NGC 3001 = ESO 434-038 = MCG -05-23-014 = UGCA 183 = PGC 28027

09 46 18.6 -30 26 12

V = 11.9;  Size 2.9'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 6d

 

13.1" (1/18/85): fairly faint, small, elongated WSW-ENE, weak concentration, diffuse.  An 11th magnitude star at the NW edge interferes with viewing.

 

JH discovered NGC 3001 = h3190 on 30 Mar 1835 and recorded "F; R; 30"; attached or contiguous to a * 12; pos = 320¡ +/- by estimation from diagram."  His position and description is accurate.

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NGC 3002

09 48 57.4 +44 03 26

V = 16.5

 

48" (5/14/12): near the position of NGC 3002 is a faint trio of stars, mag 16.5/16.5/16.9 as well as MCG +07-20-052, an extremely faint interacting pair of galaxies.  One of the two brighter stars is likely the object sketched by Bindon Stoney at Birr Castle in 1851.  At 488x, the two brighter stars were very comparable in magnitude.  The star identified by Corwin (southwest vertex of the triangle) was possibly marginally brighter, though the other mag 16.5 star at the east vertex of the triangle (09 49 01.4 +44 03 37) is a better match with Stoney's sketch.  MCG +07-20-052, the galaxy misidentified in most catalogues as NGC 3002, is just visible as a very low surface brightness patch ~1.5' SE of the trio of stars.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 3002 on 25 Jan 1851 with LdR's 72" and labeled it Epsilon in the sketch of the NGC 2998 group.  The MCG, along with the RNGC, PGC, HyperLeda and other sources, misidentify MCG +07-20-052 = PGC 28208 as NGC 3002.  Although this galaxy (double) is close to the position on the sketch, the surface brightness is probably too low to have been picked up by Stoney.  In fact, Dreyer reported not seeing Epsilon in his 1 Apr 1878 observation.

 

More likely, Harold Corwin suggests that NGC 3002 applies to one of two nearby mag 16.5 stars (the third is mag 17.0) with the more likely star at 09 48 57.3 +44 03 26 (2000).

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NGC 3003 = UGC 5251 = MCG +06-22-013 = CGCG 182-021 = KTG 26A  = PGC 28186

09 48 36.0 +33 25 17

V = 11.9;  Size 5.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 79d

 

24" (4/20/14): bright, large, very elongated 4:1 WSW-ENE, 4.0'x1.0', mottled appearance, slightly bulging brighter core and nucleus, brighter and patchy along the major axis with a couple of very small knots.  Nearly detached at the west end is a very low surface brightness patch that seems angled or extends beyond the major axis.  A mag 15.7 star is ~1' N of center.

 

13.1" (3/3/84): moderately bright, very elongated 7:2 WSW-ENE, 3.5'x1.0', almost even surface brightness.

 

WH discovered NGC 3003 = H V-26 = h639 on 7 Dec 1785 (sweep 487) and recorded "cB, mE nearly in the parallel, 8' long, 3' broad."  His position is accurate. JH described "a singular curved wisp of nebula, It curls up and tapers off at the s p side, and is clubbed at the n f extremity."

 

A total of 13 observations were made at Birr Castle.  On 8 Mar 1858, R.J. Mitchell commented "of unequal brightness throughout its length, p part is F but contains a B patch with a star in it; the foll part is comparatively much brighter and is mottled."

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NGC 3004

09 49 02.4 +44 06 40

V = 16.7

 

=*, Corwin.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 3004 on 25 Jan 1851 with LdR's 72", though he just noted "Alpha suspected".  It was placed on the diagram of the field about midway between NGC 2998 and NGC 3005 (without a label).  Dreyer missed it on his 1 April 1878 observation, though he later added "the place for 1926 [NGC 3004] is evidently wrong, it must be about 9 40 15 +45 14 [based on the sketch]."

 

The closest object to the position on the sketch is an extremely faint star with SDSS mag(V) = 16.7.  Reinmuth calls it nonstellar (based on a Heidelberg plate):"vF, vS, R, bM, N3000 np 2.4', N3005 nf 2.7'."  Dorothy Carlson identifies it as a double star (based on Mount Wilson photograph) and this is repeated in RNGC, though it is clearly a single star on the SDSS.

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NGC 3005 = MCG +07-20-054 = Holm 144c = PGC 28232

09 49 14.9 +44 07 53

V = 15.0;  Size 1.0'x0.2';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 150d

 

48" (5/14/12): moderately bright and large, elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, ~0.6'x0.2', broad concentration.  Forms the north vertex of a quartet with NGC 2998, 3006 and 3008.  Located 3.7' SSE of mag 8.9 HD 84830, so I kept the bright star outside the field.  The nearest galaxy is NGC 3008, situated 3.9' SE.

 

17.5" (2/8/91): extremely faint and small, round.  Located 3.7' SSE of mag 8.4 SAO 43053.  This member of the NGC 2998 group lies just north of a line connecting NGC 2998 6.4' SW and NGC 3008.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 3005 on 25 Jan 1851 with LdR's 72" (along with NGC 3006 and 3008) and labeled it Gamma in the diagram of the NGC 2998 group.  Dreyer gave a more complete description on 1 Apr 1878, "vF, pS, E nnp ssf."  His offset from NGC 2998 (388.5" in PA 62.5¡) points exactly to MCG +07-20-054 = PGC 28232, although the RA in the NGC is 10 sec too large (error carried over from NGC 2998).

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NGC 3006 = MCG +07-20-055 = CGCG 210-037 = Holm 144d = PGC 28235

09 49 17.3 +44 01 33

V = 14.7;  Size 0.7'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 82d

 

48" (5/14/12): moderately bright, very elongated 7:2 E-W, ~40"x12", broad concentration with a brighter core.  Forms the south vertex of a quartet with NGC 2998, 3005 and 3008.  MCG +07-20-052, a very low surface brightness interacting pair (misidentified as NGC 3002 in most catalogues), lies 2.2' NW.

 

17.5" (2/8/91): extremely faint, small, edge-on 4:1 E-W, very low surface brightness.  Located 6.9' SE of NGC 2298 and 6.3' S of NGC 3005.  MCG +07-20-052 (misidentified as NGC 3002) 3' NW was not seen.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 3006 on 25 Jan 1851 with LdR's 72" (along with NGC 3005 and 3008) and labeled it Delta in the diagram of the NGC 2998 group. Dreyer recorded on 1 Apr 1878, "vF, S, stellar."  His offset from NGC 2998 (417.9" in PA 117.2¡) points exactly to CGCG 210-037 = PGC 28235, although the RA in the NGC is 12 sec too large (error carried over from NGC 2998).

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NGC 3007 = MCG -01-25-038 = PGC 28150

09 47 45.5 -06 26 22

V = 13.7;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (3/29/97): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 E-W, 1.0'x0.5', just a weak broad central brightening.  A mag 13 star lies 1.0' S.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3007 = St XIII-52 on 16 Mar 1885 with the 31" reflector at Marseille.  This was his last NGC discovery (by date).  Francis Leavenworth independently discovered the galaxy on 23 Feb 1886, though his rough position (nearest min of RA) in list I-158 is 11' too far east-southeast.

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NGC 3008 = MCG +07-20-059 = CGCG 210-039 = Holm 144b = PGC 28252

09 49 34.3 +44 06 10

V = 14.5;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 135d

 

48" (5/14/12): fairly bright, fairly small, oval 4:3 NW-SE, 0.4'x0.3', sharply concentrated with a very small bright core that increases to a bright stellar nucleus.  A mag 16.7 star is at the east edge.  Forms the east vertex of a quartet with NGC 2998 (brightest), NGC 3005 and NGC 3006.

 

17.5" (2/8/91): very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  A mag 15 star is 45" off the west edge and 1.1' from center.  Located 9.2' E of NGC 2998 in a group.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 3008 on 25 Jan 1851 with LdR's 72" (along with NGC 3005 and 3006) and labeled it Eta in the sketch of the NGC 2998 group.  Dreyer gave a more complete description on 1 Apr 1878, "pF, S, E, *13-14 1' p[receding]."  His offset from NGC 2998 (552" in PA 88¡) is close to CGCG 210-039 = PGC 28252, although the RA in the NGC is 12 seconds too large (error carried over from NGC 2998).

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NGC 3009 = UGC 5264 = MCG +07-20-062 = CGCG 239-033 = Holm 146b = PGC 28303

09 50 11.1 +44 17 41

V = 13.5;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (2/8/91): faint, small, round, even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with NGC 3010 5' ENE.

 

Alternative identification: NGC 3009 = NGC 3010sw = MCG +07-20-065

17.5" (2/8/91): this is the southwest member of the NGC 3010 triple system and noted as very faint, small, round.  UGC 5273b = MCG +07-20-066 is just 40" NE.

 

JH discovered NGC 3009 = h640 on 17 Mar 1828, along with NGC 3010 = h641, and logged "Not vF; R; bM; r.  The first of 2 [with NGC 3010]."  His position is 17 sec of RA west and 1.5' north of UGC 5264 = PGC 28303, a fairly large error of 3.4'.  Hermann Kobold measured an accurate position for this galaxy in 1896 but the identification is uncertain and it's possible that NGC 3009 applies to the southwest component of the NGC 3010 triple (NGC 3010B).  See Corwin's notes on NGC 3010 for the full story.

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NGC 3010 = UGC 5273 = MCG +07-20-065/066/067 = CGCG 239-035 = Holm 146 = PGC 28330/28335/28340

09 50 35.7 +44 19 23

Size 1.9'x0.6';  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): triple system consisting of two very faint, small, round "knots" (identified as UGC 5273a and 5273b in the UGC) with a separation of 40" oriented SW-NE.  The third component (UGC 5273c) is 1' NE and appeared as a mag 15.5 "star".  NGC 3009 lies 5' WSW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3010 = h641, along with NGC 3009 = h640, on 17 Mar 1828 and logged "F; psbM; r; stars seen.  The second of 2 [with NGC 3009]."  There is nothing at his position, but 35 sec of RA east and 1.4' south is UGC 5273.  His RA for NGC 3009 is also off (to the west), but by only 16 sec, which is strange.  Another possibility is that h640 refers to the southwest component of NGC 3010 (MCG +07-20-065 = PGC 28330).  If that's the case, the relative offsets would be more in line but still not accurate.  Corwin notes that JH's descriptions are generic enough they donÕt assist in choosing between these two alternatives.  So, he favors leaving the "traditional" identification as is.

 

The observations at Birr Castle are interesting.  The 1861 publication only includes the note "Several knots near [NGC 3009 and 3010].  The full account is given in the 1880 monograph.  On 1 Mar 1854 R.J. Mitchell recorded, "one pB [NGC 3009], 6' f and a little n are two others vF, about 3' apart pf; several others round about".  His separations are poor but probably the second part refers to NGC 3010 and one of its companions.  Thirty-five years later in 1878, Dreyer made another observation and wrote, "the f one [NGC 3010] is smaller and in a rectangular triangle of 3 stars."  At least one of these "stars" is likely a galaxy.  Hermann Kobold measured accurate positions of the two southern components of NGC 3010 with the 18-inch refractor at Strassburg.

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NGC 3011 = UGC 5259 = MCG +05-23-038 = CGCG 152-069 = Mrk 409 = PGC 28259

09 49 41.2 +32 13 16

V = 13.3;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (4/15/99): faint, fairly small, round, weak concentration, 0.8' diameter.  Located 2.5' WSW of a mag 10 star.  A nice 10' string of 8 mag 10-12 stars oriented N-S is just a few arcminutes preceding.  Picked up at 100x and observation at 220x.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3011 = Sw III-47 on 21 Apr 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and remarked "eeF; eS; stel; a row of 8 or 10 pB stars nr preceding."  His position is 9 sec of RA west and 1' south of UGC 5259 and the row of stars is just as he described (north-south).

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NGC 3012 = UGC 5262 = MCG +06-22-017 = CGCG 182-023 = PGC 28270

09 49 52.1 +34 42 51

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (4/15/99): faint, small, round, weak concentration, 0.6' diameter.  A mag 15 star is 1.5' W and a mag 12 star 3.5' SSE.  Picked up at 100x and views at 220x and 280x.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 3012 on 30 Apr 1862 and described "vF, pL, R, Cometary.  A mag 11 star is 3 1/2' south-southeast."  His single position and description matches UGC 5262.

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NGC 3013 = MCG +06-22-018 = CGCG 182-024 = PGC 28300

09 50 09.4 +33 34 09

V = 14.6;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

24" (4/20/14): faint, small, slightly elongated, 18"x15".  Situated 2.7' SE of mag 7.9 HD 85030.  A mag 15 star is 0.6' NE.  Located 10' WNW of NGC 3021.

 

17.5" (4/6/02): extremely faint and small, round, 10" diameter.  Located 3' SE of mag 7.9 SAO 61706 which detracts from viewing.  Also a mag 14.5-15 star is 38" NE of center and confuses the observation.  Situated between fairly bright galaxies NGC 3021 10' E and NGC 3003 21' WSW.

 

Lawrence Parsons, the 4th earl of Rosse, discovered NGC 3013 on 18 Mar 1874 while viewing the field of NGC 3021. He noted a nebula at 164.8" in PA 137.2¡ from a mag 8 star.  His offsets point directly to CGCG 182-024 = PGC 28300.  Due to a misprint in the NGC the declination is 40' too far north (the GC Supplement has the correct position) and the galaxy was discovered again by Stephane Javelle on (J. 1127) on 12 May 1896.  Dreyer realized the error and corrected the misprint in the IC 2 notes.  MCG does label this galaxy as NGC 3013.

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NGC 3014 = MCG -01-25-043 = PGC 28222

09 49 07.7 -04 44 35

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

17.5" (3/29/97): very faint, fairly small, irregularly round, 0.8' diameter, low even surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is very close WSW [38" from the center].  A pair of mag 14 stars [19" separation] lie 3' N.

 

JH discovered NGC 3014 = h644 on 19 Feb 1830 and noted "eF; L; 60".  The preceding of two [with h647 = NGC 3022].  There is nothing at his position (the dec is marked as uncertain or approximate).  But the NGC position is 30' further north (no reason given in the notes) and 2' south of this corrected position is MCG -01-25-043 = PGC 28222.

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NGC 3015 = UGC 5261 = MCG +00-25-020 = CGCG 007-041 = PGC 28240

09 49 22.9 +01 08 43

V = 13.9;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.0;  PA = 95d

 

17.5" (3/29/97): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  No brighter stars in field.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3015 = m 183 on 23 Apr 1864.  His position is just 1' north of UGC 5261 = PGC 28240.

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NGC 3016 = UGC 5266 = MCG +02-25-040 = CGCG 063-077 = Holm 147c = KTG 27A = PGC 28269

09 49 50.6 +12 41 43

V = 13.0;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 70d

 

24" (4/20/14): moderately to fairly bright, oval 4:3 WSW-ENE, 0.8'x0.6', contains a relatively large, very bright core that increases to the center.  NGC 3019 lies 5.0' NE and CGCG 063-075 is 3.2' SW.  The latter galaxy appeared very faint and small, round, 12", low even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Second brightest of five in the NGC 3020 group.  NGC 3019 lies 5.4' NE and NGC 3020 is 8.2' NNE.

 

13.1" (4/29/84): fairly faint, small, round, almost even surface brightness.

 

R.J. Mitchell, LdR's assistant, discovered NGC 3016, along with NGC 3019, on 21 Mar 1854.  There was no sketch made but the description reads "4 neb.  Two p and f [NGC 3016 and 3019] about 4' apart; the 3rd is north about 3' [NGC 3024] forming the vertex of an obtuse triangle, the 4th is about 4' further north and lenticular [NGC 3020]."  No positions were measured and only NGC 3019, NGC 3020 and NGC 3024 received GC numbers as JH incorrectly assumed that h642 referred to the 4th galaxy (see NGC 3020 for the story).

 

Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered this galaxy on 31 Dec 1864 with the 11" refractor at Copenhangen.  His position, measured on 4 nights, matches UGC 5266.  Dryer included it in the GC Supplement and credited d'Arrest.  Finally, Dreyer realized the equivalence and both LdR and d'Arrest are credited in the NGC

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NGC 3017 = MCG +00-25-019 = CGCG 007-040 = PGC 28220

09 49 03.0 -02 49 19

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (3/25/95): faint, small, round, 30" diameter, very weak concentration.  Forms the east vertex of a near equilateral triangle with two mag 12.5 and 14.5 stars 2.4' NW and 2.7' SW, respectively.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3017 = LM II-416 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is 20 sec of RA east and 2' south of MCG +00-25-019 and his note of "*11 at 3' in PA 300¡" clinches this identification.

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NGC 3018 = UGC 5265 = MCG +00-25-021 = CGCG 007-042 = PGC 28258

09 49 41.5 +00 37 20

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 27d

 

48" (4/7/13): bright, fairly large, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, 0.9'x0.3', small bright core.  A mag 9.7 star is just 0.8' NW of center.  Forms a striking pair with NGC 3023 2.7' E.

 

48" (4/2/11): bright, edge-on 4:1 SSW-NNE, fairly large, ~60"x15", very small bright core.  Located just 50" SE of mag 9.7 HD 85095 and 2.8' W of the fascinating galaxy NGC 3023 and Mrk 1236. 

 

17.5" (2/8/91): faint, small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE.  Dominated by a mag 10 star 48" NW of center.  Forms a close pair with NGC 3023 3' E.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3018 = St X-21 on 10 Mar 1880, along with NGC 3023 = St X-22.  His position is accurate.  Lewis Swift independently discovered the galaxy exactly 6 years later, but his position in list III-48 is 0.4 min too far west.  His comment "* near north, preceding of 2 [with NGC 3023]" clinches the equivalence.

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NGC 3019 = MCG +02-25-044 = CGCG 063-081 = Holm 147d = PGC 28295

09 50 07.2 +12 44 46

V = 15.0;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 30d

 

24" (4/20/14): at 280x appeared faint, small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 0.4'x0.2'.  A mag 14.5 star is 0.8' NE.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): very faint, small, almost round.  A mag 14 star is off the NE edge 48" from the center.  Fourth brightest of five in the NGC 3020.  Located 3.0' S of NGC 3020.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 3019 on 21 Mar 1854 with Lord Rosse's 72", along with NGC 3016.  There is no published sketch but the description reads "4 neb.  Two p and f [NGC 3016 and 3019] about 4' apart; the 3rd is north about 3' [NGC 3024] forming the vertex of an obtuse triangle, the 4th is about 4' further north and lenticular [NGC 3020]."  The described orientations are poor and no positions were given, but they certainly refer to the four brightest galaxies.  Only a rough position is given in the GC and the NGC position is 3' south of CGCG 063-081 = PGC 28295.

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NGC 3020 = UGC 5271 = MCG +02-25-045 = CGCG 063-082 = Holm 147a = KTG 27B = PGC 28296

09 50 06.6 +12 48 49

V = 11.9;  Size 3.2'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 105d

 

24" (4/20/14): at 280x appeared fairly bright, fairly large, oval 5:3 WNW-ESE, 1.7'x1.0', large elongated core appears to be a bar, mottled appearance. Spiral structure was highly suspected in the halo. Largest and brightest in a quintet with NGC 3019 4' S, NGC 3024 5.5' SE, NGC 3016 8' SSW and CGCG 063-075 11' SW.  NGC 3020 and 3024 are a physical pair (z = .004), while the other three galaxies are in the backgroud at z = .03.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): brightest and largest in the NGC 3020 group, elongated WNW-ESE, brighter core but no nucleus, diffuse halo.  Nearby are NGC 3019 4.0' S, NGC 3024 5.4' SE.

 

13.1" (4/29/84): fairly faint, moderately large, diffuse, elongated ~E-W.

 

WH discovered NGC 3020 = H III-51 = h646 = h642 on 19 Mar 1784 (sweep 177) and recorded "Two [along with NGC 3024], both resolvable and eF. The preceding is the largest and they are about 6 or 7' distant from each other.  Position about 20¡ np-sf 6 or 7' distant. I saw them better with 240 than 157.  They require some attention before they are well seen." His single position is ~1.0 min of RA too far east.

 

JH made three observations under h646 and measured an accurate position, but in his 4th sweep he made an error recording the RA 1.0 min too far west and claimed a "nova" under h642.  Dreyer correctly equated all three Herschel designations in the NGC.

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NGC 3021 = UGC 5280 = MCG +06-22-019 = CGCG 182-025 = KTG 26B = PGC 28357

09 50 57.1 +33 33 13

V = 12.1;  Size 1.6'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 110d

 

24" (4/20/14): bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 WNW-ESE, 0.9'x0.6', small bright core, stellar nucleus, the halo has an irregular surface brightness.  A mag 11 star is 1' SE and a mag 14 star is at the north edge.  NGC 3013 lies 10' W.

 

13.1" (3/3/84): fairly bright, elongated WNW-ESE.  A mag 10 star is 1.1' SE of center.  Located 30' NE of NGC 3003.

 

WH discovered NGC 3021 = H I-115 = h645 on 7 Dec 1785 (sweep 487) and recorded "cB, pL, lE, iF, mbM."  JH called this galaxy "pB; R; bM; has a * 10m 20¡ sf, dist 30"."

 

A sketch made with LdR's 72" in 1863 shows a spiral arm of the east side, curling around towards the west.

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NGC 3022 = MCG -01-25-046 = PGC 28257

09 49 39.2 -05 09 59

V = 12.2;  Size 1.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (4/15/93): fairly faint, small, round, gradually increases to a small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 5.2' SW of a mag 10 star.  Forms a pair with MCG -01-25-044 3' WSW.  The companion appeared extremely faint, small, round, 30" diameter, low surface brightness.

 

JH discovered NGC 3022 = h647 on 19 Feb 1830 and recorded "F; R; vglbM; r. The following of 2 [with NGC 3014]."  His position matches MCG -01-25-046 = PGC 28257.

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NGC 3023 = UGC 5269 = MCG +00-25-022 = CGCG 007-043 = VV 620 = LGG 182-006 = PGC 28272

09 49 52.5 +00 37 07

V = 13.0;  Size 2.9'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 70d

 

48" (4/7/13): at 375x appeared very bright, large, irregular, asymmetric with a bright, slightly elongated central region, ~40"x30".  Extending to the west of the core is large, faint halo or loop, most evident on the north side of the loop, which is brighter and more sharply defined as it sweeps to the west towards companion NGC 3018.  The loop extends the diameter to ~1.7'.  Mrk 1236, is a very small, but very high surface brightness companion attached on the east side of the core.  PGC 1170217 = MAC 0950+0035 was picked up in the field, 4.4' ESE.

 

48" (4/2/11): at 375x this bright, interacting galaxy has a very unusual, asymmetric appearance.  The central region is bright, oval 4:3 NNW-SSE, 40"x30", increases evenly to a very small, very bright nucleus.  A larger, outer halo extends mainly to the west.  The halo extends from the central region ~1' in a loop and is brightest along the rim, particularly looping from the north side of the core counterclockwise to the west [the DSS reveals this feature is a spiral arm].  This arm gives the visual impression of a partial ring extending the west of the core.

 

A bright companion, Mrk 1236, is attached within the small halo on the east side of the core, just 25" ESE of center.  This Wolf-Rayet galaxy appeared moderately bright, very small, elongated 2:1 E-W, ~16"x8", very high surface brightness.  On the SDSS image this object is resolved into several clumps or knots.  NGC 3018 lies 2.8' W of center.  Located 3.4' ESE of mag 9.7 HD 85095.

 

17.5" (2/8/91): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated 4:3, broad concentration in halo but no nucleus.  A faint star or knot is visible on the east end.  Forms a pair with NGC 3018 3' W and also 3.4' ESE of a mag 10 star.  This is a double system which was probably resolved in the observation as a faint star or knot on the east end (Mrk 1236)!

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3023 = St X-22 on 10 Mar 1880, along with NGC 3018 = St X-21, and measured an accurate position.  Lewis Swift independently discovered the galaxy exactly 6 years later with the 16" refractor, but his position in list III-49 is 0.4 min too far west (similar offset as Sw III-48 = NGC 3018).

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NGC 3024 = UGC 5275 = MCG +02-25-046 = CGCG 063-084 = Holm 147b = KTG 27C = PGC 28324

09 50 27.4 +12 45 56

V = 13.1;  Size 2.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 125d

 

24" (4/20/14): moderately bright and large, thin edge-on 4:1 NW-SE, bright very elongated core, 1.3'x0.3'.  A mag 14 star is off the SE end (aligned with the major axis).

 

17.5" (3/23/85): fairly faint, thin edge-on NW-SE, 1.4'x0.3', brighter core.  A mag 13.5 star is off the SE edge 1.4' from center.  This galaxy is the third brightest of five in the NGC 3020 group.  NGC 3020 lies 5.7' NW and NGC 3019 is 5' ESE.

 

13.1" (4/29/84): faint, fairly small, edge-on NW-SE.  A mag 13.5 star is off the east edge.

 

WH discovered NGC 3024 = H III-52 = h648 on 19 Mar 1784 (sweep 177) and recorded "Two [along with NGC 3020], both resolvable and eF. The preceding [NGC 3020] is the largest and they are about 6 or 7' distant from each other.  Position about 20¡ np-sf 6 or 7' distant. I saw them better with 240 than 157.  They require some attention before they are well seen."  His single position is ~1.0 min of RA too far east.  JH made a single observation, "vF; pL; E.  PD estimated from III.51 [NGC 3020] which precedes."  His "estimated dec" is 1.2' too far south.

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NGC 3025 = ESO 566-015 = MCG -04-23-018 = PGC 28249

09 49 29.1 -21 44 32

V = 12.9;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (4/1/00): fairly faint, roundish, 0.8' diameter, weak concentration, halo fades into background.  With averted vision, the halo increases to over 1' in diameter.  Located 2.6' NW of mag 9.3 SAO 178051.  A distinctive grouping of four mag 13-14 stars lies ~4' NW.  ESO 566-018 lies 14' ESE.

 

JH discovered NGC 3025 = h3192 on 21 Mar 1835 and recorded "eF, vS, R, north of a * 9 m."  His position and description is an exact match with ESO 566-015.

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NGC 3026 = UGC 5279 = MCG +05-23-043 = CGCG 152-074 = PGC 28351

09 50 55.4 +28 33 05

V = 13.0;  Size 2.7'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 82d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): fairly faint, fairly large, very elongated 3:1 E-W, even fairly low surface brightness.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3026 = Sw III-50 on 22 May 1886 and recorded "eeF; pS; lE; e diff; in vacancy, found searching for Winnecke's comet [7P/Pons-Winnecke]."  His position is 10 sec of RA east and 1' south of UGC 5279 = PGC 28351.

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NGC 3027 = UGC 5316 = VV 358 = MCG +12-10-009 = CGCG 332-068 = CGCG 333-006 = PGC 28636

09 55 40.5 +72 12 13

V = 11.8;  Size 4.3'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (4/4/92): faint, fairly large, elongated NW-SE, 3'x2', weak concentration, low surface brightness.  Two mag 15 stars are superimposed at the NW end of the major axis and at the south edge.  NGC 2985 lies 25' WNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3027 = H V-23 = h643 on 3 Apr 1785 (sweep 390) and logged "F, L, lE, resolvable, 6' or 7' l, 5' or 6' br."   His position is just off the east side of UGC 5316.  JH recorded "eF; vL; vglbM; 3' l; 2.5' br." and measured a very accurate position.

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NGC 3028 = ESO 566-016 = PGC 28276

09 49 54.1 -19 11 05

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 48d

 

17.5" (3/16/96): fairly faint, small, round, 35" diameter, weak concentration.  A mag 12 star lies 3.2' SE.

 

JH discovered NGC 3028 = h3193 on 23 Mar 1835 and recorded "F; S; R; lbM; 15"."  His position is an exact match with ESO 566-016 = PGC 28276.

