towards the following side.  I suppose it to be resolveable."  Dreyer noted this sweep was problematic ("unsatisfactory") with possible confusion with the offset star.  There is no object at WH's position and it was not found visually by Bigourdan or photographically by Wolf.  Dreyer suggested that if WH made an error of 20' in PD, that II-26 might be II-146 (NGC 4430).

 

JH, though, found h1283 = PGC 41072 44 sec of RA east of II-26 and this may be the intended object.  However, Harold Corwin argues that H II-26 cannot be h1283 due to the significant difference in description (h1283 was called "eF").  He concludes "I'm leaning toward adopting NGC 4430 as II 26, though with considerable uncertainty."

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NGC 4454 = UGC 7606 = MCG +00-32-014 = PGC 41083

12 28 51.0 -01 56 27; Vir

V = 11.9;  Size 2.0'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 100”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, moderately large, slightly elongated, the large diffuse halo has a gradual concentration down to a small bright core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4454 = H II-180 = h1284 on 22 Apr 1784 (sweep 204) and recorded "pB, L, R, er, near some stars."  On 6 Jan 1785 (sweep 353) he noted "F, pL, lE."  John Herschel made a single observation: "F; R; gbM; 20"; a stellar point 18m in the centre; 2 B stars precede, distant."

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NGC 4455 = UGC 7603 = MCG +04-30-001 = WAS 57 = Kaz 390 = PGC 41066

12 28 44.1 +22 49 21; Com

V = 12.3;  Size 2.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 16”

 

18" (4/5/03): moderately bright, fairly large, very elongated 7:2 SSW-NNE, 2.5'x0.7', broad concentration, bulging core, fades at the tips of the extensions.  A wide pair of mag 11 stars are 3' and 4' N.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4455 = H II-355 = h1285 on 10 Apr 1785 (sweep 394) and recorded "pF, L, broadly elongated."  CH's reduction is 25 sec of RA following UGC 7603.  JH made two observations, logging "pB; pmE; gbM; two B stars nf" on sweep 424, and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4456 = ESO 441-030 = MCG -05-30-002 = PGC 40925 = PGC 40922

12 27 52.4 -30 05 52; Hya

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 150”

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  A mag 13-13.5 star is attached on the west side, 22" from the center.  Located 5.1' E of mag 8.2 HD 108412.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4456 = h3394 on 30 Mar 1835 (sweep 564) and recorded "eeF; vS; attached to a * 13m.  (no doubt of the nebulous character of the object)."  There is nothing at this position, but 1.2 min of RA west is ESO 441-030 and the mag 13.7 at the southwest edge clinches the identification.

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NGC 4457 = UGC 7609 = MCG +01-32-075 = PGC 41101

12 28 59.0 +03 34 14; Vir

V = 10.9;  Size 2.7'x2.3';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (2/28/87): bright, small, almost round, very bright core.  A mag 13 star lies 2.6' W of center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4457 = H II-35 = h1286 on 23 Feb 1784 (sweep 158) and recorded "pB; mbM than towards the ends."  JH made three observations, logging on sweep 143, "B; R; psbM; 30"."

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NGC 4458 = UGC 7610 = MCG +02-32-082 = Holm 411b = PGC 41095

12 28 57.6 +13 14 31; Vir

V = 12.1;  Size 1.7'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly bright, moderately large, round, 1.0' diameter, well concentrated with a bright core that increases to a stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 2' ENE. Fainter of a pair with NGC 4461 3.7' SSE. 

 

18" (6/12/10): at 175x and 280x appeared fairly faint, moderately large, round, 0.9' diameter.  Contains a small, bright core that increases to a stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star lies 2.2' ENE of center.  Fainter of a pair with NGC 4461 3.7' SE.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, small bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 11.5 star lies 2.1' E.  Forms a pair with NGC 4461 3.7' SSE.  Located in the core of the Virgo cluster.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): faint, small, almost round, small faint nucleus.  A mag 11 star is close east.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4458 = H II-121 = h1287 on 8 Apr 1784 and recorded (sweep 187) "Two resolvable nebula at 4 or 5' dist."  He assumed one of these was M86, so only added one new discovery number.  His position was ~5' west of NGC 4458 and 4461, the most likely pair.  On 12 Apr 1784 he swept the field again (sweep 189) and recorded "Two [NGC 4461 and 4458]. Both pF, S, bM."  His single position on this sweep was 22 sec of RA following NGC 4458 and the identification is unambiguous. JH logged "pB; R; psbM; the p of 2 [with NGC 4461] and measured an accurate position.

 

On 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199), WH recorded "two B, cL nebula" and assumed they were pair from sweep 187 (one being M86), but his position matches NGC 4435 and NGC 4438!

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NGC 4459 = UGC 7614 = MCG +02-32-083 = PGC 41104

12 29 00.0 +13 58 43; Com

V = 10.4;  Size 3.5'x2.7';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 110”

 

24" (5/29/14): very bright, moderately large, slightly elongated 5:4 ~E-W, ~1.5'x1.2', sharply concentrated with a small intensely bright core, stellar nucleus, appears mottled near the core.  The halo increases in size with averted.  Mag 8.7 HD 108676 lies 2.2' SE of center.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): bright, fairly small, slightly elongated ~E-W, bright intense compact core, stellar nucleus.  Located 2.2' NW of mag 8.1 SAO 100121.  NGC 4468 lies 8.7' NE and NGC 4474 is 14' NE.  A close pair, NGC 4446 and NGC 4447 lies 13' WSW.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): fairly bright, small, slightly elongated, small bright nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4459 = H I-161 = h1288 on 14 Jan 1787 (sweep 691) and recorded "vB, pL, iR."  His position is accurate.  JH logged (sweep 23) "pB; R; bM; r; has a *8m 2' dist; 45” sf."

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NGC 4460 = UGC 7611 = MCG +08-23-041 = CGCG 244-022 = PGC 41069

12 28 45.6 +44 51 52; CVn

V = 11.3;  Size 4.0'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 40”

 

13.1" (4/12/86): moderately bright, pretty edge-on 4:1 SW-NE, moderately large, brighter core.  A pretty double star ·1645 = 7.5/8.1 at 10" is in the field 8.5' SW.  Member of the CVn II Group (brightest member M106).

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4460 = H I-212 = H II-750 = h1289 on 10 Apr 1788 (sweep 830) and noted for I-212 "cB, pL, E."  His position is poor -- CH's reduction places it 8.6' too far northwest (all the preceding objects in the sweep are too far north).  He found it again 17 days later (sweep 833) and logged II-750 as "pF, pL, E sp nf."  His position was just 2' northeast of center.  JH realized the equivalence and combined the two H-designations in the GC.

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NGC 4461 = NGC 4443? = UGC 7613 = MCG +02-32-084 = Holm 411a = PGC 41111

12 29 03.0 +13 11 02; Vir

V = 11.2;  Size 3.5'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 9”

 

24" (4/28/14): bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 N-S, 2.0'x0.8', sharply concentrated with a very bright core that gradually increases towards the center.  A mag 11 star lies 4' NNE.  Forms a pair with NGC 4458 3.7' NNW. 

 

18" (6/12/10): bright, fairly large, elongated nearly 3:1 N-S, 2.0'x0.7', extending nearly on a line with a mag 11 star 4' NNE.  Sharply concentrated with a small, intense core that increases to a very bright, stellar nucleus.  Brighter of a pair with NGC 4458 3.7' NW.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): fairly bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 ~N-S, very small bright core possibly stellar.  Form a pair with NGC 4458 3.7' NW.  The striking NGC 4435/NGC 4438 pair lies 21' SW.  Located in core of the Virgo cluster.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): fairly small, elongated N-S, small bright core.  Forms a close pair with NGC 4458.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4461 = H II-122 = H II-174 = h1290 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and recorded "Two resolvable nebula at 4 or 5' dist."  He assumed one of these was M86, so only added one new discovery number.  On 12 April he swept the field again and recorded "Two [NGC 4461 and 4458]. Both pF, S, bM."  His single position on this sweep was 22 sec of RA following NGC 4458.  On 17 April he swept through the field a third time and logged NGC 4461 again as II-174 (apparently not measuring NGC 4458).  NGC 4443 may be a duplicate observation.  See that number.

 

John Herschel made an early observation of NGC 4461 on 10 Apr 1825 (sweep 2), while working on his observing technique.  On 4 Apr 1831 (sweep 338) he recorded, "pB; R; psbM; the f of 2 [with NGC 4458] and measured an accurate position.  See notes for NGC 4458.

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NGC 4462 = ESO 506-013 = MCG -04-30-002 = PGC 41150

12 29 21.2 -23 10 01; Crv

V = 11.9;  Size 3.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 124”

 

13.1" (3/17/86): fairly faint, very elongated 3:1 streak WNW-ESE.  Contains a bright core with fainter extensions.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4462 = H III-764 = h3396 on 26 Mar 1789 (sweep 918) and recorded "cF, R, pS, stellar."  John Herschel made two observations from the Cape of Good Hope and logged (sweep 690) "pB; E; sbM; pos of elongation 130” [NW-SE]."

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NGC 4463 = Cr 260 = ESO 095-010

12 29 55 -64 47 24; Mus

V = 7.2;  Size 5'

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x this is a fairly small but fairly rich group with two bright mag 8.5 stars (HD 108719 and PPM 779024) oriented N-S and separated by 1.3'.  The cluster is fairly rich along a curving E-W string that passes through the northern of the two bright stars.  Scattered outliers increase the size to perhaps 6'x3' and include up to 60 stars.  This cluster is located just 1.7” SSE of Acrux on the SW edge of the Coalsack Nebula.

 

10x30mm Canon IS (3/27/19 - Tasmania): faint, small, round.  A couple of close brighter stars were resolved near the center.  Located on a line with Acrux and two other stars.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4463 = h3395 on 2 May 1835 and noted "cl VIII. class; poor; scattered.  The northern of 2 stars 8m taken."  His single position is good.

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NGC 4464 = UGC 7619 = MCG +01-32-078 = PGC 41148

12 29 21.3 +08 09 23; Vir

V = 12.5;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 0”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): moderately bright but very small, irregularly round, high surface brightness, small bright core, possible stellar nucleus.  M49 is at the edge of the 220x field 11.5' SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4464 = H III-483 = h1292 on 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 498) and simply noted "vF".  JH made the single observation "pB; vS; pgbM; R; 10"."  Julius Schmidt found the galaxy again in June 1861, along with NGC 4470 and 4492, and reported them as new in AN 1513 (1866), although Heinrich d'Arrest quickly reported the earlier discoveries.  d'Arrest also measured the position accurately on 4 nights.

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NGC 4465 = CGCG 042-127 = Holm 413d = PGC 41157

12 29 23.5 +08 01 34; Vir

V = 14.6;  Size 0.2'x0.2';  Surf Br = 11.0;  PA = 108”

 

48" (5/15/12): At 488x appeared fairly faint, small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, 20"x15", weak concentration.  A mag 16.8 star is just off the NE side [12" from center].  This is one of several faint galaxies outside the halo of M49 (situated 5.9' WNW of center) with brighter NGC 4467 2.6' SE.  According to the redshift, though, this galaxy lies in the background of the Virgo cluster at a distance of ~330 million light years.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 4465 = Big 54 on 31 Mar 1886.  The NGC position is just 3 sec of RA too large, although it was not found by Arnold Schwassmann on a Heidelberg plate (probably appeared stellar).

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NGC 4466 = UGC 7626 = MCG +01-32-081 = Holm 412a = PGC 41170

12 29 30.6 +07 41 47; Vir

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 101”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): faint, fairly small, very elongated ~E-W.  Located 7.8' SSW of NGC 4470 and 18' SSW of M49.

 

Bindon Stoney, LdR's assistant, discovered NGC 4466 on 26 Feb 1851.  While observing the M49 field he noted "a 3rd about 12' south of 2nd [NGC 4470] is elongated."  The actual separation between NGC 4470 and NGC 4466 is 8', but there are no other possible candidates.  In the GC, JH added three numbers for what he assumed were three new objects found at Birr Castle, although only a single very rough position was given.  Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered this galaxy on 24 Apr 1865 and measured an accurate position.  Dreyer assumed it was new, adding it as GC(S) 5653.  The two GC designations were combined in the NGC and d'Arrest is credited with the discovery.

 

But Wolfgang Steinicke attributes WH with the discovery on 28 Dec 1787 (sweep 498, #44 = II-18).  On the sweep he apparently found both NGC 4470 (seen earlier on 23 Jan 1784) and NGC 4466, although the polar distances are only 2' apart.

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NGC 4467 = MCG +01-32-080 = CGCG 042-130 = Holm 413c = LGG 289-078 = PGC 41169

12 29 30.2 +07 59 34; Vir

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.5'

 

48" (5/15/12): moderately bright, small, slightly elongated, 24"x20", small bright core.  A mag 12.8 star is 35" W.  Located 5.2' W of the center of M49.  NGC 4465 lies 2.6' NW.

 

17.5" (4/18/87): very faint, very small, almost round.  Located 6' W of M49!  A mag 12.5 star is just off the west edge 34" from the center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4467 on 23 Jan 1784 (early sweep 105) and noted "Nebula.  Preceding [M49], and not far from its parallel is a nebulous star or small nebula.  His position was very uncertain and only roughly found, but the description clearly applies to NGC 4467 and the nearby star.  On 28 Dec 1785, he observed what he assumed was the same object (internal discovery #44), but the second observation probably refers to H. II 18 = NGC 4466.  As a result, NGC 4467 wasn't assigned an H-designation.

 

Otto Struve independently discovered NGC 4467 on 28 Apr 1851 with the 15-inch Merz refractor at the Pulkovo Observatory while observing M49.  He wrote, "Near this last star [preceding M49 by 17 seconds of time] , there is still another smaller nebula at a distance of 2 to 3 seconds, located on the straight line joining the star with the main nebula."  Struve is credited with the discovery in the NGC.  d'Arrest measured an accurate position (3 nights) and credited Struve with the discovery. The IC2 Notes mention Schwassmann couldn't find NGC 4467 on a Heidelberg plate.  The RNGC incorrectly equates this number with NGC 4465.

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NGC 4468 = UGC 7628 = MCG +02-32-090 = PGC 41171

12 29 30.9 +14 02 56; Com

V = 12.8;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 73”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): faintest of three with NGC 4474 5.5' ENE and NGC 4459 8.7' SW.  Faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~E-W, small weak concentration.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): faint, small, diffuse, slightly elongated, no noticeable concentration.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4468 = H II-630 on 14 Jan 1787 (sweep 691) and simply noted "cL".  His position is 5' south and 14 tsec west of UGC 7628, but it was observed in the sweep between NGC 4459 and NGC 4474, and this is the only galaxy between these two.  Heinrich d'Arrest measured an accurate position at Copenhagen as well as Rudolph Spitaler in 1891 at the Vienna Observatory.

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NGC 4469 = UGC 7622 = MCG +02-32-089 = PGC 41164

12 29 28.0 +08 45 00; Vir

V = 11.2;  Size 3.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 89”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): fairly bright, elongated 5:2 E-W, fairly large, 3.0'x1.2', faint stellar nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4469 = H II-157 on 15 Apr 1784 (sweep 194) and recorded "F, pL, mE, r."  His position is 4.5' north of UGC 7622.  ƒdouard Stephan independently found NGC 4469 on 28 Apr 1884 and reported it as new in his 13th discovery list (#70).  But he caught the prior discovery immediately as a footnote was added that #70 referred to H. II 157 = GC 3019, though Herschel's position was off by 5' in polar distance.

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NGC 4470 = NGC 4610 = UGC 7627 = MCG +01-32-082 = CGCG 042-132 = PGC 41189

12 29 37.9 +07 49 25; Vir

V = 12.1;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 0”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): moderately bright, fairly small, oval N-S, pretty even surface brightness.  Located 14' SSW of M49.

 

William Herschel found NGC 4470 = H II-498 = h1293 on 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 498) and logged "F, pL".  He assumed it was new and assigned the H-designation II-498.  His position is a good match with UGC 7627.  He discovered this galaxy on 23 Jan 1784 (sweep 105) and recorded II-19 = NGC 4610 as "south of and a rectangles to the great Nebula [M49] and the small star near it; Is a nebula incomparably more faint.  My field takes them both in together."   But his position was poorly determined (not uncommon in his early sweeps_, so he did not realize the equivalence.  JH made two observations, though his descriptions are so disparate ("B" on sweep 117 and "vF" on sweep 251), they may refer to NGC 4470 and NGC 4466, respectively.  Julius Schmidt made an independent discovery on 29 Jun 1861 and announced it in AN 1513 (1866), but Heinrich d'Arrest noted the earlier discovery and measured an accurate position (7 nights). 

 

In the NGC, Dreyer equated II-18 = II-498 = NGC 4470 and assigned II-19 = NGC 4610.  But in his 1912 Scientific Paper of WH, Dreyer correctly sorts out the identification based on WH's description and sketch and concludes II-19 = II-498 = NGC 4470.  So, NGC 4470 = NGC 4610.

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NGC 4471

12 29 42.0 +07 53 45; Vir

V = 13.9

 

48" (5/15/12): this number applies to one of two 14th magnitude stars at 1' separation oriented NNW-SSE, situated ~6' SSW of M49.  VCC 1203, a fairly faint galaxy (too faint to have been seen by Schmidt), lies 1.5' NW of the NNW star.

 

Julius Schmidt discovered NGC 4471 on 29 Jun 1861 near M49 with the 6.2" refractor at the Athens Observatory.  He also found NGC 4470, 4492 and 4464, which had all been discovered earlier by WH.  There is nothing at his position in AN 1513 (1866) except a 14th magnitude star and neither Heinrich d'Arrest nor Guillaume Bigourdan could recover Schmidt's object.

 

Karl Reinmuth refers to a possible candidate as "vS, R, = neb *13.5; eF vs iR neb np 1.7', *13.5 ssf 1.0'."  His description applies to a faint star at 12 29 40.6 +07 54 40.  Dorothy Carlson, in her 1940 paper on Corrections to the NGC, identified NGC 4471 as a star (from Ames in Harvard College Observatory, Vol 88, No 1 (Virgo-Coma survey) and this is repeated in the RNGC.  Corwin identifies NGC 4471 with one of two 14th magnitude stars near the NGC position.  SIMBAD (and others) misidentify VCC 1203 = PGC 41185 as NGC 4471.

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NGC 4472 = M49 = Arp 134 = UGC 7629 = MCG +01-32-083 = CGCG 042-134 = Holm 413a = PGC 41220

12 29 46.8 +08 00 01; Vir

V = 8.4;  Size 10.2'x8.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 155”

 

48" (5/15/12): at 488x, M49 appeared extremely bright and large, slightly elongated N-S, ~6'x5', fades gradually so the outer extent may be larger.  Well concentrated with an intense core that is sharply concentrated with a brilliant nucleus.  A mag 12 star is superimposed 45" E of center.  A number of galaxies (see below) surround the halo, including NGC 4467 4' W and NGC 4465 5.9' WNW.  A mag 13 star is 4.6' W of center (close to NGC 4467).

 

VCC 1199, 4.5' NW of center, appeared faint, very small, round, 10" diameter.

 

VCC 1203, 4.6' SSW of center, is fairly faint, fairly small, round, 12" diameter, slightly brighter core.  VCC 1203 is misidentified as NGC 4471 in SIMBAD.  The NGC number probably applies to one of the two faint stars ~2' SE.