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NGC 3029 = MCG -01-25-047 = PGC 28206

09 48 54.0 -08 03 04

V = 14.0;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 46d

 

17.5" (2/1/03): very faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 0.7'x0.5', very low surface brightness.  Located 4.5' E of a mag 11 star.  Collinear with two mag 13 star to the NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3029 = Sw III-51 on 8 Feb 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  His description simply reads "pF; pS; R."   His position is 1.5 tmin E and 6.5' N of MCG -01-25-047, so this identification seems very uncertain.  RNGC and RC3 identify this object as MCG -01-25-047 (not MCG, though).  The MCG RA is +1 tmin too far E.

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NGC 3030 = MCG -02-25-021 = PGC 28302

09 50 10.5 -12 13 35

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (4/15/93): faint, small, round, broad concentration.  A mag 12 star is 1' NNW.  Located 2.5' NNW of mag 8.5 SAO 155521.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3030 = LM II-417 in 1886 and recorded "mag 15.7, 0.2' dia, R, gbsbMN."   His position is only 10 sec of RA east and 1' south of MCG -02-25-021 = PGC 28302.  Herbert Howe's corrected position made with the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory (published in Monthly Notices 1899) is accurate.

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NGC 3031 = M81 = UGC 5318 = MCG +12-10-010 = CGCG 333-007 = Bode's Nebula = PGC 28630

09 55 33.2 +69 03 55

V = 6.9;  Size 26.9'x14.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 157d

 

48" (4/15/10): dazzling view of M81 at 267x (21mm Ethos) and 330x (17mm Nagler).  The  galaxy is elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE and extends at least 20'x10'.  The brightness level increases gradually to the center from the large, very bright oval core but is punctuated at the center by an extremely bright, quasi-stellar nucleus.  A bright spiral arm attaches to the galaxy on the northwest end and bends abruptly to the south, passing across a mag 12 star located 5' NW of center.  As it heads southeast, the arm separates from the main glow of the galaxy and can be traced as it passes just north of ·1387 (10.8/10.8 at 9"), ending to the northeast of the striking double star ·1386 = 9.3/9.3 at 2.1".  The total length of this arm is ~15'.  The second main arm is more prominent, attaching to the main body on the south end.  This arm is much brighter in a narrow arc as it curves around at its south end.  This arm is still relatively narrow with a very well defined edge as it sweeps NNW and gradually separates from the main body.  Holmberg IX was visible 10.5' E of the center of M81.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): very bright, very large, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, about 16'x8', large oval bright middle, bright core, nearly stellar nucleus.  Two mag 11.5 and 11.9 stars are superimposed in the halo at the south edge of the core.  An easily visible spiral arm is attached near these two stars at the south end of the core.  This arm curves due north along the east side and is well separated from the main body.  A second arm was suspected on 10/12/85 as a short extension curving around the NNW end towards a mag 12 star at the WNW edge of the halo and was described as "shorter and much less prominent, though definitely seen" on 1/31/87.  Mag 8.7 SAO 15020 (·1386 = 9.3/9.3 at 2") lies 10' SSW and the striking double star ·1387 = 10.7/10.7 at 9" is 8' SSW.  Forms a very striking pair at low power with M82 37' N.  The bright supernova 1993j was located 3' SSW of the core and formed a right triangle with the two mag 11.5/11.9 stars south of the core.

 

13" (1/18/85): extremely faint arm attached at the southeast end near two stars and curves to the east.

 

8": very bright, bright core, large oval halo, elongated NW-SE, two faint stars involved.

 

Johann Bode discovered M81 = NGC 3031 = h649 on 31 Dec 1774, along with M82.  Pierre MŽchain independently discovered M81 in Aug 1779.  On 30 Sep 1802, WH recorded "vB, eL; it very nearly fills all the field, it loses itself imperceptibly, mE np sf; I can trace it nearly 1/2¡ in extent beyond the brightest part."  JH logged "eB; eL; E, pos = 156¡, gb and svmbM, with faint rays of light nearly to extremities of field (15').  The most condensed part is 4' l and 3' br."  He mistakenly referred to M81 as M82 in the Slough Catalogue.

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NGC 3032 = UGC 5292 = MCG +05-23-046 = CGCG 152-077 = PGC 28424

09 52 08.2 +29 14 10

V = 12.5;  Size 2.0'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 95d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): moderately bright, very small, almost round, very small bright core, bright stellar nucleus, surrounded by small very faint halo.  Located midway between mag 8.6 SAO 81056 1.7' N and a mag 10 star 1.9' S.

 

JH discovered NGC 3032 = h650 on 24 Dec 1827 and logged "a *12 with an eF atmos about 10-12".  It is between a *8-9m n p and one = 10m, s f, neither of which are so affected. A curious object." His position and description applies, although the two stars are more nearly north and south.

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NGC 3033 = Cr 212 = ESO 167-SC006

09 48 39 -56 24 42

V = 8.8;  Size 5'

 

24" (4/10/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x, this is a small 4' group of ~30 stars situated just SW of mag 6.1 HD 85250.  Many of the stars are arranged in a loop or oval on the SW side of the star, so the combination with the bright star appears similar to a diamond ring.  The cluster members are fairly uniform in brightness with a number of mag 11 stars.  A wide double star 5' SE (9.5/11.5 at 26") is collinear with HD 85250.

 

JH discovered NGC 3033 = h3194 on 27 Feb 1835 and logged "irregularly round cluster, 8' diameter, of 50 or 60 stars, 11 and 12 mag. In the milky way, but sufficiently rich and distinct to be registered as a cluster."

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NGC 3034 = M82 = Arp 337 = UGC 5322 = MCG +12-10-011 = CGCG 333-008 = UMa A = PGC 28655

09 55 52.7 +69 40 46

V = 8.4;  Size 11.2'x4.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 65d

 

48" (4/15/10): stunning view at 330x with numerous irregular dark rifts slicing up the mottled, clumpy surface.  Several very small, bright knots or condensations (Super Star Clusters - SSCs) are just west of a dark wedge that pierces the galaxy on the south side and tapers as it cuts across the center at an oblique angle.  The very bright section of the galaxy to the northeast of the dark absorption wedge also displays mottled structure.  Another prominent dark inclusion cuts into the galaxy from the north on the northeast side of the galaxy.  A very faint extension of low surface brightness haze (the superwind outflow) bulges out from the main portion of the galaxy on the south side.  This glow is west of the dark wedge and east of a mag 10.5 star located 5.8' SW of center. On images this large bulge appears to explode out from the galaxy with filamentary structure.  Overall, there was too much visible structure to describe from a couple of minutes at the eyepiece.

 

17.5" (10/12/85): very bright, large, edge-on 4:1 WSW-ENE, 10' x 2.5', large bright irregular core.  Very mottled with an unusually high surface brightness.  Unique appearance with several dark cuts oblique to the major axis including a prominent wedge or cut nearly through the center.  A mag 10 star is just south of the SW end 5.8' from the center

 

13" (11/5/83): two obvious dark lanes.

 

8": bright, spindle, mottled.  A dark wedge cuts into the galaxy near the center from the south side.

 

10x50 binoculars: faintly visible though easier in 15x50's.

 

Johann Bode discovered M82 = NGC 3034 = H IV-79 on 31 Dec 1774, along with M81.  Pierre MŽchain independently discovered M82 in Aug 1779.

 

M82 is not in WH's published catalogues, though on 8 Nov 1801 (sweep 1100) he noted "eB, mE sp-nf, about 10' long" and on 30 Sep 1802 (sweep 1112) he logged "a vB, beautiful ray of light, brightest in the middle of all the length, about 8' long and 2 or 3' broad."  JH added it as one of the 8 "HON" objects ("Herschel omitted nebulae") in the Appendix to his Cape Observations (and in the GC as IV-79), as WH assumed it was a new discovery on his last sweep on 30 Sep 1802!

 

The first published comment about dark lanes was made by Ralph Copeland at Birr Castle on 21 May 1871.  He noted "A most extraordinary object, at least 10' in length, and crossed by several dark bands."

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NGC 3035 = MCG -01-25-052 = PGC 28415

09 51 55.0 -06 49 23

V = 12.7;  Size 1.6'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (4/15/93): faint, fairly small, round, gradually brighter core, faint stellar nucleus.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3035 = St X-23 on 5 Mar 1880.  His position is an exact match with MCG -01-25-052.

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NGC 3036 = ESO 126-SC027

09 49 20 -62 40 30

Size 10'

 

14" (4/2/16 - Coonabarabran, 123x and 160x): nice cluster consisting of two main groups with offshoots.  Overall fairly rich with roughly 30 stars in the southern group and 15 in the northern.  The larger southern group forms an elongated looping chain and extends ~6'x1.5'.  It includes a mag 9.9 star near the west end and a 11.5/12.5 pair at 15" on the southwest end.  Two mag 10 stars are at the east end.  The distinct northern chain also includes a 14" pair.  This cluster is situated 12' WNW of mag 5.6 HD 85656.

 

JH discovered NGC 3036 = h3197 on 7 Mar and recorded "The chief star 10m of a cluster class VIII of sc st 10' dia.  It is one the borders of the milky way."  His position corresponds with a mag 10 star on the west side of a scattered group that is well-defined on the DSS.  JH's original Cape position was 20' too far north but he corrected it on the errata page, so the GC and NGC position is accurate. RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent (Type 7).

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NGC 3037 = ESO 499-010 = MCG -04-24-002 = PGC 28381

09 51 24.2 -27 00 40

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (4/1/00): fairly faint, roundish, 1.0' diameter, very little concentration.  A 30" pair of mag 14 stars close SE (~1.5') is collinear with the center of the galaxy.  Located 5.4' SSW of mag 9.7 SAO 178100.

 

JH discovered NGC 3037 = h3195 on 26 Mar 1835 and recorded "F; R; lbM; 30"."  His position is an exact match with ESO 499-010 = PGC 28381.

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NGC 3038 = ESO 374-002 = MCG -05-24-001 = LGG 184-002 = PGC 28376

09 51 15.4 -32 45 09

V = 11.6;  Size 2.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 130d

 

18" (3/17/07): fairly bright, fairly large, oval 3:2 NW-SE, ~1.8'x1.2', large bright core, very faint halo, brighter quasi-stellar nucleus.  Three IC galaxies lie to the west with IC 2513 the closest at 17' SW.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, slightly elongated oval WSW-ENE, fairly small, bright core.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3038 = Sw III-52 on 27 Feb 1886 and noted "pB; pS; R."   His position is just 40" north of ESO 374-002.

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NGC 3039 = UGC 5297 = MCG +00-25-027 = CGCG 007-051 = PGC 28452

09 52 29.6 +02 09 15

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 12d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, weak concentration, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 3.9' WSW and two mag 12.5 stars lie 3.0' W and 1.5' N.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3039 = m 184 on 22 Jan 1865 and logged "vF, S, iR."  His position matches UGC 5297.

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NGC 3040 = UGC 5300 = MCG +03-25-037 = CGCG 092-067 = Holm 148a = PGC 28479

09 53 05.1 +19 25 56

V = 13.2;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 11.9;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (4/9/99): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 0.8'x0.4'.  Fairly well concentrated with a bright, round 20" core and faint extensions.  A mag 14 star lies 1.8' SSE.  Brightest in a triple system, including Ho 148b at the northeast edge (companions not seen).

 

CGCG 92-065, located 12' N, appeared extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Contained a stellar nucleus in moments of steady seeing.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3040 = St XIII-53 on 25 Mar 1884.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 3041 = UGC 5303 = MCG +03-25-039 = CGCG 092-068 = PGC 28485

09 53 07.2 +16 40 40

V = 11.5;  Size 3.7'x2.4';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 95d

 

17.5" (3/29/89): fairly faint, large, diffuse, slightly elongated.  A mag 13 is just off the SW end 1.5' from the center and two mag 14.5 stars are at the NW edge 1.2' from center and at the north edge 1' from the center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3041 = H II-98 = h3196 on 23 Mar 1784 (sweep 184) and recorded "L, not vF, resolvable, R, not much bM.  North following the most south of 2 bright stars and not far from it; the nebulosity reaches up the bright star."  Interestingly, JH called this galaxy a globular cluster and noted "F; L; R; vglbm; 2.5' dia; resolved with left eye."  Dreyer noted it was not a globular in 1876 observation at Birr Castle.

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NGC 3042 = UGC 5307 = MCG +00-25-030 = CGCG 007-054 = PGC 28498

09 53 20.1 +00 41 51

V = 12.9;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 111d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): fairly faint, very small, elongated 2:1 ~E-W, very small bright core, very faint extensions from core.  A mag 13 star is 1.3' SW of core.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3042 = m 185 on 30 Apr 1864 and recorded "pB, S, vlE, gbM."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 3043 = UGC 5327 = MCG +10-14-052 = CGCG 289-023 = PGC 28672

09 56 14.6 +59 18 25

V = 12.6;  Size 1.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 84d

 

17.5" (3/12/88): moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, 1.2'x0.5', small bright core.  Located 8' S of mag 7.9 SAO 27433.

 

WH discovered NGC 3043 = H II-835 = h651 on 19 Mar 1790 (sweep 952) and noted "cF; S; E."  His position is within 1' of UGC 5327.  JH called it (sweep 323) "eF; pL; 35"; vgbM; has a *10 m 7' n."

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NGC 3044 = UGC 5311 = MCG +00-25-031 = CGCG 007-056 = FGC 965 = PGC 28517

09 53 40.8 +01 34 46

V = 11.9;  Size 4.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 113d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): fairly bright, large, edge-on 6:1 WNW-ESE, dimensions 3.5'x0.5', broadly concentration but does not contain a well-defined core.

 

13.1" (4/10/86): very pretty, very thin edge-on streak at 166x-214x, moderately large, brighter middle.

 

WH discovered NGC 3044 = H III-254 = h652 on 13 Dec 1784 (sweep 342) and recorded "eF, mE, 3 or 5' long and near 1' br from np to sf; but not far from the parallel."  One week later (sweep 348) he logged "vF; about 5' long but extremely narrow, less than 1/4' broad; from np to sf."  JH measured an accurate position and recorded "vF; mE, pos = 111.5¡; 80" l, 15" br.  Aurora in sky, even at this polar distance."  The UGC, RC3 list the PA = 13¡, but it should read 113¡.

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NGC 3045 = ESO 566-G22 = MCG -03-25-028 = PGC 28492

09 53 17.7 -18 38 43

V = 12.9;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 110d

 

13.1" (4/10/86): faint, small, round, no details.  Located 17' W of NGC 3052.

 

JH discovered NGC 3045 = h3198 on 23 Mar 1835 and recorded "vF; R; lbM; 30"."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 3046 = ESO 499-?015

09 53 22.0 -27 19 19

 

=*?, RNGC and ESO.

 

JH discovered NGC 3046 = h3199 on 24 Mar 1835 and noted "pF; R.  RA precarious; a hurried observation." His position is 30" south of a mag 14.6 star and RNGC and ESO identify NGC 3046 as a star.  I would think it likely this was a duplicate observation of NGC 3051 except that both were recorded on the same sweep!  Still, Harold Corwin suggests this may be a case (there are two others) where he accidentally recorded the same object twice in the sweep.

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NGC 3047 = UGC 5323se = MCG +00-25-033 = (CGCG 007-059) = PGC 28577

09 54 32.0 -01 17 27

V = 13.7;  Size 0.5'x0.5'

 

17.5" (3/25/95): very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, faint stellar nucleus.  Located 1.3' SSE of mag 8.6 SAO 137215.  Forms a double system with a very faint stellar companion = NGC 3047A just 40" WNW of center.

 

George Hough discovered NGC 3047 on 24 Apr 1883 with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at the Dearborn Observatory and described as "small and round, very faint."  Both Hough and Sherburne Burnham reobserved the galaxy on 5 May and Dreyer credited the pair.  The discovery position in AN 2524 is 8 tsec W (only given to the nearest tenth of a tmin) of UGC 5323.

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NGC 3048 = CGCG 092-071 = PGC 28595

09 54 56.5 +16 27 23

V = 14.2;  Size 0.6'x0.3'

 

17.5" (3/29/89): extremely faint, very small, round.  A mag 14 star is 1.3' SE.  Forms a pair with NGC 3053 8.7' ESE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3048 = m186 on 27 Apr 1864 and simply noted "eF".  His position matches CGCG 092-071.  Two extremely faint galaxies are close to the east (slightly larger redshifts).

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NGC 3049 = UGC 5325 = MCG +02-25-055 = CGCG 063-103 = Mrk 710 = PGC 28590

09 54 49.6 +09 16 17

V = 12.1;  Size 2.2'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (4/15/93): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, weak concentration.  A mag 11 star is 3.4' NE of center and a mag 14 star lies 1.9' SW of center.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3049 = St XII-37 on 20 Mar 1882.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 3050 = NGC 2979 = MCG -02-25-012

09 43 08.6 -10 23 01

 

See observing notes for NGC 2979.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 3050 = LM II-418 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His notes inlcude "mag 14.0, 0.6' dia, vlE 200¡, gbMN."  There is nothing near his rough position (nearest min of time).

 

Harold Corwin suggests, NGC 3050 is a duplicate of NGC 2979 (discovered by WH), which is located is over 11 tmin of RA west of Muller's position!  But the declination matches and the description and position angle is a good fit, so if a 10 min recording error in RA was made, this identification is likely.

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NGC 3051 = NGC 3046: = ESO 499-016 = MCG -04-24-004 = PGC 28536

09 53 58.6 -27 17 11

V = 11.8;  Size 2.1'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (3/25/00): fairly faint, moderately large, round, 1.2' diameter.  Broadly concentrated halo containing a very small bright core.  Located 14' ENE of mag 6.4 SAO 178130.  NGC 3037 lies 38' NW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3051 = h3201 on 24 Mar 1835 and recorded ""pF, S, R, gbM; 20 arcseconds."  His position matches ESO 499-016.  NGC 3046 may be a duplicate observation.  See notes on that number.

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NGC 3052 = ESO 566-026 = MCG -03-25-030 = PGC 28570

09 54 28.0 -18 38 21

V = 12.2;  Size 2.0'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 102d

 

13.1" (4/10/86): moderately bright, slightly elongated, diffuse, weak concentration.  Located 23' NNW of mag 4.9 SAO 155588.  NGC 3045 lies 17' W.

 

WH discovered NGC 3052 = H III-272 = h3202 on 7 Feb 1785 (sweep 368) and noted "vF, pS, irr.  A lttle brighter towards the middle."  CH's reduced position is 1.5' southeast of ESO 566-026 = PGC 28570.  JH logged "pF; L; R; gbM; 50" and measured an accurate position (in the NGC).

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NGC 3053 = UGC 5329 = MCG +03-25-040 = CGCG 092-074 = CGCG 093-001 = PGC 28631

09 55 33.6 +16 25 58

V = 12.7;  Size 1.8'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (3/29/89): fairly faint, oval NW-SE, bright core.  A mag 14.5 star is 0.9' NE.  Forms a pair with NGC 3048 8.7' WNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3053 = H III-600 = h3200 on 14 Jan 1787 (sweep 690) and noted "vF, S, iR."  CH's reduced position is 1.5' north of UGC 5329.  JH called it "vF; lE; gbM; 25"."

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NGC 3054 = ESO 499-018 = MCG -04-24-005 = UGCA 187 = PGC 28571

09 54 28.6 -25 42 13

V = 11.8;  Size 3.8'x2.3';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 123d

 

17.5" (2/28/87): moderately bright, moderately large, bright core, diffuse halo, elongated WNW-ESE.

 

C.H.F. Peters discovered NGC 3054 on 3 Apr 1859 with the 13.5-inch refractor at Hamilton College Observatory.  The NGC RA (from Peters) is just 6 sec west of ESO 499-018.

 

Ormond Stone found the galaxy again on 14 Jan 1886 at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded it again in list I-160.  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is ~1.5 tmin too far east but his description (PA = 120¡, 2.7'x0.8') matches this galaxy. 

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NGC 3055 = UGC 5328 = MCG +01-25-034 = CGCG 035-087 = PGC 28617

09 55 18.1 +04 16 11

V = 12.1;  Size 2.1'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 63d

 

13.1" (4/10/86): moderately bright, elongated 3:2 WSW-ENE, moderately large.  There is a sharper light cut-off on the east side due to dust.  Located 5.7' SSE of a mag 10.5 star.

 

WH discovered NGC 3055 = H VI-4 = h656 on 24 Jan 1784 (sweep 116) and noted "a nebula or cluster of very close and small stars."  His position is 38 sec of RA east of UGC 5328 (not an uncommon error in his early sweeps).  He included this galaxy in class VI (Very condensed and rich clusters of stars). JH made 3 observations and noted "pB, gbM; r; lE; 60" l, 40" br; twilight.  No other cluster or neb near."  The NGC position is accurate.

 

R.J. Mitchell, observing with LdR's 72" on 15 Mar 1855, recorded the following detail: "E sp nf, has a B nucl and a knot in sp end, or rather a twist towards then."  The following Jan he remarked "I see it as last year with appendage or curved branch at sp end."

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NGC 3056 = ESO 435-007 = MCG -05-24-003 = PGC 28576

09 54 32.8 -28 17 53

V = 11.7;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 16d

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly faint, very small, bright core, very slightly elongated halo N-S.  A mag 12.5 star is off the NE end.

 

JH discovered NGC 3056 = h3203 on 30 Mar 1835 and recorded "pB; S; R; vsmbM; has a * 10m almost contiguous; pos from neb = 203.8¡.  His position and description matches ESO 435-007, though the position angle of the bright star is off by 180¡.

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NGC 3057 = UGC 5404 = MCG +14-05-010 = PGC 29296

10 05 39.5 +80 17 09

V = 13.0;  Size 2.2'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (1/28/89): faint, moderately large, elongated.  Two mag 13-14 stars are off the south edge.

 

WH discovered NGC 3057 = H III-978 on 26 Sep 1802 (sweep 1111, his second to last sweep) and recorded "eF, pL vlbM.  Just north of 2 small stars are are hearly in parallel [E-W]."  CH's reduced position is within 1' of UGC 5404.  This object is the 500th discovery listed in Herschel's third catalogue although he left three additional ones out which exceeded the 500 limit.  NGC 3057 was not found by Bigourdan.

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NGC 3058 = MCG -02-25-026 = VV 741 = IC 573 = PGC 28513

09 53 35.7 -12 28 55

V = 12.5;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (4/15/93): faint, fairly small, round, low even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is 1.0' W.  A wide mag 12/13 pair at 45" separation lies 2' SSW and a mag 12/13.5 pair at 30" separation E-W lies 3.5' W.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3058 = LM I-159 on 6 May 1886. His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is about 2 min of RA east of MCG -02-25-026.  Using the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver, Herbert Howe described NGC 3058 as a multiple galaxy "p.a. 210 deg, dist 20", nf galaxy brighter".  His corrected RA given in the IC 2 notes is accurate.

 

Stephane Javelle independently discovered this galaxy on 20 Apr 1892, placed it accurately in list I-171, and Dreyer catalogued it again as IC 573. So NGC 3058 = IC 573.

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NGC 3059 = ESO 037-007 = PGC 28298

09 50 08.5 -73 55 18

V = 11.0;  Size 3.6'x3.2';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 71d

 

24" (4/12/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x appears fairly bright, fairly large, slightly elongated.  Appears to have a central bar or an elongated core (barred spiral).  At moments I caught a glimpse of a faint stellar nucleus.  The halo is large, ~2.5'x2.0' and seems mottled.  Surrounded by a number of stars in a rich star field and situated 5' ESE of a mag 9 star.  I accidentally forgot to check this object off from the previous night so it was still on my observing list, though I suspected it had been seen earlier.

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x appears fairly bright, large, slightly elongated, ~3.0'x2.5', weak concentration except for a small elongated core or bar (this is a face-on barred spiral).  Overall the surface brightness is fairly low, but fairly impressive due to its large size and central bar.  The galaxy is surrounded by a number of mag 13 stars.  A mag 8.9 star (HD 85642) lies 5' WNW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3059 = h3205 on 23 Mar 1835 and recorded "F; L; irreg R; glbM; 3'; many vS stars near and in it."  His position (corrected in a list of errata at the end of the CGH) matches ESO 037-007.

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NGC 3060 = UGC 5338 = MCG +03-26-002 = CGCG 093-003 = PGC 28680

09 56 19.2 +16 49 52

V = 13.0;  Size 2.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 78d

 

17.5" (4/13/91): fairly faint, very elongated 4:1 WSW-ENE, bright core, no well-defined nucleus, faint extensions taper to points.

 

WH discovered NGC 3060 = H III-601 = h3204 on 14 Jan 1787 (sweep 690) and recorded "vF, cS, lE, easily resolvable."  CH's reduced position is just off the north side of UGC 5338.

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NGC 3061 = UGC 5319 = MCG +13-07-040 = CGCG 350-036 = PGC 28670

09 56 11.9 +75 51 59

V = 12.8;  Size 1.7'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (1/28/89): faint, fairly large, slightly elongated, low surface brightness.  There are two faint stars at the edges;  a mag 14.5 star 1.8' NW of center and a faint 15 star 0.9' SSE of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3061 = H II-903 on 2 Apr 1801 (sweep 1096) and logged "F, pL, r."  This is one of 15 far northern galaxies with large systematic errors. The corrected position using Greenwich plates (MN, 71, 509, 1911), matches UGC 5319 and Dreyer repeated this position in the notes to his 1912 edition of WH's catalogues.  See NGC 2938 for more on sweep 1096 or Harold Corwin's full story in his notes for NGC 3752..

 

JH observed what he assumed was his father's II-903, and recorded h653 as "very doubtful.  Moonlight and haze."  There is nothing at or near his poisition (noted in the MN paper).   JH used his position, though, and basically his father's description (changing "F" to "vF") in the GC and Dreyer repeated this in the NGC.  So, NGC 3061 = H II-903 and not h653.

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NGC 3062 = CGCG 008-002 = PGC 28699

09 56 35.7 +01 25 43

V = 14.7;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 65d

 

17.5" (4/15/99): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Weak concentration to a slightly brighter core and occasional stellar nucleus.  Not noticed at 100x but easy at 220x.  Based on description, I probably viewed the brighter core only and missed the fainter extensions.  Located 45' ESE of NGC 3044.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3062 = m 187 with Lassell's 48" and noted "vF, vS, alm stellar."  His position matches Marth's position matches PGC 28699.

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NGC 3063

10 01 41.6 +72 07 05

 

=**, Carlson.

 

WH discovered NGC 3063 = H II-909 on 30 Sep 1802 (his last sweep 1112) in the field of II-333 = NGC 3065 and II-334 = NGC 3066, "The sp one eF, vS, about 1' more south and 20 sec preceding."  This probably refers to a pair of mag 14.9 stars at 11" separation that was also found by d'Arrest (GCS 5512) when he observed the pair of galaxies and d'Arrest's position was used in the NGC.

 

WH didn't include this object in his third catalogue as he had already reached his 500 object threshold, but JH added it in an appendix to the Cape Catalogue (HON = [William] Herschel omitted nebulae") and in the GC as II-909 = GC 1972.  There was confusion, though, which objects were the two nebulae previously discovered, and JH noted it was the third of three, instead of the the first of three.  This confusion carried into the NGC and even Dreyer's 1912 notes on WH's third catalogue.  See Corwin's notes for the full history.

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NGC 3064 = MCG -01-26-001 = PGC 28638

09 55 41.5 -06 21 50

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (3/25/00): very faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, low even surface brightness.  A distinctive group of mag 11-13 stars is roughly 5' NE.  The brighter mag 11 stars form a rectangle with a 13th magnitude star in the center.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3064 = LM I-161 on 6 May 1886 and noted "mag 16.0, vS, E45¡."  A second listing I-162 (probably from a different date).  The second entry mentions "same as 161?", so Dreyer combined them into NGC 3058.  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is essentially correct - just 0.2 tmin east of MCG -01-26-001.

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NGC 3065 = UGC 5375 = MCG +12-10-014 = CGCG 333-010 = VII Zw 303 = PGC 29046

10 01 55.3 +72 10 13

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (4/4/92): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, bright core, stellar nucleus, fairly high surface brightness.  A mag 11 star is 1.4' NW.  Forms a close striking pair with slightly fainter NGC 3066 3.1' SSE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3065 = H II-333 = h654 on 3 Apr 1785 (sweep 390) and recorded "Two [along with II-334 = NGC 3066], pF, S, bM.  The most north [NGC 3065] a little larger and brighter than the southern one; otherwise much alike; not far from being in the same meridian."  CH's reduced position is ~30 sec of RA east of UGC 5375 and UGC 5379.