 

UGC 7636, 5.4' SE of center, is very faint, fairly small, elongated patch, ~0.5'x0.3' N-S, with a very low surface brightness and no concentration.  This blue, dwarf irregular companion (Arp called it a "fragment") has been disrupted by M49 with H I gas stripped in a tidal tail.

 

17.5" (4/18/87): very bright, fairly large, sharp concentration to a compact very bright nucleus, large halo slightly elongated ~N-S fades at the edges.  A mag 12 star is superimposed at the east edge 0.8' from center.  A faint galaxy NGC 4467 lies 5' W.

 

Charles Messier discovered M49 = NGC 4472 = H I-7 = h1294 on 19 Feb 1771 (first Virgo cluster member discovered).  Oriani Independently found it on 22 Apr 1779 while following a comet that passed through the Virgo cluster.  Admiral Smyth confused these discovery dates, causing later confusion on the primary discoverer.

 

William Herschel first recorded M49 on 23 Jan 1784 (early sweep 105) and described I-7 as "A beautiful nebula.  Not cometic.  It is visible in the finder and vB in the telescope", but his RA was 11 min too large.  On 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 498) he called M49 "vB, cL, gmbM, extended with F branches."  John Herschel made 5 observations, recording on sweep 253, "eB; L; R psmbM; insensibly fading away, has a * 13m following; by diag the star is just beyond the nebula." Heinrich d'Arrest claimed he resolved the cluster and saw "countless groups of stars; at 147x, the nebula periphery can be resolved into stars of the 13th and 14th magnitudes."

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NGC 4473 = UGC 7631 = MCG +02-32-093 = PGC 41228

12 29 48.8 +13 25 46; Com

V = 10.2;  Size 4.5'x2.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 100”

 

24" (5/29/14): bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 E-W, 2.0'x1.0', sharply concentrated with an intensely bright core that increases to a quasi-stellar nucleus.

 

18" (6/12/10): bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 E-W, 2.4'x1.0'.  Sharply concentrated with a small, intense core, ~30"x15" that increases smoothly to the center.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 ~E-W, small but intense core, stellar nucleus.  NGC 4477 lies 13' N.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): bright, elongated E-W, small very bright nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4473 = H II-114, along with NGC 4477 and NGC 4479, on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and simply noted "F, resolvable."  His position (CH's reduction) is 10 sec of RA too large.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest independently found NGC 4473 and 4477 on 29 Mar 1856, unaware of WH's prior discovery.  JH responded in an open letter to Hind that both of d'Arrest's "novae" were seen earlier and that he was surprised d'Arrest missed NGC 4479.  This caused some controversy whether NGC 4479 was a "variable" nebula.

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NGC 4474 = UGC 7634 = MCG +02-32-094 = PGC 41241

12 29 53.6 +14 04 07; Com

V = 11.5;  Size 2.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 80”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): second brightest of three in the field with NGC 4468 6' WSWand NGC 4459 14' WSW.  Moderately bright, fairly small, very small bright core, faint stellar nucleus, elongated WSW-ENE.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): fairly faint, small, very elongated E-W.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4474 = H II-117 = H II-629 = h1295 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and noted "r[esolvable]."  His position (Caroline's reduction) was 35 seconds of RA too large.  He observed this galaxy again on 14 Jan 1787 (sweep 691) and simply noted as "F".  His position was 12 seconds of RA too small, and assuming it was new, catalogued it again as W. II-629.  John Herschel realized the equivalence when he compiled the GC.

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NGC 4475 = UGC 7632 = MCG +05-30-008 = CGCG 159-008 = PGC 41225

12 29 47.6 +27 14 36; Com

V = 13.6;  Size 1.7'x1.0';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 5”

 

18" (5/30/03): faint, elongated 3:2 N-S, 0.9'x0.6', fairly low surface brightness.  Appears brighter along a bar extending along the major axis.  Faint halo or extensions which are difficult to pin down the orientation.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4475 = H III-362 = h1297 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and recorded "eF, cL, the whole about 4 or 5' long and 2' broad."  His size estimate is much too large and JH, who only picked up the nucleus, called it "eF; R; 15"."  JH's position is accurate.

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NGC 4476 = UGC 7637 = MCG +02-32-096 = PGC 41255

12 29 59.1 +12 20 55; Vir

V = 12.2;  Size 1.7'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 25”

 

24" (5/29/14): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 28"x14", bright core gradually increases to the center.  Fainter of pair with NGC 4478 4.6' ESE.  Located 12.5' WSW of M87 in the core of the Virgo Cluster. 

 

17.5" (5/23/87): fairly faint, small, elongated SSW-NNE, small brighter core.  Forms a pair with NGC 4478 4.7' ESE.  Located 12' W of M87 in the Virgo cluster.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): faint, elongated, weak concentration.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4476 = H II-123 = h1296 on 12 Apr 1784 (sweep 189) and described "Two [along with NGC 4478] F, S and one B, L nebula [M 87].  His single position matches NGC 4478.  On sweep 245, JH recorded "F; R; S; bM."

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NGC 4477 = UGC 7638 = MCG +02-32-097 = PGC 41260

12 30 02.0 +13 38 12; Com

V = 10.4;  Size 3.8'x3.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 15”

 

24" (5/29/14): very bright, fairly large, round, 2.0' diameter, sharply concentrated with an intensely bright core and stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 4479 5.3' SE.

 

18" (6/12/10): very bright, fairly large, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, 2.5'x2.0'.  The outer halo is very weakly concentrated and then suddenly increases to an intense 40"x20" core.  At 275x the core appears lively or mottled and increases to a stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 4479 5.3' SE.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated ~N-S, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 4479 5.5' SE and NGC 4473 lies 12' SSW.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): bright, slightly elongated N-S, small bright nucleus, NGC 4479 5.5' SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4477 = H II-115 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and recorded "Two resolvable nebula [NGC 4477 and 4479]."   His single position matches NGC 4477.  Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered this galaxy along with NGC 4473 on 29 Mar 1856, apparently unaware of WH's prior observation.  See notes for NGC 4473.

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NGC 4478 = UGC 7645 = MCG +02-32-099 = PGC 41297

12 30 17.4 +12 19 43; Vir

V = 11.4;  Size 1.9'x1.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 140”

 

24" (5/29/14): bright, fairly small, elongated 5:4 NW-SE, 35"x28", high surface brightness, contains a very small, very bright nucleus.  A star is involved on the north side, just 10" N of center.  Brighter of a pair with NGC 4476 4.6' WNW. Located 8.7' SW of M87.

 

17.5" (5/23/87): fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, brighter core.  Forms a pair with NGC 4476 4.7' WNW.  Located 9' WSW of M87.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): fairly bright, slightly elongated NW-SE, weak concentration.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4478 = H II-124 = h1298 on 12 Apr 1784 (sweep 189) and described "Two [along with NGC 4476] F, S and one B, L nebula [M 87].  His single position matches NGC 4478.  On sweep 245, JH recorded "B; S; R; psbM; 30"; the f of 2 [with NGC 4476]."  Kolbold measured the position for both the nucleus and the superimposed star in 1893.

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NGC 4479 = UGC 7646 = MCG +02-32-100 = PGC 41302

12 30 18.4 +13 34 39; Com

V = 12.4;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 24”

 

24" (5/29/14): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 4:3 N-S, 45"x35", broad weak concentration with a slightly brighter core.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 4477 5.3' NW.

 

18" (6/12/10): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 5:3 SSW-NNE, 1.0'x0.6', weak concentration to an ill defined, slightly brighter core and an occasional faint stellar nucleus.  Fainter of a pair with NGC 4477 5.3' NW.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, weak concentration.  Located 6' SE of NGC 4477.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): faint, small, round, diffuse, even surface brightness.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4479 = H II-116 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and recorded "Two resolvable nebula [NGC 4477 and 4479] at 4' or 5' distance."   His single position matches NGC 4477 but the separation is 5' so the identification is certain.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest independently found NGC 4473 and 4477 on 29 Mar 1856, but missed NGC 4479.  John Herschel was surprised that d'Arrest missed NGC 4479 as it was in the same field as NGC 4477 and a class II nebula.  He wrote a letter to John Russell Hind (as possibly another variable nebula), which was reprinted in 1862 MNRAS, Vol. 22, p.250 titled "Sir John Herschel to Mr. Hind, on the Disappearance of a Nebula in Coma Berenices".  He was 70 years old at the time and decades past being an active observer. Jean Chacornac, Schšnfeld and Lassell, reading about the supposed missing nebula, also confirmed the visibility of NGC 4479.  Eventually d'Arrest observed this galaxy on 5 May 1862 using the 11-inch Copenhagen refractor.

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NGC 4480 = UGC 7647 = MCG +01-32-087 = PGC 41317

12 30 26.7 +04 14 48; Vir

V = 12.4;  Size 2.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 175”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly faint, fairly small, oval NNW-SSE, weakly concentrated.  A mag 13 star is 1.9' NW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4480 = H II-531 = h1299 on 2 Feb 1786 (sweep 521) and recorded "pB, E, about 3' long, brighter towards the southern side."  CH's reduction is 2' south of UGC 7647.

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NGC 4481 = MCG +11-15-057 = CGCG 315-040 = PGC 41222

12 29 48.8 +64 01 59; Dra

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.2

 

17.5" (4/15/93): faint, small, very elongated 4:1 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.15'.  Appears as a thin sliver 40" W of a mag 13 star.  NGC 4510 lies 17' NE and NGC 4481 is 20' ESE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4481 on 7 Oct 1866 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His measured an accurate position on 2 nights and accurately placed the mag 13 star that follows by 7 or 8 seconds of time.

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NGC 4482 = IC 3427 = UGC 7640 = MCG +02-32-098 = CGCG 070-130 = PGC 41272

12 30 10.4 +10 46 46; Vir

V = 12.7;  Size 1.7'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 145”

 

17.5" (4/21/90): faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 NW-SE, almost even surface brightness.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4482 = H III-40 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and logged "eF, pL, I was near overlooking it."  There is nothing at his position, but 28 sec of RA west and 2' north is UGC 7640.  Several nebulae discovered that night have errors from 30 sec to 90 sec in RA too large, so this identification is very reasonable. Bigourdan first noted the RA in the NGC was 29 seconds too large in his 18 Jan 1897 Comptes Rendus paper.

 

Arnold Schwassmann found this galaxy again on a Heidelberg plate in 1900 and reported Sn. 158 (later IC 3427) as new.  NGC 4482 was photographed  as well as by Frost in 1904.  So NGC 4482 = IC 3427.  UGC, MCG and CGCG label this galaxy IC 3427, instead of NGC 4482.

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NGC 4483 = UGC 7649 = MCG +02-32-103 = PGC 41339

12 30 40.6 +09 00 56; Vir

V = 12.2;  Size 1.6'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 65”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): moderately bright, small, oval SW-NE, small bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4483 on 19 Mar 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  He measured the position on 2 nights and noted the nearby mag 10 star preceded by 26 seconds of time.

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NGC 4484 = MCG -02-32-013 = PGC 41087

12 28 52.7 -11 39 08; Vir

V = 13.6;  Size 1.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.3

 

18" (5/8/04): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter, broad concentration to a slightly brighter core.  With direct vision a small slightly brighter 10" nucleus was sometimes visible.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4484 = h1300 on 9 Mar 1828 and logged "Not vF; R; gbM; 20"."  There is nothing at his position, but exactly 2.0 min of RA west is PGC 41087.  Herbert Howe was apparently the first to note this error when he observed this galaxy in 1898 or 1899.

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NGC 4485 = Arp 269 NED1 = VV 30b = UGC 7648 = MCG +07-26-013 = CGCG 216-007 = Holm 414b = PGC 41326

12 30 31.4 +41 42 01; CVn

V = 11.9;  Size 2.3'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 15”

 

48" (5/1/19): at 375x; two obvious HII knots are just off the SW side of this bright galaxy.  [VS65] 04, 39" from center, is a bright knot ~12" diameter.  [VS65] 01, a slightly fainter knot only 6" diameter, is just 15" further SW.  These designations are from 1965 study of HII regions in NGC 2403, 2903 and 4485/4490 by VŽron and Sauvayre.

 

24" (5/27/17): at 200x; moderately to fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 5:4 N-S, ~1.5'x1.2'.  Contains a very small brighter core/nucleus but not strongly concentrated.  The surface brightness is fairly high and patchy, but I didn't use high power to look for HII regions.

 

18" (6/13/07): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 4:3 ~N-S, ~1.6'x1.2', broad mild concentration.  Extended in the direction of the northwest arm structure in NGC 4490.

 

13.1" (2/16/85): moderately bright, fairly small, brighter core, elongated SSW-NNE.  Forms a fascinating interacting pair with NGC 4490 3.6' SSE of center.  Located 40' NW of Beta Canum Venaticorum (V = 4.3).  Member of the CVn II Group (brightest member M106).

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4485 = H I-197 = h1306 on 14 Jan 1788 (sweep 798) and recorded "Two, the most south [NGC 4490] vB, vL, iE.  That to the north B, pS, iF, about 1 1/2' distance."  JH logged "S; R; is 70” np and 3' n of I. 198 [NGC 4490]."

 

R.J. Mitchell's sketch with the 72" on 27 Mar 1856 shows a bright nucleus and a well defined outer ring.  The following year, though, he could not see any sign of spirality.  In addition, a small patch (HII region) is sketched on the south side as well as a faint star, that's probably also a compact HII region.

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NGC 4486 = M87 = Arp 152 = UGC 7654 = MCG +02-32-105 = CGCG 070-139 = Virgo A = 3C 274 = PGC 41361

12 30 49.7 +12 23 28; Vir

V = 8.6;  Size 7.2'x6.8';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

82" (5/4/19, McDonald Observatory): at 613x; M87's jet was a remarkable sight!  It appeared as a bright, sharply defined "spike" with a fairly high surface brightness and two stellar knots!  I was very surprised by the length and the extreme thinness, appearing like a narrow laser beam shooting out of the core, ~20"x2"!

 

48" (5/4/16 and 4/30/19): at 488x, 610x and 697x; M87's jet was almost continuously visible as a small, very thin spike extending to the west-northwest of the core, perhaps 15"x2". When the seeing was sharp, there was a brighter, knot (stellar) at the outer tip that sometimes appeared detached.  There was a strong impression of a second stellar knot within the spike.

 

48" (4/1/11): at 488x, the jet in M87 was immediately noticed as a short, faint spike poking out of the central core to the WNW and the position angle [290-300”] was accurately sketched without prior knowledge.  The narrow jet brightened or there was a knot at the outer tip.

 

In addition to looking for the jet, I sketched three companions at the edge of the outer halo on the southwest side. About 2' SW of the center of M87 is a pair of very faint, roundish galaxies, both ~15" diameter.  The pair forms UGC 7652 with the components separated by 40" and nearly aligned with the center of the galaxy as if they were ejected.  2MASX J12303903+1222222, an extremely faint companion (V = 17.9), lies 2.8' WSW of the core, just 20" SE of a mag 15.5 star.  The three close "companions" to M87 are actually part of a distant, poor cluster in the background of M87, with a redshift of 20x that of M87!

 

Virgo UCD 3 is either one of the brightest globular clusters in M87 or a nucleated dwarf galaxy, called a Ultra-Compact Dwarf (UCD).  It is situated just 3.0' NE of the center of M87, directly opposite the two small galaxies at the southwest edge of the halo of M87.  A mag 14.5 star, just 20" SSW, is a perfect reference to focus on the cluster.  On 4/16/13 using 488x it was suspected as an 18th magnitude "star", but I didn't feel confident of the observation.  At 813x, though, it was confirmed as an extremely faint, stellar object, glimpsed several times at the same position.

 

24" (5/29/14): extremely bright, large, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, ~4'x3.5', well concentrated with a large, intense core.  The core brightens but there was no distinct nucleus.  The halo gradually fades and increases in size with averted vision.  Several galaxies are nearby including NGC 4486B 7.2' NW, NGC 4486A 7.6' SSE, NGC 4478 8.7' SW and NGC 4476 12.6' WSW.

 

17.5" (5/23/87): very bright, fairly large, gradually increases to a very bright core, no sharp nucleus.  A very compact galaxy NGC 4486A = UGC 7658 lies 7' S.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): very bright, intense core, fairly smooth halo.

 

Charles Messier is credited with the discovery of M87 = NGC 4486 = h1301 on 18 Mar 1781.  But Wolfgang Steinicke recently found (email Oct '16) that Johann Gottfried Koehler made the original discovery on 5 May 1779.  On 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199), WH logged "Three nebulae, the two first [NGC 4476 and 4478] vF, S, the third [M87], B, L, mbM but diminishing very gradually in brightness."  JH made at least 5 observations, recording on sweep 245, "vB; vL; R; psmbM; r; 3' diam."

 

M87 is one of the most distant galaxies (~52 million light years) visible in binoculars.  It contains a 6.4-billion-solar-mass black hole (1,000 times more massive than Sgr A).  The 20" jet was discovered by Heber Curtis at Lick Observatory in 1918 and described as a "curious straight ray lies in a gap in the nebulosity in pa 20”, apparently connected with the nucleus by a thin line of matter. The ray is brightest at the inner end, which is 11" from the nucleus."

 

A supernova (1919A) was found in 1922 by Russian astronomer Balnowski on a plate taken 24 Feb 1919.

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NGC 4487 = MCG -01-32-021 = PGC 41399

12 31 04.4 -08 03 15; Vir

V = 10.9;  Size 4.2'x2.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 70”

 

17.5" (2/28/87): moderately bright, fairly large, diffuse, brighter core, slightly elongated.  A mag 13 star is off the north end 1.1' from center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4487 = H II-776 on 23 Mar 1789 (sweep 916) and logged "F, vL, er."  His position (CH's reduction) is 7 sec of RA west and 1.5' south of MCG -01-32-021 = PGC 41399.  JH did not make an observation.

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NGC 4488 = UGC 7653 = MCG +02-32-104 = PGC 41363

12 30 51.4 +08 21 36; Vir

V = 12.2;  Size 3.7'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 5”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): fairly faint, elongated NW-SE, small brighter core.  A mag 13 star lies 1.3' SW of center.  Located 16' NNW of NGC 4492.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4488 = H III-484 = h1302 on 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 498) and noted "vF".  His position matches UGC 7653.  JH made the single observation "vF; vS; lE."

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NGC 4489 = UGC 7655 = MCG +03-32-054 = PGC 41365

12 30 52.2 +16 45 32; Com

V = 12.0;  Size 1.7'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (5/23/87): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, stellar nucleus.  A group of four stars mag 11-13 is about 4' NE.  Forms a pair with NGC 4498 12' NE.  Located 9.3' NNW of mag 7.8 SAO 100135.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4489 = H II-91 = h1303 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 182) and simply noted "vS".  He was discovering new object very rapidly, so this and several following objects in the sweep have very brief descriptions.  JH made three observations and measured an accurate RA.

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NGC 4490 = Arp 269 NED2 = VV 30a = UGC 7651 = MCG +07-26-014 = CGCG 216-008 = Holm 414a = PGC 41333 = Cocoon Galaxy

12 30 36.1 +41 38 34; CVn

V = 9.8;  Size 6.3'x3.1';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 125”

 

48" (5/1/19): at 375x; several HII knots were identified along the north side of this remarkable galaxy. NGC 4490:[VS65] 19, 22 and 23 are three very close, tiny knots oriented WNW-ESE [total length 22"] along the north edge of the central region.  The middle knot (#22) was the brightest but only ~6" and the last knot (#23) was the faintest. NGC 4490:[VS65] 02 was a fairly bright, elongated glow on the NW edge of the galaxy [1.8' from center]. On close inspection it resolved into two extremely small knots. These designations are from 1965 study of HII regions in NGC 2403, 2903 and 4485/4490 by VŽron and Sauvayre.

 

24" (5/27/17): very bright, large, elongated ~5:2 WNW-ESE, ~5'x2.2', fairly high but irregular surface brightness, brighter core, but seems offset from center.  A long arm (somewhat detached from the brighter central region), sweeps WNW and curls north near the end (bending towards companion NGC 4485).  Fascinating unusual structure.

 

18" (6/7/08): I viewed this interesting pair in my 15x50 IS binoculars (just a faint blur), 18" Starmaster (disturbed arm on the WNW end extending towards NGC 4490 easily visible) and the 33.4" f/5 (internal structure visible).

 

18" (6/13/07): very bright, large, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, ~5'x2', with a very bright oval core, ~45"x30".  The surface brightness is irregular or mottled but most interesting is a small extension or arm that juts out of the WNW end and appears to bend or hook north towards the companion NGC 4485.  There appears to be a smaller counterpart at the ESE end that slightly protrudes from the main body.  With averted vision, the galaxy grows wider and appears ~5'x2.5'.  Located 39' NW of mag 4.3 Beta CVn.  Member of the CVn II Group (brightest member M106).

 

18" (6/4/05): very bright, large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, contains a large, bright core.  At the northwest end a faint arm appears to emerge hooking sharply to the north for 1' towards NGC 4485.  At the southeast end, there appears to be slight extension without much curvature near a 16th magnitude star.  The central region is weakly concentrated to the center.  Overall, the galaxy has a mottled, slightly splotchy appearance as if was dusty or knotty with HII regions.  Located 40' NW of 4.2-magnitude Beta Canum Venaticorum.

 

13.1" (2/16/85): very bright, large, striking, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 6'x3', large bright core is elongated and grainy.  A very faint arm extends from the NW end in the direction of NGC 4485 3.6' NNW.  A small extension (arm) at the SE end is suspected.  Similar view and sketch made on 2/23/85.  On 4/12/86, just a hint of curvature was noted towards NGC 4485.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4490 = H I-198 = h1308, along with NGC 4485, on 14 Jan 1788 (sweep 798) and recorded "Two, the most south [NGC 4490] vB, vL, iE.  That to the north B, pS, iF, about 1 1/2' distance."  JH logged "vB; vL; mE; 40” np to sf; easily resolvable."

 

An accurate sketch was made of NGC 4485 and 4490 at Birr Castle on 27 Mar 1856 (figure 23, Plate XXVII in the 1861 publication).  It showed the northwest tip curling towards NGC 4485 and a faint streak, corresponding to a string of HII regions, along the north edge of the galaxy.

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NGC 4491 = UGC 7657 = MCG +02-32-107 = PGC 41376

12 30 57.1 +11 29 00; Vir

V = 12.6;  Size 1.7'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 148”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): fairly faint, elongated NW-SE, fairly small, brighter core.  A mag 13.5 star lies 2.2' NE.  Forms a pair with NGC 4497 12' NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4491 = H III-41 = h1304 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and noted "vF".  CH's reduced position is 4' southeast of UGC 7657.  JH logged "pB; L; R; 40"." and measured a fairly accurate position.

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NGC 4492 = IC 3438 = UGC 7656 = MCG +01-32-089 = PGC 41383

12 30 59.7 +08 04 40; Vir

V = 12.6;  Size 1.7'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (4/18/87): fairly faint, small, round, bright core.  A mag 12.5 star is very close NE 45" from center and a brighter mag 11.5 star is 1.8' SE.  Located 19' ENE of M49.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4492 = H II-499 = h1305 on 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 498) and simply noted "F".  His position is within 1' of UGC 7656.  JH made the single observation "pB; pL; vglbM; near two small stars."

 

Julius Schmidt independently found NGC 4492 in June 1861 with the 6" refractor at the Athens Observatory and announced it (along with both NGC 4464 and NGC 4470) in AN 1513 (1866).  All three of these objects, though, were found previously by Herschel.  In addition, Arnold Schwassmann found this galaxy again in 1900 on a plate taken with the 6" astrograph at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory in Heidelberg.  He assumed Sn. 65 was new (on a different plate he correctly identified Sn. 64 as NGC 4492) and Dreyer recatalogued Sn. 65 as IC 3438 although the NGC and IC positions are virtually identical.  So, NGC 4492 = IC 3438.

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NGC 4493 = MCG +00-32-017 = PGC 41409

12 31 08.3 +00 36 49; Vir

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 133”

 

24" (5/20/17): at 200x and 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 30"x25".  Contains a small slightly brighter core and brighter nucleus with direct vision.  Located 4.7' SE of mag 8.5 HD 108916.

 

At 200x an extremely faint "knot" (companion) was suspected off the southeast side [50" between centers].  The companion was definitely glimpsed at 260x and appeared extremely faint, very small, round, 10" diameter, stellar nucleus.  At 375x it was just visible continuously with averted (V = 15.2, B = 16.1) and was round, 12" diameter, possible stellar nucleus.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): faint, small, oval NW-SE, even surface brightness.  Located 4.7' SE of mag 8.6 SAO 119442.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4493 = m 241 on 22 Mar 1865 and noted "vF, vS, iR."  His position is accurate, though he didn't notice the faint companion off the southeast end.

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NGC 4494 = UGC 7662 = MCG +04-30-002 = CGCG 129-005 = LGG 294-001 = PGC 41441

12 31 24.1 +25 46 30; Com

V = 9.8;  Size 4.8'x3.5';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

18" (4/5/03): very bright, fairly large, slightly elongated ~N-S, ~3'x2.4', sharply concentrated with a very bright 20" core which increases to center.  The halo gradually fades and increases in size with averted vision.  Located 6' SSW of mag 7.9 HD 109030 and 35' ESE of the wide binocular pair 17 Coma.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4494 = H I-83 = h1307 on 6 Apr 1785 (sweep 393) and recorded "cB, pL, mbM, iR."  John Herschel noted "vB; R; vsmbM to a nucl; 40-50" dia."

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NGC 4495 = UGC 7663 = MCG +05-30-012 = PGC 41438

12 31 22.9 +29 08 10; Com

V = 13.2;  Size 1.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 130”

 

18" (4/5/03): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 NW-SE, 0.7'x0.4', weak concentration.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4495 = H III-301 = h1310 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 387) and noted "vF, vS, R."  JH made two observations and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4496 = NGC 4505 = VV 76a = Holm 415b = UGC 7668a = MCG +01-32-090 = CGCG 042-144 = PGC 41471

12 31 39.3 +03 56 23; Vir

V = 11.4;  Size 4.0'x3.2';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 70”

 

17.5" (2/28/87): NGC 4496A is moderately bright, large, elongated WSW-ENE, low even surface brightness.  Forms a double system with NGC 4496B = PGC 41473 superimposed at the SSE end.  The companion is fairly faint, very small, round, diffuse.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4496 = H II-36 = h1309 on 23 Feb 1784 (sweep 158) and recorded "a faintish pL nebula.  It seems to be resolveable."  John Herschel made three observations and resolved this double system on the 7 Apr 1828: "A double nebula; vF; pL; both R; pos 45” sf by diag; the two are in contact; unequal."  The three editions of the Reference Catalouge of Bright Galaxies label the two components as NGC 4496A and 4496B.

 

R.J. Mitchell sketched and described this system on 18 Apr 1855 at Birr Castle, "A double neb, alpha [NGC 4496B] is vF, and its light flickering, the other [NGC 4496A] has F neby extending a good way downwards [north], and is much the larger and brighter of the two."  Neither JH in the GC or Dreyer in the NGC assigned two designations for the components, although the NGC description reads "bi-nuclear or double nebula".

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NGC 4497 = IC 3452 = UGC 7665 = MCG +02-32-113 = PGC 41457

12 31 32.5 +11 37 29; Vir

V = 12.5;  Size 2.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 65”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated WSW-ENE, broad concentration.  A mag 12.5 star is 2.4' E of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 4497 12' SW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4497 = H III-42 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and simply noted "vF" (he was recording objects very quickly on the sweep).  CH's reduced position is 2.5' southeast of UGC 7665 - a similar offset as NGC 4491, the previous object he discovered, so this identification is nearly certain.

 

Schwassmann "rediscovered" the galaxy on 8 Sep 1900 using a Heidelberg plate taken by Wolf, measured an accurate position and recorded Sn. 199 (later IC 3452) as new.  Both Schwassmann and Dreyer missed the earlier NGC discovery, but IC 3452 = NGC 4497.

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NGC 4498 = UGC 7669 = MCG +03-32-056 = PGC 41472

12 31 39.7 +16 51 10; Com

V = 12.2;  Size 3.0'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 133”

 

17.5" (5/23/87): fairly faint streak NW-SE, diffuse, brighter core.  Forms a trio with NGC 4489 12' SW and NGC 402 11' SSE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4498 = H III-69 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 182) and simply noted "S".  His position is 30 sec of RA east and 6' south of NGC 4489, but the position should be 6' north.  Heinrich d'Arrest measured the position twice, and questioned if it was same object as III-69.  He noted "F, L, oval, 70" mininum dia.  The nucleus is very faint.  After repeated observation, it was seen as 90" long. Question is whether this is a Herschel object or not as differs in AR 22 sec and in Dec by  is Herscheliana, or not, the former is to stop. Differs from ours in AR 22s, on in Dec by 3 1/2'.

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NGC 4499 = ESO 322-022 = MCG -07-26-008 = PGC 41537

12 32 05.0 -39 58 57; Cen

V = 13.2;  Size 1.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 93”

 

18" (5/15/10): at 220x appeared very faint, slightly elongated E-W, 0.8'x0.65'.  Low even surface brightness with no core or zones, although view compromised by low elevation.  Probable outlying member of the Centaurus cluster (AGC 3526).  NGC 4507 lies 40' ENE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4499 = h3397 on 5 Jun 1834 and recorded "F; L; R; vglbM; 90"."  His position (measured on 2 sweep) is a close match with ESO 322-022 = PGC 41537.  Pietro Baracchi noticed this galaxy while observing NGC 4507 on 8 Feb 1886 with the GMT and assumed it was new.  He called it "large and diffused and vgvlbM, about 2' long and 40" broad."

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NGC 4500 = UGC 7667 = Mrk 213 = MCG +10-18-062 = PGC 41436

12 31 22.1 +57 57 53; UMa

V = 12.5;  Size 1.6'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 130”

 

18" (5/8/04): moderately bright, small lens, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE.  Sharply concentrated with a very small bright core and faint extensions.  Located 1' W of a mag 10.5 star!

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4500 = H I-234 = h1311 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 923) and recorded "cB, vS, lE.  Just preceding a pL star."  John Herschel logged "pB; E; pgbM; a * 9m foll 30" dist in parallel."  His position was 1' to the southwest.

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NGC 4501 = M88 = UGC 7675 = MCG +03-32-059 = CGCG 099-076 = PGC 41517

12 31 59.1 +14 25 13; Com

V = 9.6;  Size 6.9'x3.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 140”

 

48" (4/5/13): a thin spiral arm was clearly visible extending along the entire western flank of the halo and stretching 4.5' from NW to SE.  This arm separates more cleanly from the central region as it extends south, reaching a wide double star (13.7/14.3 that is superimposed on the southeast end.  A fainter, very thin, straight arm was also visible along the east side of the galaxy, extending towards the northwest.  This arm hugs pretty close to the east side of the core and separates a bit on the north side.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): very bright, very large, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, brighter core, intense very small or stellar nucleus (Seyfert 2 galaxy).  A faint double star is embedded at the SE end (mag 13.5/14.5 at 20").  A brighter double star mag 11/12 at 30" is 5' S of center.  Located at the NE end of "Markarian's chain" in the core of Virgo cluster.

 

Charles Messier discovered M88 = NGC 4501 = h1312 on 18 Mar 1781.  William Herschel described it on 14 Jan 1787 (sweep 691) as "vB, vL, E."  JH made 5 observations and recorded on sweep 422 "B; vL; vmE; 8' l, 1' br.  The northern half is brighter than the southern."  On two other sweeps heaccurately measured the position angle as between 140”-145”.    Listed as "Spiral or curvilinear" in Lord Rosse's 1850 PT paper.

 

At Birr Castle, R.J. Mitchell recorded on 9 Mar 1855 "Another spiral?  dark spaces p[receding] Nucl, others also, especially one sf [south-following] Nucl.  Six nights later he logged "Thought I could trace a dark passage from south end down past the Nucl.  Saw but the one branch f neby outside this passage."  William Lassell sketched M88 on 21 May 1862 using his 48-inch on Malta.  He noted "this nebula is of a somewhat convoluted form it may be a spiral, but I cannot make it out."  Nevertheless, a comparison of his sketch with images, shows the tight set of spiral arms around the core and another spiral arm curling around on the southeast side of the halo.

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NGC 4502 = UGC 7677 = MCG +03-32-060 = CGCG 099-076 = LGG 289-083 = PGC 41531

12 32 03.3 +16 41 16; Com

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 40”

 

18" (4/5/03): very faint, small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.4', low surface brightness.  NGC 4498 lies 11' NNW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4502 = H II-92 = h1314 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 182) and noted "vF, S."  CH's reduced position is 6' north of UGC 7677.  He was working quickly in the sweep and made several positional errors on nearby objects.  JH measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4503 = UGC 7680 = MCG +02-32-118 = CGCG 070-149 = PGC 41538

12 32 06.2 +11 10 35; Vir

V = 11.1;  Size 3.5'x1.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 12”

 

24" (5/20/17): bright, fairly large, oval 2:1 or 5:2  N-S, the halo increases to ~2'x0.8' with averted.  Sharply concentrated with an extremely bright core that increases to an intense stellar nucleus!  IC 3460 lies 6.6' NE,

 

24" (6/4/16): bright, large, elongated nearly 5:2 N-S, ~1.8'x0.7'.  Sharply concentrated with a very large, very bright elonagated core that increases to an even brighter nucleus and stellar peak at the center.  The halo gradually fades out but the ratio of major to minor axis is higher in the halo than the core.  IC 3470 is 6.7' NE and IC 3483 (the third member of Zwicky's Triplet, along with IC 3481 and 3481A) is 19' NE.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): fairly bright, fairly small, elongated ~N-S, very bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4503 = H II-66 = h1313 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and noted "pB".  His descriptions are very brief in this portion of the sweep as he was recording new nebulae rapidly.  CH's reduced position is 18 sec of RA too far east.  John Herschel made two observations, the first on 11 Apr 1825, his third formal sweep.  Dreyer made an observation on 24 Mar 1878, though mistakenly assumed he was observing GC 3077 = NGC 4528. He wrote, "pB, lE N-S, irr figure, fades away more gradually on f[ollowing] side..."

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NGC 4504 = MCG -01-32-022 = PGC 41555

12 32 17.3 -07 33 50; Vir

V = 11.2;  Size 4.4'x2.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 150”

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly large, almost even surface brightness, slightly elongated, very weakly concentrated core.  Two mag 14.5-15 stars are off following end 1.4' NE and 2.1' ESE of center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4504 = H II-771 = h1398 on 20 Mar 1789 (sweep 913) and noted "pB, iF, mbM, easily resolvable."  John Herschel made a single observation from the Cape of Good Hope and logged "vF; L; lE; gvlbM; 2' l by 100" broad."

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NGC 4505 = NGC 4496? = UGC 7668a = MCG +01-32-090 = CGCG 042-144 = VV 76a = PGC 41471

12 31 39.3 +03 56 23; Vir

 

See observing notes for NGC 4496.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4505 = H III-18 = h1315 on 23 Feb 1784 (sweep 158) and recorded "vF of a considerable size; it seems to be resolvable, is more faint than the foregoing [II-36 = NGC 4496] and rather larger.  There is nothing at his position, exactly 1.0 min of time following II-36 = NGC 4496, and the description applies to this galaxy!  It appears he likely recorded the same object twice.

 

JH has a single observation on sweep 142: "eF, the following of 2 [with NGC 4496] in fld."  His position is roughly the same as his father's (perhaps using his working list).  Karl Reinmuth, in his photographic survey "Die Herschel-Nebel", questions if it is a mag 14 star, and this is very possible.

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NGC 4506 = UGC 7682 = MCG +02-32-120 = CGCG 070-152 = PGC 41546

12 32 10.5 +13 25 10; Com

V = 12.7;  Size 1.6'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 110”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): faint, small, slightly elongated E-W, diffuse, very weakly concentrated core.  A mag 11 star is 2.1' W.  Located 34' E of NGC 4473 near the Virgo border.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4506 = H II-631 = h1316 on 14 Jan 1787 (sweep 691) and noted "F".  His position is 2.5' south and 8 sec of time west of UGC 7682. JH recorded "vF; pmE in parallel; gbM; a * 9m 8 sec following."  His position and description matches this galaxy.

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NGC 4507 = Shapley-Ames 2 = ESO 322-029 = MCG -07-26-011 = LGG 298-008 = PGC 41960

12 35 36.7 -39 54 34; Cen

V = 12.1;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 56”

 

18" (4/25/09): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, increases to a small brighter core.  Situated within an oval group of ~8 stars (~9'x6') and 5' SW of mag 5.8 HD 109573 (on the east end of the group).

 

17.5" (4/7/89): fairly faint, oval, weak concentration.  Located 5.2' SW of mag 5.8 SAO 203621 and the glare detracts from viewing.  This is a Seyfert galaxy and possible member of the Centaurus galaxy cluster (AGC 3526).

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4507 = h3399 on 5 Jun 1834 and recorded "pB; S; R: psmbM to a * 16m."  His position (measured on two sweeps) is at the east edge of ESO 322-029 = PGC 41960.  He must have made an error precessing the position to 1860 coordinates in the GC, as the position there (copied into the NGC) was 3.0 min of RA too far west.  As a result, Joseph Turner couldn't find this galaxy when he searched for it with the Great Melbourne Telescope in 1878.

 

The identication with NGC 4507 was missed in the 1932 Shapley-Ames Catalogue and this galaxy was listed as one of 6 "new anonymous" galaxies (New 2).

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NGC 4508

12 32 17.4 +05 49 08; Vir

 

= **?, Gottlieb. = "Not found", Carlson.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4508 = h1317 on 19 Apr 1830 and noted "vF; R; a * 13m with a burr."  His position corresponds with a close, faint double star.  The stars are cleanly resolved on the SDSS.  Karl Reinmuth also identifies a double star at the NGC position, although he also mentions a possible nearby candidate.  This is object #1450 in the Ames "Catalogue of 2778 Nebulae including the Coma-Virgo Group".  Ames felt this object was too far from the NGC position and too faint.

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NGC 4509 = UGC 7704 = MCG +05-30-018 = CGCG 159-015 = Mrk 773 = PGC 41660

12 33 06.8 +32 05 32; CVn

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 155”

 

17.5": faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, almost even surface brightness.  Located 4.5' NW of a bright double star STF 1653 = 9.7/9.7 at 8".

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4509 = h1318 on 11 Mar 1828 and noted "vF; S; R; lbM."  There is nothing at his position but 1.0 min of RA east is UGC 7704 = PGC 41660.  His position matches in dec, so this is a reasonable identification, though CGCG does not label this galaxy as NGC 4509.