 

This pair was also the very last object WH observed on his last sweep 1112 on 30 Sep 1802 and he also noted a third object (II-909), which turns out to be a double star.  JH made a single observation, noting "vF; S; R; 10"; near a * 11-12m."  The NGC position (from d'Arrest) matches UGC 5375.

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NGC 3066 = UGC 5379 = MCG +12-10-015 = CGCG 333-011 = Mrk 133 = PGC 29059

10 02 11.0 +72 07 31

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (4/4/92): moderately bright, fairly small, round, gradual moderate concentration but no sharp core.  Only slightly fainter than NGC 3065 3' NNW but has a smoother surface brightness.

 

WH discovered NGC 3066 = H II-334 = h655 on 3 Apr 1785 (sweep 390) and recorded "Two [along with II-333 = NGC 3065], pF, S, bM.  The most north a little larger and brighter than the southern one; otherwise much alike; not far from being in the same merian."  CH's reduced position is 30 sec of RA east of UGC 5375 and UGC 5379.

 

This pair was also the very last objects WH observed on his last sweep 1112 on 30 Sep 1802 and he also noted a third object (II-909), which turns out to be a double star.  JH made a single observation, noting "F; R; 20"; vglbM." The NGC position (from d'Arrest) matches UGC 5379.

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NGC 3067 = UGC 5351 = MCG +06-22-046 = CGCG 182-051 = KTG 26C = PGC 28805

09 58 21.1 +32 22 12

V = 12.1;  Size 2.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 105d

 

24" (4/20/14): fairly bright, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, 1.3'x0.5', contains a large bright core that is very mottled with several very small knots (HII regions on the SDSS).  The southeast side of the halo is weaker with an irregular surface brightness. A mag 9.8 star is 3.9' ENE.

 

17.5" (4/13/91): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, brighter core bulges but no nucleus, extensions taper towards ends.  Located 3.8' WSW of a mag 9.5 star. 

 

8": faint, very elongated ~E-W.  A mag 9 star is 4' E.

 

WH discovered NGC 3067 = H II-492 = h657 on 7 Dec 1785 (sweep 487) and noted "pB, pL, lE nearly in the parallel."  JH made 3 observations and described on sweep 128 "pB; pL; E in parallel; gbM; 60" l, 40" br; has a * 10th mag n f."

 

A total of 15 observations were made at Birr Castle.  On 13 Mar 1850, LdR (or assistant George Stoney) noted the following detail: "Longitudinal split visible occasionally, at least in following 2/3.  A bright streak seemed to run transversely across neb."

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NGC 3068 = Arp 174 NED2 = UGC 5353b = MCG +05-24-006 NED2 = CGCG 153-006 = PGC 28815

09 58 40.1 +28 52 39

V = 14.3;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

17.5" (4/18/98): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter (much smaller than listed dimensions). A mag 12.5 star is 2.8' N.  No details were visible (viewed through thin clouds) and the fainter companion 35" SW was not seen.

 

WH discovered NGC 3068 = H III-293 on 12 Mar 1785 (sweep 385) and recorded"suspected, eF, eS, stellar. 240 left it doubtful, but showed the same suspicious nebulous which other stars of equal size were free from."  His position is 6' N of UGC 5353.  Dreyer has a note in the NGC that Auwers' reduction was incorrect due to a error in the identification of the offset star in Philosophical Transactions.

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NGC 3069 = IC 580 = MCG +02-26-005 = CGCG 064-010 = PGC 28788

09 57 56.7 +10 25 57

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

13.1" (4/10/86): very faint, very small.  Located on a line with NGC 3070 5.0' SSE and 30" pair of mag 13/14.5 stars 2' NNW.

 

John Dreyer discovered NGC 3069 on 15 Mar 1877, while an observing assistant of LdR's 72".  While observing NGC 3070 he noted "5' nnp is an object which I have little doubt is a vF, vS, neb, perhaps lE.  Clouds." At his separation and direction is CGCG 064-010 = PGC 28788.

 

Stephane Javelle independently discovered this galaxy on 22 Mar 1892 and recorded "pF, vS, iF" in list I-175.  His position is very close north of NGC 3069.  CGCG labels this galaxy IC 580, but it is clear NGC 3069 = IC 580.  See Harold Corwin's notes on this number for more.

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NGC 3070 = UGC 5350 = MCG +02-26-006 = CGCG 064-011 = PGC 28796

09 58 06.9 +10 21 35

V = 12.3;  Size 1.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

13.1" (4/10/86): fairly faint, small, round, prominent core, stellar nucleus.  Located 13' WSW of mag 7.7 SAO 98881.  Forms a pair with NGC 3069 5.0' NNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3070 = H II-59 = h659 on 15 Mar 1784 (sweep 172) and recorded "vS, cometic; There is a vB star in the fiedl with it and the nebula is the 4th in a row from the bright star both included; the two stars between are small."  JH noted "pB; pL; R; gbM; 40"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3071 = CGCG 153-008 = PGC 28825

09 58 53.1 +31 37 12

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 176d

 

18" (3/11/07): very faint, extremely small, round, 0.2' diameter (core region?), very faint stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Located 33' SW of 5.4-magnitude 20 Leonis Majoris.  Forms a pair with very compact CGCG 153-009 6.8' NE.

 

Johann Palisa discovered NGC 3071 on 10 Mar 1886 with the 12-inch refractor at Vienna University Observatory. His micrometric position in AN 2782 matches CGCG 153-008 = PGC 28825.

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NGC 3072 = ESO 566-033 = MCG -03-26-001 = PGC 28749

09 57 23.9 -19 21 18

V = 12.7;  Size 1.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 71d

 

17.5" (3/16/96): faint, very elongated WSW-ENE, 1.2'x0.4', very small brighter core.

 

WH discovered NGC 3072 = H III-273 = h3206 on 7 Feb 1785 (sweep 368) and noted "eF, vS, irr."  His position is within 1' of ESO 566-033 = PGC 28749.  JH made two observations at the Cape, logging on sweep 561 "vF; E; glbM; 60" l; 50" br."

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NGC 3073 = UGC 5374 = MCG +09-17-007 = CGCG 265-054 = CGCG 266-006 = Mrk 131 = Holm 156b =PGC 28974

10 00 52.0 +55 37 07

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (3/12/88): faint, small, round.  Located 10' WSW of NGC 3079.

 

WH discovered NGC 3073 = H III-853, along with NGC 3079, on 1 Apr 1790 (sweep 955) and logged "vF, S, vglbM."  CH's reduced position is 8 tsec west of UGC 5374.

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NGC 3074 = UGC 5366 = MCG +06-22-047 = CGCG 182-054 = PGC 28888

09 59 41.2 +35 23 34

V = 12.7;  Size 2.3'x2.1';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (4/18/98): faint, moderately large, round.  Appears as a diffuse, low surface brightness glow, ~1.5' diameter with only a weak concentration to a slightly brighter core.  A mag 14.5 star lies 1.9' NE of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3074 = H III-542 = h660 on 28 Mar 1786 (sweep 549) and recorded "cF, L, iF.  Part of it 5' long and 4' br."  CH's reduced position is 8 sec of RA preceding UGC 5366, although his size estimate is much too large.  JH's position (used in NGC) is accurate.

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NGC 3075 = UGC 5360 = MCG +03-26-009 = CGCG 093-012 = PGC 28833

09 58 56.2 +14 25 07

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (1/23/88): fairly faint, fairly small, oval NW-SE.  A mag 14 star is involved at the NNW end 0.6' from center and a mag 15 star is close off the east side 1.5' ESE of center.  Located 2.9' NW of a mag 10 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 3075 = h3207 on 18 Mar 1836 and recorded "vvF; forms an appendage to a star 14 mag; a star 11 mag follows." His position is accurate. This is one of 3 galaxies he discovered that night in Leo.

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NGC 3076 = ESO 566-034 = MCG -03-26-002 = PGC 28766

09 57 37.6 -18 10 43

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (3/16/96): faint, small, round, 35" diameter, even surface brightness.  Located 50" S of a mag 13 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 3076 = h3208 on 12 Feb 1836 and logged "eF, S, R, 15"."  His RA is 33 tsec too large.

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NGC 3077 = UGC 5398 = MCG +12-10-017 = CGCG 333-01 = KTG 28C = PGC 29146

10 03 19.1 +68 44 02

V = 9.9;  Size 5.4'x4.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 45d

 

24" (4/20/14): at 260x appeared very bright, very large, oval 4:3 SW-NE, large bright core, gradually increases to a small brighter inner core and occasionally a faint stellar nucleus.  The outer halo seems brighter or more extensive on the north-following side and gradually fades, so the periphery has a very low surface brightness.  Two similar unequal doubles are in the field: ·1400 = 8.0/9.8 at 3.4" lies 3.8' NW and ·1398 = 8.1/11.4 at  3.6" lies 10".

 

17.5" (3/23/85): fairly bright, fairly large outer halo elongated SW-NE, increases to brighter core.  Mag 7.9 SAO 15054 (·1400 = 8.0/9.8 at 3.4") lies off the NW side 3.8' from the center.  Located 45' ESE of M81 (member of the M81 group).

 

WH discovered NGC 3077 = H I-286 = h658 on 8 Nov 1801 (sweep 1100) and remarked "vB, cL, R, vgmbM. On the north-following side there is a faint ray interrupting the roundness."  CH's reduced position is 8' too far south.  Wilhelm Struve independently found the galaxy in 1825 or 1826 and included in his list of 9 "Nebulae dectae" in an appendix to his main catalogue of double stars (· 3).  JH's position was accurate in dec, but 1 min of RA too far west.  Ralph Copeland, observing with LdR's 72" on 26 Dec 1873, noted "vB, L, R, comet like with 2 streams of neby towards the south."

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NGC 3078 = ESO 499-027 = MCG -04-24-009 = PGC 28806

09 58 24.5 -26 55 36

V = 11.1;  Size 2.5'x2.1';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 177d

 

17.5" (2/28/87): moderately bright, fairly small, very bright core, slightly elongated halo, stellar nucleus.  NGC 3084 is 15' SSE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3078 = H II-268 = h3209 on 9 Dec 1784 (sweep 676) and recorded "F, S, R, a bright point in the middle or cometic."  JH loigged "B, R, gmbM, 30"."

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NGC 3079 = UGC 5387 = MCG +09-17-010 = CGCG 266-008 = Holm 156a = PGC 29050

10 01 57.3 +55 40 54

V = 10.9;  Size 7.9'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 165d

 

48" (4/18/15): I made another short observation of this remarkable asymmetric edge-on at 375x and 488x before observing the Twin Quasars, which lie 14' NNW.  The brightest portions of this 6:1 edge-on NNW-SSE is warped and bowed out towards the east in the very bright central section. An intense nucleus is within this central section, though offset to the east of center.  The west side of the central section is irregular in surface brightness due to dust.  The northern extention thins and has a slight bend on the north end, beyond a mag 14 star.  On the south side is a bright streak, but to the east of this streak and further south the galaxy is dusty and sections of the galaxy appear to be highly obscured.  Two mag 14 stars are off the west side of the galaxy and mag 9.6 HD 237858 is 3.5' SE of center.

 

48" (4/6/13): I only took a quick look at this gorgeous showpiece edge-on at 375x.  The entire length of the galaxy appeared very mottled, clumpy and dusty, although there was no distinct dust lane.  The shape is irregular and sharply rises to an intense, very elongated 4:1 core that bulges and appears offset from the geometric center.  A mag 14 star is superimposed on the north side and SDSS J100200.73+554247.0, an extremely faint galaxy (V = 18.6), was glimpsed 1.2' E.

 

18" (3/13/10): fascinating view at 280x.  NGC 3079 appeared very bright, edge-on 5:1 NNW-SSE, 7'x1.4'.  The galaxy extends a little bit beyond a mag 13 star near the north tip of the galaxy and on the south end the galaxy extends beyond a line drawn between mag 9.6 HD 237858 off the SE end and a mag 13.5 star to the west of the southern extension.  Contains a bright elongated 4:1 core, which appears clumpy and mottled with a noticeable irregular surface brightness.  The NNW extension is tilted further towards the west than the core, so appears misaligned.  In addition, the south extension appears warped or has a missing portion on the eastern side probably due to dust, so the entire galaxy has a bent, very striking asymmetric appearance.

 

17.5" (3/12/88): very bright, large, edge-on 6:1 NNW-SSE, bright core.  Forms a trio with NGC 3073 10' WSW and MCG +09-17-009 6' NW (noted as "very faint, very small, round.")  To the south is a triangle of bright stars; mag 9.0 SAO 27486 7' SE, mag 8.3 SAO 27476 6' SSW and mag 9.1 SAO 27482 3.3' SE of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3079 = H V-47, along with NGC 3073, on 1 Apr 1790 (sweep 955) and recorded "cB or vB, mE from np to sf, about 8' l and 2' br, vgmbM."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 3080 = UGC 5372 = MCG +02-26-015 = CGCG 064-025 = Mrk 1243 = PGC 28910

09 59 55.9 +13 02 37

V = 13.4;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (3/29/97): faint, small, round, 40" diameter, weak even concentration to a slightly brighter core.  A mag 13.5 star lies 2.1' WSW.  IC 585, located 4.4' SSW, appeared faint, small, round, bright core, 40" diameter.  IC 585 is very similar in size and magnitude to NGC 3080 and surprisingly, possibly easier visually due a brighter core.

 

WH discovered NGC 3080 = H III-934 on 1 Apr 1794 while observing Uranus, the "Georgian Planet".  It is not recorded in CH's "fair copy" of WH's sweeps and found while the telescope was out of the meridian.  His offset from Uranus (I used sky-simulation software for the 1794 position of Uranus) is within 1.5' of UGC 5372.  Bigourdan noted the NGC position was 12 seconds of RA too large and measured an accurate position (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 3081 = ESO 499-031 = MCG -04-24-012 = IC 2529 = PGC 28876

09 59 29.5 -22 49 35

V = 12.0;  Size 2.1'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 158d

 

48" (4/18/15): this beautiful resonant ring galaxy was viewed at 488x and 610x.  It is very sharply concentrated with a very bright, roundish core (slightly oval at 610x) core that gradually increases to a stellar nucleus.  The surface brightness drops significantly in the inner halo, but then brightens at the edge to a well defined oval ring, extending 5:3 WSW-ENE, 1.3'x0.8'.  The ring is fairly narrow and brightens slightly at the ends of the major axis (southwest and northeast ends).  This is a very distinctive object!  The core itself contains a barred spiral ring, but this feature was not seen.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, fairly small, very bright compact core, possible stellar nucleus.  The fainter oval halo is extended E-W.

 

WH discovered NGC 3081 = H III-596 on 21 Dec 1786 (sweep 660) and recorded "vF, S, lbM.  South of a triangle of unequal small stars." CH's reduced position is 7 seconds of time west of ESO 499-031.

 

Lewis Swift independently discovered this galaxy on 11 Apr 1898 and recorded it in list XI-103 as "eeF; eS; eF * in contact."  His position is just 1' south of ESO 499-031 and Dreyer catalogued it again as IC 2529.  So, NGC 3081 = IC 2529.

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NGC 3082 = ESO 435-018 = MCG -05-24-011 = PGC 28829

09 58 53.0 -30 21 27

V = 12.5;  Size 1.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 26d

 

17.5" (3/16/96): fairly faint, small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 0.8'x0.4'.  A pleasing pair of mag 13 stars (oriented N-S) is just off the NE end.  A thin, faint, edge-on galaxy (ESO 435-019), lies 7' NNE (see notes).

 

JH discovered NGC 3082 = h3210 on 30 Mar 1835 and recorded "vF, S, R, close to a double star. Requires verifying."  His position and description matches ESO 435-018.

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NGC 3083 = MCG +00-26-002 = CGCG 008-011 = WBL 248-001 = PGC 28900

09 59 49.6 -02 52 40

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 50d

 

17.5" (3/16/96): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 0.8'x0.3'.  A group of ~10 stars mag 12-14 lies a few arcmin NE.  Located at NW end of NGC 3090 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3083 = m 188 on 22 Jan 1865 and noted "eF, S, E."  His position matches CGCG 008-011 = PGC 28900.  In a group of galaxies discovered by Marth.

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NGC 3084 = ESO 499-029 = MCG -04-24-010 = IC 2528 = PGC 28841

09 59 06.4 -27 07 44

V = 12.3;  Size 1.7'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 2d

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly faint, small, round, bright core.  A mag 13 star is off the SE end 25" from center.

 

JH discovered NGC 3084 = h3211 on 26 Mar 1835 and recorded "vF, S, R, attached to a star 13m sf." His position and description matches ESO 499-029.  MCG doesn't label this galaxy as NGC 3084.

 

Lewis Swift's possibly independently discovered this galaxy on 28 Dec 1897 and recorded in list XI-102 as "eeeF; eeS; R; double star south; 3078 in field; ee diff."  His position is 30 sec of RA west and 3.5' south of NGC 3084 and his description doesn't help (only a single star is attached to the galaxy), so the identification of IC 2528 with NGC 3084 is uncertain, though it is suggested by Harold Corwin.

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NGC 3085 = ESO 566-038 = MCG -03-26-003 = PGC 28875

09 59 29.2 -19 29 32

V = 13.0;  Size 1.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 11.9;  PA = 119d

 

13.1" (4/10/86): faint, very small, elongated WNW-ESE.  NGC 3091 lies 12' SE.  Member of the NGC 3091 Group, of which HCG 42 is the core.

 

JH discovered NGC 3085 = h3212 on 23 Mar 1835 and recorded "vF; vS; R.  PD liable to some uncertainty."  His position is 1.5' south of ESO 566-038.  Herbert Howe observed the galaxy in 1899-00 with a 20" refractor and noted "this is called "R" by h, but it seems to be much elongated at 90¡."

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NGC 3086 = MCG +00-26-003 = CGCG 008-012 = WBL 248-002 = PGC 28924

10 00 10.9 -02 58 34

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (3/16/96): very faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, low even surface brightness.  Located 4.8' WSW of NGC 3090 at the west side of the NGC 3090 group.

 

17.5" (4/4/92): extremely faint, small, round, averted only.  Located 5' WSW of NGC 3090 in a group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3086 = m 189 on 22 Jan 1865 and recorded "eF, S, iR." His position matches CGCG 008-012 = PGC 28924.  Not found by Bigourdan.

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NGC 3087 = ESO 374-015 = MCG -06-22-005 = PGC 28845

09 59 08.7 -34 13 31

V = 11.6;  Size 2.5'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 42d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, very small, small bright core, fainter halo.  Bracketed by two mag 12/13 stars.

 

JH discovered NGC 3087 = h3213 on 2 Feb 1835 and recorded "pB; S; R; pmbM; between 2 st 13m."  His position matches ESO 374-015.

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NGC 3088 = NGC 3088A = UGC 5384 = MCG +04-24-010 = CGCG 123-013 = PGC 28997

10 01 08.4 +22 24 20

V = 13.7;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.0

 

17.5" (4/9/94): fairly faint, very small, high surface brightness, possibly elongated ~E-W, either a stellar nucleus or a very faint star superimposed.  A string of four collinear stars mag 11.5-13.3 is SW; the closest is a mag 12 star 4.8' WSW and the farther two forms a nice wide double (12.4/13.3 at 35").  There is an impression of faint haze off the SE end of galaxy which creates a sense of elongation.  On the POSS, this is a double system – the "faint haze" off the SE end is actually an edge-on contact system MCG +04-24-010 = NGC 3088B.

 

WH discovered NGC 3088 = H III-24 = h661 on 12 Mar 1784 (sweep 166) and recorded "I suspect a vS nebula.  [Higher power] rather confirmed it, but still left a doubt." His position is 8 sec of RA east of this double system.  The observation at Birr Castle on 16 Feb 1860 by Samuel Hunter mentioned "I think there are two wings, spp and sff."  These probably refer to the two components.

 

The components  have dimensions a) 0.9'x0.8' and b) 0.7'x0.2' and are listed separately as MCG +04-24-010 = NGC 3088a and MCG +04-24-011 = NGC 3088b.

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NGC 3089 = ESO 435-024 = MCG -05-24-014 = PGC 28882

09 59 36.5 -28 19 53

V = 12.4;  Size 1.8'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 139d

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly faint, small, round, diffuse.  Unusual appearance as four or five faint stars involved, most near the east end.  Located 2.2' W of mag 7.9 SAO 178285.

 

JH's position for h3214 is 1' N of E435-024 = M-05-24-014 and his description is an exact match.

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NGC 3090 = MCG +00-26-005 = CGCG 008-016 = WBL 248-003 = PGC 28945

10 00 30.2 -02 58 06

V = 12.6;  Size 1.7'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (3/16/96): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, 0.5'x0.4' NW-SE, small bright core.  Located 34" S of a mag 11 star.

 

17.5" (4/4/92): fairly faint, small, round, bright core.  A mag 10.5 star is at the north edge 33" from center which detracts from viewing.  Brightest in a group of six NGC galaxies (MKW 1) with NGC 3086 5' WSW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3090 = m 190 on 22 Jan 1865 and noted "vF, vS."  His position matches CGCG 008-016 = PGC 28945.  In a group of galaxies discovered by Marth.

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NGC 3091 = HCG 42A = ESO 566-041 = MCG -03-26-007 = PGC 28927

10 00 14.1 -19 38 11

V = 11.1;  Size 3.0'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 149d

 

48" (4/1/11): extremely bright, large, oval 4:3 NNW-SSE, ~2.2'x1.5', sharply concentrated with a brilliant core that increases to the center.  Brightest of four in HCG 42 with two additional fainter galaxies noted in the group (PGC 852084 and PGC 852825).  HCG 42C = MCG -03-26-006 is the closest member at 1.25' NW, barely off the edge of the halo.

 

24" (2/9/13): very bright, fairly large, oval 4:3 NNW-SSE, sharply concentrated with a very bright core and a very large fainter halo, extending ~2'x1.5'.  HCG 42C is just off NW edge of the halo.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): bright, moderately large, very small bright core, slightly elongated halo NW-SE.  A 14th magnitude "star" 1.3' NW is actually the compact galaxy MCG -03-26-006.  Brightest in HCG 42 including NGC 3096 4.7' SE.

 

13.1" (4/10/86): moderately bright, small, round, very bright core, substellar nucleus, very faint star close NW.  Brightest in HCG 42.

 

WH discovered NGC 3091 = H II-293 = h3215 on 7 Feb 1785 (sweep 368) and recorded "pB, S, bM, iR."  JH called this galaxy "pB; pS; the preceding of two [with NGC 3096].

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NGC 3092 = MCG +00-26-008 = CGCG 008-019 = WBL 248-005 = PGC 28967

10 00 47.4 -03 00 45

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (3/16/96): extremely faint, small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 0.8'x0.4', very low surface brightness.  A mag 13 star lies 1.7' SE and a mag 12 star 2' N.  Located 5' SE of NGC 3090 in a group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3092 = m 191 on 22 Jan 1865 and noted "eF, S".  His position is 2.5' south of CGCG 008-019 = PGC 28967.  His offset is a bit odd since nearby NGC 3093 was accurate in declination.  Not found by Bigourdan.

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NGC 3093 = MCG +00-26-007 = CGCG 008-021 = WBL 248-006 = PGC 28977

10 00 53.5 -02 58 20

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 50d

 

17.5" (3/16/96): faint, extremely small, round, 15" diameter with a hint of a small halo.  Located in the NGC 3090 group 5.8' due east of NGC 3090 among a small group of stars.  A mag 10.5 star is 2.8' NW, a mag 13 star 2' SE and a mag 12 star 2.2' WSW.  NGC 3092 lies 2.9' SW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3093 = m 192 on 22 Jan 1865 and noted "eF, vS".  His positin matches CGCG 008-021 = PGC 28977 in the NGC 3090 group.

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NGC 3094 = UGC 5390 = MCG +03-26-015 = CGCG 093-023 = PGC 29009

10 01 26.0 +15 46 13

V = 12.3;  Size 2.0'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 75d

 

17.5" (1/23/88): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, brighter core.  A mag 10 star is attached at the SE end 0.6' from center.  Located 6.2' NNE of mag 7.8 SAO 98897.

 

Johann Palisa discovered NGC 3094 on 31 Dec 1885 with the 12-inch refractor at Vienna University Observatory.  His micrometric position in AN 2732 matches UGC 5390.

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NGC 3095 = ESO 435-026 = MCG -05-24-016 = UGCA 192 = PGC 28919

10 00 05.6 -31 33 08

V = 11.7;  Size 3.5'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 126d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE.  A mag 12 star is off the preceding side 1.0' from the center.  Appears brighter on the west end or an extremely faint star is involved.  NGC 3100 lies 11' SE.

 

JH discovered NGC 3095 = h3216 on 16 Feb 1836, along with NGC 3100 = h3218, and recorded "F; L; E; vglbM; 3' l; 2' br."  His position and description applies to ESO 435-026.

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NGC 3096 = HCG 42B = ESO 566-042 = MCG -03-26-008 = PGC 28950

10 00 33.1 -19 39 43

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 170d

 

48" (4/1/11): this member of HCG 42 appeared fairly bright, moderately large, oval 4:3, 0.9'x0.7', sharply concentrated with a bright core that increases to a stellar nucleus.  A mag 12 star lies 1.5' NW and a mag 10.6 star is 1.8' NW.  Forms a pair with fainter PGC 852084 1.3' SW (not included by Hickson).  The mag 12 star, NGC 3096, PGC 852084 and a mag 13.8 star are collinear and nearly equally spaced on a 3.7' line oriented NE to SW.

 

24" (2/9/13): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 24"x12" (central bar), very small brighter nucleus.  The larger, low surface brightness halo was not seen.  Located 1.5' SW of a mag 11.5 star and 1.8' SE of a mag 10.6 star.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): faint, weak concentration, visible with direct vision.  Located 4.7' ESE of NGC 3091 in HCG 42.

 

13" (4/10/86): extremely faint, small, round, requires averted.  Located 5' ESE of NGC 3091.

 

JH discovered NGC 3096 = h3217 on 23 Mar 1835 and recorded "eF; R; lbM; follows II 293 [NGC 3091].  (Place somewhat uncertain.)"  His position is 7 sec of RA east 1.5' north of ESO 566-042.

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NGC 3097

10 04 18 +60 08

 

=Not found, Corwin.

 

Edward P. Austin discovered NGC 3097 = HN 39 in 1870 at the Harvard College Observatory with the 15" f/18 Merz refractor (Annals of Harvard Observatory, Vol 13, 177)   Austin recorded both NGC 3102 = H III-916 and NGC 3097 on the same date; "[NGC 3102] sf neb; p45 deg, s 2'.  Place only approximate."  Although his position is 2' northwest of NGC 3102, his position angle is 45 degrees (northeast).  In the notes section, Pickering states "perhaps a nebulous star.  It is halfway between GC 1998 and a star 11m."  In any case there is nothing in either position so this object is probably nonexistent or a star.  See Corwin's identification notes.

 

RNGC misidentifies NGC 3097 as a duplicate of NGC 3102. 

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NGC 3098 = UGC 5397 = MCG +04-24-012 = CGCG 123-014 = PGC 29067

10 02 16.7 +24 42 40

V = 12.0;  Size 2.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 90d

 

13.1": moderately bright, very elongated 3:1 E-W, brighter core.

 

8" (4/24/82): faint, small, very elongated E-W.

 

JH discovered NGC 3098 = h663 on 19 Feb 1827 and logged "pB; S; mE in parallel; 30" l, 10" br; bM to nucleus."  His position and description matches UGC 5397.