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NGC 4510 = UGC 7679 = MCG +11-15-058 = CGCG 315-041 = PGC 41489

12 31 47.2 +64 14 01; Dra

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 153”

 

17.5" (4/15/93): faint, very small, very small bright core, stellar nucleus, very small halo. NGC 4441 lies 17' SW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4510 on 9 Sep 1866 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position is an excellent match with UGC 7679.  He described it as sparkling and almost resolved, so Dreyer called it a cluster in the NGC description.  Also see NGC 4521, which may be a duplicate observation.

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NGC 4511 = MCG +10-18-063 = CGCG 293-027 = PGC 41560

12 32 08.1 +56 28 16; UMa

V = 14.1;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 9”

 

18" (5/8/04): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 ~N-S.  A mag 14 star is close south, in the direction of elongation.  UGC 7691 lies 11' N.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4511 = H III-834 = h1319 on 17 Mar 1790 (sweep 947) and noted "eF, S, iF."  His position matches CGCG 293-027. JH made a single observation, "Not eF; S; R; vgbM; 12"."

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NGC 4512 = NGC 4521? = UGC 7706 = MCG +11-15-061 = CGCG 315-046 = PGC 41621

12 32 47.6 +63 56 21; Dra

V = 12.2;  Size 2.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 167”

 

See observing notes for NGC 4521.  Identification uncertain; this number may be identical to NGC 4510.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4512 = h1321 on 3 Apr 1832 and recorded "pB; R: psbM; 20"."  There is nothing at his single position, though 10' north-northeast is UGC 7700, the galaxy identified in all modern catalogues as NGC 4512.  But this galaxy would not be described as "pB", as it has a very low surface brightness.  In addition, JH made no mention of much brighter NGC 4521, just 4' north of UGC 7770, which was seen on the previous sweep with a poor position.

 

Bigourdan was unable to recover NGC 4512 and Reinmuth states "no pB neb found, =NGC 4521?"   Corwin suggests that NGC 4512 may be identical to NGC 4510 as this would require a 30' error in declination.  Furthermore this galaxy is more likely than NGC 4521 to be called "round" and "20" in diameter.  So, the identification with NGC 4521 is uncertain, but likely applies to either NGC 4521 or NGC 4510.  See Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 4513 = UGC 7683 = MCG +11-15-059 = CGCG 315-042 = LGG 277-007 = WBL 412-001 = PGC 41527

12 32 01.5 +66 19 57; Dra

V = 13.0;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 15”

 

24" (5/30/16): at 225x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, 0.6'x0.4', small bright core.

 

The triple system VII Zw 467 = CGCG 315-044 (2 members seen) is 4' NNE and VII Zw 466 = CGCG 315-043 (empty collisional RING galaxy) is 4' N.  PGC 41549 appeared very faint to faint, very small, round, 12" diameter, visible continuously with averted vision.  Both PGC 2686685 and VII Zw 466 were challenging objects, only occasionally visible.

 

48" (4/4/13): at 488x; VII Zw 466 appeared fairly faint, small, round with a slightly brighter rim and darker center.  The ring was irregular lit and brighter on the west side with a couple of slightly brighter knots north and south.

 

PGC 3441759, the faintest member of triple system VII Zw 467, appeared very faint, extremely small, round, 6" diameter.  PGC 41549, the brightest component, is fairly faint, small, round, high surface brightness and PGC 2686685 is faint, small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 20"x10".

 

17.5" (4/15/93): faint, small, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, very small bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4513 on 16 Oct 1866 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position is an excellent match with UGC 7683, though he questioned if it consisted of stars or was a genuine nebula.

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NGC 4514 = UGC 7693 = MCG +05-30-015 = CGCG 159-011 = PGC 41610

12 32 43.0 +29 42 45; Com

V = 13.2;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

18" (5/30/03): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.7' diameter, weak concentration with no noticeable core.  A mag 14 star lies 1.5' NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4514 = H III-302 = h1320 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 387) and noted "eF, vS".  JH made two observations and called this galaxy (sweep 342) "vF; R; bM; 15"."

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NGC 4515 = UGC 7701 = MCG +03-32-065 = CGCG 099-086 = PGC 41652

12 33 05.0 +16 15 56; Com

V = 12.3;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

17.5" (5/23/87): fairly faint, very small, almost round, weak concentration.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4515 = H II-93 = h1324 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 182) and noted "F, vS."  JH called it "F; an extremely dilute nebulosity, with a centre almost stellar.  His single position is 1' north of UGC 7701.

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NGC 4516 = UGC 7703 = MCG +03-32-067 = CGCG 099-087 = PGC 41661

12 33 07.6 +14 34 30; Com

V = 12.8;  Size 1.7'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 3”

 

17.5" (5/23/87): faint, small, very elongated N-S, small well defined core.  Located 18' NE of M88.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4516 = H III-78 = h1323 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and recorded "A B, pL, r nebula [M88] with a small one [NGC 4516] after it.  Moonlight so strong that I had nearly overlooked the latter.  JH logged "F; R: vgbM; 40"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4517 = NGC 4437 = UGC 7694 = MCG +00-32-020 = CGCG 014-063 = FGC 1455 = PGC 41618

12 32 45.6 +00 06 59; Vir

V = 10.4;  Size 10.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 83”

 

48" (5/4/16): beautiful edge-on spiral, nearly 8:1 WSW-ENE, ~11'x1.5'.  A mag 10.9 star is attached on the north edge, just east of center.  The galaxy is broadly concentrated with a larger, brighter core region and small brighter nucleus.  A fairly prominent, irregular dust lane extends ~5', unevenly slicing the galaxy along the north edge of the core region.  The absorption lane is widest and most prominent near the core.  A fairly thin strip of the galaxy is visible to the north of the dust lane, passing through the bright star at the north edge.  The dust gives the galaxy an irregular patchy appearance and along with some mottling, the view is reminiscent of NGC 253 or NGC 55.

 

NGC 4517A, situated 17' NNW, appeared moderately bright, large, oval 4:3 SSW-NNE, ~3'x2.2', broad concentration with a small brighter core, patchy, irregular surface brightness.  A mag 10 star is 3.5' NW and a mag 11.5 star is 4.6' W.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): moderately bright, very large edge-on 8:1 WSW-ENE, almost 10'x1.2'.  This galaxy is an impressive large narrow streak with fairly low surface brightness and fills 1/2 of the 21' field.  There is no well-define nucleus but central region slightly bulges.  Appears brighter along the western extension.  A mag 9 star is attached at the northeast edge of the core.

 

NGC 4517A, located 17' NNW, appeared very faint, large, small brighter core.  Appears as a very diffuse hazy region elongated SSW-NNE with no distinct boundaries.  Located 3.5' SE of a mag 10.5 star.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4517 = H IV-5 on 22 Feb 1784 (sweep 153) and recorded "A pretty bright star with a milky ray on the south side of it, extending from east to west, or rather from np to sf.  It does not seem to touch the star, and is about 10 or 12' in length."  On a second observation (1 Jan 1786, sweep 507), he added "a pB star with a milky ray to the south of it, and partly including it."  WH commented this might suggest that the nebula had a considerable proper motion, though differences in observing conditions might account for the difference.  The GC and NGC position (from 3 observations) is 0.5 min of RA too far east and 2' south.

 

JH found h1277 = NGC 4437 on 14 Apr 1828 and recorded "F; vmE; pos 15” nf to sp; a long ray; it is south preceding a * 10m.  The place is that of the star."  There is nothing near his position, but 5 min of RA east is NGC 4517 and his description is a perfect match with this galaxy.  The equivalence may have first been suggest by Karl Reinmuth in his 1926 photographic Heidelberg survey "Die Herschel Nebel".  Various sources (including the RNGC) mistakenly equate NGC 4437 with NGC 4417, instead of NGC 4517.  So, NGC 4517 = NGC 4437.

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NGC 4518 = MCG +01-32-095 = CGCG 042-149 = Holm 417a = PGC 41674

12 33 11.7 +07 51 06; Vir

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 0”

 

24" (5/20/17): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, ~25"x18", gradually increases to a small bright core and stellar nucleus.  Located 16' NW of NGC 4526 and 6.6' SSW of mag 7.6 HD 109270.

 

Forms a close pair with NGC 4518B = CGCG 042-149 1.1' SSW.  The companion appeared very faint, very small, 15"x10" SW-NE.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): very faint, small, elongated NW-SE, bright core.  Located to the west of a N-S line joining mag 6.9 SAO 119466 12' SSE and mag 7.7 SAO 119465 7' NNE.  NGC 4526 lies 17' SE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4518 = h1322 on 27 Dec 1827 and recorded "F; S; R; bM; 20"."  His position corresponds with CGCG 042-149 = PGC 41674 (double system with a fainter companion close south).  Karl Reinmuth noted CGCG 042-149, as well as several fainter companions, in his description of NGC 4518 based on a Heidelberg plate: "..eF neb sp 1.4'..."

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NGC 4519 = UGC 7709 = MCG +02-32-135 = CGCG 070-167 = Holm 418a = PGC 41719

12 33 30.3 +08 39 16; Vir

V = 11.8;  Size 3.2'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 145”

 

24" (6/4/16): at 322x; bright, large, slightly elongated 5:4 SW-NE, at least 1.5'x1.2'.  Contains a relatively large brighter core. The halo is noticeably mottled with an uneven surface brightness (probably due to HII knots in the arms).

 

Forms a pair with NGC 4519A 2.6' NW.  This companion appeared very faint (V ~15.4), small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, low even surface brightness.  A mag 14.3 star is 35" SW.

 

17.5" (4/18/87): fairly bright, moderately large, brighter core, slightly elongated.  A knot is superimposed on the SW end.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4519 = H II-158 on 15 Apr 1784 (sweep 194) and recorded, "F, pL, almost R, r."  His position (CH's reduction) is 3' northeast of UGC 7709.  This galaxy was not observed by JH, but d'Arrest measured an accurate position on 2 nights.

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NGC 4520 = IC 799 = PGC 41748

12 33 49.9 -07 22 32; Vir

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 101”

 

18" (4/9/05): faint, small, elongated 2:1 ~E-W.  A very faint star is at the western tip. The galaxy appears to have a very faint stellar nucleus or a second star is involved.  A mag 11.2 star is 3' NW.  NGC 4504 lies 20' SW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4520 = H III-757 on 20 Mar 1789 (sweep 913) and logged "2 vF stars involved in nebulosity, vF, S."  He made another observation with a similar description a few nights later (sweep 916).  The GC and NGC has a typo, calling this galaxy II-757.

 

Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 21 Apr 1889 and assumed it was new.  His description for #64 in his 8th discovery list (later IC 799) states "? ef star is in contact on p side.", which applies to PGC 41748, and clinches the identification IC 799 = NGC 4520.

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NGC 4521 = NGC 4512? = UGC 7706 = MCG +11-15-061 = CGCG 315-046 = PGC 41621

12 32 47.6 +63 56 21; Dra

V = 12.2;  Size 2.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 167”

 

24" (5/30/16): at 225x; moderately bright and large, edge-on 4:1 NNW-SSE, 1.2'x0.3', sharply concentrated with a very small bright core.  A mag 11 star is 2' NNW and a mag 15.2 star is 1.4' SSE.  Forms a pair with much fainter UGC 7700 4' SSW.  Brightest in a group including NGC 4510 19' NNW and NGC 4545 27' SSE.

 

UGC 7700 (misidentified in all modern catalogues and most online sources as NGC 4512) appeared very faint, fairly small, 24" diameter (only the central region seen), very low even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (4/15/93): moderately bright and large, edge-on 4:1 NNW-SSE, very bright core, faint stellar nucleus, very thin tapering extensions.  Located 2.0' SSE of a mag 10 star.  A mag 15 star is just 30" E of the southern extension.  NGC 4481 lies 20' WNW.  UGC 7700 = (R)NGC 4512 located 4' SW was not seen.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4521 = H II-849 = h1326 on 20 Mar 1790 (sweep 954) and logged "pB, vS, lE, SN."   JH recorded "pB; pmE; pgbM; 20" long, 12" broad; a * 9m near.  His description matches NGC 4521, but his position is 20' too far south.  Because of the discrepancy with his father's position, JH listed it as a "Nova".  In the NGC notes, Dreyer notes that "h1326 = II 848, but h's P.D. Is wrong; d'Arrest's adopted".

 

See notes for NGC 4512 = h1321, which may be identical to NGC 4521.

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NGC 4522 = UGC 7711 = MCG +02-32-137 = CGCG 070-168 = PGC 41729

12 33 39.5 +09 10 25; Vir

V = 12.3;  Size 3.7'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 33”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): fairly faint, fairly large, thin edge-on streak oriented SSW-NNE, weak concentration.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4522 = h1325 on 18 Jan 1828 and recorded "eF; pL; lE; vlbM." His single position is accurate.

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NGC 4523 = UGC 7713 = MCG +03-32-068 = CGCG 099-089 = DDO 135 = PGC 41746

12 33 47.8 +15 10 02; Com

V = 14.1;  Size 2.0'x1.9';  Surf Br = 15.4

 

17.5" (5/23/87): extremely faint, difficult, very diffuse, moderately large.  Located 10' S of IC 800.  Three stars are involved; a mag 12 star is 0.4' NE of center and an evenly matched mag 13.5 double star at 21" separation is 0.7' S of center.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4523 on 19 Apr 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His published position is 10 sec of RA west of UGC 7713, though he mentions his first observation (of 2) differed to 10 sec. In any case, there is no question about the identification as he mentions a double star on the south side of the nebula and a brighter star on the north.

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NGC 4524 = MCG -02-32-014 = PGC 41757

12 33 54.4 -12 01 39; Crv

V = 13.7;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 80”

 

17.5" (3/29/89): faint, small, oval WSW-ENE, low even surface brightness.  Three mag 15 stars are just west.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4524 = h1327 on 9 Mar 1828 and recorded "vF; irreg R; bM."  His single position is 1' north of MCG -02-32-014 = PGC 41757.

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NGC 4525 = UGC 7714 = MCG +05-30-020 = CGCG 159-016 = LGG 279-015 = PGC 41755

12 33 51.2 +30 16 39; Com

V = 12.2;  Size 2.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 47”

 

18" (4/10/04): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, broadly concentrated to an ill-defined 0.8' core.  A low surface brightness halo increases the size to at least 2.0'x.1.0'.  The halo is irregular or patchy and fades into the background so is difficult to trace, though it is a little brighter on the SW extension.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4525 = H II-325 = h1328 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 387) and noted "F, pL, E, bM."  JH made the single observation "pF; L; R; 60"." and did not measure a position.

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NGC 4526 = NGC 4560? = UGC 7718 = MCG +01-32-100 = CGCG 042-155 = PGC 41772

12 34 03.1 +07 41 59; Vir

V = 9.7;  Size 7.2'x2.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 113”

 

24" (5/20/17): very bright, very large, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, ~3.75'x1.25'.  Contains a large, rounder core with a small intense nucleus that seems slightly offset south of center.  The extensions gradually fade out towards the tips.  Situated at the midpoint of mag 7.0 HD 109285 7.5' WSW and mag 6.8 HD 109417 7.3' ENE.  NGC 4518 lies 15' NW.

 

17.5" (4/18/87): very bright, fairly large, very elongated WNW-ESE, bright core, strong stellar nucleus.  A mag 12.5 star is 1.3' S of center.  Located midway between mag 6.9 SAO 119466 7.6' W and mag 6.7 SAO 119479 7.2' ENE.  Supernova 1994C observed at 12th magnitude on 3/12/94 five days after discovery.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4526 = H I-31 = H I-38 = h1329 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded I-31 as "vB, E, mbM, r."  It is situated between two brilliant stars at a considerable distance."  There is nothing at his position, but 17' north is UGC 7718 = PGC 41772 and his description matches this bright galaxy.  Five nights later (sweep 202), he returned to the field and recorded I-38 as "B, vL, mE, mbM."  His position was only 2' south of UGC 7718.  JH combined the two H-designations in the GC. 

 

WH probably found this galaxy a third time on 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 498) and recorded it as H I-119 = NGC 4560, with another bad position.  So, NGC 4526 = NGC 4560.

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NGC 4527 = UGC 7721 = MCG +01-32-101 = CGCG 042-156 = PGC 41789

12 34 08.4 +02 39 11; Vir

V = 10.5;  Size 6.2'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 67”

 

24" (5/20/17): at 200x; bright; very large; very elongated ~4:1 WSW-ENE, ~4'x1',well concentrated with a very bright elongated core that contains a fairly intense nucleus.  Appears to brighten slightly and curl south on the western end and spread out and curl a bit north on the eastern ends, like the beginning of spiral arms (verified later on the DSS). IC 3474 lies 23' due east.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly bright, very large, very elongated WSW-ENE, prominent core, small bright nucleus.  NGC 4536 is 30' SSE with mag 8.8 SAO 119473 and mag 8.6 SAO 119474 near the midpoint.  NGC 4533, a fainter galaxy, also lies 20' S.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4527 = H II-37 = h1330 on 23 Feb 1784 (sweep 158) and recorded "pB, of an extended shape, from np to sf and mbM than at the ends."  His orientation should read "sp to nf".  On sweep 143, JH logged "pB; pL; gmbM; E in pos 30” nf to sp."

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NGC 4528 = UGC 7722 = MCG +02-32-140 = CGCG 070-172 = PGC 41781

12 34 06.1 +11 19 16; Vir

V = 12.1;  Size 1.7'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 5”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): fairly bright but small, oval ~N-S, nucleus bulge, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 35' WNW of the NGC 4567/NGC 4568 pair.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4528 = H II-67 = h1331 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and noted "vS but pB."  His RA is 42 sec too small (several objects on this sweep have a poor RA).  John Herschel made four observations (first on 11Apr 1825, his third sweep) with a range of brightness descriptions from "F" to "pB".

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NGC 4529

12 34 12 +20 32; Com

 

= Not found, Corwin.  Very uncertain ID's UGC 7697 or MCG +04-30-003

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4529 = H III-26 on 12 Mar 1784 (sweep 167) and logged "I suspected a L, eF nebula; but though I looked at it a good while I could not verify the suspicion, nor could I convince myself that it was a deception."  The RA was only taken approximately.  He reported it again on 16 Mar 1790 (sweep 944), and measured offsets from 26 Com (the reduced position by CH was used in the GC and NGC).  Dreyer discussed the difference between CH's reduction vs. Auwers' reduction in the NGC Notes/Corrections section (based on the sweep used).  In any case, there is nothing at either position.

 

RNGC misidentifies MCG +04-30-003 = CGCG 129-006 as NGC 4529, although neither CGCG or MCG uses this identification.  PGC lists the RNGC entry and the MCG/CGCG entry separately, so PGC 41482 = PGC 41463. Malcolm Thomson concurs this a probable misidentification if the original NGC position is correct.

 

I send an e-mail to Harold Corwin back in October 1999 about the identification and no satisfactory candidate could be identified.  See his identification notes.