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NGC 3099 = MCG +06-22-059/058 = CGCG 182-064 = Holm 160a = PGC 29088

10 02 36.5 +32 42 25

V = 14.8;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (4/9/94): very faint, small, round, easily held with direct vision, very weak even concentration down to a slightly brighter nucleus.  A mag 15 star is 2.7' N.  Located 17' WNW of mag 7.6 SAO 61840.  Forms a double system with MCG +06-22-058 = Ho 160b 1.4' NW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3099 = H III-478 = h664 on 7 Dec 1785 (sweep 487) and noted "eF, S, left doubtful."  His position is accurate. JH's position on sweep 337 matches CGCG 182-064 = PGC 29088.  This is a double system at 1.3' separation.

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NGC 3100 = NGC 3103 = ESO 435-030 = MCG -05-24-018 = PGC 28960

10 00 40.8 -31 39 52

V = 11.1;  Size 3.2'x1.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 154d

 

48" (5/12/12): very bright, fairly large, oval 5:3 NNW-SSE, ~2.0'x1.2', sharply concentrated with a very bright oval core that gradually increases to the center.  Three stars are close following; two mag 10.5/12 stars 1.3' E and 1.5' SE, with a closer mag 14 star 0.9' SE of center.  We took a look at NGC 3100 because an uncatalogued companion (not found in NED or HyperLeda) is just 0.9' SE.  At 488x the companion was easily visible and appeared fairly faint, small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, ~21"x7", situated just north of the mag 14 star.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, small, round, bright core.  Two mag 10/11.5 stars are 1.3' E and 1.5' SE (30" separation N-S).  NGC 3095 lies 11' NW and NGC 3108 23' E.

 

JH discovered NGC 3100 = h3218, along with NGC 3095 = h3216, on 16 Feb 1836 and recorded "pB, R, 30", gpmbM."  His position is accurate.

 

Lewis Swift probably found NGC 3103 on 27 Feb 1886 and recorded it in list III-53.  His position is 50 sec of RA east and 1' south of NGC 3100.  See notes on NGC 3103.

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NGC 3101 = MCG +00-26-011 = CGCG 008-024 = WBL 248-007 = PGC 29025

10 01 35.4 -02 59 40

V = 14.4;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 150d

 

18" (3/11/07): very faint, small, elongated ~2:1 NNW-SSE, 0.5'x0.2', very weak concentration.  A small group of 4 NGC galaxies with brightest member NGC 3090 lies 10' to 20' W.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3101 = m 193 on 22 Jan 1865 and noted "eF".  His position matches CGCG 008-024.  A tight group of four NGC galaxies found by Marth lies 15' west.

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NGC 3102 = UGC 5418 = MCG +10-15-007 = CGCG 289-030 = CGCG 290-004 = PGC 29220

10 04 31.7 +60 06 29

V = 13.3;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

17.5" (3/12/88): fairly faint, very small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 7.0' S.

 

WH discovered NGC 3102 = H III-916 = h662 on 9 Apr 1793 (sweep 1039) and recorded "eF, vS, stellar neb.  Near a small star.  I wished to see it with a higher power, but it was too far advanced."  CH's reduced position is 2.4' southwest of UGC 5418. JH reported it as "F; vS; R; bM; a coarse double star nf points to it; has a *11m 30" distance, pos 142.2¡."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 3103 = NGC 3100 = ESO 435-030 = MCG -05-24-018 = PGC 28960

10 00 40.8 -31 39 52

 

See observing notes for NGC 3100

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3103 = Sw III-53 on 27 Feb 1886 and recorded "eF; pL; R; coarse D * nr p; [NGC 3103] in field.  There is nothing at his position, but 50 seconds of time preceding and 1' north is NGC 3100.  The coarse double star he mentions, though, follows the galaxy.  Herbert Howe examined the field in 1899-00 and reported that Swift "saw 3100, but did not take its place with sufficient accuracy."  So, NGC 3100 = NGC 3103, with NGC 3100 the primary designation.

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NGC 3104 = Arp 264 = VV 119 = UGC 5414 = MCG +07-21-007 = CGCG 211-006 = PGC 29186

10 03 57.3 +40 45 25

V = 13.1;  Size 3.3'x2.2';  Surf Br = 15.1;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (4/18/98): faint, moderately large, ~1.5'-2' diameter although seems irregular in shape.  Appears as a low but irregular surface brightness glow with a mag 13 star embedded at the south edge.  Unusual appearance and could be mistaken for a reflection nebula around the star.  With averted vision a fainter outer halo "grows" at times to 2.5' diameter nearly to a mag 14 star off the NE edge.

 

WH discovered NGC 3104 = H IV-48 = h665 on 18 Mar 1787 (sweep 716) and logged "a vF star affected with vF nebulosity.  E from sp to nf about 1' long.  With 300 the same." CH's reduced position is 14 sec east of Arp 264.

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NGC 3105 = ESO 167-SC014 = Cr 214

10 00 40 -54 47 18

V = 9.7;  Size 2'

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly bright compact cluster of just 2.5' diameter with 15 stars resolved at 200x.  Using 350x the total increases to ~20 stars in a 2.5' region.  A close unequal double is close west of center.  A 25" pair of mag 11.5 stars lies 3' NE.  Located 3' NW of a mag 9.6 star.  Located 36' ESE of mag 3.5 Phi Velorum.

 

JH discovered NGC 3105 = h3219 on 10 Apr 1834 and recorded "a small close clustering knot of stars 13-16 mag; oval; a great train of stars 12..13 mag on the S.p. side."  HIs position is an exact match with this small cluster. Trumpler (Lick Obs Bul, Vol 14, No. 420) gives the diameter as 2.5' and the class as 2 2 p.

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NGC 3106 = UGC 5419 = MCG +05-24-009 = CGCG 153-013 = PGC 29196

10 04 05.2 +31 11 07

V = 12.4;  Size 1.8'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (4/9/94): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 1.2' diameter, sharply concentrated with faint halo and abrupt bright nucleus.  A mag 13.7 star is 2.7' N of center.  Situated almost at the midpoint of a mag 11.5 star 5.3' WNW and a mag 12 star 4.9' ESE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3106 = H II-320 = h666 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 386) and logged "F, pS, R, lbM."  JH noted "F; S; R; smbM; is equal to a * 12m."  His position matches UGC 5419.

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NGC 3107 = UGC 5425 = MCG +02-26-022 = CGCG 064-048 = PGC 29209

10 04 22.4 +13 37 17

V = 13.4;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (1/23/88): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE.  Located 1.8' NW of mag 8.1 SAO 98932.

 

WH discovered NGC 3107 = H II-898 on 22 Mar 1794 (not in CH's fair copy of the sweep records) while observing Uranus, which was used as a reference star.  His description in his 3rd catalogue reads "By coarse estimation. F. 3' north of a pL red star.  This nebula was seen at 8h 49m, sidereal time, the telescope being out of the meridian [observing Uranus]."

 

Three observations were made at Birr Castle.  The RA is very close in the GC to UGC 5425 (6 tsec too far west), although the dec is ~7' too far south. In the 17 Mar 1876 observation at Birr Castle, the position is discussed and it states the RA is 54 sec too large in the GC (due to a misidentification of a red star close south of the galaxy).  So, Dreyer's position in the NGC is 48 tsec too far east!

 

UGC, CGCG and MCG do not label their entries as NGC 3107.  See Corwin's notes for a complete discussion.

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NGC 3108 = ESO 435-032 = MCG -05-24-019 = PGC 29076

10 02 29.1 -31 40 36

V = 11.8;  Size 2.5'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): fairly faint, small, elongated 4:3 ~E-W, weakly concentrated.  Located 1.5' NE of a mag 10.5 star.  Two mag 14 stars are 0.9' NE and 1.1' NW.  NGC 3100 lies 23' W.

 

JH discovered NGC 3108 = h3220 on 28 Jan 1835 and noted "F; S; R; lbM; 15"."  His position (measured on two sweeps) matches ESO 435-032 = PGC 29076.

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NGC 3109 = ESO 499-036 = MCG -04-24-013 = UGCA 194 = PGC 29128

10 03 07 -26 09 30

V = 9.9;  Size 19.1'x3.7';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 93d

 

48" (5/4/16): fairly bright, very large, very elongated 6:1 E-W, ~15'x2.5'.  Contains a large brighter irregular core region but no nucleus.  A mag 12.5 star is superimposed near the center and a number of fainter stars are superimposed.  Overall the surface brightness is fairly low but patchy with several very small knots.

 

Near the southwest edge of the galaxy, 3.9' WSW of the mag 12.5 star, is a faint 12" knot, identified in SIMBAD as [BCP93] F3 H2 from the 1993 paper "The dwarf galaxy NGC 3109. I - The data".  A faint 10" knot, listed as [BCP93] F1 H3, is 1.1' NW of the same star and another quasi-stellar knot (perhaps a faint star) is close northwest of the star.  Finally, on the southeast flank of the galaxy is a faint larger patch, perhaps 15"-20", catalogued as [BCP93] F5 H1.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly faint, very large, very elongated 4:1 E-W, diffuse.  Appears as a low surface brightness streak with very weak concentration.

 

JH discovered NGC 3109 = h3221 on 26 Mar 1835 and recorded "vF; vL; 12' l; 2' br; lbM; pos of axis 82.3¡.  See pl. V. fig 9."  His position and description and sketch (Plate V, figure 9) matches this large edge-on.

 

Although Sidney van den Bergh concluded in his 2000 book "The Galaxies of the Local Group" that NGC 3109 was just outside the local group, recent papers assume this galaxy (along with Sextans A, Sextans B and the Antlia dwarf) is at a distance of 4.2 million light, on the outskirts of the Local Group.

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NGC 3110 = NGC 3122 = NGC 3518 = MCG -01-26-014 = PGC 29192

10 04 02.0 -06 28 29

V = 12.7;  Size 1.8'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (3/25/95): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 NNW-SSE, broad weak concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is 40" NW of center and a mag 14 star lies 1.7' S.  Forms a close (interacting) pair with MCG -01-26-013 1.8' SW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan independently discovered NGC 3110 = St XIII-54 on 17 Mar 1884.  His position matches MCG -01-26-014 = PGC 29192 (Esmiol's re-reduced position is within a few arc seconds).

 

This galaxy was discovered by WH (II-305 = GC 2011 = NGC 3122) on 5 Mar 1785.  The GC and NGC positions are incorrect, though, as Herschel's position was reduced using the wrong offset star.  When corrected, II-305 is an exact match with NGC 3110.  Based on historical precedence, NGC 3122 should be the primary designation, though modern catalogues use NGC 3110 as Stephan's position was accurate.

 

This galaxy was found again by Ormond Stone (I-182) on 31 Dec 1885 and recorded in list I-182.  But Stone made a 1 hour error in RA (confirmed by Corwin on Stone's discovery sketch).  Dreyer assumed this was a new object and catalogued it again as NGC 3518.  Once Stone's error is corrected, NGC 3122 = NGC 3110 = NGC 3518.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 3111 = UGC 5441 = MCG +08-19-002 = CGCG 240-007 = PGC 29338

10 06 07.4 +47 15 45

V = 13.0;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

17.5" (4/15/99): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter.  Weak concentration to center, very faint stellar nucleus at moments.  Forms eastern vertex of an equilateral triangle with two mag 11/11.5 stars 4.3' SW and 4.0' NW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3111 = h667 on 17 Mar 1828 and noted "pB; R; smbM; 20"."  His mean position from 3 sweeps matches UGC 5441.

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NGC 3112 = ESO 567-011 = PGC 29189

10 03 59.0 -20 46 56

V = 15.1;  Size 1.1'x0.2';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 47d

 

24" (2/22/14): extremely faint and small, round, 10" diameter.  Although only visible part of the time, the observation was confirmed.  Confusing the observation is a mag 16 star 40" NW that was slightly easier to view than the galaxy and it was difficult to view both objects simultaneously.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3112 = LM I-163 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is only 2.7' east of ESO 567-011 = PGC 29189.

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NGC 3113 = ESO 435-035 = MCG -05-24-021 = UGCA 158 = PGC 29216

10 04 26.2 -28 26 36

V = 12.7;  Size 3.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 87d

 

17.5" (4/15/99): this galaxy was surprisingly difficult due to clouds low in the south obscuring the view.  Appeared extremely faint, small, round, required averted vision.  Viewed only the core of this galaxy as appeared no more than 40" in size [described as 3' diameter by John Herschel].  Forms an obtuse angle with mag 7.5 SAO 178366 4.5' NNW and mag 8 SAO 178361 7.5' SW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3113 = h3222 on 5 Feb 1837 and recorded "eF, L, 3'; makes an obtuse angled triangle, with 2 stars 8 mag; one nearly on the parallel, the other nearly north."  His position and description matches ESO 435-035.

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NGC 3114 = Cr 215 = Mel 98

10 02 30 -60 07 48

V = 4.2;  Size 35'

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this very bright naked-eye cluster measures some 35'-40' in diameter and is framed beautifully in a 50' field with the 27mm Panoptic.  The cluster contains a couple of long curving chains of brighter stars, one forming a huge "U" shaped arc.  There are several pretty smaller groupings and star chains including a striking equilateral triangle of nearly equal mag stars just north of center, consisting of mag 9.2/9.4/10 stars at 20"/22"/27".  Two mag 6-7 stars (brightest mag 6.2 HD 87436) are involved and in addition there are numerous 8-9th magnitude stars scattered across the face of the cluster.  Appears similar to a bright star cloud in Sagittarius or Cygnus and the cluster is just inferior to NGC 3532.  Located 5¡ west of Eta Carina on the opposite side of Eta from NGC 3532.  This is a young cluster (160 million years old) projected onto the Carina complex and the cluster is heavily contaminated by field stars at varying distances.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 3114 = D 297 = h3224 on 8 May 1826 with his 9-inch f/12 reflector from Parramatta near Sydney. He described "a beautiful cluster of stars, arranged in curvilinear lines intersecting each other, about 40' diameter, extended S.p., and N.f."  This is the brightest object Dunlop discovered and his position is within the cluster, though ~10' NW of center.  On JH's third sweep (of 3) he noted "an enormous congeries or clustering region of stars 2 or 3 fields in diameter, constituting a decided cluster. Stars 9..14th mag, the larger magnitudes predominating. There must be many hundreds."  It's surprising that Lacaille didn't catalogue this bright cluster during his trip to the Cape of Good Hope.

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NGC 3115 = MCG -01-26-018 = UGCA 199 = Spindle Galaxy = PGC 29265

10 05 14.1 -07 43 07

V = 8.9;  Size 7.2'x2.5';  Surf Br = 11.9;  PA = 43d

 

48" (2/19/12): this showpiece galaxy was stunning at 287x and 375x, with a very high surface brightness halo, ~5.5'x2', which is punctuated by a brilliant, nearly stellar nucleus.  The nucleus is centered within an extremely bright, very flattened core extending 1'-1.5'.  This dazzling streak dims slightly outside this central region but stretches at least 2.5' along the major axis with no breaks or significant drops in surface brightness.  The view of this thin, super-luminous central disc bisecting most of the outer, elongated halo was a unique sight.  UGCA 200, a faint dwarf galaxy, lies 5.7' SE.

 

18" (2/23/06): at 257x the Spindle galaxy is a gorgeous high surface brightness edge-on, ~5'x1'.  Contains a small, very intense elongated core that increases to a dramatic quasi-stellar nucleus.

 

17.5" (1/31/87): very bright, fairly large, edge-on spindle 3:1 SW-NE, 5.5'x1.8'.  Unusually high surface brightness, bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 12.5 star is 3.2' S of center and a mag 10.5 star is 8' E. MCG -01-26-021 lies 17' SSE.

 

13" (3/24/84): stunning edge-on, very bright, small very bright core. 

 

8": very bright, high surface brightness, very bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 3115 = H I-163 = h668 = h3223 on 22 Feb 1787 (sweep 704) and recorded "eB, cL, mE 45¡ sp to nf.  The bright part about 2' long with vF branches extending in all, to 4 or 5'."  JH called it "vB; L; mE; vsmbM; almost to a nucl; 3' l, 30" br.  With 12-inches aperture, its nucleus is rather speckled; with 6-inch it is barely discernible as a neb."  In 1861, LdR questioned if "Is Nucl. resolvable and oblong?"

 

Distance ~34 million light years.  Substantial evidence suggests the core harbors a supermassive black hole about a billion times the mass of the sun.  Originally classified by Hubble as the prototype E7 elliptical, but now considered an early type S0 due to the thin disc (clearly visible in the 48-inch).

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NGC 3116 = MCG +05-24-012 = CGCG 153-017 = PGC 29383

10 06 45.1 +31 05 51

V = 14.4;  Size 0.3'x0.3';  Surf Br = 11.6

 

18" (1/20/07): faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, compact appearance with a well-define halo, brightens slightly to a faint stellar nucleus.  A triangle of mag 12 stars lies 5' SE (one star is 14" double with a mag 13.5 companion).  Located 10' SE of mag 8.2 HD 87512.

 

Johann Palisa discovered NGC 3116 on 10 Mar 1886 with the 12-inch refractor at Vienna University Observatory and reported it in AN 2782.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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NGC 3117 = UGC 5445 = MCG +01-26-014 = CGCG 036-038 = PGC 29340

10 06 10.5 +02 54 46

V = 13.3;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (3/25/95): faint, small, round, 30" diameter, weak concentration to a very small brighter core.  A pretty mag 9.5/11 double star at 18" separation lies 8' NNW.  Located 6' NW of mag 8.8 SAO 118106.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3117 = St IX-21 on 15 Mar 1877 and logged "eF, eS, R, stellar nucleus."  His position matches UGC 5445.

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NGC 3118 = UGC 5452 = MCG +06-22-074 = CGCG 182-075 = FGC 118A = PGC 29415

10 07 11.6 +33 01 39

V = 13.5;  Size 2.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 41d

 

17.5" (4/25/92): very faint, fairly small, edge-on 5:1 SW-NE, 1.5'x0.3', very low almost even surface brightness.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3118 = St XIII-55 on 16 Mar 1884 and noted a "small group of vF st in eF nebulosity."  His position matches UGC 5452, though the description is inaccurate.

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NGC 3119 = CGCG 093-045 = PGC 29381

10 06 47.9 +14 18 51

V = 14.2;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 15.1

 

17.5" (1/23/88): extremely faint, very small, round.  Located 4' SSW of NGC 3121.  Forms the SE vertex of an equilateral triangle with NGC 3121 3.7' NNE and a mag 13.5 star 3.8' NW.

 

The identification of NGC 3119 is uncertain and it may be a duplicate observation of brighter NGC 3121 instead.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3119 = m 194 on 14 Dec 1863 and simply noted "vF".  His position is 2.3' north of CGCG 093-045 and is actually closer to NGC 3121 = UGC 5450, which was discovered by William Lassell in 1848.

 

RNGC identifies CGCG 093-045 as NGC 3319 but MCG identifies UGC 5450 as NGC 3319.  Corwin feels NGC 3119 is more likely a duplicate of NGC 3121 because of the better positional match.  But CGCG 093-045 was visible in my scope so it should have visible to Marth and he may have already known of the earlier discovery of NGC 3121.  So, the identification of NGC 3119 is uncertain.

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NGC 3120 = ESO 374-029 = MCG -06-22-017 = PGC 29278

10 05 22.9 -34 13 13

V = 12.8;  Size 1.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 1d

 

17.5" (4/1/00): fairly faint, moderately large, 1.0' diameter, slightly elongated, weakly concentrated.  A 20" pair of mag 12.5/13.5 stars are off the NW side 2' from center.  A brighter pair of stars is ~4' SW and the galaxy is nearly collinear with both pairs.  A mag 9.5 star (SAO 201047) lies 5.7' NE.

 

JH discovered NGC 3120 = h3225 on 22 Jan 1838 (his last sweep at the Cape of Good Hope) and noted "F, R, gbM, 40"."  His position is an exact match with ESO 374-029.  NGC 3120 and NGC 2849 were the last two southern objects that JH discovered.

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NGC 3121 = UGC 5450 = MCG +03-26-027 = CGCG 093-046 = PGC 29387

10 06 51.9 +14 22 26

V = 12.6;  Size 1.7'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 20d

 

17.5" (1/23/88): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE.  A mag 13.5 star is 3.6' W and a mag 10 star 5.5' NW.  Forms a pair with NGC 3119 4' SSW.

 

William Lassell discovered NGC 3121 on 31 Mar 1848 with his 24" reflector at Starfield Observatory near Liverpool, England.  He found this galaxy while observing Comet Mauvais 1847 IV ("almost in the field at the same time as the Comet") and reported the discovery in AN 27 [635], 171 (1848) .  Using the 6" Heliometer at Kšnigsberg, Auwers described it as "faint, 1.5' diam, * 9-10m 4' north, 14-15 seconds preceding" and included it as #26 in his 1862 list of new nebulae.  MCG labels this galaxy NGC 3119, though that number may also apply to this galaxy.

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NGC 3122 = NGC 3110 = NGC 3518 = MCG -01-26-014 = PGC 29361

10 04 02.0 -06 28 29

V = 12.7;  Size 1.8'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 5d

 

See observing notes for NGC 3110.

 

WH discovered NGC 3122 = H II-305 on 5 Mar 1785 (sweep 379) and logged "F, S, lE, easily resolvable."  He failed to find it again on 22 Feb 1787 (sweep 704), but he had confused the offset star on the first observation and the GC and NGC position are incorrect.  Dreyer corrected the position in his 1912 revision of WH's catalogues and noted that NGC 3122 = NGC 3110 = MCG -01-26-014.

 

ƒdouard Stephan independently found this galaxy on 16 Mar 1884 and placed it 1' too far north in list XIII-54.  Dreyer assumed it was new and catalogued it as NGC 3110.  Finally, it was found again by by Ormond Stone at Leander McCormick Observatory on 31 Dec 1885 (reported in list LM I-182) and later catalogued as NGC 3518.  Harold Corwin discovered that Stone's position was off by 1 hr in RA.  So, NGC 3122 = NGC 3110 = NGC 3518.  RNGC and PGC misidentify PGC 29361 as NGC 3122.  Coincidentally, this galaxy is close to WH's original position.  See Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 3123

10 18 11.9 +00 02 25

 

=*, Gottlieb.  =Not found, Corwin and Carlson.

 

Sidney Coolidge discovered NGC 3123 = HN 15 on 31 Mar 1859 and simply noted as a "nebulous object" by Bond (director of the Harvard Observatory) in AN #1453.  There are no nonstellar objects in the vicinity of the listed position, given roughly as 9 59 48 +/- 4s, +0 45' +/- 2' for 1859.  That's not unusual as all 8 of Coolidge's other nebulous objects are single or multiple stars. Bigourdan, Reinmuth or Carlson were unable to find his object and RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.  Harold Corwin lists a few possible candidates (stars) near Coolidge's position.

 

But in March 2015 I took a look at the Zone Catalogue (volume 6 from HCO, page 4-5) and found the number derived from star #47 (preceding #57 = NGC 3229), in which Coolidge noted "has a perceptible disc?" Furthermore, #47 was measured in Zone 117 but not Zone 118, so the position was not confirmed.  The only problem is the dec for entry #47 fits the range given by Bond but not the RA, though perhaps he made a copying mistake.  Assuming Coolidge's single position is Zone 117 is accurate, then NGC 3123 refers to a single star at 10 18 11.9 +00 02 25 (J2000).

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NGC 3124 = ESO 567-017 = MCG -03-26-024 = UGCA 202 = PGC 29377

10 06 40.0 -19 13 21

V = 12.1;  Size 3.0'x2.5';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 165d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): fairly faint, fairly large, round, 2.5' diameter, diffuse, very weak broad concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is 2.4' N of center.  A pleasing double star, South 607 = 8.8/10.0 at 9.5" lies 5' S.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, very large, diffuse, broad concentration, no nucleus.

 

13" (4/10/86): faint, large, very diffuse, weak concentration, no nucleus, lies 4' N of double star S607 8.5/9.5 at 9".

 

JH discovered NGC 3124 = h3226 on 23 Mar 1835 and recorded "F, L, R, lbM, has a fine double star exactly south."  His description and position clearly apply to ESO 567-017.

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NGC 3125 = ESO 435-041 = MCG -05-24-022 = PGC 29366

10 06 33.1 -29 56 08

V = 13.0;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 114d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, small, roundish, brighter core.

 

JH discovered NGC 3125 = h3227 on 30 Mar 1835 and noted "F; R: gbM; 20"."  His mean position from two observations matches ESO 435-041.

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NGC 3126 = UGC 5466 = MCG +05-24-019 = CGCG 155-023 = PGC 29484

10 08 20.8 +31 51 47

V = 12.8;  Size 2.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 123d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): fairly faint, moderately large, edge-on 5:1 WNW-ESE, 2.0'x0.4', faint thin arms, fairly well-defined round core.  A mag 11 star is 4.7' N of center.  Located 15' N of mag 6.2 SAO 61882.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 3126 on 30 Apr 1864 and recorded "F, S, not lE, mag 15 nucleus.  Confirmation still needed." This was his only observation, but his position matches UGC 5466.  Otto Struve independently found the galaxy on 8 Apr 1869 at St Petersburg while searching for Comet Winnecke (7P/Pons-Winnecke).  He recorded finding a "Bright elongated nebula with a stellar nucleus, a miniature image of the Andromeda Galaxy. 4.5' north is a mag 10-11 star with the nebula in PA of 168¡ [SSE]."  He immediately added a note that this nebula was discovered by d'Arrest in 1864.

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NGC 3127 = MCG -03-26-022 = KTS 38C = PGC 29357

10 06 24.8 -16 07 34

V = 13.8;  Size 1.2'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 55d

 

18" (4/10/04): very faint, very small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 24"x8", weak concentration.  The extensions appear to fade at the tips. Situated near the midpoint of a mag 10 star 1.6' SE and a mag 12.5 star 1.1' NW.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 3128 5.6' W.

 

Frances Leavenworth discovered NGC 3127 = LM I-164 (along with NGC 3128) on 1 Jan 1886 and noted "mag 16.0, 1.6'x0.7', vE 45¡."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is ~1 tmin east of MCG -03-26-022 and the description matches.

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NGC 3128 = MCG -03-26-020 = KTS 38A = PGC 29330

10 06 01.4 -16 07 19

V = 13.5;  Size 1.6'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 174d

 

18" (4/10/04): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 0.8'x0.5'.  The surface brightness appears irregular with a broadly concentrated core.  The extensions are more difficult and require averted vision and seem patchy or knotty.  Forms a pair with NGC 3127 5.6' E.

 

Frances Leavenworth discovered NGC 3128 = LM I-165 (along with NGC 3127) on 1 Jan 1886 and noted "mag 16.0, 1.3'x0.7', vE 170¡."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 1.3 tmin east of MCG -03-26-020 and description matches.

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NGC 3129

10 08 19.2 +18 25 51

 

=**, Corwin

 

WH discovered NGC 3129 = H III-35 = h669 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 181) and recorded "vS, E, r.  240 showed it better than 157."  There is nothing near his position other than stars.  JH listed it as h669, although he only give a very rough position (from his working list).

 

It was not found again at Birr Carlson or by Reinmuth on Heidelberg plate in his photographic survey.  There is no listing for NGC 3129 in any modern catalogue.  Harold Corwin identifies NGC 3129 as a double star (13" pair of mag 14 stars) at WH's position.  See Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 3130 = UGC 5468 = MCG +02-26-026 = CGCG 064-072 = PGC 29475

10 08 12.3 +09 58 37

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 30d

 

13.1" (4/10/86): fairly faint, small, round, weak concentration.  The visibility of this galaxy is hindered by 31 Leonis (V = 4.6) just 4.7' WNW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3130 = h670 on 19 Jan 1828 and recorded "eF; S; psbM; follows 31 Leonis 16.5s, and is 1' 40" south of it."  His position and description clearly applies to UGC 5468.

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NGC 3131 = UGC 5471 = MCG +03-26-033 = CGCG 093-060 = PGC 29499

10 08 36.5 +18 13 52

V = 13.0;  Size 2.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 54d

 

17.5" (3/29/97): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 7:2 SW-NE, 2.0'x0.6', broad concentration.  The major axis is bracketed by two mag 13.5 stars 1.7' SSE and 3.1' N.