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NGC 4530 = Beta CVn = 8 CVn

12 33 44.5 +41 21 27; CVn

V = 4.3

 

= *4.3 (Beta CVn), Gottlieb.  = Not found, RNGC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4530 = h1332 in May 1828 (sweep 150) and described "8 [Beta] CVn.  Involved in a considerable nebula 3' in diam, exactly R; vgbM." He made a total of four observation and described the star as nebulous on each occasion.  There is no nebulosity surrounding this star.  JH realized the observation was uncertain.  In the appendix of the Slough catalogue, he noted "With regard to nebulous stars generally, I ought to mention that it has frequently occurred to me to notice a peculiar state of atmosphere in which all large stars (above the 7th magnitude) have appeared surrounded with photospheres of 2' or 3' or more diameter, precisely resembling that about some of the finer specimens of nebulous stars."

 

This is the second brightest star (after NGC 771) with an entry in the NGC.  Albert Marth wrote to Herschel in 1862 that the star "does not appear to me have any nebula or appendage about it."

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NGC 4531 = UGC 7729 = MCG +02-32-141 = CGCG 070-175 = PGC 41806

12 34 15.9 +13 04 31; Vir

V = 11.4;  Size 3.1'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 155”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): moderately bright, moderately large, slightly elongated NW-SE, diffuse, broad concentration.  Located 37' W of M90.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4531 = H II-175 = h1333 on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199)and noted "pF, L."  JH made two observations and recorded (sweep 339) "pF; pL; R; vgbM; 80"."

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NGC 4532 = UGC 7726 = MCG +01-32-103 = CGCG 042-158 = PGC 41811

12 34 19.3 +06 28 07; Vir

V = 11.9;  Size 2.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 160”

 

24" (5/20/17): fairly bright, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 or 7:2 NNW-SSE.  The surface brightness is irregular; brighter and mottled on the NNW end and fainter on the SSE end, giving an asymmetric appearance.  A mag 14.5 star is off the east side [0.6' from center].  Mag 8.0 HD 109402 lies 5.4' S.

 

Holmberg VII lies 12' SE of NGC 4532.  At 200x this dwarf was just visible as a very faint patch with averted vision, roundish, ~40" diameter (no distinct edge), very low even surface brightness, no core or nucleus.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, no central condensation.  Asymmetric appearance as fainter at the SE end (dust?).  Located 5.4' N of mag 8.3 SAO 119478.  NGC 4543 lies 25' SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4532 = H II-147 = h1334 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and noted "pB, pL, mE, r."  His position and description matches UGC 7726 = PGC 41811.

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NGC 4533 = UGC 7725 = MCG +01-32-102 = CGCG 042-157 = PGC 41816

12 34 22.0 +02 19 31; Vir

V = 13.8;  Size 2.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 161”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): faint, moderately large, edge-on NNW-SSE, low surface brightness narrow streak.  Collinear with mag 8.6 SAO 119474 4.1' N and mag 8.8 SAO 119473 7.2' N.  All of these are on line with bright galaxy NGC 4536 8.3' SSE.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 4533 = T 1-45 and described a class III nebula, 7 sec of RA west and 9' north of H V-2 = NGC 4536.  The exact offsets to this galaxy are -5 sec RA and +8' dec.

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NGC 4534 = UGC 7723 = MCG +06-28-010 = CGCG 188-008 = Holm 419a = PGC 41779

12 34 05.4 +35 31 06; CVn

V = 12.3;  Size 2.6'x2.1';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 125”

 

17.5": fairly faint, moderately large, round, 2.0' diameter, low almost even surface brightness, very small region of central brightening.  A mag 15 star is 30" SW of the halo and 1.5' from center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4534 = H II-410 = h1336 on 1 May 1785 (sweep 405) and noted "F, cL, r."  His position is just off the north side of UGC 7723.  JH made two observations, reporting on sweep 331, "vF; L; R; vglbM; 45"."

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NGC 4535 = UGC 7727 = MCG +01-32-104 = CGCG 042-159 = PGC 41812 = The Lost Galaxy

12 34 20.3 +08 11 52; Vir

V = 10.0;  Size 7.1'x5.0';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 0”

 

48" (4/4/13): NGC 4535 is a gorgeous face-on Sc spiral with two, long, very prominent arms extending from a small, very bright central region.  The small, very bright core is elongated SSW-NNE and punctuated by an intense, stellar nucleus.  The two main arms are clearly attached right at opposite ends of the core.  At the northeast end, a beautiful thin arm winds clockwise to the west with a mag 13.5 star pinned on the outer north edge.  The arm contains NGC 4535:[HK83] #157 (several additional entries including #141/145 are in Hodge & Kennicutt's "Atlas of HII regions in 125 galaxies"), a small, bright, 15" knot and then dims as it wraps to the south.  A mag 14.5 star is situated midway between the nucleus and southern end of this arm [47" SW of the nucleus].

 

The second main arm is attached at the southwest end of the core and curves clockwise to the southeast, where the arm brightens in an elongated 30" patch (#51/52/72/78), which is symmetrically positioned opposite #157.  A fainter arm segment, extending WNW to ESE is visible on the south side, containing #84/90, a small, fairly faint 12" patch, located 1.5' SSE of center.  This knot forms the vertex of a flat isosceles triangle with a mag 15 star 0.5' NW and a mag 14 star 0.7' S.  The arms are etched on the slightly fainter and larger background glow of the disc, which extends 5.5'x4.0' in a N-S orientation.

 

24" (5/24/20): at 260x; bright, large, face-on spiral with a low contrast "S" shape, ~5'x4' N-S. Strongly concentrated with a small bright core elongated N-S and an intense quasi-stellar nucleus.  A mag 14.5 star is superimposed 0.8' SW of center.  The northern arm was very subtle; it curved clockwise to the west, passing close to a mag 13.5 star 1' N of center.  A faint 15" knot, [HK83] #157, was at the end of this arm, 1' NW of center. A low contrast arm on the south side curled towards the east and north.  A mag 15 star is 1.2' S of center (just south of the arm) and a mag 14 star is 2.2' S of center at the edge of the outer halo.

 

17.5" (4/18/87): bright, fairly large, very small bright core, elongated SSW-NNE, about 5.5'x4.0'.  Appears slightly darker on both sides of core (this is a gap between the spiral arms).  A mag 13.5 star is superimposed on the north side 1.0' from the center and a similar star is at the south end of the halo 2.2' from center.  A faint mag 14.5 star is just 48" SW of the core.  NGC 4526 lies 30' SSW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4535 = H II-500 on 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 498) and described "very large, easily resolvable.  I see a few of the largest stars in it."  In his 1814 PT paper, WH hypothesized this object may be a cluster of stars mixed with nebulosity or a cluster seen at great distance which contains no nebulosity.  JH did not make any observations, though d'Arrest made four observations and described it as up to 5 or 6' in size.  He also noted the mag 15 star (called mag 17) just 48" preceding the nucleus.

 

The nickname "Lost Galaxy" is from Leland S. Copeland's February 1955 S&T article "Adventuring in the Virgo Cloud". In his article, Copeland described a star hop through the Virgo Cluster using his 8" Cave reflector. He states, "North of the Diamond is a very dim spiral, here called the Lost Galaxy, NGC 4535." Leland was probably referring to NGC4535's difficulty to locate due to its low surface brightness.  The a caption of a photograph states that NGC 4535's "delicate structure shows only on long exposure photographs".

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NGC 4536 = UGC 7732 = MCG +00-32-023 = CGCG 014-068 = PGC 41823

12 34 27.1 +02 11 16; Vir

V = 10.6;  Size 7.6'x3.2';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 130”

 

48" (4/4/13): very bright, gorgeous showpiece spiral with two very stretched arms extending northwest and southeast ~7'x2.5'.  Contains a very bright, slightly elongated core that increases to an intense stellar nucleus.  One long arm emanates from the west side of the core and shoots to the northwest, extending over 3' from the nucleus.  Close west of the core is a brighter, knotty region identified as [HK 83] 66/67 in the Hodge-Kennicutt "Atlas of H II regions in 125 galaxies".  The second arm is connected at the northeast side of the core and stretches to the southeast. A small brightening (#53) is just north of the core where the arm is attached.  This arm contains a brighter, elongated section which includes [HK 83] 23/33/35/36, opposite the brighter region on the western arm.

 

24" (5/24/20): at 260x; bright, very large, very elongated at least 3:1 NW-SE with two long slightly arched arms, ~6.5'x2', strong concentration with a bright elongated core that increased to a very small but non-stellar nucleus.  The long eastern arm was attached on the north side of the core and was brightest in a 1.5'-2' section angling to the SE.  The arm dimmed with a diffuse, lower surface brightness extension out to 3.5' SE of center, spreading further south at the eastern end. The western arm was also brightest in the initial 1' section on the west side of the core. The arm dimmed and thinned but stretched NW ~3' from center, where is seemed to bend north and fade out.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): fairly bright, very large, very elongated NW-SE, weak concentration, stellar nucleus.  Spiral structure is suspected at the ends of the major axis.  Forms a pair with NGC 4533 8' N.  Located 12' WSW of mag 7.0 SAO 119485 and 12' S of mag 8.6 SAO 119474 (4' N of NGC 4533).  NGC 4527 lies 30' N.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4536 = H V-2 = h1337 on 24 Jan 1784 (sweep 120) and noted "F, L, cE.  It is bright in the middle in two or three places."  He recorded the galaxy on 4 different sweeps.  John Herschel reported "pB; vL; mE in pos 20” np; sbM."

 

R.J. Mitchell sketched the galaxy on 29 May 1856 with LdR's 72" and clearly showed the central bar and long arms forming an stretched "Z" shape.  The sketch was included (Fig 24) in LdR's 1861 publication.

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NGC 4537 = NGC 4542: = UGC 7746 = MCG +09-21-021 = CGCG 270-011 = PGC 41909

12 34 48.9 +50 48 18; CVn

V = 13.9;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 21”

 

See observing notes for NGC 4542.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 4537 = Sw. I-22 on 16 Mar 1884 and recorded "eeF; S; R; nearly between 2 stars."  There is nothing at his position, but 49 seconds of RA due east is NGC 4542 (discovered by John Herschel), the brightest nearby candidate.  Also in the vicinity is MCG +09-21-022 = PGC 41909, 3.2' northeast of NGC 4537 and with respect to Swift's position, 1.0 min of RA east and 2' north.  But this galaxy is substantially fainter (V = 15), and if it was Swift's object, I would assume he would mention brighter NGC 4542.  Either galaxy could be made to fit his comment "nearly between 2 stars."

 

The RNGC and PGC (and secondary sources such as Megastar) identify MCG +09-21-022 as NGC 4537.  Both Malcolm Thomson and Harold Corwin concur that NGC 4537 is more likely a duplicate of NGC 4542.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for more.

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NGC 4538 = MCG +01-32-105 = CGCG 042-161 = PGC 41850

12 34 40.9 +03 19 25; Vir

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 80”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): very faint, small, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, low even surface brightness.  NGC 4544 lies 22' SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4538 = m 242 on 22 Mar 1865 and noted "eF, vS, nearly R."  His position matches CGCG 042-161 = PGC 41850.

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NGC 4539 = UGC 7735 = MCG +03-32-071 = CGCG 099-092 = LGG 289-054 = PGC 41839

12 34 34.8 +18 12 09; Com

V = 12.0;  Size 3.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 95”

 

17.5" (4/13/02): fairly faint but fairly large, elongated 5:2 E-W, 2.4'x0.9'.  Fairly uniform low surface brightness but bulges slightly at the core.  Two mag 14 stars are 1.5' SE of center.  Located 13' SW of the beautiful double 24 Comae (5.0/6.6 at 20").

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4539 = h1338 on 17 Mar 1831and logged "pB; pmE."  His position and description matches UGC 7735.

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NGC 4540 = UGC 7742 = MCG +03-32-074 = CGCG 099-093 = Holm 421a = PGC 41876

12 34 50.8 +15 33 05; Com

V = 11.7;  Size 1.9'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 40”

 

17.5" (5/23/87): moderately bright, fairly small, even surface brightness.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.2' W of center.  Forms a close pair with IC 3528 1.6' NE.  The IC galaxy (missed by the Herschels) appeared extremely faint and small, round.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4540 = H II-94 = H II-119 = h1335 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 182) and noted H II-94 as "F, S."  CH's reduced position is 5' southeast of UGC 7742 and there are no other nearby candidates.  Several objects in this relatively early sweep have poor positions. He found it again on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and noted H II-119 "pL, resolvable.  Moonlight."  JH made two observations but his RA was 30 sec too far west.  Finally, d'Arrest made 3 observations and measured an accurate position.  Reinmuth says IC 3528 is 1' S and questions whether the galaxy NE is IC 3519?

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NGC 4541 = UGC 7749 = MCG +00-32-024 = CGCG 014-071 = PGC 41911

12 35 10.6 -00 13 17; Vir

V = 13.0;  Size 1.6'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 91”

 

17.5" (4/21/90): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated E-W, weak concentration.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4541 = H III-493 = h1342 on 1 Jan 1786 (sweep 507) and noted "eF, S, irregular."  His position (CH's reduction) is 3' too far south.  JH made a single observation but did measure an accurate position.  The NGC dec is 1.5' south (apparently this position is from Holden) of UGC 7749.  The RNGC position is 6' too far south!

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NGC 4542 = NGC 4537: = UGC 7746 = MCG +09-21-021 = CGCG 270-011 = PGC 41864

12 34 48.9 +50 48 18; CVn

V = 13.9;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 21”

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 0.8'x0.4', very small slightly brighter core.  A near equilateral triangle of mag 11 stars lies to the NE (closest vertex 4' NE).

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4542 = h1341 on 17 Feb 1831 and noted "eF; pL; R; 30"."  His position matches UGC 7746.

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NGC 4543 = MCG +01-32-109 = CGCG 042-167 = PGC 41923

12 35 20.3 +06 06 54; Vir

V = 13.5;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 11.8;  PA = 0”

 

17.5" (4/21/90): fairly faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, very small bright core.  NGC 4532 lies 25' NW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4543 = h1340 on 27 Dec 1827 and recorded "pF; R; bM; 40"."  His position matches CGCG 042-167 = PGC 41923.  See NGC 4577.

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NGC 4544 = UGC 7756 = MCG +01-32-110 = CGCG 042-168 = PGC 41958

12 35 36.6 +03 02 04; Vir

V = 13.0;  Size 2.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 161”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, weak concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.5' ENE of center.  NGC 4538 lies 22' NW and NGC 4527 30' SW.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 16 year-old son, discovered NGC 4544 = Sw. VI-45 on 27 Apr 1887 and recorded "eF; S; R; bet 2 stars."  The Swifts' position was 14 seconds of time preceding UGC 7756 but the comment "bet 2 stars" clinches the identification.  Perhaps due to the poor position, this galaxy was found on Crossley plates taken at Lick Observatory in 1898-1900 and catalogued as a new nebula (#505) in the 1908 Publ of Lick Obs, Vol VIII.

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NGC 4545 = UGC 7747 = MCG +11-15-064 = CGCG 315-047 = PGC 41838

12 34 34.2 +63 31 30; Dra

V = 12.3;  Size 2.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 8”

 

17.5" (4/15/93): fairly faint, moderately large, round, about 2' diameter, broad weak concentration.  A mag 14.5 star is just off the NNE edge of the halo 1.0' from center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4545 = H II-850 = h1346 on 20 Mar 1790 (sweep 954) and recorded "pB, pL, iR, vgbM, r."  His position is 2' too far north.  JH made a single interesting description, "vF; L; wedge shaped, or has a vF * nf, which gives it a distorted appearance."

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NGC 4546 = MCG -01-32-027 = UGCA 288 = PGC 41939

12 35 29.5 -03 47 38; Vir

V = 10.3;  Size 3.3'x1.4';  Surf Br = 11.9;  PA = 80”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, very bright core, bright stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 2.0' SE of center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4546 = H I-160 = h1339 on 29 Dec 1786 (sweep 674) and recorded "vB, cL, E from sp to nf but nearer the parallel [E-W] than the meridian, a BN with faint branches, the nucleus very gradually diminishing."  John Herschel made four observations and recorded (sweep 147) "vB; mE; vsmbM to a r nucleus; 2' long, 90" br."  Joseph Turner sketched the galaxy elongated at least 3:1 with the 48" Melbourne Telescope on 8 Apr 1878. (p.170 in logbook)

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NGC 4547 = MCG +10-18-069 = CGCG 293-030w = PGC 41896

12 34 51.8 +58 55 00; UMa

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.5'

 

18" (5/12/07): this is a very small and close double system oriented NW-SE.  The slightly brighter and larger NW component is very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter while the SE component is extremely faint and small, round, 10" diameter.  The pair is cleanly resolved, though the centers are just 27" apart.  MCG +10-18-68 lies 3' NW and NGC 4549 is 4.3' NE.  Located 3.8' WNW of a mag 10.5 star.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4547 = H III-802 = h1344 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 923) and logged "vF, lE."  His re-reduced position is just 1.3' northeast of MCG +10-18-069 = PGC 41896.  This is a double system, with III-802 referring to the brighter northwestern component that was likely seen by WH.  A second observation a week later (sweep 926), confirmed the position of III-802, and he also picked up III-807 = NGC 4549 = PGC 41954.  JH made two observations, noting on sweep 345, "pF; pL; E; vgbM; precedes a * 9m."

 

RNGC and CGCG misidentify the double system as NGC 4547 + NGC 4549.  MCG misidentifies MCG +10-18-068 as NGC 4547 and MCG +10-18-069 as NGC 4549.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for a thorough discussion of the identifications.

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NGC 4548 = M91 = UGC 7753 = MCG +03-32-075 = CGCG 099-096 = PGC 41934

12 35 26.4 +14 29 47; Com

V = 10.2;  Size 5.4'x4.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 150”

 

24" (5/22/17): at 282x; very bright, large, strongly concentrated with a very bright round core that elongates into a bar oriented WSW-ENE.  The initial portions of spiral arms are attached at both ends of the bar.  On the WSW end, a weak arm extends north, curving slightly counter-clockwise and on the east end, a subtle arm starts to curl south.  Both arms blend into a low surface brightness outer halo that extends ~3.5'x2.5'.

 

CGCG 099-097 was picked up 6.6' SE of the center of M91.  At 375x it was very faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~18"x14", low surface brightness.

 

17.5" (5/23/87): bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 3'x2', gradually increases to a bright core and a very small nucleus.  M88 is 50' WSW.

 

Charles Messier discovered M91 = NGC 4548 = H II-120 = h1345 on 18 Mar 1781.  For a long time M91 was a missing Messier object as there is nothing in his position.  In "The Missing Messier Objects" (Sky & Tel Oct 1960), Owen Gingerich concluded that M91 was likely a duplicate observation of M58 (same RA as Messier's position for M91 but differs by 2” in dec). Gingrich noted that M91 had been previously proposed to be a comet (suggested by Harlow Shapley and Helen Davis). But in 1969 Texas amateur William C. Williams of Fort Worth figured out that Messier had determined its position using offsets from M89, though he assumed it was from M58.  Making this correction, the position of M91 matches NGC 4548.

 

William Herschel independently found this galaxy on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and recorded H II-120 as "L, resolvable, but moonlight [end of a long night]."  John Herschel made 3 observations, first logging this galaxy on 3 Apr 1826 (sweep 24) as "pB; R; bM; 60" [diameter]."