 

JH discovered NGC 3131 = h671 on 17 Mar 1831 and recorded "pB; pmE; gbM; 40" l and 20" br.  His position and description matches UGC 5471. R.J. Mitchell, the observing assistant on LdR's 72" on 10 Jan 1856, suspected a knot in the preceding end.

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NGC 3132 = Eight-Burst Nebula = Southern Ring = PK 272+12.1 = PN G272.1+12.3

10 07 01.8 -40 26 11

V = 9.7;  Size 62"x43"

 

13.1" (2/17/04 - Costa Rica): at 40¡ elevation in Costa Rica along the Gulf of Nicoya , NGC 3132 was quite beautiful at 200x and 260x.  The 10th magnitude "central star" (an unseen 16th mag companion at 1.65" separation is the real ionizing star) is embedded in the center of a very bright, elongated annulus with a darker center and interesting outer ring elongated NW-SE.  The oval ring is relatively narrow with a brighter outer rim.  Surrounding the ring is a faint, thin outer shell.  The ring is slightly offset in orientation to the major axis of the planetary giving a complex multi-ring appearance.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): very bright, moderately large, oval.  A dark ring surrounds the bright mag 10 central star.  Viewed at only 10¡-11¡ elevation.

 

13" (2/23/85): darker around the central star at high power. 

 

8" (3/28/81): mag 9 central star surrounded by a fairly bright, moderately large disc, striking.

 

JH discovered NGC 3132 = h3228 on 2 Mar 1835 and recorded "Planetary nebula, very large, very bright, elliptic; has in it a 9th mag star somewhat excentric. Its light is exactly equable, ie. not increasing towards the middle; yet I cannot help imagining it to be closely dotted. It is just like a star out of focus in certain states of the mirror and atmosphere. Three stars near, a = 9th mag; b = 9th mag; c = 14th mag; A very extraordinary object."  On a later observation he described a "Planetary nebula with a 10th mag star in centre; very bright; very well defined, and perfectly equable all over in light, there being no condensation up to the centre. The star is sharp, the nebula velvety, or like infinitely fine dust; a star 14th mag at a distance rather more than a radius of neb from edge (by diagram); has its position from centre = 333.8¡."  Sketch on Plate VI, figure 9.

 

In "Southern Gems", Stephen O'Meara states that James Dunlop discovered NGC 3132 earlier but did not include it in his 1828 catalogue.  In a footnote to the Brisbane Star Catalogue of 1826 he recorded [Brisbane 3085] as "Dusky Yellow - a fine Planetary disk."  John Herschel later recognized Dunlop's observation in an 1835 letter to Thomas Maclear.

 

JH sketched NGC 3132 and other planetary nebulae, commenting: "[these] represent planetary nebulae, a class of special interest, and of which, considering their general rarity, the southern heavens have afforded a rather unexpectedly large harvest. Those only are here delineated which have either accompanying stars, or which are distinguished by some peculiarity, as ... [NGC 3132] which has a star or a small disc near its centre; ..."

 

A star (HD 87892) is plotted at the position of NGC 3132 in the first edition of the Uranometria 2000 because the BD catalogue (used as a source for the U2000) listed the bright "central" star as an entry.  In 1977 Kohoutek and Laustsen announced (1978IAUS...76..207K) that the actual illuminating star is a hot, dim 16th magnitude companion to the mag 10 star at only 1.65" separation. The pair probably forms a true binary

 

The nickname "Eight Burst Nebula" was coined by H. Shapley and J. S. Paraskevopoulos in "Photographs of Thirty Southern Nebula and Clusters" (1940PNAS...26...31S).  Concerning NGC 3132 they say: "A series of photographs of varying exposures would be necessary to bring out the intricate detailsÉ. It could well be named the "8-burst" planetary from the number of distinct arcs on the boundary of the main disk or shell".

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NGC 3133 = PGC 29417

10 07 12.8 -11 57 55

V = 14.5;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 25d

 

18" (4/10/04): extremely faint, small, 0.4'x0.3'.  Visible less than 50% of the time with averted vision so orientation difficult to determine but observation certain.  Located 5' NE of a mag 10.4 star.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3133 = LM II-419 in 1886.  He noted "mag 16.2, 0.2' dia, R."  There is nothing at his position but 1 min 18 sec of RA west is PGC 29417.  Also, 45 sec of RA east and 2' north is NGC 3138.  But this is the next entry in the LM II list and may have been found the same night.

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NGC 3134 = MCG +02-26-031 = CGCG 064-088 = Todd 21 = PGC 29722

10 12 29.2 +12 22 37

V = 13.7;  Size 0.8'x0.2';  Surf Br = 11.7;  PA = 51d

 

17.5" (3/29/97): faint, very small, consists of a 15" core with a faint very thin extension to the SW.  The corresponding arm to the NE was not seen, so the appearance is asymmetric.  This galaxy is listed as nonexistent in RNGC and not identified as NGC 3134 in MCG or CGCG.  Identification from HC (Todd discovery).

 

David Todd discovered NGC 3134 = Todd 21 on 6 Feb 1878 during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet.  Based on Todd's sketch Corwin identified CGCG 064-088 as NGC 3134.  This galaxy is about 3 min of RA east of Todd's very rough RA.  Todd measured a "bright" star 28.3s following and there is a mag 12 star at his exact separation clinching the identification.  Because of his poor position, Bigourdan was unable to recover this object.  The RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent.  Neither MCG or CGCG label their entries for this galaxy as NGC 3134.

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NGC 3135 = UGC 5486 = MCG +08-19-007 = CGCG 240-015 = PGC 29646

10 10 54.4 +45 57 01

V = 13.4;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (4/15/99): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 0.8'x0.5', little or no concentration.  Bracketed by two mag 12.5 stars 2.2' E and 2.1' NW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3135 = h672 on 19 Mar 1828 and noted "F; R: gbM; 25"."  His position matches UGC 5486.  It was not found at Birr Castle (single attempt), although JH mentions in the GC notes that he checked the sweep and reductions and found all correct.

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NGC 3136 = ESO 092-008 = PGC 29311

10 05 48.0 -67 22 41

V = 10.7;  Size 3.1'x2.1';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 30d

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x appeared bright, moderately large, eloongated 3:2 SW-NE.  Sharp concentration with a small, intense core that brightens to the center.  The fainter extensions from the core appear irregular.  IC 2554 and B, a striking interacting pair of galaxies, lies 28' NE.

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 171x this Carina galaxy appeared moderately bright and large, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 1.5'x0.75'.  Sharply concentrated with a small, bright, roundish core increasing to an occasional stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star is close north.

 

JH discovered NGC 3136 = h3229 = h3231 on 30 Jan 1835 and noted "B; R; bM; place only a very rude approximation."  In an errata list and the end of the Cape Catalogue, JH corrected the NPD by 2¡ so it nearly matches h3231, whose position was accurately measured twice and matches  ESO 092-008.

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NGC 3137 = ESO 435-047 = MCG -05-24-024 = AM 1006-284 = UGCA 203 = PGC 29530

10 09 07.5 -29 03 52

V = 11.5;  Size 6.3'x2.2';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 1d

 

18" (3/5/05): faint, large, elongated at least 5:2 N-S, 3.0'x1.2', fairly low surface brightness.  Broad, weak concentration in poor seeing.  A mag 12 star is on the west side (0.3' from the geometric center).  Located 7' SE of mag 9.4 SAO 178462.

 

JH discovered NGC 3137 = h3230 on 5 Feb 1837 NGC 3137 and recorded "vF; lE; 25"."  His position is 16 sec of RA west of ESO 435-047.

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NGC 3138 = MCG -02-26-032 = PGC 29532

10 09 16.7 -11 57 24

V = 14.8;  Size 1.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 80d

 

18" (4/14/12): at 225x appeared extremely faint, very small, slightly elongated, 15" diameter.  Required averted vision to just momentarily pop occasionally but held for a few seconds a couple of times.  I did not notice an elongated shape, so probably just viewed the core though the object was well past the meridian.  Located 6.4' SW of mag 7.4 HD 88135, 13' NW of i 6.2 HD 88182 and 30' NW of mag 3.6 Lambda Hyd.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3138 = LM II-420 and noted "mag 16.0, 0.1', R, 1st of 2 [with NGC 3139]."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is just 6 sec of RA east of MCG -02-26-032.  Not found by Bigourdan.

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NGC 3139 = MCG -02-26-034 = PGC 29583

10 10 05.2 -11 46 42

V = 13.5;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 75d

 

18" (4/10/04): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2, 0.8'x0.5'.  Broad concentration to a small, round 15" core and an occasional faint, stellar nucleus with direct vision.

 

17.5" (2/22/03): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated ~4:3 WSW-ENE, 0.7'x0.5', broadly concentrated.  Located 10' NE of mag 7.4 SAO 155773.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3139 = LM II-421 and noted "mag 15.60, 0.1', R, 2nd of 2 [with NGC 3138]."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 0.7 min of RA west of MCG -02-26-034.  Not found by Bigourdan.

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NGC 3140 = MCG -03-26-028 = PGC 29548

10 09 27.7 -16 37 41

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (2/22/03): slightly brighter and larger of a close pair with NGC 3140 2.4' SW.  Faint, small, slightly elongated, 0.5'x0.4', stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Although following NGC 3141, Leavenworth listed this object first (identical coordinates) and his description indicates it is the brighter of the pair, so the NGC numbers are reversed in right ascension.  Located at the east edge of the rich cluster AGC 940.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3140 = LM I-166 (along with I-167 = NGC 3141) on 1 Jan 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander-McCormick Observatory.  Although he gave a single rough position for both objects, LM 1-166 is mag 15.5 and 0.5', while LM I-167 is mag 16.0 and 0.3' dia. His position falls very close to the pair PGC 29548 and PGC 29544.

 

According to Harold Corwin, Leavenworth's sketch clearly shows that NGC 3140 = PGC 29548 is the brighter galaxy to the northeast and the fainter galaxy to the southwest is NGC 3141 = PGC 29544.  See Corwin's identification summaries for more.

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NGC 3141 = PGC 29544

10 09 19.8 -16 39 12

V = 15.4;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 26d

 

17.5" (2/22/03): smaller and slightly fainter of a pair of galaxies with NGC 3140 2.4' NE.  Very faint, small, slightly elongated 0.4'x0.3', faint stellar nucleus. Incorrectly equated with NGC 3140 in the RNGC.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3140 = LM I-167 (along with I-166 = NGC 3140) on 1 Jan 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander-McCormick Observatory.  Although he gave a single rough position for both objects, LM 1-166 is mag 15.5 and 0.5', while LM I-167 is mag 16.0 and 0.3' dia. His position falls very close to the pair PGC 29548 and PGC 29544 (separation 2.5' SW to NE).

 

Based on the discovery sketch (examined by Harold Corwin), Dreyer incorrectly assumed that the brighter galaxy to the northeast was NGC 3140 and added "first of two" (listed first in the discovery paper) so the order of RA was reversed in the NGC.  The RNGC erroneously states NGC 3141 = NGC 3140.  See Corwin's identification summaries for more.

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NGC 3142 = MCG -01-26-028 = PGC 29586

10 10 06.4 -08 28 48

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (4/9/94): faint, very small, round, brighter core.  Overpowered by 17 Sextantis (V = 5.9) 4.3' N.  A second bright star 18 Sextantis (V = 5.6) lies 12.8' ENE.

 

JH discovered NGC 3142 = h3232 on 5 May 1836 and recorded "F; vsbM to a * 16m; diam 1' or 1 1/2'; sp the star g Sextantis, which occasioned its being taken by mistake for Halley's Comet, and the consequent loss of that comet."  His position matches MCG -01-26-028 = PGC 29586.

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NGC 3143 = MCG -02-26-033 = PGC 29579

10 10 04.0 -12 34 53

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 105d

 

18" (4/10/04): very faint, very small, irregularly round, 25"x20", weak concentration.  Can just hold steadily.  Fors the vertex of an obtuse isosceles triangle with two mag 11.5 stars 5.7' N and a similar distance SE.  Also situated 9' S of NGC 3145 and nearly midway between mag 5.3 SAO 155780 14' S and mag 3.6 Lambda Lydrae 15' NNE!

 

Ainslie Common discovered NGC 3143 in 1880 with the 36-inch f/5.9 reflector at Ealing, UK.  He noted "S, F, just S of GC 2023 [NGC 3145].  Herbert Howe's corrected position in the IC 2 notes matches MCG -02-26-033, which is located 9' south of NGC 3145.

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NGC 3144 = NGC 3174 = UGC 5519 = MCG +12-10-023 = CGCG 333-020 = CGCG 351-011 = PGC 29949

10 15 32.0 +74 13 14

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (1/28/89): faint, very small, oval N-S.  A mag 13 star is attached at the east end.  Forms a pair with NGC 3155 11.6' NE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered NGC 3144 on 25 Sep 1865 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen.  His position (measured on 2 nights) is fairly close to UGC 5519 and his description "vF, S, R, *13 appended on the following side." clinches the identification.

 

WH discovered this galaxy on the problematic sweep of 15 northern galaxies on 2 Apr 1801 (sweep 1096), and recorded as III-964 (later NGC 3174).  So, NGC 3144 = NGC 3174.  See notes on NGC 3174 and NGC 2938 for more on this sweep.

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NGC 3145 = MCG -02-26-036 = PGC 29591

10 10 10.0 -12 26 02

V = 11.7;  Size 3.1'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 20d

 

13.1" (3/24/84): fairly faint, fairly small, nearly round, weak concentration.  Overpowered by the glare of Lambda Hydrae (V = 3.6) 8' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3145 = H III-518 = h673 on 19 Mar 1786 (sweep 541) and noted "vF, S, R, 7 or 8' sp Lamdba Hydra."  On sweep 997 (7 Mar 1791) he called it "F, pL, iR, vbmbM, in the field with Lamdba Hyae."  His position and description matches MCG -02-26-036 = PGC 29591.

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NGC 3146 = ESO 567-023 = MCG -03-26-029 = PGC 29663

10 11 09.9 -20 52 14

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 100d

 

18" (4/10/04): moderately bright, fairy small, round, 0.8' diameter, increases to a 15" bright core and a quasi-stellar nucleus.  The edge of the halo is well-defined.  Located 3.9' S of mag 8.9 SAO 178507.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3146 = LM I-168 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is coincidentally a near match with ESO 567-023 = PGC 29663.

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NGC 3147 = UGC 5532 = MCG +12-10-025 = CGCG 333-022 = LGG 193-001 = PGC 30019

10 16 53.5 +73 24 02

V = 10.6;  Size 3.9'x3.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): bright, fairly large, slightly elongated 4:3 NW-SE.  Contains a very bright core with a stellar nucleus.  There is an impression of a dust lane to the west of the core.

 

WH discovered NGC 3147 = H I-79 = h674 on 3 Apr 1785 (sweep 390) and noted "cB, pL, R, mbM.  The brightness decreasing very gradually."  JH called this galaxy "vB; L; R; at first vg, then vs, vsbM" and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3148 = SAO 27566

10 13 43.8 +50 29 47

V = 6.6

 

=*6.6 = SAO 27566.

 

JH discovered NGC 3148 = h675 on 17 Feb 1831 (single sweep) and noted "a star 7m has a photosphere 2 or 3' diam.  Sky perfectly clear; glass quite clear; windy.  Another star of same magnitude viewed presently after has no photosphere."  Herschel's description applies to mag 6.6 SAO 27566 at 10 13 43.8 +50 29 47 which he probably thought was surrounded by faint haze (scattered light or dew). Malcolm Thomson and Harold Corwin agree with this conclusion.

 

RNGC and MCG misidentify MCG +08-19-011 as NGC 3148.  

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NGC 3149 = ESO 019-001 = PGC 29171

10 03 44.5 -80 25 19

V = 12.5;  Size 2.0'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this galaxy is located just 30' NNW of the bright planetary NGC 3195.  At 260x it appeared moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, ~0.9'x0.8', slightly brighter core, irregular surface brightness.  John Herschel mentioned a 15th magnitude star was involved, and there is a very faint star at the NE edge.

 

JH discovered NGC 3149 = h3234 on 24 Feb 1835 (along with planetary nebula NGC 3195) and recorded "F; lE; vlbM; 25"; has a * 15m in it."  Although position is an exact match with ESO 019-001, the RNGC classifies this as an "Unverified Southern Object".  Because of this, it is not plotted on the first edition of the Uranometria 2000.0 Atlas or included in the first edition of the companion Deep Sky Field Guide.

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NGC 3150 = MCG +07-21-017 = CGCG 211-019 = Holm 170b = WBL 258-001 = PGC 29789

10 13 26.3 +38 39 27

V = 14.6;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

18" (2/19/09): very faint, small, round, 24" diameter, low surface brightness, very weak concentration.  Located 2.3' NNW of NGC 3151 and 1.9' NW fo a mag 12 star.  First of 7 (including NGC 3151/3159/3161/3163) in a small stream of galaxies about 7' N of NGC 3158.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): faint, small, slightly lower surface brightness than NGC 3151 2.3' S.  A mag 12 star is 2.0' WSW and a mag 14 star is 1.8' NNW.  Located within the NGC 3158 group.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 3150 = Big. 40, along with NGCs 3151, 3159 and 3161, on 1 Feb 1886 in the NGC 3158 group.  His position matches CGCG 211-019.

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NGC 3151 = MCG +07-21-018 = CGCG 211-020 = Holm 170a = WBL 258-003 = PGC 29796

10 13 29.1 +38 37 11

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 170d

 

18" (2/19/09): faint, small, slightly elongated, 20"x15", very small brighter core.  Located 2' SW of a mag 12 star with four NGC galaxies close north including NGC 3150 2.3' N and NGC 3159 5' NE.  Forms a close pair with 2MASX J10133377+3837055.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): fairly faint, very small, weak concentration.  A mag 12 star is 2.0' NE.  Forms a pair with NGC 3150 2.3' N.  An extremely faint galaxy is 55" E of center (2MASXi J1013337+383705). Member of the NGC 3158 group.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): very faint, very small.  Located just west of a star.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 3151 = Big 41, along with nearby NGCs 3150, 3159 and 3161, on 1 Feb 1886 in the NGC 3158 group.  His position matches CGCG 211-020 = PGC 29796.

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NGC 3152 = MCG +07-21-018A = CGCG 211-021 = PGC 29805

10 13 34.1 +38 50 35

V = 14.2;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 80d

 

18" (2/19/09): very faint, small, ~20"-22" diameter, weak concentration.  A mag 15 star lies 44" NE.  Located 4' W of brighter NGC 3160 and 5.7' NW of NGC 3158 in a small cluster.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): faint, small, round.  A mag 15 star is off the NE edge 0.8' from center.  NGC 3158 lies 5.5' SE and NGC 3160 4.1' E.  Member of the NGC 3158 group.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): extremely faint, very small, round.  Located 4' W of NGC 3160 and 5.5' NW of NGC 3158.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 3152 (along with NGC 3160) on 27 Mar 1854 using LdR's 72".  He noted "3 nebula, preceding one [NGC 3152] vS, about 4' following is a small lenticular ray [NGC 3160], E sp-nf..."  Observing on 27 Feb 1876 Dreyer measured an accurate micrometric offset from NGC 3158 at Birr Castle, which matches CGCG 211-021.

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NGC 3153 = UGC 5505 = MCG +02-26-032 = CGCG 064-090 = PGC 29747

10 12 50.5 +12 39 59

V = 12.6;  Size 2.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (1/23/88): moderately bright, moderately large, oval ~N-S, broad concentration.

 

WH discovered NGC 3153 = H III-53 = h677 on 19 Mar 1784 (sweep 177) and noted "vF, not S, r[esolvable]."  CH's reduction is 15 sec of RA west of UGC 5505.  JH called it "eF; pL; R."  His position was 12 sec of RA too far west.

 

David Todd indenpendently discovered this object on 5 Feb 1878 during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet and recorded it as object #20b in his published results.  It was found again by C.H.F. Peters around 1880.  He was unsure if this was a new object as the RA in the GC was 12 sec off.  The NGC position -- from Peters -- matches UGC 5505.

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NGC 3154 = UGC 5507 = MCG +03-26-040 = CGCG 093-071 = PGC 29759

10 13 01.3 +17 02 03

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 124d

 

17.5" (1/23/88): faint, very small, elongated NW-SE.  A mag 14 star is 1.1' N.  Located 2.2' WNW of mag 8.7 SAO 99006.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3154 = St X-24 on 12 Mar 1880 and noted "F, S, R, lbM."  His position matches UGC 5507.

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NGC 3155 = NGC 3194 = UGC 5538 = MCG +12-10-026 = CGCG 351-012 = LGG 193-002 = PGC 30064

10 17 39.9 +74 20 51

V = 12.9;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (1/28/89): faint, small, slightly elongated, even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with NGC 3144 11.6' SW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3155 = h676 on 2 Sep 1828 and recorded "vF; S; R.  RA extremely precarious."  His rough position is 4' northeast of UGC 5538.  The NGC position from d'Arrest is accurate.

 

This galaxy was discovered by WH on the problematic sweep of 15 northern galaxies on 2 Apr 1801 (sweep 1096) and recorded as III-965 = NGC 3194.  So, NGC 3155 = NGC 3194.  The galaxy is known as NGC 3155, despite the earlier discovery by WH.  See notes on NGC 2938 for more on this sweep.

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NGC 3156 = UGC 5503 = MCG +01-26-019 = CGCG 036-057 = PGC 29730

10 12 41.2 +03 07 45

V = 12.3;  Size 1.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 47d

 

17.5" (3/23/85): moderately bright, small, small bright core.  A triangle of bright stars follows; mag 9.0 SAO 118165 2.4' SE, mag 8.3 SAO 118168 5' ENE and mag 7.6 SAO 118169 9' SE.

 

13" (4/16/83): faint, small, elongated.

 

WH discovered NGC 3156 = H III-255 = h680 on 13 Dec 1784 (sweep 342) and noted "vF, vS, preceding a triangle of bright stars."  JH called the galaxy "pB; S; R: psbM; 15"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3157 = ESO 435-051 = MCG -05-24-026 = IC 2555 = PGC 29691

10 11 42.4 -31 38 34

V = 13.2;  Size 2.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 38d

 

18" (4/10/04): very faint, thin edge-on 4:1 SW-NE, 0.8'x0.2', low even surface brightness.  Requires averted to glimpse once position pinpointed.  A mag 14.5-15 star is just off the east side of the center.  Located 4.5' N of a mag 9.0 HD 88480.

 

JH discovered NGC 3157 = h3233 on 28 Jan 1835 and noted "vF; E; 30" has a * 8m sp."  His Cape position is an exact match with ESO 435-051, but the declination in GC and NGC is 40' too far north.

 

DeLisle Stewart later rediscovered this galaxy on plates taken at Harvard's Arequipa station, recorded the correct position and it was catalogued again as IC 2555.  RNGC classifies the this number as nonexistent, although ESO and SGC have the correct identification.

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NGC 3158 = UGC 5511 = MCG +07-21-020 = CGCG 211-022 = PGC 29822

10 13 50.5 +38 45 53

V = 11.9;  Size 2.0'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 0d

 

18" (2/19/09): fairly bright, moderately large, irregularly round, well concentrated with a very bright core and relatively large, fainter halo, ~0.8'x0.7'.  Brightest of 12 galaxies viewed that are packed into a 14' circle!

 

17.5" (3/23/85): fairly bright, irregular round or slightly elongated, small bright core.  Brightest in the NGC 3158 group with NGC 3159 6.7' SSE, NGC 3160 4.7' N and NGC 3152 5.5' NW.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): fairly bright, round, weakly concentrated, largest and brightest in a group.

 

8" (3/28/81): faint, small, requires averted.

 

WH discovered NGC 3158 = H II-639 = h678, along with NGC 3163, on 17 Mar 1787 (sweep 713) and noted "pB, cL, r."  JH logged "B; R; psbM; 35"."  Brightest in a small, but rich group and a distance of roughly 300 million l.y.

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NGC 3159 = MCG +07-21-021 = CGCG 211-023 = Holm 172c = WBL 258-005 = PGC 29825

10 13 52.8 +38 39 16

V = 13.6;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

18" (2/19/09): faint to fairly taint, small, irregulaly round, 25"x20", very small bright core.  First of three in a 2.8' E-W string with NGC 3161 and NGC 3163.  MCG +07-21-019 lies 1.6' NW.  Located 6.5' S of NGC 3158 in a small cluster.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): fairly faint, small, irregularly round, small bright core.  This member of the NGC 3158 group is the first of three with NGC 3161 1.2' E and NGC 3163 2.7' E.  NGC 3158 lies 6.7' NNW.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): faint, small, round.  Third brightest in NGC 3158 group.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 3159 = Big 42 on 1 Feb 1886, along with NGC 3150, 3151 and 3161.  His position matches CGCG 211-023 = PGC 29825.

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NGC 3160 = UGC 5513 = MCG +07-21-023 = CGCG 211-024 = PGC 29830

10 13 55.1 +38 50 34

V = 14.1;  Size 1.3'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 140d

 

18" (2/19/09): faint, edge-on 7:2 NW-SE, ~40"x12".  Located 4.9' N of NGC 3158 in a rich group and directly between a mag 12.5 star 1.5' SSW and a mag 11.5 star 2.2' NNE.  NGC 3152 lies 4' W.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): faint, small, edge-on NW-SE.  Member of NGC 3158 group with NGC 3158 4.7' S.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): extremely faint, small.  Located 5' N of NGC 3158.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 3160 (along with NGC 3152) on 27 Mar 1854 using LdR's 72".  He noted "about 4' following [NGC 3152] is a small lenticular ray, elongated sp nf."  His offset and description matches UGC 5513.

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NGC 3161 = MCG +07-21-022 = CGCG 211-025 = Holm 172a = WBL 258-007 = PGC 29837

10 13 59.2 +38 39 26

V = 13.5;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 14.8;  PA = 10d

 

18" (2/19/09): very faint, very small, slightly elongated 20"x16", very small or stellar core.  Sandwiched between NGC 3159 1.2' W and NGC 3163 1.6' E in the NGC 3158 cluster.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): this member in the NGC 3158 group is small and the faintest of three with close companions NGC 3159 1.2' W and NGC 3163 1.5' E.  Even surface brightness and visible with direct vision.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): extremely faint, very small, round.  Located between NGC 3159 and NGC 3163.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 3161 = Big 43 on 1 Feb 1886, along with NGC 3151, 3159 and 3161.  His position matches CGCG 211-025 = PGC 29837.

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NGC 3162 = NGC 3575 = UGC 5510 = MCG +04-24-019 = CGCG 123-026 = PGC 29800

10 13 31.6 +22 44 15

V = 11.6;  Size 3.0'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (3/23/85): moderately bright, fairly small, pretty diffuse, weak broad concentration, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.1' SE, a mag 10.5 star 3.4' W and a mag 11.5 star 3.7' NE.  Located 1¡ SE of Zeta Leonis (V = 3.6).

 

WH discovered NGC 3162 = H II-43 = h682 on 12 Mar 1784 (sweep 166) and recorded "vF, pL, r.  It seemed to consist of two nebula joined together having two places rather brighter than the ousides of the nebula; but with [higher power] the following of them appeared very plainly to be a star.  The star seemed to have no connection with the nebula, for, though within the nebulosity there was no kind of gradation of light from the star to the nebula as there generally is from the brighter to the more faint part of nebula."  His position is 20 sec of RA west of UGC 5510.

 

On 20 Mar 1854, R.J. Mitchell remarked "spiral left-handed, spirality very faintly seen, night bad." In 1857 "suspected a knot in the northwest end."  NGC 3575 is a duplicate observation made by d'Arrest in 1863.  See that number for more.

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NGC 3163 = UGC 5517 = MCG +07-21-026 = CGCG 211-027 = Holm 172b = WBL 258-008 = PGC 29846

10 14 07.1 +38 39 09

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

18" (2/19/09): fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter, very small bright core.  Third of three in a 2.8' string with NGC 3163 1.5' W and NGC 3159 2.8' W.  Also MCG +07-21-019 is close NW of the string.  Located 7.4' SE of NGC 3158 in a rich group.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): fairly faint, small, round, bright core.  Brightest and third of three with NGC 3161 1.5' W and NGC 3159 2.7' W.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): faint, small, round.  Third of three in a string and the second brightest in a group.