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NGC 4549 = MCG +10-18-072 = PGC 41954

12 35 21.2 +58 56 59; UMa

V = 15.2;  Size 0.45'x0.2'

 

18" (5/12/07): extremely faint and small, round, 10" diameter, required averted vision to glimpse, though transparency was very mediocre.  Located near the midpoint of a mag 14 star 2.3' N and a mag 11 star 2.7' S.  This galaxy is not identified as NGC 4549 in the RNGC or CGCG.  Located 4.3' ENE of the double system NGC 4547.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4549 = H III-807 = h1347 on 24 Apr 1789 (sweep 926) and recorded "Two [with III-802 = NGC 4547], both eF, S, E different ways.  The place is that of the first [NGC 4547], the 2nd [NGC 4549] is about 4' following and 3' more north, and still fainter than the 1st."  His offset pretty clearly identifies NGC 4549 = MCG +10-18-072 = PGC 41954, and this galaxy is certainly one of the faintest he discovered!

 

RNGC and CGCG misidentify MCG +10-18-070 (fainter member of a double system wth NGC 4547) as NGC 4549.  The identifications of NGC 4547 and 4549 are covered in Harold Corwin's identification notes and by Malcolm Thomson in his correction lists.

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NGC 4550 = UGC 7757 = MCG +02-32-147 = CGCG 070-182 = Holm 422a = PGC 41943

12 35 30.6 +12 13 14; Vir

V = 11.7;  Size 3.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 178”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): fairly bright, fairly small, pretty edge-on N-S, small bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 12 star lies 2.9' SE.  Forms a pair with NGC 4551 3.2' NNE.  Located 20' S of M89.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4550 = H I-36 = h1343, along with NGC 4551, on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and recorded "Two small but bright nebula; both lE."  John Herschel made 3 observations (earliest on 11 Apr 1825, sweep 3) and recorded on 25 Mar 1830 (sweep 245), "pB; R; bM; 20"; the sp of 2; pos of the other from this by micrometer = 33.5”."

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NGC 4551 = UGC 7759 = MCG +02-32-148 = CGCG 070-183 = Holm 422b = PGC 41963

12 35 37.9 +12 15 50; Vir

V = 12.0;  Size 1.8'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 70”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): moderately bright, fairly small, oval 4:3 ~E-W, small bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star lies 2.1' NW of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 4550 3.2' SSW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4551 = H I-37 = h1349 on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and recorded "Two small but bright nebula; both lE."  JH made 2 observations and recorded (sweep 245) "pB; R; bM; 25"; the nf of 2; place by comparison with the preceding."

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NGC 4552 = M89 = UGC 7760 = MCG +02-32-149 = CGCG 070-184 = PGC 41968

12 35 39.9 +12 33 20; Vir

V = 9.8;  Size 5.1'x4.7';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (4/25/87): very bright, irregularly round, fairly small but high surface brightness with an intense, very small bright core and substellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 4550/NGC 4551 pair 20' S.

 

Charles Messier discovered M89 = NGC 4552 = h1348 on 18 Mar 1781.  William Herschel made an observation on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) and noted "B, pS."  John Herschel made four observations and recorded on 10 Apr 1825 (sweep 2) "F; R; gbM; 25"; has a * nf."  On 4 May 1829 (sweep 192) he called M89 "B; R; gbM; 40...50" [diameter]."

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NGC 4553 = ESO 322-030 = MCG -06-28-006 = LGG 298-032 = PGC 42018

12 36 07.5 -39 26 20; Cen

V = 12.2;  Size 2.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 176”

 

17.5" (4/7/89): fairly faint, oval NNW-SSE.  A mag 11.5/12.5 double star at 22" separation lies 3.6' NNE.  This possible member of the Centaurus galaxy cluster (AGC 3526) is located 10' SW of mag 6.8 SAO 203629.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4553 = h3400 on 22 Apr 1835 and recorded "F; R; or lE; glbM."  His single position is accurate.

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NGC 4554

12 35 42 +11 11; Vir

 

= Not found, Dreyer and Corwin.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 4554 in 1882 while observing NGC 4567/4568 (the "Siamese Twins").  He noted in the text portion of paper V "The double nebula is preceded by a very faint nebula, about -50 sec in RA and -2 1/2' in dec, according to my drawing." There is nothing at Tempel's offset and neither Bigourdan (visually) nor Royal Frost (photographically at the Harvard College Observatory) could locate Tempel's object.  Both Dorothy Carlson, in her 1940 list of NGC Corrections and RNGC classify the number nonexistent and Harold Corwin was unsuccessful searching for a good candidate.

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NGC 4555 = IC 3545 = UGC 7762 = MCG +05-30-026 = CGCG 159-021 = PGC 41975

12 35 41.2 +26 31 23; Com

V = 12.1;  Size 1.9'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 125”

 

17.5" (4/13/02): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 1.0'x0.7', very small bright core.  With averted vision the major axis increases a little and the core seems irregular with a fleeting impression of a knot on the preceding side of the core.  Located 33' NNW of NGC 4565!

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4555 = H II-343 = h1350 on 6 Apr 1785 (sweep 393) and noted "a nebula, not large."  Caroline's reduction is 7 seconds of time preceding and 1.5' S of UGC 7762. On 13 Apr 1831 (sweep 343), John Herschel logged, "B; irreg R; vsmbM to a * 12m.".

 

Max Wolf mistakenly catalogued NGC 4555 in his 4th discovery list (W. IV-211) and labeled a much fainter nearby galaxy as NGC 4555.  As a result IC 3545 is another identity for NGC 4555. See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 4556 = UGC 7765 = MCG +05-30-027 = CGCG 159-022 = PGC 41980

12 35 45.6 +26 54 32; Com

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 80”

 

18" (5/12/07): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, 0.6'x0.5', bright core, very small brighter nucleus. A mag 14 star is just off the south side.  First in a group with NGC 4558, NGC 4563, IC 3556, IC 3559, IC 3561, IC 3585 and IC 3590.  The group is located ~55' N of NGC 4565.

 

IC 3556, located 4.4' northeast of NGC 4556, appeared very faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, 20"x15". This galaxy is misidentified in CGCG, MCG, UGC, and PGC as either NGC 4563 or NGC 4558.

 

IC 3561, located 4.2' east-southeast of NGC 4556, appeared very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.

 

18" (4/5/03): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, 0.7'x0.6'.  A mag 13.5 star is just off the south edge 0.7' from center.  Forms a pair with NGC 4558 5.2' NNE.  Several other faint galaxies are nearby but the sky conditions were deteriorating and I wasn't able to search for these.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4556 = H II-380 = h1351 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "F, pL."  His position (CH's reduction) is 14 sec of time too large. JH made two observations and measured a more accurate RA.  There are several identifications problems within this group.  See NGC 4558 for more.

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NGC 4557

12 35 49.8 +27 03 14; Com

 

= ***?, Corwin and Thomson.  Incorrect identification in the RNGC.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 4557 = Big 55 on 22 Apr 1886 and simply noted a "star accompanied by nebulosity."   His position in Comptes Rendus (5 Dec 1887) is 1.5' south of a faint triple star (mag 14.5/15/15.5) in a 30" line, and Harold Corwin confirms his offset from nearby NGC 4558 points to this triple.

 

RNGC appears to misidentify IC 3559 as NGC 4557, although the rectangular coordinates would then be in error.  MCG and PGC misidentify NGC 4558 as NGC 4557 and IC 3556 as NGC 4558.  Malcolm Thomson and Harold Corwin sorted out the correct identifications.

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NGC 4558 = MCG +05-30-028 = CGCG 159-023 = PGC 41996

12 35 52.6 +26 59 31; Com

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

18" (5/12/07): faint, very small, round, 20"-24" diameter, slightly brighter core.  Symmetrically placed on the opposite side of a mag 13 located at the midpoint of NGC 4556 and NGC 4558.  Located 5.2' NNE of NGC 4556 in a small group.  IC 3556 lies 2' SE and appeared very faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, 20"x15".  IC 3559 is 2.4' E, but with mag(B) = 16.6, it was only glimpsed knowing the exact location.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4558 = h1354 on 19 Apr 1827 and logged "vF; the nf of 2 (the p is II 380); a third suspected.  His offset is 10 sec of RA east and 3' north of NGC 4556 (measured the same sweep).  Unfortunately, his position falls very close to IC 3556, though d'Arrest measured two good positions so the NGC position is less than 1' off.

 

MCG and PGC misidentify this galaxy as NGC 4557 and misidentify IC 3556 as NGC 4558.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for more.

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NGC 4559 = UGC 7766 = MCG +05-30-030 = CGCG 159-024 = Holm 423a = PGC 42002

12 35 57.7 +27 57 36; Com

V = 10.0;  Size 10.7'x4.4';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 150”

 

48" (4/7/13): very bright, very large, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 9'x3', large bright core that gradually increased to the center.  The core appeared irregular, mottled and dusty.  The inner portion of the disc showed weak spiral structure.  At 488x, the outer halo was very patchy with several knots.  Superimposed on the southeast side are three mag 12/12.5/13 stars between 1.5'-2' from center and the galaxy faded out rapidly beyond these stars to the southeast.  Near the southeast end is IC 3563, a very compact HII region and IC 3564, a star association attached on the east side.  Both objects were easily visible but merged as a fairly faint 20" patch, 3' SE of center.

 

The outer halo faded out gradually and extended much further on the northwest side, up to 5' NW of center.  IC 3555 is faint, 20"x10" HII region, extended NW-SE, and situated 1.8' NNW of center in the halo.  IC 3552, a smaller HII region close NW, was not seen.  IC 3551 seen as a faint, 10" HII knot on the west edge, 0.9' WNW of center.  IC 3554 is a mag 15 star 2.1' SSW of center (at the edge of the visible disc) and IC 3550 = NGC 4559C was seen as a faint, 8" HII knot 0.8' WNW of the star.  All of the IC numbers were found by Max Wolf on a Heidelberg plate in 1903.

 

17.5" (4/9/99): bright, large, elongated 5:3 NW-SE, ~7'x3'.  Exhibits a striking, unusual appearance with a broad, weak concentration to a large, elongated core.  The overall surface brightness is noticeably irregular with hints of brighter and darker spots.  The outer halo has a low surface brightness, particularly on the SE end which is wider than the NW side and shows no tapering.  A trio of mag 12-12.5 stars cradle the galaxy at this end and there appears to be mottling near the superimposed stars.  NGC 4559 is located exactly 2.0” N of NGC 4565.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4559 = H I-92 = h1352 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and recorded "eB, vL, beautiful.  Four stars are scattered over it.  pmE from np to sf.  The greatest brightness is not in the middle but more towards the following part, where 3 of the 4 stars are placed; the whole extent may be 10 or 12'.   JH made 3 observations and logged "vL; gbM, but not to a nucleus; mE; has 3 stars south following.  By a diagram, the southern end is broader than the norther, giving it a clubbed appeared."

 

IC 3550-52, IC 3555, and IC 3563 are HII regions and/or star clouds within NGC 4559 that were discovered photographically by Max Wolf on a Heidelberg plate.

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NGC 4560 = NGC 4526? = UGC 7718 = MCG +01-32-100 = CGCG 042-155 = PGC 41772

12 34 03.1 +07 41 59; Vir

 

See observing notes for NGC 4526.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4560 = H I-119 = h1353 on 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 498) and noted "vB, pS."  There is nothing near his position although his description implies a prominent nebula.   But 2 min of RA preceding his position is NGC 4526, which fits the description.  JH made the single observation "B, L, R, gbM", although the RA is marked +/-.

 

Bigourdan and Winnecke (visually), and later Arnold Schwassmann and Karl Reinmuth (photographically) were all unable to locate an object near WH's position.  See Corwin's identification notes for more.

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NGC 4561 = IC 3569 = UGC 7768 = MCG +03-32-076 = CGCG 099-098 = VV 571 = LGG 289-055 = PGC 42020

12 36 08.2 +19 19 20; Com

V = 12.5;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 30”

 

18" (4/5/03): fairly faint, moderately large, round, 1.0' diameter, weak concentration in halo, but suddenly contains a very small brighter core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4561 = H II-407 = h1355 on 27 Apr 1785 (sweep 403) and noted "pB, pL, lE."  His RA was 15 sec too large.  JH made a total of 4 observations and d'Arrest measured the position twice, so the NGC position is an excellent match with UGC 7768 = PGC 42020.

 

Royal Frost found the galaxy at Arequipa on a Bruce 24-inch plate (taken on the night of 9 May 1904) and reported as number 978 in Harvard Annals 60.  His position is 11 sec of RA too far east.  Dreyer apparently thought it was new, but NGC 4561 = IC 3569.  NGC 4336 = IC 3254 is another similar situation.

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NGC 4562 = NGC 4565A = UGC 7758 = MCG +04-30-004 = CGCG 129-008 = Holm 426b = PGC 41955

12 35 34.8 +25 51 00; Com

V = 13.5;  Size 2.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 48”

 

17.5" (5/13/88): faint, fairly small, elongated SW-NE, even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): faint, small, elongated SW-NE, low even surface brightness, visible with direct vision.  Elongated at a right angle to NGC 4565 13' NE.  Located just south of a string of five mag 10-12.5 stars of length 11' oriented N-S.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 4562 in 1882 while observing NGC 4565.  In the text portion of paper V (AN 2439) he simply mentioned another nebula was found south preceding NGC 4565, though no offset was mentioned.  Dreyer gives a very rough position in the NGC.  The only galaxy in this location that Tempel might have picked up is UGC 7758 = PGC 41955.  The RNGC also calls this galaxy NGC 4565A.

 

Due to the poor NGC position, this galaxy was found on Crossley plates taken at Lick Observatory in 1898-1900 and catalogued as a new nebula (#508 of 744) in the 1908 Publications of Lick Observatory, Vol VIII.

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NGC 4563 = (R)NGC 4557 = MCG +05-30-033 = PGC 42030

12 36 12.8 +26 56 28; Com

V = 14.7;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 104”

 

18" (5/12/07): faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, stellar nucleus.  A very faint star appears to be at the west edge.  Comparable in brightness to NGC 4558 located 5.4' NW.  Located in a small knot of galaxies with NGC 4556 6' WSW.

 

18" (4/5/03): faint, extremely small, round, 10"-15" diameter.  Appears to have a mag 14.5 star superimposed on the west edge or a fairly bright offset stellar nucleus.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4563 on 13 Apr 1864 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His two micrometric positions match MCG +05-30-033 = PGC 42030, so there is no question on the identification.

 

RNGC misidentifies this galaxy as NGC 4557.  Furthermore, CGCG and RNGC misidentify IC 3556 (located 3.5' west-northwest of NGC 4563) as NGC 4563.  Finally, in the UGC notes for NGC 4556, IC 3556 is misidentified as NGC 4536.

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NGC 4564 = UGC 7773 = MCG +02-32-150 = CGCG 070-186 = PGC 42051

12 36 27.0 +11 26 21; Vir

V = 11.1;  Size 3.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 47”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): fairly bright, fairly small, elongated SW-NE, sharp concentration; increases suddenly to a small bright core with a stellar nucleus, fainter extensions.  The NGC 4567/NGC 4568 pair lies 11'S at the edge of the 220x field.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): moderately bright, small, edge-on streak, fairly high surface brightness.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4564 = H II-68 = h1356 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and noted "pB".  JH made two observations and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4565 = UGC 7772 = MCG +04-30-006 = CGCG 129-010 = FGC 1471 = Holm 426a = PGC 42038 = The Needle Galaxy = Berenice's Hairclip

12 36 20.8 +25 59 16; Com

V = 9.6;  Size 15.8'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 136”

 

48" (2/19/12): the view of the dust lane and structure along its edge was remarkable at 287x and 375x.  But we spent time exploring the distant galaxy cluster (2.2 billion light years) that resides just off the SE tip and detected 3 or 4 mag 17.7-18 (V) members!  Also two nights later, we revisited the cluster and I picked up SDSS J123631.45+255857.2, a mag 17.7V galaxy just 2' SE of the mag 13.5 star NE of the core of NGC 4565. 

 

17.5" (3/28/87): bright, very large, edge-on 12:1 NW-SE, dimensions approximately 16'x1.5'.  A beautiful dark lane is visible continuously with direct vision along most of major axis although more prominent in the center.  The galaxy is split asymmetrically by the dust lane with the southern half both larger and brighter.  Subtle scalloped structure is visible along the dust lane.  Contains a small bright core with a stellar nucleus at the south edge of the lane.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.6' NE of the center. A string of five mag 10-12.5 stars of length 11' oriented N-S is west of the galaxy and the southern end leads directly to NGC 4562, 13' SW of center.

 

13.1" (5/26/84): the absorption lane is prominent at 100x and portion of the galaxy beyond fairly easy.  A stellar nucleus is visible within the bright central bulge.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): fairly bright, very large thin streak, bright core.  The dust lane is clearly visible to the north of the bright nucleus.

 

13.1" (4/24/82): a faint dark lane splits the central bulge into two unequal parts.  The nucleus is brightest to the south of the lane.  The strip of the galaxy on the north side of the dust lane is fainter.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4565 = H V-24 = h1357 on 6 Apr 1785 (sweep 393) and recorded "a lucid ray with a vB spot in the middle.  The ray about 20' long and about 3 or 4' broad; extended from np to sf, making an angle of about 35” with the meridian.  The nebula makes a beautiful appearance."  John Herschel made 4 observations and noted the fainter strip on the northeast side of the dust lane.  On sweep 407 he recorded "vL; an immensely long ray; pos = 134.5” by micrometer.  Both Lord Adare and Mr Hamilton, who viewed it with me, agreed that a feeble parallel band extends below (north) of the nucleus."

 

R.J. Mitchell, Lord Rosse's assistant on 17 Apr 1855 , remarked "a beautiful object, very well seen in finding eyepiece.  The whole neb is much broader (taking into account the appendage) at Nucl than elsewhere, narrowing off suddenly and very symmetrically towards both ends, and the Nucl projects forward into the dark space; and immediately opposide this the faint appendage is broadest and brightest.  The ray is 12' or 14' long and there is a faint star at Alpha [on diagram]. (Mr. J. Stoney was with me)"

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NGC 4566 = UGC 7769 = MCG +09-21-024 = CGCG 270-012 = PGC 42007

12 36 00.1 +54 13 15; UMa

V = 13.1;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 80”

 

18" (5/8/04): faint, small, slightly elongated, 0.5'x0.4'.  Increases to a very small brighter core and faint stellar nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4566 = H III-880 = h1360 on 2 Apr 1791 (sweep 1001) and noted "eF, S."  His position is poor - 4.5' north and 15 sec of RA west of UGC 7769.  JH logged "pB; irreg R; gbM; 20"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4567 = VV 219b = UGC 7777 = MCG +02-32-151 = CGCG 070-189 = Holm 427b = PGC 42064 = The Siamese Twins

12 36 32.7 +11 15 29; Vir

V = 11.3;  Size 3.0'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 85”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): northern member of a double system with NGC 4568.  Moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~E-W.  Slightly smaller than NGC 4568 attached at the east end but NGC 4567 has a slightly higher surface brightness.

 

13" (4/16/83): fairly faint, elongated E-W.  NGC 4568 is attached at the NE end.

 

8" (4/16/83): faint, moderately large, appears as a double nebula at moderately large to high power.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4567 = H IV-8 = h1358 = h1363 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and recorded a "double nebula [with NGC 4568], or two p. considerable nebula apparently running into one another.  The foregoing nebula [NGC 4564] may be taken into the field of view these two."  Caroline's reduced position is ~6' southeast of the Siamese Twins. 

 

Because of his father's poor position, John Herschel recorded the pair as a Nova (h1358 and 1359) at the correct position.  He also made an observation with a poor position (h1363) that he associated with IV-8 and IV-9.  The error was noted by d'Arrest in a 1863 paper.