 

WH discovered NGC 3163 = H II-640 = h681, along with NGC 3158, on 17 Mar 1787 (sweep 713) and logged "F, vS, r.  300x showed the same."  CH's reduction is within 30" of the core of this galaxy.

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NGC 3164 = UGC 5527 = MCG +10-15-036 = CGCG 290-018 = PGC 29928

10 15 11.4 +56 40 19

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 0d

 

18" (4/10/04): very faint, fairly small, elongated ~3:2 N-S, 0.7'x0.5'.  Low surface brightness with very little concentration.  Located 11' SW of mag 8.5 HD 88828.

 

WH discovered NGC 3164 = H  = h679 on 9 Feb 1831 (sweep 715) and noted "eF; R: vglbM; 15"."  His single position matches UGC 5527.

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NGC 3165 = UGC 5512 = MCG +01-26-023 = CGCG 063-063 = Holm 173c = PGC 29798

10 13 31.4 +03 22 32

V = 13.9;  Size 1.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 177d

 

17.5" (3/23/85): very faint, elongated 2:1 N-S.  Forms the western vertex of a triangle with two mag 12.5 stars 1.9' SE and 1.7' NE.  First and faintest of three located 4.6' SW of NGC 3166 and 12' SW of NGC 3169.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 3165 on 30 Jan 1856 with LdR's 72", while observing NGC 3166 and 3169 and noted "about 5' sp 684 [NGC 3166] is a vvF ray extending N-S."  The NGC RA is 15 sec too small.

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NGC 3166 = UGC 5516 = MCG +01-26-024 = CGCG 063-064 = Holm 173a =LGG 192-003 = PGC 29814

10 13 44.9 +03 25 31

V = 10.4;  Size 4.8'x2.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 87d

 

17.5" (3/23/85): bright, almost round, even concentration to a brighter core and stellar nucleus (large, low surface brightness arms not seen).  The core appears brighter than NGC 3169 7.8' ENE but the duo is pretty similar.  Second of three with NGC 3165 4.6' SW.  Two mag 12.5 stars lie 2.6' NW and 2.8' SW of center.

 

13" (4/16/83): fairly bright, bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 3169.

 

WH discovered NGC 3166 = H I-3 = h684, along with NGC 3169, on 19 Dec 1783 (early sweep 58).  His summary description from 4 sweeps reads "cB, pL, cometic, mbM."  JH also made 4 observations and measured an accurate position. 

 

ƒdouard Stephan's observation on 18 Mar 1884, which was published in list XIII-56, is within a few arcseconds of NGC 3166 though Dreyer and Esmiol (who later re-reduced all of Stephan's positions) misidentify this entry as NGC 3165.  Also Stephan's XIII-57 refers to NGC 3169, though he calls it NGC 3166 in the notes section to list XIII.

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NGC 3167 = NGC 2789 = UGC 4875 = MCG +05-22-026 = CGCG 151-035 = PGC 26089

09 14 59.7 +29 43 48

 

See observing notes for NGC 2789

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 3167 on 1 May 1862 and recorded a "Small and faint nebula.  * 11 preceding 9.5 sec, a little farther north. Whether it is just a nebula, or perhaps a confused group of faint stars is still undetermined, for this evening the air is turbulent."  There is nothing at or near his single position matching his description and RNGC classifies NGC 3167 as nonexistent.

 

Harold Corwin originally listed this object as lost as there were no candidates nearby, but recently (email from 16 Jun 2014) he found that if d'Arrest made a 1 hr transcription error in his RA (too large), then his position matches NGC 2789 and the mag 11 star is just where he placed it to the northwest of the galaxy!  Corwin notes that d'Arrest made a similar 1 hr recording error on a few other discoveries (NGC 3575, 3760 and 5008), so this is not a unique situation.

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NGC 3168 = UGC 5536 = MCG +10-15-052 = CGCG 290-023 = PGC 30001

10 16 23.0 +60 14 06

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (3/12/88): fairly faint, very small, round, small bright core.  Located 5.6' NE of mag 6.8 SAO 15131.  Brightest of a trio with UGC 5542 4.8' NE (noted as "faint, very small, round, small bright core") and CGCG 290-021 5' NNW (noted as "faint, very small, round.  Two mag 9.5/10 stars are near").

 

JH discovered NGC 3168 = h683 on 25 Mar 1832 and recorded "F; psbM; like a star rubbed out.  A * 7-8m in field np - dist 5'."  His position matches UGC 5536, although the bright star is south-southwest.

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NGC 3169 = UGC 5525 = MCG +01-26-026 = CGCG 036-066 = Holm 173b = LGG 192-004 = PGC 29855

10 14 14.8 +03 28 00

V = 10.2;  Size 4.4'x2.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (3/23/85): bright, slightly elongated SW-NE, moderate concentration, pretty faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is just off the east side, 1.6' from the center.  Third of three with NGC 3166 7.8' WSW and NGC 3165 12' SW.

 

13" (4/16/83): bright, bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 3169 = H I-4 = h684, along with NGC 3166, on 19 Dec 1783 (early sweep 58).  His summary description from 4 sweeps reads "cB, pL, cometic, mbM."  JH also made 4 observations and measured an accurate position.  ƒdouard Stephan published accurate positions NGC 3166 and 3169 from 18 Mar 1884 in list XIII-56 and -57, though he misidentified the galaxies as NGC 3165 and NGC 3166. R.J. Mitchell observed ths galaxy on 15 Mar 1855 with LdR's 72" and commented "sharp at sf edge [dust lane?] and fades of np, spreading out in that direction."  The following January he also noted "perhaps vF neby beyond the well defined sf edge?"

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NGC 3170

10 16 14.5 +46 36 43

 

=**, Gottlieb and Corwin.  =NF, RNGC.

 

JH discovered NGC 3170 = h686 on 19 Mar 1828 and noted "F; S; R."  Just 1' north of his position (single observation) is a 7" pair of mag 13.8/15.2 stars at 10 16 14.5 +46 36 44 (J2000).  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.

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NGC 3171 = ESO 567-031 = MCG -03-26-032 = PGC 29950

10 15 36.7 -20 38 51

V = 12.8;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 176d

 

17.5" (3/22/96): faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 N-S, 1.1'x0.8'.  Forms the west vertex of an equilateral triangle with two mag 13.5-14 stars 2.3' NE and 2.5' E.  Located 16' W of mag 6.6 SAO 178610.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3171 = LM I-169 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander-McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 1.4 tmin west of ESO 567-03 = MCG -03-26-032.  MCG does not label this galaxy as NGC 3171.  The RNGC declination is 9' too far south, so the galaxy was misplotted on the first edition of the Uranometria 2000.

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NGC 3172 = Polarissima Borealis = MCG +15-01-011 = CGCG 370-002 = CGCG 370-018 = PGC 36847

11 47 14.0 +89 05 32

V = 14.1;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 39d

 

24" (9/15/12): fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter, well defined halo, broad weak concentration with a very small brighter nucleus. A mag 13 star is 1.5' distant (NW) and a very faint mag 16.5 star is 50" S.

 

18" (8/1/11): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, brighter core.  A mag 13 star lies 1.5' NW.  MCG +15-01-010, an extremely faint companion just 1.6' W, was marginally glimpsed though difficult to confirm.

 

17.5" (7/16/93) : faint, very small, round, 0.5' diameter, very small brighter core, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star is 1.5' NW.  This is the closest NGC galaxy to the North Celestial Pole and is known as "Polarissima Borealis".

 

17.5" (11/14/87): very faint, small, round, brighter core, faint stellar nucleus, can hold steadily with averted.  A mag 12.5 star is 1.5' distant.

 

17.5" (8/1/86): faint, brighter core, fairly small, round.  A mag 13 star is within 2'.

 

JH discovered NGC 3172 = h250 on 4 Oct 1831 and recorded "vF; R; gbM; 25"; has a * 11m 2' S.  This nebula is remarkable for its proximity to the pole.  Owing to this the RA cannot be determined exactly, and the PD is open to correction."  In the synonym column he called it "Polarissima" but later it was called "Polarissima Borealis" to distinguish it from "Polarissima Australis".  Heinrich d'Arrest observed it with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen on 12 Aug 1866.  He noted the mag 12 star is 75" distant to the north.  This galaxy is the closest galaxy to the north celestial pole in any catalogue! 

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NGC 3173 = ESO 500-016 = MCG -04-24-022 = PGC 29883

10 14 34.9 -27 41 34

V = 12.8;  Size 2.1'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 7d

 

18" (4/10/04): fairly faint, moderately large, round.  Sharply concentrated with a moderately bright 15" core surrounded by a very faint, low surface brightness halo requiring averted vision.  The galaxy is very close preceding mag 10 SAO 178570 (1.3' from center) and 2.4' NNW of mag 10 SAO 178568!

 

JH discovered NGC 3173 = h3235 on 24 Mar 1835 and noted "F; R: gbM; 40"."  His position and description matches ESO 500-016.

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NGC 3174 = NGC 3144 = UGC 5519 = MCG +12-10-023 = CGCG 333-020 = CGCG 351-011 = PGC 29949

10 15 32.0 +74 13 14

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 0d

 

See observing notes for NGC 3144

 

WH discovered NGC 3174 = H III-964 on 2 Apr 1801 (sweep 1096) and noted "vF, vS."  This is one of 15 far northern galaxies with large systematic errors.  The corrected position using Greenwich plates (MN, 71, 509, 1911) matches UGC 5519 and Dreyer repeated this position in the notes to his 1912 edition of WH's catalogues.  See NGC 2938 for more on this sweep.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered this galaxy on 25 Sep 1865, measured a fairly accurate position (within 1' of UGC 5519), and it was catalogued as NGC 3144.  By discovery priority, this galaxy should be identified as NGC 3174, though the common identification is NGC 3144.

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NGC 3175 = ESO 436-003 = MCG -05-24-028 = UGCA 207 = VV 796 = PGC 29892

10 14 42.2 -28 52 18

V = 11.2;  Size 5.0'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 56d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): bright, fairly large, bright core, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 2.5'x0.8'.  Located 38' ESE of mag 6.3 HR 2003.

 

JH discovered NGC 3175 = h3236 on 30 Mar 1835 and recorded "B; L; mE; gvlbM; 2' l; pos 50.3¡."  His position and description matches ESO 436-003.

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NGC 3176 = ESO 567-?030

10 15 18 -19 01

 

=Not found, Corwin and Carlson.  Possibly = ESO 567-029, Corwin.  Possibly = ESO 568-011, Gottlieb

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3176 = LM I-170 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and noted "mag 16.0, 0.8' dia, iR, neb?"  There is nothing at his rough position (nearest min of RA) and both Harold Corwin and Dorothy Carlson (in her 1940 NGC correction list) conclude this object is lost.  Corwin suggests ESO 567-02 as a possible candidate, but this galaxy is 1 degree south of Stone's position.  Another possible candidate which I found is ESO 568-011.  This galaxy would require a 10 tmin error in RA (too far E) but matches in Declination.

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NGC 3177 = UGC 5544 = MCG +04-24-023 = CGCG 123-032 = PGC 30010

10 16 34.1 +21 07 23

V = 12.4;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (3/23/85): fairly faint, small, increases to a brighter core, stellar nucleus, small faint halo.  Member of the NGC 3190 group.

 

WH discovered NGC 3177 = H III-25 = h687 on 12 Mar 1784 (sweep 166) and noted "vF, S."  CH's reduced position is 43 sec of RA preceding UGC 5544.  JH made 3 observations and measured a fairly accurate position.

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NGC 3178 = MCG -03-26-034 = PGC 29980

10 16 09.1 -15 47 28

V = 13.9;  Size 1.4'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 70d

 

17.5" (3/22/96): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, 1.2'x0.9', even surface brightness.  A mag 12-13 star lies 2.9' ESE.  There are several mag 10-11 stars in the 20' field and mag 9.3 SAO 155864 8.5' SE.

 

JH discovered NGC 3178 = h3237 on 16 Mar 1836 and noted "pB; pL; gpmbM; seen through haze."  His position matches MCG -03-26-034.

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NGC 3179 = UGC 5555 = MCG +07-21-036 = CGCG 211-037 = PGC 30078

10 17 57.2 +41 06 51

V = 13.1;  Size 1.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 48d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): fairly faint, very small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.3', very small bright core appears mottled.  Almost collinear with two mag 13.5 stars 1.0' SW and 1.9' SW.  NGC 3184 lies 19' NNE.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 3179 on 25 Jan 1851 with LdR's 72" and recorded "25' south and a little preceding [NGC 3184] I found a S, R neb, r, near 2 st almost in a line with it."  The following March he more accurately placed it about 20' sp of NGC 3184.  The observation was not included in LdR's 1861 publication and did not receive a GC or GCS designation.  Bigourdan's corrected position (given in IC 2 notes) matches UGC 5555.

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NGC 3180 = [H69] 44/45/47

10 18 10.8 +41 26 55

 

48" (4/4/11): A small HII knot with a stellar core was visible 1.8' NW of the nucleus of NGC 3184.  This small knot is within a larger, slightly brighter portion of the long, sweeping arm (shown on the sketch at Birr Castle) that wraps around the core of NGC 3184 on the south side before winding north on the west side and ending near NGC 3180.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 3180 on 25 Jan 1851 in his observation of NGC 3184 at Birr Castle.  He recorded "is triple, neby perhaps extends round them all as far as the * north."  The 1 Feb 1856 description states: "The neby connecting the 3 principal knots is vvF but I have no doubt of its existence."  R.J. Mitchell sketched the the spiral structure on 1 Feb 1856 (fig 13, Plate XXVII in the 1861 publication) and highlighted two brighter knots or sections of the western spiral arm. 

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NGC 3181 = [H69] 41

10 18 11.5 +41 24 45

 

48" (4/4/11): NGC 3181 is a bright, 15" knot in one of the spiral arms of NGC 3184.  It resides 1.2' SW of the nucleus in a long sweeping arm that wraps around around south side of the core and then heads north on the west side of the galaxy.  This is the brightest of a couple of knots resolved in the arms.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 3181 on 25 Jan 1851 in his observation of NGC 3184 at Birr Castle .  R.J. Mitchell sketched the the spiral structure on 1 Feb 1856 (fig 13, Plate XXVII in the 1861 publication) and highlighted two brighter knots or sections of the western spiral arm.  The elongated knot embedded in the spiral arm on the southwest side is NGC 3181.  This HII region is catalogued as [H69] 41 in Hodge's "HII Regions in 20 Nearby Galaxies".

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NGC 3182 = UGC 5568 = MCG +10-15-062 = CGCG 290-027 = PGC 30176

10 19 33.0 +58 12 21

V = 12.1;  Size 1.8'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (4/29/00): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 NNW-SSE, 0.9'x0.7'.  Bright core, occasional stellar nucleus.  Collinear with two mag 13 stars 2.4' NE and 3.5' NE.  NGC 3225 lies 45' E.

 

17.5" (4/9/94): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, bright core, fairly high surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is 1.5' SW followed by a mag 12 star 2.4' NE and a mag 13 star 4' NE on a line.

 

WH discovered NGC 3182 = H I-265 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and noted "cB, S, vgmbM, iR."  CH's reduction matches UGC 5568.  The NGC position (copied correctly from the GC) is 19 seconds of RA too small.

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NGC 3183 = NGC 3218 = UGC 5582 = MCG +12-10-028 = CGCG 351-018 = CGCG 333-023 = Holm 177a = LGG 193-003 = PGC 30323

10 21 49.4 +74 10 37

V = 11.9;  Size 2.3'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (4/6/02): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated ~2:1 NNW-SSE, 2.0'x0.8', broad concentration but no well defined core.  Several stars are nearby including two mag 13.5 stars at the north edge and a couple more stars within 1'.  Very possibly one of these is a stellar companion 1.0' NNE of center (2MASXi J1021541+741135).  The faint stars at the edges were a bit startling as it initially looked similar to a partially resolved cluster.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered NGC 3183 on 28 Sep 1865 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen.  His position matches UGC 5582.

 

This galaxy was first discovered by WH on 2 Apr 1801, the problematic northern sweep 1096 with large systematic errors.  His revised position, using Greenwich plates (MN, 71, 509), reveals H I-283 = NGC 3218 = NGC 3183.  The modern designation is NGC 3183, despite the earlier discovery by WH.

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NGC 3184 = NGC 3180 = UGC 5557 = MCG +07-21-037 = CGCG 211-038 = PGC 30087

10 18 17.0 +41 25 27

V = 9.8;  Size 7.4'x6.9';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 135d

 

48" (4/4/11): NGC 3184 is a beautiful face-on spiral with two main long arms and branches, along with several HII knots (two with NGC designations) in the arms.  Contains a relatively small, very bright core, ~1' diameter with a sharp stellar nucleus.  A mag 15-16 star is visible about 40" NE of the center near the edge of the core.  One arm is attached on the east side of the core and winds counterclockwise around the south side of the core towards the west.  The outer halo of the galaxy to the south of this arm has a much lower surface brightness.  NGC 3181 is a bright, 15" knot (HII region/massive star cluster) embedded in this arm, 1.2' SW of the nucleus.  The arm then continues spiraling outward as it heads north and contains NGC 3180, very small knot with a stellar core at 1.8' NW of the nucleus.  This small knot is within a larger, slightly brighter portion of the arm.  A second prominent arm is attached on the west side of the core and rotates counterclockwise around the north side towards the east.  The surface brightness lowers on the east side and the arm splits into two branches.  A mag 11.7 star is superimposed near the outer edge on the north side beyond the arm.  Located 11' ESE of mag 6.6 HD 89053.

 

17.5" (4/4/92): fairly bright, large, slightly elongated ~N-S, large 4' halo has a fairly low surface brightness, very weak concentration, small brighter elongated core.  A mag 11.5 star is at the north edge of the halo 1.8' from the center.  There is an impression of spiral structure thought it was not distinct.  Located 40' W of Mu Ursa Majoris (V = 3.1).

 

WH discovered NGC 3184 = H I-168 = h688 = h689 on 18 Mar 1787 (sweep 716) and recorded "cB, R, near 8' dia, vgbM.  A considerable star in the northern part of it but unconnected. JH gave two entries for this galaxy, h688 = I-168 and h689, with the second entry a poor position for this face-on spiral.

 

Bindon Stoney, observing with LdR's 72" on 25 Jan 1851, logged "Is triple, neby perhaps extends round them all as far as the star north.  h689 not seen."  The following month, he commented "preceding part probably a portion of a ring."  R.J. Mitchell sketched the the spiral structure on 1 Feb 1856 (fig 13, Plate XXVII in the 1861 publication).  The sketch shows two brighter, elongated knots in the western arm and Dreyer catalogued these as NGC 3180 and 3181.

 

MCG mislabels the galaxy as NGC 3180.

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NGC 3185 = HCG 44C = UGC 5554 = MCG +04-24-024 = CGCG 123-034 = PGC 30059

10 17 38.5 +21 41 18

V = 12.2;  Size 2.3'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 130d

 

48" (4/18/15): at 610x; very bright, fairly large, oval halo 5:3 NW-SE, ~1.8'x1.1'.  Strongly concentrated with a very bright roundish core which increases to a slightly brighter stellar nucleus.  The halo has a brighter arcs at the ends of the major axis (northwest and southeast ends) and is slightly weaker inside, creating a weak ring.  A very weak bar is highly suspected connecting the ends of the major axis and the core (very subtle barred ring).  A mag 14.5 star is just off the west side [42" from center].

 

17.5" (3/23/85): fairly faint, increases to a brighter core, diffuse halo elongated NW-SE.  A mag 14 star is just off the west edge 0.7' from center and a similar star is 1.4' SW of center.  Member of the NGC 3190 group = HCG 44.

 

13.1" (3/24/84): fairly faint, gradually brighter core.

 

8" (4/24/82): faint, fairly small, elongated.

 

George Johnstone Stoney discovered NGC 3185, along with NGC 3187, in January of 1850 at Birr Castle and labeled it Delta on the diagram of the group (shown in the 1861 publication).

 

Heinrich d'Arrest independently found this galaxy on 1 Jan 1862 (measuring the position on 5 nights) as well as Eduard Schšnfeld at the Mannhein Observatory on 15 Jan 1861.  Schultz referred to it as "Nova Schonfeld", unaware of the Birr Castle observation. JH credited both LdR and d'Arrest in the GC.

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NGC 3186 = MCG +01-26-032 = CGCG 036-085 = Mrk 720 = PGC 30058

10 17 37.9 +06 58 16

V = 15.1;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 14.2

 

17.5" (3/25/00): very faint, extremely small, round, ~15" diameter (probably viewed core only), faint stellar nucleus.  Located 1.2' SE of a mag 12.5 star.  This galaxy is identified as NGC 3186 in the RNGC and PGC but the identification is uncertain due to a poor position from Albert Marth.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3186 = m 195 on 25 Mar 1865 and noted "pF, vS, gbM."  There is nothing at his position, but a couple of candidates are nearby.  The RNGC and PGC identify CGCG 036-085 as NGC 3186.  This galaxy is located 20 tsec of RA east and 5' south of Marth's position.  Harold Corwin suggests that NGC 3186 may be the northeastern component of CGCG 036-074.  This galaxy is 1.5 tmin preceding and 6' south of Marth's position.

 

In my observation of the field, I picked up IC 602 = UGC 5561 (double system with IC 601) which is located exactly 1.0 tmin east of Marth's position and appears brighter visually than CGCG 036-085.  Because this galaxy is only off in RA (by a single minute) it seems to me a better choice than the RNGC/PGC candidate.  Stephane Javelle independently discovered IC 602 on 10 Apr 1893 and accurately placed it in list 2-673 .  UGC 5561 is identified as IC 602 in all modern catalogues.  See Corwin's notes for more on the story.

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NGC 3187 = HCG 44D = Arp 316 NED1 = VV 307b = UGC 5556 = MCG +04-24-025 = CGCG 123-036 = PGC 30068

10 17 47.8 +21 52 25

V = 13.4;  Size 3.0'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.7

 

48" (4/1/11): moderately bright, elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 1.8'x0.6', weak concentration with no well defined core.  At both the NW and SE ends of the bar are faint spiral arms.  The arm at the NW end bends sharply towards the south in the direction of a mag 13.8 star 1.0' SW of center, though doesn't reach this star.  On the SW end of the bar a second faint arm hooks at a right angle to the NE.  Both arms extend ~45" and give the galaxy a distinctive zig-zag shape.  Located on a line 4.9' NW of the showpiece edge-on NGC 3190.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): faint, small, edge-on NW-SE.  A mag 14 star is off the SW side 1.1' from center and a similar star is 1.3' SSE.  Unusual as the major axis is exactly collinear with the brighter edge-on NGC 3190 4.9' SE.  Located 6.3' SSW of mag 7.8 SAO 81276 and 8.8' WSW of NGC 3193.

 

13.1" (3/24/84) very faint, elongated NW-SE.  Located 5' NW NGC 3190.  A mag 8 star 6' NNE detracts.

 

8" (4/24/82): not seen.

 

George Johnstone Stoney and LdR discovered NGC 3187 in Jan 1850, while observing NGC 3190 and 3193, and labeled it Gamma on the sketch.  The description mentioned "[NGC 3190] and [NGC 3187] proibably connected.  In [NGC 3187], several minute stars seen by Lord R."  A sketch made by R.J. Mitchell (in the 1861 publication) shows the galaxy tapering at the southeast end and broader at the northwest end.

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NGC 3188 = UGC 5569 = MCG +10-15-065 = CGCG 290-028 = Mrk 31 = PGC 30183

10 19 42.9 +57 25 24

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (4/9/94): surprisingly faint, small, round, diffuse, unconcentrated except for extremely faint star superimposed at center or a very faint stellar nucleus, appears to have an irregular surface brightness.  Two faint stars just off edges; a mag 14.5 star 0.6' NW of center and a mag 15 star 0.6' E of center also confuse the observation.  Forms a close double with NGC 3188A 0.7' WSW (not seen).

 

WH discovered NGC 3188 = H III-910 = h690 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and recorded "vF, pL, r, iF, some of the stars visible."  JH called it "eF; pL; 30"." His position is accurate to within 1'.

 

Ralph Copeland, LdR's observing assistant, logged on 5 Apr 1874 "vF, cL, R, gbM, * 15 m near the middle and several small stars near (within 2 or 3' foll), but does seem resolvable."  One of these "stars" may be a very companion (NGC 3188A) just off the southwest side.

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NGC 3189 = part of NGC 3190

10 18 04.3 +21 49 54

 

48" (4/1/11): this number refers to the thin strip of NGC 3190 that parallels the prominent dust lane on the outer southwest edge of the galaxy.  This strip has a well-defined southern edge and dims at the southeast end of the galaxy.

 

George Johnstone Stoney or LdR discovered NGC 3189 in January 1850 and recorded "F neby probably extended to the right of [NGC 3190]."  The sketch produced by R.J. Mitchell (fig 14, Plate XXVII in the 1861 William Parsons' publication) shows NGC 3189 is the strip of NGC 3190 on the southwest side of the dust lane.  None of the subsequent observations at Birr Castle mention this feature, although d'Arrest claimed an observation with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen on 23 Mar 1865.

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NGC 3190 = HCG 44A = Arp 316 NED2 = VV 307a = NGC 3189 = UGC 5559 = MCG +04-24-026 = CGCG 123-037 = Holm 175a = LGG 194-003 = PGC 30083

10 18 05.7 +21 49 57

V = 11.1;  Size 4.4'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 125d

 

48" (4/1/11): extremely bright, large, nearly edge-on 7:2 WNW-ESE, 3.7'x1.0', very bright core with a dazzling stellar nucleus embedded. A sharp, contrasty dust lane that is relatively wide runs along the full length of the galaxy, passing just south of the core. A thin strip of the galaxy parallels the dust lane on the outer southwest side of the galaxy. This strip has a well-defined southern edge and dims at the southeast end of the galaxy.  Dreyer catalogued the strip as NGC 3189 based on the 1850 sketch using Lord Rosse's 72-inch scope.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): bright, edge-on NW-SE, stellar nucleus, fairly large.  Brightest in HCG 44 with NGC 3187 4.9' NW, NGC 3193 5.8' NE and NGC 3185 11' SW.  Two bright stars are in the field; mag 7.8 SAO 81276 8.3' NNW and mag 9.0 SAO 81279 6.5' NE. 

 

13.1" (3/24/84): bright, small bright nucleus, elongated NW-SE, brightest in a group.  Two mag 8 stars are in the field.

 

WH discovered NGC 3190 = H II-44 = h692, along with NGC 3193, on 12 Mar 1784 (sweep 166) and recorded "Two small nebulae; very like each other; both E and both lbM; than towards the ends, but of the resolvable kind."  His single position is closer to NGC 3187, but must refer to the brighter galaxies though NGC 3193 is not noticeably elongated.

 

R.J. Mitchell sketched the galaxy on 22 Mar 1857 (plate XXVII, fig 14 in LdR's 1861 publication) and clearly showed two strips of the galaxy separated by a dark lane.

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NGC 3191 = NGC 3192 = UGC 5565 = MCG +08-19-018 = CGCG 240-026 = PGC 30136

10 19 05.1 +46 27 15

V = 13.3;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): fairly faint, small, round, 0.7' diameter, weak broad concentration.  Located 4.1' SSW of a mag 10 star.  Pair with MCG +08-19-017 1.3' W.

 

JH found NGC 3191 = h691 on 19 Mar 1828 and recorded "F; S; R; bM; 15-20".  If this be III. 704 [NGC 3192], there must exist a great error in PD on one or other side.  His position matches UGC 5565.

 

WH discovered this galaxy on 5 Feb 1788 and recorded it as III-704 (and later GC 2060 = NGC 3192).  His position, though, was 7' too far north.  All major catalogues identify this galaxy as NGC 3191, instead of NGC 3192.  References: Malcolm Thomson's article in the Webb Society Quarterly Journal Apr 1980 and Betelgeuse Nov 1979.

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NGC 3192 = NGC 3191 = UGC 5565 = MCG +08-19-018 = CGCG 240-026 = PGC 30128

10 19 05.1 +46 27 15

 

See observing notes for NGC 3191.

 

WH discovered NGC 3192 = H III-704 on 5 Feb 1788 (sweep 808) and recorded "eF, vS, may be a patch of small stars."  There is nothing at his position, but 8' due south is h691 = NGC 3191.  JH recorded this galaxy as h691 (and later NGC 3191), noting "F; S; R; bM; 15-20". If this be III. 704, there must exist a great error in PD on one side or the other."  Dreyer also commented "perhaps = h.691" in the notes to his Scientific Papers of WH.

 

RNGC misidentifies MCG +08-19-017 as NGC 3192.  This galaxy is located 1.3' W of NGC 3191.  See my RNGC Corrections #1, WSQJ Apr 1980 and Betelgeuse Nov 1979 (by Malcolm Thomson).

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NGC 3193 = HCG 44B = Arp 316 NED3 = UGC 5562 = MCG +04-24-027 = CGCG 123-038 = VV 307 = Holm 175b = WBL 262-003 = PGC 30099

10 18 25.0 +21 53 37

V = 10.9;  Size 3.0'x2.7';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (3/23/85): bright, small, round, stellar nucleus, second brightest in the NGC 3190 group.  Located just 1.3' S of mag 9.0 SAO 81279.  Third of three with NGC 3190 5.8' SW and NGC 3187 8.8' WSW.

 

13.1" (3/24/84): bright, small bright nucleus, small, round.  A mag 9 star is just 1' N.

 

WH discovered NGC 3193 = H II-45 = h693, along with NGC 3190, on 12 Mar 1784 (sweep 166).  See notes on NGC 3190.  JH made three observations and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3194 = NGC 3155 = UGC 5538 = MCG +12-10-026 = CGCG 351-012 = PGC 30064

10 17 39.9 +74 20 51

 

See observing notes for NGC 3155.

 

WH discovered NGC 3194 = H III-965 on 2 Apr 1801 (sweep 1096) and noted "vF, vS."  This is one of 15 far northern galaxies with large systematic errors. The corrected position using Greenwich plates (MN, 71, 509, 1911) matches UGC 5538 and Dreyer repeated this position in the notes to his 1912 edition of WH's catalogues.  See NGC 2938 for more on this sweep.

 

JH independently discovered this galaxy on 2 Sep 1828 and recorded h676 as "vF; S; R.  RA extremely precarious." His rough position is 4' northeast of UGC 5538.  Dreyer also assumed this was a new discovery and catalogued it as NGC 3155 (with an accurate position from d'Arrest).  So, NGC 3194 = NGC 3155.  The primary designation should be NGC 3194, but the common name is NGC 3155.

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NGC 3195 = PK 296-20.1 = ESO 019-PN2 = PN G296.6-20.0

10 09 21.1 -80 51 31

V = 11.5;  Size 43"x36"

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 350x, appeared fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, ~40"x35".  The planetary is clearly annular at this magnification with the rim brightest along the east and west sides, giving a bipolar appearance.  The southern end of the rim dims, making the rim appear U-shaped, open to the south (though weaker on the north end).  The central hole is irregularly shaped with careful viewing.  Two mag 12 stars to the west at 45" and 1.6' are collinear with the planetary and a brighter mag 11.5 lies 2' SE.  The surrounding field is lacking in bright stars but rich in faint stars.  NGC 3149 lies 30' NNW.

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is an interesting planetary at 171x with a UHC filter or at 228x.  It appears moderately bright and large, ~40"x35", slightly elongated ~N-S.  This disc has a noticeably irregular surface brightness with a slightly brighter knot on the following side and a hint of annularity.  Good response to UHC and OIII filters.  Located in southern Chamaeleon between Zeta and Delta Chamaeleontis.

 

JH discovered NGC 3195 = h3241 on 24 Feb 1835 and recorded "planetary nebula, pB, not quite uniform in its light, having two brighter patches, lE towards a * (a); slightly hazy; diameter = 15 or 18" (in RA 13 seconds of time). Pos of star a = 265.7 , dist = 0.7 diam from edge, 11th mag.; of star c, pos = 210.7 , dist = 1 3/4 diam from edge."  On a later sweep he described "Planetary nebula, R or vlE; a very little hazy at the edges but still pretty well defined with 240 power. Viewed long and with much attention, being a very remarkable object. I am positive of the existence of two brighter portions near the edges."  Sketched Plate VI, figure 2.

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NGC 3196 = CGCG 153-035 = CGCG 154-001 = PGC 30121

10 18 49.1 +27 40 08

V = 15.7;  Size 0.4'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 115d

 

18" (2/23/06): extremely faint and small, round, 10" diameter.  Located 0.5' W of a mag 15-15.5 star that confuses the observation.  This galaxy is unusually faint for a William Herschel discovery.  Located 13' NE of striking double star ·1421 = 8.2/9.3 at 4.5".

 

WH discovered NGC 3196 = H III-348 = h694 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and remarked "suspected, eF, pS, lE.  I do not much doubt it; but there is too much light to verify it."  CH's reduction is 30 sec of time following CGCG 153-035 = PGC 30121.  JH's position is just 30" south of this galaxy, though he noted "so eF that I remained unsatisfied".  Given that comment and the magnitude of this galaxy, it's amazing that WH apparently picked it up during twilight.  Sweep 396/397 on 11 Apr 1785 was WH's most productive -- with 72 discoveries -- and this was the first object found in the sweep.

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NGC 3197 = UGC 5500 = MCG +13-08-009 = CGCG 350-045 = CGCG 351-010 = PGC 29870

10 14 27.7 +77 49 13

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (1/28/89): faint, small, round, even surface brightness.  Located almost at midpoint of two mag 11 stars 3.7' NE and 3.5' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3197 = H III-966 on 2 Apr 1801 (sweep 1096) and logged "F, S, stellar neb.  It is very near and preceding a small star.  300 confirmed it."  This is one of 15 far northern galaxies with large systematic errors.  The corrected position using Greenwich plates (MN, 71, 509, 1911) matches UGC 5500 and Dreyer repeated this position in the notes to his 1912 edition of WH's catalogues.  See NGC 2938 for more on this sweep.

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NGC 3198 = UGC 5572 = MCG +08-19-020 = CGCG 240-030 = PGC 30197

10 19 54.8 +45 32 59

V = 10.3;  Size 8.5'x3.3';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 35d

 

48" (5/4/16): at 375x; NGC 3198 is a showpiece, large spiral extending 7:2 SW-NE, ~8.0'x2.5'.  Contains a bright, elongated central "bar", punctuated by a very small bright core that rises to a stellar nucleus.  Slightly brighter patches are visible at the ends of the central region, where the spiral arms emerge.  A tight inner arm is attached on the northeast end; it bends back sharply and closely parallels the central region, extending southwest for a length of ~3.5'.  An outer low surface brightness arm sweeps clockwise on the southwest end.  A symmetric outer arm on the northeast end (of slightly higher surface brightness) curls clockwise towards the west.  The outer tip to tip diameter is nearly 8'.  An uncatalogued fairly bright double star [separation ~3.7"] is 3.5' NNE of center, just beyond the halo and a mag 14 star is 2.2' SSE of center.

 

17.5" (3/12/94): fairly bright, large, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 7.0'x2.5', broadly concentrated, brighter core has an indistinct elongated nucleus and an irregular surface brightness.  Two mag 14 stars are close south (nearest is 2.0' from the center) and a mag 11 star is just off the NNE edge 3.5' from the center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3198 = H I-199 = h695 on 15 Jan 1788 (sweep 800) and remarked "cB, mE, gbM, about 5' long and 2' broad from sp to nf."  George Stoney, observing with LdR's 72" on 3 Mar 1850, noted "probably a faint spiral."  It was included in the list of "Spiral or curvilinear" nebulae in LdR's 1850 PT paper.  In later observations, a "dark vacuity ssp Nucl" was noted as well as "dark spaces throughout its length".

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NGC 3199 = ESO 127-EN014 = Gum 28 = Ced 107 = RCW 48

10 17 06 -57 55

Size 22'x22'

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x and UHC filter this Wolf-Rayet bubble appeared as an amazing 180¡ crescent, open on the east side and forming a thick "C" shape.  The rim of the bubble is widest on the western portion, although it is slightly brighter on the southwest side.  The main portion of the crescent spans ~13' from the north to south end and appears ~3.5' thick in the middle, though fainter nebulosity spreads out to the southeast.  A double star (h4302 = 10.4/11.6 at 23") is embedded near the south end.  The surface brightness is fairly high overall, though irregular with slightly brighter patches, knots and streaks.  A faint 5' linear streak or filament running SSW-NNE is superimposed along the outer western edge, though it separates or resolves from the Crescent at its north and south ends.  The illuminating mag 10.6 Wolf-Rayet star (WR 18 = HD 89358) is located about 4' E of the center of the "C", and is asymetrically positioned with respect to the center of the entire shell.  This W-R bubble is situated four degrees NW of the Eta Carina nebula in a rich Milky Way star field.

 

13.1" (2/17/04 - Costa Rica): at 105x and UHC filter, this HII region appears as a remarkable, huge crescent, roughly 11'x7' (the main region extends nearly 1/3 of the 39' field).  Opens up towards the east in a huge "C" shape.  The SW portion of the crescent is brightest, although the overall surface brightness is irregular with a mottled or curdled appearance.  A few stars are superimposed even with the filter with the brightest stars at the SW end.  Fainter nebulosity sprouts out of the SW end, increasing the total size by several arcminutes.

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is an amazing HII region with a 20mm Nagler and UHC filter at 103x.  It appears as a fairly bright, thick crescent opening towards the east, roughly 10'x6'!  The surface brightness was quite irregular with a UHC filter and the nebulosity was noticeably brighter on the south end where a couple of brighter stars are embedded.  Off the bright portion of the south end, much lower surface brightness haze extends the curve further SE for several arcmin and spreads out somewhat increasing the length to  ~15'.  The main mass has a curdled, mottled appearance and dark lanes appear to intrude into the nebulosity.  The illuminating star HD 89358 is a Wolf-Rayet star (WR 18) and this nebulosity is reminiscent of the Crescent Nebula in Cygnus (it could be dubbed the "Southern Crescent").

 

9x50 finder (2/17/04 - Costa Rica): surprisingly, NGC 3199 was visible in the 50mm finder at just 9x by blinking with the OIII filter.  An elongated bar of nebulosity was seen!

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 3199 = D 332 = h3239 on 1 Apr 1834 and described a "very faint ray of nebula, about 2' broad, and 6' or 7' long, joining two small stars at the south following extremity, which are very slightly involved, but their lustre is not diminished from that of similar small stars in the field. The north extremity also joins a group of small stars, but they are not involved. Figure 15.".  Unfortunately he made a one degree error in reading or copying the declination so Dunlop did not receive credit in the GC or NGC (Glen Cozens recovered the identity of D 332).  Because of Dunlop's poor position, this Wolf-Rayet nebula was reported by Herschel as a new discovery on 1 Apr 1834.

 

Herschel sketched NGC 3199 (plate IV, fig 3) and recorded, "A very large and very remarkable nebula, which is brighter to the S.f. part, and dies off to the N.p., having a curved form and forked tail. In the head of it is a double star. The nebula is pretty bright, very large, figure irregular, 8' long, 4' broad. Among a vast number of milky way stars." On a second occassion he called it "very bright, very large, 10' long, of a concave or crescent form, sharply terminated inwards, fading away outwards. In a field of about 80 stars. The place is that of a 13th mag star, about the middle of the crescent, or rather nearer the head." His next description reads: "pretty bright, very gradually brighter in the middle, of a falcated or smilunar shape, extending over three-quarters of the field. The place is that of a double star in its vertex or southern extremity." His final observation was recorded as "Place that of the double star near the cusp of the great falcated nebula, whose extent in PD is = 1.3 radius of field = 9.75' In a rich field. A clustering group follows."  In the IC 2 notes, Dreyer notes that no nebulosity was found on plates at Arequipa, Peru although JH described it quite clearly.

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NGC 3200 = ESO 567-045 = MCG -03-26-037 = UGCA 210 = PGC 30108

10 18 36.5 -17 58 57

V = 12.0;  Size 4.2'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 169d

 

17.5" (1/31/87): moderately bright, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, moderately large.  A mag 14 star is at the north end.  Either contains a stellar nucleus or a star is superimposed on the center.  A mag 12 star lies 2.0' WNW of center.

 

Edward Holden discovered NGC 3200 on 10 Apr 1882 with the 15.6-inch Clark refractor at the Washburn Observatory and noted "pB, E 160, bMN." His position in Publ. of the Washburn Observatory, Vol I, p 73, matches ESO 567-045 = PGC 30108.  I find it surprising that this relatively bright galaxy was missed by the Herschels.

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NGC 3201 = ESO 263-SC026

10 17 36.7 -46 24 40

V = 6.7;  Size 18.2'

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x, this beautiful, loose globular was well resolved with approximately two hundred mag 12 to 16 stars visible within a 10' region.  An unusual feature is the large number of brighter cluster stars that appear to be superimposed right on top of a fainter layer of stars in the central core.  The core seems displaced towards the north side as if part of the northern half of the cluster was obscured and flattened.  This apparent affect may also be due to a larger number of brighter resolved stars that are superimposed on the northern half of the core.  A number of stars in the outer halo are arranged in strings and chains and the outer extent of the halo is irregular.

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): beautifully resolved globular at 171x and 228x.  The cluster is fairly large, ~8'-10' diameter with more careful viewing.  Roughly 150 stars are resolved, though the number grows with magnification and averted vision.  A fairly dense layer of brighter mag 11.5-12 stars are resolved right over the bright core.  The halo, which has a large number of mag 13 stars, has a scraggly, irregular edge and seems elongated - possibly partially obscured by dust.  This concentration class X cluster is 7th in ranking of brightest stars (mag 11.7) and 10th in horizontal-branch mag stars (mag 14.8).

 

13" (2/23/85): this fairly bright globular cluster appears fairly large and mottled.  But only a few stars are resolved due to the view being compromised by the very low elevation (~5¡ altitude) from northern California.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 3201 = D 445 = h3238 on 1 May 1826 with his 9-inch reflector at Parramatta, NSW, and described a "pretty large, pretty bright round nebula, 4' or 5' diameter, very gradually condensed towards the centre, easily resolved into stars; the figure is rather irregular, and the stars are considerably scattered on the south preceding side: the stars are also of slightly mixed magnitudes."

 

JH first observed it on 20 Apr 1836 and recorded a "globular cluster, irregularly round, gbM, not v m comp, 6', resolved into stars 13...15th mag." On a second sweep he called it "irregularly round, 7' diameter, but the outliers extend to at least 10' or 12'; gpmbM, but not very much compressed; all resolved into stars 13..16th mag."

 

NGC 3201 is 7th in ranking of brightest member stars (mag 11.7) and 10th in ranking of horizontal-branch mag (mag 14.8).  The distance is ~20,000 light years.

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NGC 3202 = UGC 5581 = MCG +07-21-041 = CGCG 211-044 = WBL 264-001 = PGC 30236

10 20 31.7 +43 01 18

V = 13.2;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 20d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): fairly faint, small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 1.0'x0.7', only a weak concentration with a small brighter core.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.1' W of center.  First of three with very similar NGC 3205 4.4' SE and NGC 3207 5.7' ESE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3202 = H II-720 = h696 on 3 Feb 1788 (sweep 804) and noted "F, vS."  CH's reduction is 3.5' southwest of UGC 5581 (similar offset as NGC 3205 = II-721 and NGC 3207 = II-722). JH recorded "vF; R; vgbM; 30"; the preceding of 3 neb in a triangle.  Some stars near."  He noted the position as very approximate and as a result the NGC position is 2' too far south.

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NGC 3203 = ESO 500-024 = MCG -04-25-002 = PGC 30177

10 19 34.5 -26 41 53

V = 12.1;  Size 2.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 58d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated SW-NE, very small bright core is possibly stellar, very thin extensions.

 

JH discovered NGC 3203 = h3240 on 24 Mar 1835 and recorded "pB; E; gbM; 25"."  His position on the next sweep (563) was 1 min of RA greater, which he mistakenly rejected  So the RA in the NGC and NGC is 1.0 min of RA too small.  Clearly his observations, though, refer to ESO 500-024.

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NGC 3204 = UGC 5580 = MCG +05-25-001 = CGCG 154-003 = PGC 30214

10 20 11.2 +27 49 02

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (3/25/95): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.5'.  Located 4.1' NE of a mag 11 star.  A mag 7.7 star (SAO 81305) lies 13' SE at the edge of the field.

 

JH discovered NGC 3204 = h698 on 24 Dec 1827 and logged "F; L; 40" - 60"; gbM."  His position matches UGC 5580.

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NGC 3205 = UGC 5585 = MCG +07-21-042 = CGCG 211-046 = Holm 179a = WBL 264-002 = PGC 30254

10 20 50.0 +42 58 19

V = 13.2;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (4/9/94): second of three in a group.  Very similar appearance to NGC 3202 4.4' NW.  Fairly faint, small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE.  A mag 13 star is 1.0' WSW.  Appears to have a slightly higher surface brightness than NGC 3202 and brighter along the major axis.  A threshold star is superimposed NE of the core (GSC shows a mag 15 star 15" NE of center).  NGC 3207 lies 2.1' ENE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3205 = H II-721 = h699 on 3 Feb 1788 (sweep 804) and noted "F, vS, stellar."  JH recorded "vF; R; vgbM; 30"; the second of 3 [with NGC 3202 and 3207] in a triangle."

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NGC 3206 = WBL 265-001 = UGC 5589 = MCG +10-15-069 = CGCG 290-030 = PGC 30322

10 21 47.6 +56 55 50

V = 11.9;  Size 3.0'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): faint, fairly large, elongated 3:2 N-S, 2.5'x1.5', broad concentration.  A mag 13 star is just off the NNE end 2.1' from the center.  A pair of galaxies NGC 3214 and NGC 3220 lie 13' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3206 = H I-266 = h697 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and recorded "cB, pL, gbM, iF."  His position is just off the east side of UGC 5589.  JH called this galaxy "vF; L; E; vglbM; 2' l; 1 1/2' br" and measured a very accurate position.

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NGC 3207 = UGC 5587 = MCG +07-21-043 = CGCG 211-047 = Holm 179b = WBL 264-003 = PGC 30267

10 21 00.6 +42 59 07

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 73d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): fairly faint, small, almost round, even concentration down to very small core.  A mag 13.5 star is 2.0' S.  Third of three in a close trio with NGC 3205 2.1' WSW and NGC 3202 5.7' WNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3207 = H II-722 = h700 on 3 Feb 1788 (sweep 804) and logged "F, vS, stellar."  JH recorded "vF; R; vgbM; 30"; the last of 3 in a triangle [with NGC 3202 and 3205]."

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NGC 3208 = ESO 500-025 = MCG -04-25-003 = PGC 30180

10 19 41.3 -25 48 53

V = 12.7;  Size 1.8'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 20d

 

18" (4/10/04): faint, moderately large, round.  At 220x, appears as a low surface brightness glow with a very weak concentration, ~1.2' diameter.  Situated between two mag 10.5 stars - the closer is 1.6' due west and the second star is 3.0' due E!  Outlying member of AGC 1060?

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3208 = LM I-171 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is a reasonable match with ESO 500-025 (30 tsec too far west).  Herbert Howe measured an accurate RA in 1899-00at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver (mentioned in the IC 2 notes section)

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NGC 3209 = UGC 5584 = MCG +04-25-002 = CGCG 124-003 = PGC 30242

10 20 38.5 +25 30 18

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (3/25/95): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter.  Sharp concentration with a very small prominent core and stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 3.0' W of center.

 

Forms a pair with MCG +04-25-004 4.7' ENE (noted as "very faint, very small, round.  A mag 14.5 star is 1.2' NNE").  Brightest in a trio with UGC 5588 9.4' SSE (noted as "fairly faint, small, round, 30" diameter, weak concentration.  Forms a small isosceles triangle with two mag 12 stars 1.0' SSW and 1.2' E of center.  High surface brightness for a UGC galaxy").

 

JH discovered NGC 3209 = h701 on 19 Feb 1827 and recorded "F; R; 30"; has a star."  His position matches UGC 5584.

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NGC 3210

10 27 58.9 +79 49 57

Size 24"

 

17.5" (1/28/89): NGC 3210 is a pair of mag 13.5/14.5 stars at 24" separation located just 1' WNW of NGC 3212.  This double was easily resolved.

 

WH discovered NGC 3210 = H III-979 on 26 Sep 1802 (sweep 1111, his second to last sweep) and recorded  "The preceding [with III-980 = NGC 3212 and III-981 = NGC 3215] stellar; they are all in line and about 1' distance from each other.  The preceding is the most north, about 2' more than the last."  A pair of mag 13.5/14.5 stars at 24" separation is the only object matching his description with respect to the two nearby galaxies.

 

In the 1912 notes to WH's third catalogue, Dreyer states the RA for NGC 3210 requires a correction of +1.0 tmin in RA (probably based on an observation by Bigourdan) and this would match one or both of the stars. In 1892 William Denning reported "there are two or three faint stars in the place assigned for it [NGC 3210], but, like D'Arrest, I see no nebulosity [in a 10-inch reflector]."  Dorothy Carlson identifies this object as a star in her 1940 paper on NGC corrections.

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NGC 3211 = PK 286-4.1 = ESO 127-PN15 = PN G286.3-04.8

10 17 50.3 -62 40 14

V = 10.7;  Size 17"

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): Picked up unfiltered at 105x as a moderately bright, 15" disc.  Good contrast gain with UHC filter.  Appears bright, evenly illuminated with a well-defined bluish halo.  Appears to float in a beautifully rich Carina star field and centered within a parallelogram of mag 10.5 stars (sides ~9'x7').  Located 1.3¡ south of the mag 3.4 q Velorum.

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 171x and UHC filter this fine planetary appeared as a very bright, round disc, ~15" diameter, crisp-edged with a bluish hue.  Good filter response to UHC.  The surface brightness was very high and there was a hint of a slightly brighter rim.  Set in a rich Carina star field.

 

JH discovered NGC 3211 = h3242 on 7 Mar 1837 and recorded "planetary nebula, delicate, exactly round, = * 10 mag, a little dim at edges; white; with 320x considerably hazy. In field with at least 150 stars."  The next sweep he recorded "perfectly round; very well defined, with a perfectly uniform light, not at all mottled; = a star 10th mag, of which brightness there are 5 or 6 more in the field, and not less than 150 others less bright. Examined by both Mr Maclear and myself with 240x which shows it proportionally magnified; quite round and planetary; a little hazy at the edges, but not more so than is due to the decidedly bad definition of the night, and the imperfect figure of the mirror, which has been injured by careless polishing on too soft a polisher."

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NGC 3212 = Arp 181 NED1 = VV 319b = UGC 5643 = MCG +13-08-021 = CGCG 351-023 = PGC 30813

10 28 16.1 +79 49 23

V = 13.1;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 107d

 

17.5" (1/28/89): faint, very small, round.  A pair of mag 13.5/14.5 stars at 24" separation is 1' WNW (= NGC 3210).  Forms a pair with NGC 3215 1.2' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3212 = H III-980 on 26 Sep 1802 (sweep 1111, his second to last sweep) and recorded "Three, the place is that of the last [III-981].  The two last [NGC 3212 and 3215] vF and vS."

 

None of these 3 objects were included in WH's third catalogue as they were discovered just after his 500 discovery limit was reached on the previous object (NGC 3057).  JH added III-980 as one of the 8 "HON" objects ("[William] Herschel omitted nebulae") in the Appendix to his Cape Observations.  There are only two galaxies here that were measured accurately by d'Arrest and Bigourdan with III-979 = NGC 3210 a single or double star.

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NGC 3213 = UGC 5590 = MCG +03-27-004 = CGCG 094-008 = PGC 30283

10 21 17.3 +19 39 07

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 133d

 

17.5" (4/25/92): very faint, small, round, low almost even surface brightness.  Located 10' NE of mag 8.1 SAO 99075 and 21' SE of the striking double star Gamma Leonis (2.2/3.5 at 4.5").

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3213 = St XIII-58 on 13 Mar 1883.  His position matches UGC 5590.

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NGC 3214 = MCG +10-15-071 = CGCG 290-032 = Holm 182a = WBL 265-003 = PGC 30419

10 23 08.9 +57 02 20

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): first of two with NGC 3220 5.0' E.  Faint, very small, round, very small brighter core.  Bracketed by two mag 13.5 stars 0.8' W and 1.0' E.  NGC 3206 lies 13' SW.

 

Ralph Copeland discovered NGC 3214 on 9 Mar 1874 using LdR's 72" while observing GC 2082 = NGC 3220. He recorded "cB, vS, R, sbMN = * 11m, pos 277.3¡, dist 288.7"  It is in a line, Pos about 100¡, between 2 st, about 11m each, dist about 1.5'."  Copeland's offset from NGC 3220 matches CGCG 290-032 = PGC 30419.

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NGC 3215 = Arp 181 NED2 = VV 319a = UGC 5659 = MCG +13-08-022 = CGCG 350-055 = CGCG 351-024 = PGC 30840

10 28 40.4 +79 48 46

V = 13.0;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (1/28/89): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated.  Forms a close pair with NGC 3212 1.2' NW.  Collinear with NGC 3212 and pair of mag 13.5/14.5 stars 2.2' NW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3215 = H III-981 on 26 Sep 1802 (sweep 1111, his second to last sweep) and recorded "Three, the place is that of the last [III-981].  The two last [NGC 3212 and 3215] vF and vS." Caroline Herschel's reduced position is ~4' north of Arp 181 = UGC 5643 and UGC 5659.

 

None of these three objects were included in WH's third catalogue as they were discovered just after his 500 discovery limit was reached on the previous object (NGC 3057).  JH added III-981 as one of the 8 "HON" objects ("[William] Herschel omitted nebulae") in the Appendix to his Cape Observations.  There are only two galaxies here, that were measured accurately by d'Arrest and Bigourdan and NGC 3210 is either a star or wide double star.

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NGC 3216 = UGC 5593 = MCG +04-25-007 = CGCG 124-008 = PGC 30312

10 21 41.2 +23 55 23

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (3/25/95): faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 N-S, 0.9'x0.7', weak concentration.  Located 4.7' ENE of a mag 10.5 star.  Brightest in a group with UGC 5597 at 4.6' SE (not seen) and an anonymous galaxy 4.1' NNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3216 = H III-330 = h702 on 10 Apr 1785 (sweep 394) and noted "vF, pS, vlbM."  JH logged "eF; R; 20"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3217 = IC 606 = MCG +02-27-006 = CGCG 065-017 = Mrk 721 = VIII Zw 074 = Todd 29 = PGC 30448

10 23 32.6 +10 57 35

V = 14.5;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 30d

 

18" (3/11/07): faint, small, slightly elongated, 0.4'x0.3', weak concentration.  Situated in a small group of mag 13-14 stars and a mag 11.6 star 2.6' SE.  Discovered by David Todd in his search for a trans-Neptunian planet and equivalent to IC 606.

 

David Todd discovered NGC 3217 = Todd 29 on 4 Mar 1878 using the 26-inch Clark refractor at the US Naval Observatory during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet.  Todd's RA was only given to the nearest minute but Harold Corwin identifies NGC 3217 = CGCG 065-017 = PGC 30448 at 10 23 32.6 +10 57 35 (2000).  This galaxy is 2.1 tmin east of Todd's rough position and 4' north.  His sketch shows a nearby star whose position matches a mag 14 star and a closer star on his sketch also matches the DSS.

 

This galaxy was independently found by Stephane Javelle on 18 Apr 1893 at Nice, placed correctly, and later recatalogued as IC 606.  So, NGC 3217 = IC 606.  MCG and CGCG label this galaxy IC 606.  RNGC erroneously classifies NGC 3217 as nonexistent.