 

The nickname "Siamese Twins" was coined by Leland S. Copeland and mentioned in his Feb. 1955 article "Adventuring in the Virgo Cloud".

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NGC 4568 = VV 219a = UGC 7776 = MCG +02-32-152 = CGCG 070-189 = Holm 427a = PGC 42069 = The Siamese Twins

12 36 34.2 +11 14 25; Vir

V = 10.8;  Size 4.6'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 23”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): this is the southern member of a double system with NGC 4567.  The NE end of this galaxy is nearly attached to the east end of NGC 4567.  Moderately bright and large, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, large brighter core.  Two mag 11/12 stars lie 3.5' E.

 

13": fairly faint, elongated SW-NE, two stars following.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4568 = H IV-9 = h1359 = 1363 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and recorded a "double nebula [with NGC 4567], or two p. considerable nebula apparently running into one another.  The foregoing nebula [NGC 4564] may be taken into the field of view these two."  See NGC 4567 for more.

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NGC 4569 = M90 = Arp 76 = UGC 7786 = MCG +02-32-155 = CGCG 070-192 = PGC 42089

12 36 49.9 +13 09 44; Vir

V = 9.5;  Size 9.5'x4.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 23”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): bright, large, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, sharply concentrated, suddenly increases to a bright stellar nucleus (possibly a superimposed star), fairly even surface brightness to halo.  IC 3583 lies 6' NNW.

 

Charles Messier discovered M90 = NGC 4569 on 18 Mar 1781.  WH observed M90 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and logged "pL, with a nucleus, perhaps cometic, but moonlight permits not to give a proper description."  JH did not make an observation.

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NGC 4570 = UGC 7785 = MCG +01-32-114 = CGCG 042-178 = PGC 42096

12 36 53.4 +07 14 47; Vir

V = 10.9;  Size 3.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 159”

 

17.5" (3/24/90): bright, fairly large, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 3:1x1.0', very bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4570 = H I-32 = h1361 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded "pB, not L, E, mbM."  His position matches UGC 7785.  On 1 May 1786 (sweep 560) he called this galaxy "vB, E in the meridian, BN with faint branches."  JH made five observations and recorded on sweep 117, "vB; mE; vsmbM; 2' long; pretty bright arms and a resolvable centre."

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NGC 4571 = IC 3588 = UGC 7788 = MCG +02-32-156 = CGCG 070-194 = PGC 42100

12 36 56.4 +14 13 02; Com

V = 11.3;  Size 3.6'x3.2';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 55”

 

17.5" (5/23/87): fairly faint, moderately large, round, 2.5' diameter, diffuse, weak concentration.  Located 2.8' SE of mag 8.5 SAO 100177.

 

48" (2/18/12): Malin 1, a giant low surface brightness galaxy, lies 6.8' NNE of the center of NGC 4571.  At 287x, it was immediately picked up as an extremely faint, non-stellar glow.  At 488x, it was visible ~75% of the time with averted vision as a very small, round, low surface brightness, ~10" diameter.  With direct vision, a faint stellar nucleus was occasionally visible.

 

Malin 1, discovered in 1986 on an image by David Malin, has the most extended low surface brightness outer halo of any known disk galaxy with a diameter of 650,000 light years.  More recently it was discovered that within 30,000 light-years of Malin 1's center lies a normal barred spiral galaxy.  The galaxy lies at a distance of 1.1 billion light years.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4571 = H III-602 = h1362 on 14 Jan 1787 (sweep 691) and recorded "vF, cL, vgbM.  South of a cB star."  His position matches UGC 7788. John Herschel called this galaxy "vF; pL; E; vgbM; attached like a nail to a star (place that of the star.)  He included a sketch in the Slough Catalogue. JH's observation of h1367 may also apply to this galaxy.

 

Arnold Schwassmann found this galaxy again on 12 Sep 1900 using a plate taken by Wolf with the 6" astrograph at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory in Heidelberg.  But he misidentified the nearby 14th mag star to the west (Sn. 292) as NGC 4571 and listed Sn. 293 (later IC 3588) as new.  His position for IC 3588 is an exact match with NGC 4571, although both Schwassmann and Dreyer missed the NGC designation, which has a good position.

 

Dreyer mentioned this galaxy as a possible candidate for M91, though this is very unlikely due to its faintness.  See Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 4572 = UGC 7775 = MCG +12-12-012 = CGCG 352-037 = PGC 41991

12 35 45.5 +74 14 34; Dra

V = 13.9;  Size 1.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 170”

 

18" (5/8/04): faint, moderately large, appears as a very low surface brightness glow oriented NNW-SSE, ~1.2'x0.8', with just a weak concentration.  Located 7.5' NW of brighter NGC 4589.  This galaxy has an unusual "integral sign" shape on the DSS.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4572 = H III-939 = h1364 on 10 Dec 1797 (sweep 1066) and noted "eF, S."  Caroline's reduction is 3' south of UGC 7775, the same offset for nearby NGC 4589, so the identification is certain.  John Herschel made the single observation, "eF, only to be seen with very long attention."  IC 802 (found by Bigourdan) matches in RA but is 3' further north and probably refers to a star. See Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 4573 = ESO 268-026 = MCG -07-26-014 = PGC 42167

12 37 43.7 -43 37 16; Cen

V = 13.0;  Size 2.6'x2.0';  Surf Br = 14.6;  PA = 150”

 

14" (4/2/16 - Coonabarabran, 160x): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, ~0.8'x0.6', increases in size with averted.  Using direct vision a stellar nucleus was seen.  A mag 10.5 star is 1' N, close off the north edge.  Located 16' SE of mag 7.6 HD 109638.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4573 = h3401 on 15 Mar 1836 and recorded "vF; S; almost exactly south of a * 10m, 30" dist."   His position and description matches ESO 268-026 = PGC 42167.

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NGC 4574 = ESO 380-049 = MCG -06-28-007 = LGG 297-001 = PGC 42166

12 37 43.6 -35 31 04; Cen

V = 13.0;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 113”

 

18" (3/28/09): very faint, moderately large, elongated 4:3 WNW-ESE, 1.2'x0.9', low surface brightness, weak concentration and the halo fades into the background.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4574 = h3402 on 20 Apr 1835 and recorded "vF; L; lE; vglbM; 60" l, 40" br."   His position is just off the northeast side of ESO 380-049 = PGC 42166.

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NGC 4575 = ESO 322-036 = MCG -07-26-015 = PGC 42181

12 37 51.2 -40 32 15; Cen

V = 12.6;  Size 2.0'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 106”

 

17.5" (4/7/89): very faint, very elongated ~E-W.  A mag 12 star is at the west end 1.0' from center and a mag 11.5 star is 1.6' SW of center.  Member of the Centaurus cluster (AGC 3526).

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4575 = h3403 on 8 Jun 1834 and recorded "F; pmE; 25" l, 15" br; follows 2 stars."  His position and description matches ESO 322-036 = PGC 42181.

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NGC 4576 = UGC 7792 = MCG +01-32-116 = CGCG 042-182 = PGC 42152

12 37 33.6 +04 22 03; Vir

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 159”

 

17.5" (4/21/90): very faint, small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, low surface brightness.  A mag 12.5 star is 1.8' N of center.  Located 8' NW of mag 6.9 SAO 119502.  NGC 4586 lies 15' ESE.

 

Edward Holden discovered NGC 4576 on 27 Apr 1881 with the 15.6-inch Clark refractor at the Washburn Observatory and recorded "F; np a star 7th mag."  A second observation on 20 Apr 1882 added "preceding GC 3125 [ NGC 4586] 55.5 sec and 3' north."  His position and description matches UGC 7792 = PGC 42152.

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NGC 4577 = NGC 4591?? = UGC 7821 = MCG +01-32-125 = CGCG 042-191

12 39 12.4 +06 00 44; Vir

 

See observing notes for NGC 4591.  Identification uncertain.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4577 = H III-13 on 28 Jan 1784 (sweep 132) and recorded "a minute before [the transit of 24 Vir] I suspected a vS neb, but while I put on a higher power to examine it, I lost it and would not stop too long to look for it again."  A very rough position was noted.

 

Harold Corwin notes the star 24 Vir is actually a duplicate entry for 5 Boo, so WH made an error as his sweep is not near this star. "There are no galaxies in any of the places that come from WH's observations, from GC/NGC, or from attempting to correct WH's RAs using the idea that H II 26 = NGC 4453 (the only other nebula found that night) is actually NGC 4430. However, the approximate RA that we do have, along with the constraints on the declination, point to either NGC 4580 or NGC 4591 as probably being the object that WH saw. Since N4580 is H I 124, and N4591 is III 504, the sparce description of N4577 strongly suggests that it is N4591."

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NGC 4578 = UGC 7793 = MCG +02-32-159 = CGCG 070-195 = Holm 429a = PGC 42149

12 37 30.6 +09 33 19; Vir

V = 11.5;  Size 3.3'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 35”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): moderately bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 SW-NE, 1.5'x1.0', small bright core with possibly a stellar nucleus.  A mag 10.5 star lies 4.1' W of center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4578 = H II-15 = h1365 = h1366 on 18 Jan 1784 (sweep 86) and recorded "F, S.  It is not cometic though pretty round; of the first class." JH made two observations which differed by 5' in declination, so he was uncertain if they refered to the same object.  As a result, he included two GC designations which Dreyer combined in the NGC.

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NGC 4579 = M58 = UGC 7796 = MCG +02-32-160 = CGCG 070-197 = PGC 42168

12 37 43.5 +11 49 06; Vir

V = 9.7;  Size 5.9'x4.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 95”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): bright, moderately large, slightly elongated 4:3 WSW-ENE, small very bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 7.6' E of mag 8.3 SAO 100179.

 

13": bright, increase to a small bright core, slightly elongated E-W, diffuse halo.

 

Charles Messier discovered M58 = NGC 4579 = h1368 (along with M59 and M60) on 15 Apr 1779.  On 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174), William Herschel logged, "pB, pL" on 15 Mar 1784.  On 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 199) he wrote, "F, L.".  JH made four observations, first on 9 May 1825 (sweep 4) as "vB; irreg R; gbM; a B * precedes 1/2 field.".

 

William Parsons apparently discovered spiral structure in M58 before 1850 as it was included in the listed of "Spiral or curvilinear" nebulae in the 1850 PT paper.  The 1861 and 1880 monographs, though, do not list an observation earlier than 1851.

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NGC 4580 = UGC 7794 = MCG +01-32-117 = CGCG 042-183 = PGC 42174

12 37 48.4 +05 22 08; Vir

V = 11.8;  Size 2.1'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 165”

 

17.5" (4/21/90): moderately bright, moderately large, irregular shape though slightly elongated NW-SE, broad concentration with an uneven surface brightness.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4580 = H I-124 = h1369 on 2 Feb 1786 (sweep 521) and noted "pB, cL, R."  CH's reduction is 1.4' northwest of UGC 7794.

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NGC 4581 = UGC 7801 = MCG +00-32-028 = CGCG 014-083 = PGC 42199

12 38 05.2 +01 28 39; Vir

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 173”

 

17.5" (4/4/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, even concentration to a small bright core.

 

Edward Holden discovered NGC 4581 on 20 Apr 1882 with the 15.6-inch refractor at the Washburn Observatory and recorded "F, S, bM, stell N" (Publications of the Washburn Observatory, Vol II, p101).  His position is 1' north of UGC 7801.

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NGC 4582

12 38 10.1 +00 10 57; Vir

 

= *, Carlson and Corwin.

 

Sidney Coolidge discovered NGC 4582 = HN 20 on 30 Apr 1859  with the 15-inch refractor of Harvard College Observatory during the Zone Survey of equatorial stars.  He simply noted "in a faint nebulosity" and at his exact position is a single mag 13.4 star -- this mirrors his other 8 discoveries at HCO!  Karl Reinmuth and Harold Corwin also equate NGC 4582 with a star.

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NGC 4583 = MCG +06-28-017 = CGCG 188-011 = PGC 42198

12 38 04.4 +33 27 31; CVn

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5": faint, small, round, bright core.  Two mag 15 star are 1' NW and 1' NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4583 = H III-495 = h1370 on 2 Jan 1786 (sweep 508) and recorded "eF, S, iF, r."  His position is within 1' of CGCG 188-011 = PGC 42198.  JH made two observations and called this galaxy "F; S; R; bM."

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NGC 4584 = UGC 7803 = MCG +02-32-162 = CGCG 070-199 = LGG 286-007 = PGC 42223

12 38 17.9 +13 06 35; Vir

V = 12.9;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 5”

 

18" (4/10/04): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter, weak concentration.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4584 on 21 Apr 1862 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His measurements on 3 nights matches UGC 7803 and he noted a mag 15 star (called mag 18) that follows by 16 seconds of time.

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NGC 4585 = MCG +05-30-042 = CGCG 159-037 = PGC 42215

12 38 13.3 +28 56 13; Com

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 114”

 

18" (4/10/04): faint, small, round, 25" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Located 5.8' W of mag 10.3 SAO 82417.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 4585 = Sf 21 on 21 Apr 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single micrometric position is an excellent match with CGCG 159-037 = PGC 42215 and he mentions the mag 10.3 star which follows by 27.3 sec in RA.  Truman Safford independently discovered the galaxy on 16 May 1866.

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NGC 4586 = UGC 7804 = MCG +01-32-122 = CGCG 042-187 = PGC 42241

12 38 28.4 +04 19 08; Vir

V = 11.7;  Size 4.0'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 115”

 

17.5" (2/28/87): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 NW-SE.  Contains a very bright core.  Located 10' E of mag 6.9 SAO 119502.  NGC 4576 lies 15' WNW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4586 = H I-125 = h1371 on 2 Feb 1786 (sweep 521) and recorded "pB, pL, E."  His position at the north edge of UGC 7804.  JH made two observations and logged "pB; pmE; psbM." on sweep 141.

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NGC 4587 = UGC 7805 = MCG +01-32-123 = CGCG 042-188 = PGC 42253

12 38 35.4 +02 39 26; Vir

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 48”

 

17.5" (4/21/90): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, weak concentration.  Surrounded by seven mag 13-14.5 stars within a 3' radius.

 

Johann Palisa discovered NGC 4587 on 17 Apr 1882 with the 12-inch refractor at Vienna University Observatory. His discovery position in AN 2520 matches UGC 7805.  This was the first of 8 NGC galaxies discovered by Palisa.

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NGC 4588 = UGC 7810 = MCG +01-32-124 = CGCG 042-189 = PGC 42277

12 38 45.4 +06 46 05; Vir

V = 14.3;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 57”

 

18" (3/13/04): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 0.8'x0.4'.  Observations made through thin clouds.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4588 = H III-98 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded "eF, eS.  By a misunderstanding the time & number [PD] was not taken; however at 12h 24m the time was marked down, which was less than 1 min after the transit of the nebula; so that the time of the nebula must be about 12h 23m or 12h 23m 30s.  The number as far as I can recollect might perhaps be about 40, which gives 45'; but is more uncertain than the time. I saw the nebula very well."  Though very possibly a coincidence, WH's rough position is just 2.4' northeast of UGC 7810.  In the 1912 revision of WH's catalogues, Dreyer states "It may = IC 3591 or IC 3617.  No object on Wolf's plate in the place of NGC 4588."

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NGC 4589 = UGC 7797 = MCG +12-12-013 = CGCG 352-038 = CGCG 335-017 = LGG 284-008 = PGC 42139

12 37 25.0 +74 11 31; Dra

V = 10.7;  Size 3.2'x2.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 75”

 

18" (5/8/04): bright, fairly large, elongated ~4:3 E-W, 2.5'x2.0'.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright prominent core and a fainter halo.  A mag 13 star is at the west edge of the core.  Forms a pair with NGC 4572 7.5' NW and NGC 4648 lies 22' NE.  A wide mag 8/10.5 double at 24" lies 17' NE (in the field with NGC 4648).

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4589 = H I-273 = h1374 on 22 Nov 1797 (sweep 1064) and logged "vB, R, mbM, 3 or 4' dia."  His position is 4.5' southeast of UGC 7797.  JH made 4 observations, recording on sweep 348 "B; R; pgmbM; 30"; a S * np; dist 1'."  His position on this sweep was very accurate.

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NGC 4590 = M68 = ESO 506-30

12 39 28.0 -26 44 35; Hya

V = 7.7;  Size 12.0';  Surf Br = 0.1

 

24" (5/22/17): at 375x; very bright, well resolved globular with quite a number of surprisingly bright stars [brightest stars Vtip = 12.6] spread over the central region and around the edges, giving a fairly loose appearance [class X].  The unresolved central background glow is large and bright.  Perhaps 60-75 stars are resolved in the central region, but excluding the outer portion of the halo, which also seems to contain a number of brighter stars out to at least 8'.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): 30-50 stars resolved including many fairly bright stars over unresolved background haze.

 

13.1" (3/24/84): about 20 stars resolved around edges of core and in halo.  The core is mottled but unresolved.

 

8" (3/24/84): few stars resolved across disk.

 

Charles Messier discovered M68 = NGC 4590 = h3404 on 9 Apr 1780.  WH described "a beautiful cluster of stars, extremely rich, and so compressed that most of the stars are blended together; it is near 3' broad and about 4' long, but chiefly round, and there are very few scattered stars about."  In his 1814 publication he noted "this oval cluster is also approaching to the globular form, and the central compression is carried to a high degree."  JH made the single observation "GC; irr R; gbM; diam in RA = 12...15 sec. All clearly resolved into stars 12 m; very loose and ragged at the borders."

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NGC 4591 = NGC 4577? = UGC 7821 = MCG +01-32-125 = CGCG 042-191 = PGC 42319

12 39 12.4 +06 00 44; Vir

V = 13.1;  Size 1.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 37”

 

18" (4/10/04): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 0.7'x0.3', weak concentration.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4591 = H III-504 = h1372 on 2 Feb 1786 (sweep 521) and noted "vF, vS."  CH's reduction is less than 1' south of UGC 7821.  NGC 4577 = H III-13 is possibly an earlier observation.  See that number.

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NGC 4592 = UGC 7819 = MCG +00-32-032 = CGCG 014-091 = PGC 42336

12 39 18.3 -00 31 53; Vir

V = 11.7;  Size 5.8'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 97”

 

17.5" (2/28/87): moderately bright, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, moderately large, 3.0'x1.2', weak concentration.  Located 1” NNW of beautiful double Porrima = Gamma Virginis (3.6/3.7 at 4").

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4592 = H II-31 = h1373 on 22 Feb 1784 (sweep 153) and recorded "a nebula; extended from east to west and also towards the north; it is not cometic and seems to be resolvable."  JH made a single observation "eF; L; pmE; vglbM."  JH made an error precessing the coordinates for the GC, so the published position was 30' too far north.  As a result, when Edward Holden found it again on 23 Apr 1881 he reported it as new (#8) in  Publ. of the Washburn Observatory, Vol I.

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NGC 4593 = MCG -01-32-032 = Mrk 1330 = PGC 42375

12 39 39.4 -05 20 39; Vir

V = 10.9;  Size 3.9'x2.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 55”

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated WSW-ENE, very bright core, stellar nucleus.  First of four within a 32' field including NGC 4602 19' NE.  Contains a Sy 1 nucleus and also a Markarian object.

 

17.5" (1/31/87): moderately bright and large, strong bright core, elongated WSW-ENE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4593 = H II-183 = h1375 on 24 Apr 1784 (sweep 205) and recorded "pB, cL, E, mbM but the brightness confined to a small place."  JH made two observations and first logged (sweep 147) "vsbM, to a * 11-12m, with a faint chevelure."

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NGC 4594 = M104 = MCG -02-32-020 = UGCA 293 = PGC 42407 = Sombrero Galaxy

12 39 59.4 -11 37 23; Vir

V = 8.0;  Size 8.7'x3.5';  Surf Br = 11.6;  PA = 89”

 

82" (5/4/19, McDonald Observatory): at 400x; remarkable view of the Sombrero with a shockingly black dust lane (like an occulting bar) oriented precisely vertically through the entire eyepiece field.  Perhaps due to the curvature of the dust lane towards the tips and subtle structure in the galaxy's disc, the view had 3-dimensional depth, with the dust lane in front and the disc trailing into the background.

 

Sombrero UCD 1, an Ultra-Compact Dwarf discovered in 2009, was easily visible as a slightly soft mag 17.5 "star", 2.6' SSE of the center of M104.  It forms a 10" double with a somewhat brighter star.

 

48" (2/20/12, 4/5/13, 4/30/19): stunning view of the jet-black super high-contrast dust lane at 375x.  The fainter section of the galaxy south of the dust lane was quite prominent and nearly as extensive as the northern half and the central bulge region was noticeably thicker in proportion to the major axis than views in smaller scopes.  I also clearly noticed that although the dust lane was very flat in the central region (oriented precisely E-W), it bent slightly north and widened just a bit on both the east and west ends of the disc, giving it a slightly warped appearance.

 

17.5" (3/12/94): very bright, very large, elongated 3:1 E-W, 7.5'x2.5'.  Very prominent dust lane along the entire length of the major axis and divides the core into two non-symmetric sections.  The prominent section of the core is just north of the dark lane.  Overall, the galaxy is brighter and much more extensive to the north of the lane.  The portion of the core and halo south of the dust lane is much fainter, smaller and unconcentrated.  A mag 10 star lies 4' WSW.

 

13.1" (4/24/82): very bright, large, very elongated, arms long and thin.  A prominent dark lane is visible along the length of the galaxy.  Only a faint glow is visible to the south of the dust lane.

 

15x50mm (6/19/08 and 4/6/13): easily visible in binoculars as a elongated glow with brighter center.

 

Pierre MŽchain discovered M104 = NGC 4594 = H I-43 = h1376 on 11 May 1781, after Messier's final catalogue was sent to publication.  The discovered was mentioned in a letter dated 6 May 1783 to Johann Bernoulli, the editor of the Berliner Astronomisches Jahrbuch.  He wrote, "On May 11, 1781, I have discovered a nebula above Corvus; it did not appear to me to contain stars; it is faint & very difficult to see when the wires of the micrometer are illuminated; I have compared it on this day & the following to the Ear of Virgo [Spica], & I have derived its right ascension 187d 9' 42", its south. declin. 10d 24' 49". It is not included in the Connoissance des tems."  The note was published near the end of the 1786 Jarbuch volume.  Messier penciled in the position into his own copy of his catalogue, published in 1784.  French astronomer Camille Flammarion introduced the new designation M104 in 1921.

 

As M104 wasn't published in Messier's catalogue, William Herschel was unaware of it and rediscovered it on 9 May 1784 (sweep 210).  He wrote, "E, vBM, about 5 or 6' long, but daylight is too strong to see the whole extent of it.  The bright place in the middle is prety large, but breaks off abruptly." He made a second observation on 11 Mar 1788 (sweep 819): "mE, from about 20” sp. to nf., BN, 4 or 5' long."

 

John Herschel was the first to note the dust lane.  On 9 Mar 1828, he recorded "vB, vmE, in pos 2” np to sf; vsmbM to a nucleus; 5' l, 30" br, a bright star sp.  There is a faint diffused oval light all about it, and I am almost positive that there is a dark interval or stratum separating the nucleus and the general mass of the nebula from the light above (south) of it.  Surely no illusion."  In his sketch (Fig. 50) he adds the remarks "The strong suspicion of a parallel appendage to the latter of these, is almost converted into certainty by its undoubted existence in V. 24 [NGC 4565], in which it was seen by two other observers as well as by myself."  Later sketches were made by William Lassell in 1862 with his 48" and Wilhelm Tempel in 1882 with an 11" refractor.  The first photo was taken by Isaac Roberts in April 1897.

 

Leland Copeland called M104 the "Sombrero" in the June 1942 issue of S&T.  The back cover featured an image taken by the Mount Wilson 60-inch in 1916. The image is referred to as the "Sombrero nebula".  The classic photo of M104 was made with the Palomar 200-inch in 1950 and published in the Hubble Atlas of Galaxies.

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NGC 4595 = UGC 7826 = MCG +03-32-081 = CGCG 099-106 = LGG 292-124 = PGC 42396

12 39 51.9 +15 17 52; Com

V = 12.1;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 110”

 

17.5" (4/13/02): moderately bright and large, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 1.0'x0.7', broad concentration.  Followed by two mag 12.5 stars which lie 2.5' E and 3.1' SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4595 = H II-632 = h1377 on 14 Jan 1787 (sweep 691) and logged "F, pL, R, vgbM."  CH's reduced position is 2.5' northeast of UGC 7826. JH made four observations and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4596 = UGC 7828 = MCG +02-32-170 = CGCG 070-206 = PGC 42401

12 39 56.0 +10 10 34; Vir

V = 10.4;  Size 4.0'x3.0';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 135”

 

17.5" (4/18/87): bright, elongated WSW-ENE, small bright core, possible substellar nucleus.  A mag 12.5 star is 1.1' SSE of center at the edge of the halo and two brighter mag 10/11 stars are 3' SE.  NGC 4608 lies 19' E.

 

13.1" (4/16/83): bright, moderately large, bright core, elongated ~E-W.  Located about 30' W of mag 5 Rho Virginis.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4596 = H I-24 = h1378 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and noted "pB".  His RA was 40 seconds too large.  John Herschel made 5 observations, first on 9 May 1825 (sweep 4), "B, round, gmbM, 3 small stars follow."

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NGC 4597 = MCG -01-32-034 = PGC 42429

12 40 12.8 -05 47 59; Vir

V = 12.1;  Size 4.1'x1.9';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 30”

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly faint, elongated SSW-NNE, very large but diffuse, smooth surface brightness.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4597 = H II-636 on 22 Feb 1787 (sweep 706) and noted "F, vL, bM."  CH's reduced position is 3' southwest of MCG -01-32-034 = PGC 42429.

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NGC 4598 = UGC 7829 = MCG +02-32-171 = CGCG 070-207 = LGG 296-011 = PGC 42427

12 40 11.9 +08 23 02; Vir

V = 12.7;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

18" (4/10/04): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, moderate concentration to center with a small, brighter core and quasi-stellar nucleus.  A mag 14.5 star is just off the south edge (0.8' from center) and a mag 8.3 star lies 8.6' N near the edge of the 220x field.

 

18" (3/13/04): fairly faint, fairly small, irregularly round, 0.9'x0.8'.  Located 8.6' S of mag 8.3 HD 110184.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4598 = H III-105 on 15 Apr 1784 (sweep 194) and noted "eF but vL."  CH's reduction is 18 sec of RA east of UGC 7829.

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NGC 4599 = UGC 7833 = MCG +00-32-034 = CGCG 014-099 = PGC 42453

12 40 27.1 +01 11 48; Vir

V = 12.6;  Size 1.7'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 144”

 

17.5" (4/21/90): fairly faint, small, elongated 3:1 SW-NE, small bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4599 = H III-509 on 22 Feb 1786 (sweep 527) and noted "vF, vS."  CH's reduction is 1.5' northwest of UGC 7833 = PGC 42453.  JH did not make an observation.

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NGC 4600 = UGC 7832 = MCG +01-32-128 = CGCG 042-198 = PGC 42447

12 40 22.9 +03 07 04; Vir

V = 12.7;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 60”

 

17.5" (4/21/90): moderately bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 SW-NE, small bright core.  Forms the west vertex of a right triangle with mag 8.8 SAO 119527 3.5' E and mag 8.6 SAO 119525 2.9' SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4600 = H II-577 = h1379 on 30 Apr 1786 (sweep 558) and logged "F, S, between 2 B stars; making a triangle with them."  JH noted "F; S; R; precedes 2 stars 8-9 mag."  Both descriptions and positions match UGC 7832.

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NGC 4601 = ESO 322-050 = MCG -07-26-026 = LGG 298-057 = PGC 42492

12 40 46.7 -40 53 36; Cen

V = 13.5;  Size 1.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 16”

 

25" (4/2/19 - OzSky): at 244x; at least fairly faint, fairly large, very elongated nearly 4:1 SSW-NNE, 1.2'x0.3', brighter core.  Located 5' NNW of NGC 4603. ESO 322-053, situated 4' E, appeared faint, very small, round (core only), 12" diameter, stellar or quasi-stellar nucleus.

 

25" (3/31/19 - OzSky): at 244x; nearly moderately bright, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 1.0'x0.5', brighter along the major axis.  Situated 5' NNW of NGC 4603 in the Centaurus Cluster (AGC 3526).

 

24" (4/12/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x, this Centaurus cluster member (AGC 3526) appeared moderately bright, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, 1.2'x0.5', broad concentration.  Located 5.3' NNW of NGC 4603.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4601 = h3405, along with NGC 4603 on 8 Jun 1834 and recorded "eF; L; R; pslbM.  The first of 2."  His position is 12 sec east and 1.6' south of ESO 322-050 = PGC 42492.  This is the same offset in RA as nearby NGC 4603, discovered together.

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NGC 4602 = MCG -01-32-036 = PGC 42476

12 40 36.7 -05 07 55; Vir

V = 11.5;  Size 3.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 105”

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly bright, oval WNW-ESE, fairly large, bright core.  A mag 14 star is just off the east end 1.3' from center.  Second of four in a group with MCG -01-32-037 11' S and NGC 4593 19' SW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4602 = H II-184 = h1380 on 24 Apr 1784 (sweep 205) and recorded "not F, L, lE, not mbM, r."  His position is poor -  18 sec of RA too large.  JH made the single observation "F; L; E; vglbM; 50"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 4603 = ESO 322-052 = MCG -07-26-028 = LGG 301-001 = PGC 42510

12 40 55.4 -40 58 34; Cen

V = 11.6;  Size 3.4'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 27”

 

25" (4/2/19 - OzSky): at 244x; bright, very large, oval 2:1 SSW-NNE, slightly brighter core, ~2.5' major axis.  Two obvious stars are superimposed; a mag 14.5 star 0.8' SW of center in the halo and a mag 14 star 0.4' NW of center at the edge of the core.

 

25" (3/31/19 - OzSky): at 244x; bright, large, oval 5:3 SSW-NNE, ~2.5'x1.5', broad concentration but no distinct core or nucleus.  Two stars are superimposed; close NW of center and near the SW end.  A number of Centaurus cluster members are nearby including NGC 4601 5' NNW, ESO 322-053 5.6' NNE, NGC 4603B 7.5' SW.

 

ESO 322-053: faint, very small, round (core only), 12" diameter, stellar or quasi-stellar nucleus.

NGC 4603B: very faint, fairly small, edge-on 4:1 SSW-SSE, 40"x10", low surface brightness streak with no core.

 

24" (4/12/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x appeared very bright, very large, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 3'x1.5', broad concentration though the brightest portion seems offset towards the a star embedded just west of of the core.  A second superimposed star is near the southwest end.  NGC 4601 lies 5.3' NNW and NGC 4603B is 7.8' SW.  This subgroup of AGC 3526 (Centaurus Cluster) is catalogued as Klemola 19.

 

17.5" (4/7/89): extremely faint, moderately large, round, very low surface brightness.  Member of the Centaurus cluster (AGC 3526).

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 4603 = h3406 on 8 Jun 1834 and recorded "F; L R; vgbM; r(?).  The following of 2 [with NGC 4601].".  His RA is 11 sec east of ESO 322-052 = PGC 42510, a similar error as NGC 4601.

 

Pietro Baracchi observed this galaxy on 8 Apr 1885 with the Melbourne telesocpe and recorded "very faint, pretty large, irregular, glbM, mottled, roundish.  A *15 mag attached to n.p. side or involved with the nebula - yes, just within it.  Another star 15 mag s.p. very close to the edge of thenebula.  Contour uncertain - seems to spread out but can't be traced by the eye."

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NGC 4604 = MCG -01-32-037 = PGC 42489

12 40 44.9 -05 18 09; Vir

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 115”

 

17.5" (1/31/87): faint, fairly small, edge-on WNW-ESE.  Third of four in the field and located 11' SSE of NGC 4602.

 

Christian Peters discovered NGC 4604 around 1881 with the 13.5-inch refractor at Hamilton College Observatory.  The discovery was not published in either of his two Copernicus lists in 1881 and 1882, so the discovery must have been communicated directly to Dreyer, though there is no description in the NGC.  The NGC position is 2' southeast of the center of NGC 4602.

 

The 1921 Helwan Observatory publication reported that NGC 4604 was not found on an 80 min exposure taken between 1914-16 with the 30" reflector.  Dorothy Carlson mentioned this in her NGC errata list and RNGC classified the number as nonexistent.  RC3 and SEGC identify MCG -01-32-037 = PGC 42489 as NGC 4604.  This galaxy is nearly 10' south of the NGC position.  This identification is possible assuming Peters made a single digit error in declination but considering the close match in position it is more likely that NGC 4604 is a duplicate observation of NGC 4602.  Harold Corwin leaves the identification NGC 4604 = PGC 42489 stand, but Courtney Seligman strongly argues that NGC 4604 = NGC 4602.

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NGC 4605 = UGC 7831 = MCG +10-18-074 = CGCG 293-031 = PGC 42408

12 39 59.4 +61 36 33; UMa

V = 10.3;  Size 5.8'x2.2';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 125”

 

18" (5/14/07): very bright, large, nearly edge-on 3:1 NW-SE.  The relatively large, bulging core is mottled.  The southeast extension is brighter, mottled (HII regions) and tapers towards the tip. The very tip of this extension appears to hook slightly towards the east. The fainter northwest extension is much more diffuse, is broader and fades at the ends.  The major axis of the two extensions are slightly skewed with respect to each other as if they were bent at the center or possibly the brighter southeast extension is warped or distorted.

 

18" (5/8/04): very bright, large, quite elongated 5:2 ~NW-SE.  Contains a relatively large, high surface brightness elongated core.  This galaxy's structure is very unusual with careful viewing.  The southeast extension is clearly brighter and more tapered than the northwest end.  The surface brightness of the southeast extension is noticeably uneven with a mottled or splotchy appearance possibly from HII regions and an irregular distribution of dust.  Near the center there is a slight bend or kink to the major axis, with the fainter northwest extension slightly misaligned.  Also the northwest extension appears to fan out somewhat at the northwest edge and fade into the background.

 

8": bright, moderately large, very elongated NW-SE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4605 = H I-254 = h1381 on 19 Mar 1790 (sweep 953) and recorded "eB, E, about 5' long in the parallel, all over equally bright, except just on the edges."  JH made a single observation (sweep 344): "B; L; vmE; in pos 118.6”; glbM; 4' l and 1' br."

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NGC 4606 = UGC 7839 = MCG +02-32-174 = CGCG 070-213 = Holm 436a = PGC 42516

12 40 57.5 +11 54 41; Vir

V = 11.8;  Size 3.2'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 33”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): fairly faint, very elongated SW-NE.  A mag 13.5 star is superimposed on the SSW end 0.5' from center and a mag 14 star is at the SSW edge 1.1' from center.  Forms a pair with NGC 4607 3.8' ESE.

 

13" (4/16/83): faint, small, very elongated SSW-NNE.  Two stars are at the south edge.  Located 20' NW of M59.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4606 = H III-43 = h1382 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and simply noted "a nebula".  His position was 2.5' too far southwest.  John Herschel made 3 observations (earliest on 11 Apr 1825, sweep 3) and recorded on 25 Mar 1830 (sweep 245), "vF; a curious object; 2 or 3 vF stars form a line with an oblique ray of neb."  Nearby NGC 4607 was missed by both Herschels.

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NGC 4607 = UGC 7843 = MCG +02-32-176 = CGCG 070-216 = Holm 436b = PGC 42544

12 41 12.4 +11 53 08; Vir

V = 12.8;  Size 2.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 2”

 

17.5" (4/25/87): extremely faint, edge-on streak N-S, low even surface brightness.  Located 3.8' ESE of much brighter NGC 4606.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): extremely faint, edge-on N-S, low surface brightness, requires averted.  Close following NGC 4606.

 

13.1" (4/16/83): extremely faint, near visual threshold, very elongated N-S, low surface brightness.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 4607 on 24 Apr 1854 while observing NGC 4606 with LdR's 72".  He noted "about 3' or 4' following there is also a F lenticular R, E np sf."  The NGC RA is 0.2 min east of UGC 7843.  Mitchell's note was not included in the 1861 monograph (only the 1880 publication) so NGC 4607 was not included in the GC and Dreyer missed it while compiling the GC Supplement.

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NGC 4608 = UGC 7842 = MCG +02-32-177 = CGCG 070-214 = PGC 42545

12 41 13.6 +10 09 23; Vir

V = 11.0;  Size 3.2'x2.7';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (4/18/87): bright, fairly small, oval SW-NE, very bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 12 star is 1.6' WNW of center.  Forms a wide pair at low power with NGC 4596 19' W.  Located 11' SW of Rho Virginis (V = 4.9).

 

13.1" (4/16/83): bright, fairly small, slightly elongated.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 4608 = H II-69 = h1383 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 174) and recorded "A nebula.  It may be taken into the field with 30 (Rho) Virginis and precedes that star, but is 8' more south."  The actual difference in Dec is less than 5', but the identification is certain.  JH called it "pB; R; psbM; has a *12 1' np, and a *5.6 in field nf."

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NGC 4609 = ESO 095-014 = Cr 263

12 42 20 -62 59 36; Cru

V = 6.9;  Size 5'

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): at 166x, 30 stars mag 9.5-13 are resolved in a 4'-5' region.  Most of the stars are arranged in a curving lane ~NNW-SSE with fainter stars trailing off to the NNW and a few stars scattered to the east. The main string is oriented roughly N-S and bends towards the east on the north side.  The cluster includes some doubles and triples with a nice mag 10.5 star pair at 15" and a distinctive triple on the south end of the lane.  Situtated just 7' NW of mag 5.3 BZ Crucis = HD 110432.  This star is located within the Coal Sack, 1.8 degrees east of Acrux, and is the only easy naked-eye star with the Coal Sack!  The cluster resides behind the Coal Sack and is dimmed accordingly.

 

10x30mm Canon IS (3/27/19 - Tasmania): faint, small glow attached to a bright star (BZ Crucis).

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 4609 = D 272 = h3407 on 12 May 1826 with his 9-inch f/12 homemade speculum reflector from Parramatta, New South Wales and recorded "a group of five stars of the 8th or 9th magnitude, with a great number of extremely small stars resembling faint nebulae.  3' or 4' diameter."  His position is about 9' too far west.  JH called it a "Cluster class VII. Stars 11..13th mag; about 6' long and 4' broad; has 10 stars 11th mag, and some 20 or 30 smaller. It occurs in t