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NGC 3218 = NGC 3183 = UGC 5582 = MCG +12-10-028 = CGCG 351-018 = CGCG 333-023 = PGC 30323

10 21 49.4 +74 10 37

V = 11.9;  Size 2.3'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 170d

 

See observing notes for NGC 3183.

 

WH discovered NGC 3218 = H I-283 on 2 Apr 180 (sweep 1096) and recorded "cB, cL, er." This is one of 15 far northern galaxies with large systematic errors.  The corrected position using Greenwich plates (MN, 71, 509, 1911) matches UGC 5582.  See NGC 2938 for more on this sweep.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered this galaxy on 28 Sep 1865, measured an accurate position, and Dreyer catalogued it as NGC 3183, assuming it was new.  The primary designation of this galaxy is NGC 3183, despite the earlier discovery by WH.

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NGC 3219 = MCG +07-21-051 = CGCG 211-049 = Holm 184a = PGC 30383

10 22 37.4 +38 34 45

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  PA = 60d

 

18" (4/10/04): very faint, small, slightly elongated 0.5'x0.4', weak concentration.  Situated in the middle of a thin triangle of mag 11-12 stars with a 1.6' pair of mag 11.5/12 stars ~2.5' W and a mag 11 star 3' E.  Forms a close pair with MCG +07-21-049 1.8' NW, which was not seen with certainty.  Located 9.5' NE of mag 8.8 SAO 62000.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3219 = St XII-38 on 11 Apr 1882.  His position matches CGCG 211-049 = PGC 30383.  This galaxy is not in RC3 and for some reason is not plotted on the new version of the Uranometria 2000 Star Atlas.

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NGC 3220 = UGC 5614 = MCG +10-15-073 = CGCG 290-034 = IC 604 = Holm 182b = WBL 265-004 = PGC 30462

10 23 45.2 +57 01 38

V = 13.0;  Size 1.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 97d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): brighter of a pair with NGC 3214 5.0' W.  Fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:1 E-W, 1.5'x0.5', weak concentration.  Forms the west vertex of a near isosceles triangle with a mag 11 star 5.5' NE and a mag 10 star 6.5' ESE.  The mag 10 star is an unequal triple with two 14th magnitude companions at 18" and 27".

 

WH discovered NGC 3220 = H III-911 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and noted "vF, cL, iF."  CH's reduction matches UGC 5614.

 

Ralph Copeland, observing with the 72" on 9 Mar 1874, recorded "pF, L cE 91.5¡, *14 Pos 145.6¡, Dist 94", *8m Pos 102.1¡, Dist 393.3¡.  The NGC description is based on this observation although the mag 8 star is actually 6.5' in PA 102.

 

Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 8 Aug 1890, and reported it as new in list IX-22 (later IC 604).  Dreyer apparently missed the match in position, so NGC 3220 = IC 604.

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NGC 3221 = UGC 5601 = MCG +04-25-013 = CGCG 124-017 = PGC 30358

10 22 20.2 +21 34 07

V = 13.1;  Size 3.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 167d

 

17.5" (4/13/91): fairly faint, moderately large, edge-on 4:1 NNW-SSE, 3.0'x0.7', brighter middle but no nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 4.6' S of center.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 3221 on 1 Jan 1862 and noted "eF, incredibly thin, 90" length, mag 10 star 4' south."  His position is just off the north side of UGC 5601.

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NGC 3222 = UGC 5610 = MCG +03-27-011 = CGCG 094-018 = PGC 30377

10 22 34.5 +19 53 13

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (4/25/92): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, small bright core, faint halo.  A mag 14.5 star is just south of the west edge 0.6' from center.  A mag 11.5 star lies 2.9' S.  FIrst of three with the NGC 3226/3227 duo 13' E in field.

 

Friedrich August Winnecke discovered NGC 3222 = Au 27 in March 1855 with a 9.6-in Fraunhofer refractor at the Berlin Observatory, "while observing the double nebula [NGC 3226/3227]." He added "it is much fainter than both components, round and slightly brighter to the middle."  Using the Heliometer at Konigsberg, Auwers described it as "very faint, ~1' diam; star-like core 12-13m."  d'Arrest and Schultz also measure accurate micrometric positions, and Schultz called it "binuclear".

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NGC 3223 = ESO 375-012 = MCG -06-23-023 = LGG 196-005 = IC 2571 = PGC 30308

10 21 35.1 -34 16 01

V = 11.0;  Size 4.1'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 135d

 

18" (4/10/04): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 5:3 NW-SE, 2.0'x1.2'.  Increases to a moderately bright 30" core.  A mag 11 star is just off the SE end and one or two faint stars are superimposed in the halo.  This was a surprisingly easy galaxy and bright for a low elevation (~15 degrees).  Located about 1.5 degrees NW of the center of Antila cluster within the Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster.  NGC 3224 lies 26' S.

 

JH discovered NGC 3223 = h3243 on 2 Feb 1835 and recorded "pB; vL; vlE; pslbM; to a centre; diam 2'."  His position is on the northeast side of ESO 375-012.

 

Lewis Swift found the galaxy  on 30 Dec 1897, assumed it was new and logged in list XI-107 "vF; cS; R; mag 9 star close p close following."  His position is 28s of RA too far west.  Herbert Howe followed up Swift's observation using the 20" refractor in Denver and noted the mag 9 star follows by 9 sec and measured an accurate position.  So, NGC 3223 = IC 2571.

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NGC 3224 = ESO 375-013 = MCG -06-23-024 = LGG 196-006 = PGC 30314

10 21 41.2 -34 41 49

V = 12.0;  Size 1.9'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 133d

 

18" (4/10/04): fairly faint, failry small, slightly elongated, 0.8'x0.7'. Well-concentrated with a small, bright core.  Outlying member of the Antlia Cluster.  Found by starhopping from brighter NGC 3324 located 26' N.

 

JH discovered NGC 3224 = h3244 on 18 Apr 1835 and recorded "vF; R; pgmbM; 40"."  His position matches ESO 375-013.

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NGC 3225 = UGC 5631 = MCG +10-15-077 = CGCG 290-037 = PGC 30569

10 25 10.0 +58 09 00

V = 12.6;  Size 2.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, very weak concentration.  A mag 14 star is 1.2' NNE of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3225 = H II-882 = h703 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and noted "pB, pL, lE, bM."  His RA (CH's reduction) is 15 sec too small.  JH logged "pF; L; E; vgbM; 30" to 40"."

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NGC 3226 = Arp 94 NED1 = VV 209b = Holm 187b = UGC 5617 = MCG +03-27-015 = CGCG 094-026 = LGG 194-008 = PGC 30440

10 23 27.0 +19 53 54

V = 11.4;  Size 3.2'x2.8';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (4/25/92): moderately bright and large, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, smoothly increases from halo to a bright core and an almost stellar nucleus.  The halo extends to almost 2' diameter with averted vision and fades into background.  Forms a striking pair with NGC 3227 at the south side with 2.3' separation between centers.  The outer halo is just in contact with NGC 3227 at the SSE edge.  NGC 3222 lies 13' W.

 

13.1" (4/16/83): fairly faint, broad concentration to a brighter middle.

 

WH discovered NGC 3226 = H II-28 on 15 Feb 1784 (sweep 146) and recorded "Two nebula almost close together.  Perhaps 1 1/2 or 2' asunder, they are pretty considerable in size and of a roundish form; but not cometic; they are vF."  His position was 17' too far north, but d'Arrest and Schultz measured accurate positions used in the GC and NGC.

 

Father Secchi made an independent discovery of NGC 3226 and 3227 on 6 Mar 1853 with a 9.5" Merz refractor and announced it in the AN.  He mentioned the object is "not listed in Herschel's Observations of nebulae and clusters of stars [Slough catalogue]."  Like a number of observers he missed the prior discovery by WH as he probably only checked the Slough catalogue and WH's position was quite poor.

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NGC 3227 = Arp 94 NED2 = VV 209a = Holm 187a = UGC 5620 = MCG +03-27-016 = CGCG 094-028 = LGG 194-009 = PGC 30445

10 23 30.6 +19 51 55

V = 10.3;  Size 5.4'x3.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (4/25/92): fairly bright, fairly bright, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 2.5'x1.0', prominent very small high surface brightness core, striking stellar nucleus.  Just in contact with NGC 3226 at the NW tip 2.3' separation between cores.  Brightest of three with NGC 3222 13' W.

 

13.1" (4/16/83): fairly bright, elongated, bright core, stellar nucleus.  This Seyfert galaxy forms a contact system with NGC 3226 2' NNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3227 = H II-29 on 15 Feb 1784 (sweep 146), along with NGC 3226. JH did not make an observation.  See notes for NGC 3226.

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NGC 3228 = ESO 214-SC001 = Cr 218

10 21 22 -51 43 24

V = 6.0;  Size 18'

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): bright, 15' open cluster in Vela.  Prominent in 9x50 finder and easy in 10x30 IS binoculars.  The main portion consists of 9 mag 8-10 stars.  Scattered about are a few additional mag 9 and 10 stars in a 15' field.  Perhaps 3 dozen stars total are within the boundary, though besides the bright stars the remaining are mostly mag 13-14 and appear to be a random background scattering of stars in a rich Milky Way field.

 

Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered NGC 3228 = Lac II-7 = D 386 = h3245 in 1751-1752 with a 1/2-inch telescope at 8x, during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope.  He described a "group of four or five faint and very close stars."  James Dunlop observed the cluster on 9 May 1826 and noted "11 Roboris Caroli. A group of 8 or 10 pretty bright small stars, with very small stars, about 6' diameter."  JH recorded (single observation) "a group of 9 L, and a few scattered small stars."

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NGC 3229

10 23 24.3 +00 03 54

 

=**, Corwin.  Incorrect identification in the RNGC.

 

Sidney Coolidge discovered NGC 3229 = HN 16 on 31 Mar 1850 with the 15-inch refractor of Harvard College Observatory during the Zone Survey of equatorial stars.  He simply noted a "faint nebulous object", but at his exact position is a double star at 10 23 24.3 +00 03 54.  The RNGC misidentifies CGCG 009-008 as NGC 3229.  This galaxy is located 1.6 min of RA west and 12' north of Coolidge's position. See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 3230 = UGC 5624 = MCG +02-27-007 = CGCG 065-020 = PGC 30463

10 23 44.0 +12 33 59

V = 12.8;  Size 2.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 115d

 

17.5" (3/22/96): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 1.0'x0.7'.  Fairly sharp concentration with a small bright core and occasional stellar nucleus.  Unusual appearance with a mag 10 star superimposed at the south edge.  Forms a pair with UGC 5625 4' NNE.

 

JH discovered NGC 3230 = h705 on 24 Mar 1830 and recorded (the next sweep) "A very close D* of the first class involved in a nebulous wisp.  A most curious, delicate and interesting object."  His position matches UGC 05624.

 

In 1885, Herbert Sadler of England claimed to detect a change in the position (proper motion) relative to a nearby double star.  Dreyer replied that there was no evidence of motion.

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NGC 3231

10 26 58 +66 48 42

Size 2.5'

 

18" (3/5/05): 16 stars are visible in an 8' region.  The stars are distributed into two groups oriented NW-SE.  The northwest group stands out more distinctly as it is a bit richer and more compact (~2.5' diameter) and contains a mag 11.5/13 pair at 18".  The sparser SE group also contains a mag 13 pair at 17".  At the SE edge of the 225x field (9' SE of the NW grouping) is mag 7.9 HD 90318.  Listed as an asterism in the RNGC.

 

JH discovered NGC 3231 = h704 on 3 Apr 1832 NGC 3231 and recorded "A cluster of 20 stars more or less, 10,11, and 12m, scattered over a space of 10' dia. A star 7m south."  Heinrich d'Arrest noted the principal star was double.  This grouip is apparently an asterism although it stands out well on the DSS, being detached from the surrounding field.

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NGC 3232 = MCG +05-25-004 = CGCG 154-008 = PGC 30508

10 24 24.3 +28 01 40

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (3/25/95): very faint, very small, round, 25" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Located 2.5' NE of a mag 10 star.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 3235 7.7' E.

 

This is a superposed (merging?) pair of galaxies, though it was not seen as double.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 3232, along with NGC 3235, on 29 Dec 1861.  His single position and description (he mentions a mag 11-12 star is 150" southwest) matches ESO 568-001.

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NGC 3233 = ESO 568-001 = MCG -04-25-004 = LGG 195-002 = AM 1019-220 = PGC 30336

10 21 57.5 -22 16 04

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (4/13/02): faint, small, elongated nearly 2:1 NW-SE, 1.0'x0.6', irregular surface brightness.  There is possibly a very faint envelope surrounding the main bar.  Located 16' NNE of mag 6.5 HD 89828.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3233 = LM I-172 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.   His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 1 min of time west of ESO 568-001.  Herbert Howe's corrected position (given in the IC 2 Notes section) is accurate.

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NGC 3234 = NGC 3235? = UGC 5635 = MCG +05-25-007 = CGCG 154-010 = PGC 30553

10 24 59.3 +28 01 26

 

See observing notes for NGC 3235.

 

JH discovered NGC 3234 = h706 on 24 Dec 1827 and noted "pB; R: psbM; 30"."  There is nothing at his positin, though his brightness estimate of "pB" implies a duplicate observation (with a bad position) of a reasonably bright galaxy.  In the GC, JH mentions it could be a comet.

 

This object was not found in six attempts at Birr Castle (1852-56), and Reinmuth and Carlson also reported it not found, based on photographic searches.  In the NGC Notes section, Dreyer states that NGC 3234 is probably identical to NGC 3235 with a 1 degree error in declination.  In the IC 1 notes, though, Dreyer states that ­ NGC 3235 as both were seen by William Frederick Denning.  Nevertheless, Corwin concludes "NGC 3234 is almost certainly = NGC 3235."

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NGC 3235 = NGC 3234? = UGC 5635 = MCG +05-25-007 = CGCG 154-010 = PGC 30553

10 24 59.3 +28 01 26

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (3/25/95): faint, small, round, 40" diameter, slightly brighter core, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star is 3.1' NNW.  Brightest in a group with NGC 3232 7.7' W and IC 2572 4.7' NNE.  IC 2572 appeared extremely faint, small, very elongated ~N-S, although difficult to determine exact orientation as could only glimpse.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 3235, along with NGC 3232, on 29 Dec 1861.  His position, measured on 3 nights, matches UGC 5635 = PGC 30553 and he noted a mag 15 star precedes by 5.7 seconds of time, at a separation of 195" [SSW].  NGC 3234 is probably a duplicate (earlier) observation by JH with an erroneous position.  See notes for NGC 3234.

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NGC 3236 = MCG +10-15-081 = CGCG 290-040 = PGC 30711

10 26 48.5 +61 16 23

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is 1.5' ESE and a mag 12 star 2.8' SE.  Located 4.0' NE of a mag 10.5 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 3236 = h707 on 25 Mar 1832 and recorded "eF; S; psbM; 8"; 2 st 11 and 12m follow." His position matches CGCG 290-040 = PGC 30711.

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NGC 3237 = UGC 5640 = MCG +07-22-003 = CGCG 212-007 = PGC 30610

10 25 43.3 +39 38 47

V = 13.0;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (4/13/02): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter, brighter core.  An uneven mag 12/14 double is 3' N and trailing from this pair is a string of three mag 10.5-11.5 (total length including double of 10').

 

WH discovered NGC 3237 = H III-631 = h709 on 18 Mar 1787 (sweep 716) and noted "vF, vS.  With 300 the same."  CH's reduced position is 6' south-southeast of UGC 5640, but there are no other nearby candidates.  JH logged "pF; R; S; pgbM; 10-12" dia."  His position is marked as very uncertain, but his dec is just 1' south of UGC 5640.

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NGC 3238 = UGC 5649 = MCG +10-15-080 = CGCG 290-041 = PGC 30686

10 26 43.0 +57 13 35

V = 12.9;  Size 1.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (4/9/94): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, even concentration with brighter core and faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with MCG +10-15-079 5.4' NW.  NGC 3220 lies 27' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3238 = H II-883 = h708 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and noted "F, S, R, bM."  His position (CH's reduction) is just 1' NE of UGC 5649.  JH logged "Not vF; R; pslbM; 20"."

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NGC 3239 = Arp 263 = VV 95 = UGC 5637 = MCG +03-27-025 = CGCG 094-038 = PGC 30560

10 25 05.5 +17 09 35

V = 11.3;  Size 5.0'x3.3';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 80d

 

48" (5/4/16): NGC 3239 was examined at 488x, specifically looking for the two tidal tails not seen in the previous observation with Lowrey's 48".  A very faint curving tail or hook (identified as "Tail A" in Krienke & Hodge's 1990 paper "The structure of the irregular galaxy, NGC 3239") was seen extending from the very bright HII knot (VV 95b) on the southeast side.  It curves clockwise to the southeast in the direction of a mag 15.8 star [2' ESE of the mag 10 superimposed star].

 

Beyond the west end of the main glow is a fairly wide, very low surface brightness glow (the start of "Tail B") in the direction of a mag 12.5 star (2.4' due W of the bright star); it then sweeps broadly towards the south.  A narrow extension heading southwest ends at a faint HII knot, perhaps 6" diameter, which is identified in NED as NGC 3239:[HK83] 75 and 80.

 

48" (2/19/12): NGC 3239 = Arp 263 is a large, disrupted irregular, dominated by numerous HII regions.  It was a fascinating sight at 488x.  A mag 10 star is superimposed on the southwest side of the galaxy with the patchy, highly irregular surface brightness glow of the galaxy extending mainly north and east of the star.

 

A very bright, round knot of ~15" diameter is prominent on the southeast side of the galaxy.  This HII complex is catalogued as VV 95b in NED and as region #6 and #10 in Hodge-Kennicutt's 1983 "An Atlas of HII Regions in 125 Galaxies".  A faint star or knot is attached on the north side.  A "star" recorded just off the west side of this knot turns out to be supernova SN 2012A, discovered on 7 Jan 2012, still currently around 14th magnitude (see image at http://skycenter.arizona.edu/gallery/Galaxies/ngc3239).  Very faint haze extends southeast of VV 95b, but the "tail" structure was not seen. 

 

Along the north side of the galaxy (elongated east-west) are several additional knots.  About 30" due north of VV 95B is HK[83] #3 and #4.  This close pair of knots appeared as a faint, small, irregular glow, ~6" diameter.  Patchy haze is just west, but with no condensed spots. Further west, and 40" due north of the mag 10 star, is a moderately bright, small, round knot, ~10" diameter that has several HK[83] entries (#28/29/31/34).  To the west of this knot, the glow of the galaxy ends near HK[83] #57/58, a faint low surface brightness knot that is elongated N-S.

 

18" (3/28/09): moderately bright and large, irregular shape and mottled appearance, elongated ~2:1 E-W, ~1.0'x0.5'.  A mag 9.5 star is superimposed on the SW side with the brighter portion of the galaxy extending to the east.  On the SW end of the galaxy is a bright HII knot (VV 95B = Hodge-Kennicutt #10) of ~20" diameter.  The galaxy has a patchy surface brightness with an ill-defined, irregular halo.  A number of fainter galaxies are in the field (background cluster) including CGCG 94-42 2.9' SE, CGCG 94-40 4.8' N, CGCG 94-43 6.3' NNE, UGC 5639 8' NE, CGCG 94-39 8.5' N, CGCG 94-46 8.5' SE.

 

17.5" (4/13/91): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 E-W, very unusual appearance as a mag 9 star (BD+17 2217) is superimposed on the south side.  An unusually bright knot is following the bright star by 51" on the SE side of the galaxy. This is possibly an offset nucleus or more likely an HII knot.  The galaxy appears to extend to the west from this knot.  The galaxy exhibits an irregular surface brightness with edges difficult to define as it fades into the background.  The halo is more extensive to the north with averted vision.  About 2' NW and 2' W are two mag 11 and 12 stars.

 

WH discovered NGC 3239 = H IV-10 = h710 = h3246 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 181)and recorded "A pretty considerable star, with a milky vF brush after it.  The position of the brush is about 15 or 20¡ nf.  With 240 I saw 2 vF stars towards the confines of the brush; but they seemed to have no connection with it.  The bright star is the following one of a triangle, the preceding stars of which are a little smaller.  It precedes a large star 3 1/2 min of time and is 2' more north."  His description and position applies to Arp 263 = VV 95.

 

10 observations were made at Birr Castle, with knots in NGC 3239 mentioned several times.  On 10 Jan 1856, R.J. Mitchell commented "A knot north of the star and another nff, the space between them and the star is filled with faint mottled nebulosity.  A star suspected in np end of the following knot.  A very faint nebula suspected following?".  The last comment probably refers to CGCG 094-042, which is 3' ESE.

 

On the POSS, the bright knot on the southeast end seems like it could be an interacting galaxy but on the SDSS it looks like a large, blue HII region.  Also the area immediately north seems dusty.  Contains unusual asymmetric arcs to the south as if very disturbed.  This galaxy has a listed redshift of only 0.0025, while the surrounding galaxies (6 viewed on 3/28/09) have a redshift of z = .044.

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NGC 3240 = ESO 568-003 = MCG -04-25-007 = LGG 195-003 = PGC 30515

10 24 30.6 -21 47 28

V = 13.2;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 78d

 

17.5" (2/22/03): faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 E-W, 0.8'x0.6', weak concentration.  A mag 14 star is 0.8' SSE of center just outside the halo.

 

JH's position (h3247) from two observations matches E568-003 = M-04-25-007.

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NGC 3241 = ESO 436-016 = MCG -05-25-002 = PGC 30498

10 24 16.9 -32 28 58

V = 12.2;  Size 2.2'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 123d

 

18" (4/10/04): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 4:3 NW-SE, 1.3'x1.0'.  Weak concentration with no distinguishable core.  A mag 11 star is close off the NW edge, 1.4' from center and the galaxy is elongated in the direction of the star.  Scattered groups of mag 10 stars lie ~20' E and a similar distance west.  Outlying member of the Antlia cluster.

 

JH's dec (h3249) is exactly 1' N of E436-016 = M-05-25-002.

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NGC 3242 = Eye Nebula = Ghost of Jupiter = PK 261+32.1 = ESO 568-PN5 = PN G261.0+32.0

10 24 46.1 -18 38 32

V = 7.3;  Size 40"x35"

 

48" (4/18/15): In addition to structure previously noted, the sharply defined inner ring clearly has lower surface brightness extensions at the northwest and southeast end, creating an inner lens.  The bulge on the northwest end is a bit larger and brighter, though the southeast end of the ring has a slightly brighter knot.

 

Two galaxies are nearby.  PGC 155202, 3.9' SSW of NGC 3242, is fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, 20"x15", very weak concentration.  A mag 11.2 star lies 1.9' NE.  PGC 155215, 3.4' SE of NGC 3242, is faint, small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, 15"x12", low surface brightness.  A mag 14 star lies 0.6' WNW and a mag 10 star is 2' E.

 

48" (2/18/12): at 814x, the multiple ring structure was remarkable.  The small, dark central hole and bright central star is surrounded by an beautiful inner lens, elongated 3:2 NW-SE.  This vivid turquoise lens is brighter at the ends of the major axis and bulges out with an extension on the northwest end.  Surrounding the lens is a broader halo or shell with a rounder outline, ~45"x35" NW-SE.  This shell has a distinctive light pink or salmon color.  Highlighting the very edge of this shell is an extremely thin, slightly brighter greenish ring.  A low surface brightness outer halo surrounds the planetary.

 

48" (4/1/11): stunning view at 488x with a high contrast, high surface brightness double ring structure and an outer third shell.  The small inner lens has an electric turquoise color and is elongated 3:2 NW-SE, ~25"x15".  At the southeast end of the major axis of the inner ring is a well-defined, bright knot.  The irregular inner ring is also brighter and thicker along the northwest end, though not as bright or sharply defined as the southeast knot.  The dim central portion is punctuated by the bright central star.  The outer ring is rounder and extends ~45"x35" NW-SE, with the limb unevenly lit.  The greenish color is not as intense in the outer ring.  Between the two main rings the nebulosity has a pinkish hue.  The main structure was surrounded by a low surface brightness outer halo, at least 1.5' diameter, which significantly increased the total size!

 

18" (4/9/05): at 435x, the double shell structure was prominent and exhibited filametary structure outside the inner ring.

 

17.5" (3/25/00): this beautiful PN has a very high surface brightness and a bluish color at 100x.  The view at 280x-380x is stunning with a well-defined double shell structure.  The bright, narrow inner ring is surrounded by a second fainter oval envelope.  Inside the bright lens is a dark, 10" donut-hole with a faint central star marking the center.  In moments of steady seeing, the inner ring has a hard-edge and the central star is easier.

 

17.5" (1/31/87): at 415x appears very bright, fairly small, bluish color, central star is visible.  Prominent double lens structure with a bright inner lens surrounded by a second fainter elliptical shell.  Stunning at high power with a striking "eye" appearance with a darker center.

 

13" (3/24/84): very bright, bright inner lens surrounded by a second fainter elliptical shell.  At 350x there is a darker center to the inner lens and the central star is visible almost continuously.

 

WH discovered NGC 3242 = H IV-27 = h3248 on 7 Feb 1785 (sweep 368) and described this bright planetary as "a beautiful, very brilliant globe of light; a little hazy on the edges, but the haziness goes off very suddenly, so as not to exceed the 20th part of the diameter, which I suppose to be from 30 to 40" in diameter. It is round, or perhaps a very little elliptical, and all over of an uniform brightness: I suppose the intensity of its light to be equal to that of a star of the 9th magnitude."  On a second observation he logged "Beautiful, brilliant, planetary disk, ill defined, but uniformly bright, the light of the colour of Jupiter. 40" diameter. Second observation, near 1' diameter by estimation."  Interestingly, this is perhaps the only example where WH referred to a color in a planetary.

 

The double ring structure was described at Birr Castle, as well as the northwest extension of the inner ring. On 6 Apr 1863 Samuel Hunter noted,"Outer ring is brightest n and s and fainter p, but vF on sf side, it does not appear so blue as the inner and brighter one....The little projection of np end of the bright ring is very marked." E.E. Barnard and Sherburne Burnham observed the planetary with the 36-inch at Lick Observatory on 25 Feb 1889.  Barnard described in his logbook "a glowing star in center of dark space, this in in parallelogram or diamond shape  () of beautiful bluish green.  This in an elliptical rose colored disc."

 

Admiral Smyth noted the planetary "resembles Jupiter" in his "Cycle of Celestial Objects" (1844), following HerschelÕs comment.  But the nickname "Ghost of Jupiter" was apparently first used by Captain William Noble.  In the 1882 issue of Knowledge, he wrote "It will be a seen as a pale-blue disc, looking just like the ghost of Jupiter." He repeated this description in "Hours with a Three-Inch Telescope" (London and New York, 1886).  William Tyler Olcott also stated "It will be seen like a pale blue disk, like a ghost of jupiter" in his 1909 book "In Starland with a Three-Inch telescopeÓ.

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NGC 3243 = UGC 5652 = MCG +00-27-012 = CGCG 009-003 = PGC 30655

10 26 21.4 -02 37 20

V = 12.6;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 125d

 

17.5" (3/29/97): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter, moderate concentration to a very small brighter core and occasional stellar nucleus (possibly offset from center).  Located 1.5' SE of a mag 10.5 star and a similar star is 4' NNE.  IC 609 lies 27' NNW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3243 = Sw III-54 on 2 Apr 1886 and noted "vF; S; lE; between a pB and a vF *."  His position is 10 tsec west and 1' south of UGC 5652 and the description fits.

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NGC 3244 = ESO 317-024 = MCG -07-22-005 = PGC 30594

10 25 28.9 -39 49 41

V = 12.3;  Size 2.0'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): faint, very diffuse, almost round.  A mag 11 star is 1.9' N.  Located 14' NW of NGC 3250.

 

JH discovered NGC 3244 = h4019 on 22 Apr 1835 and recorded "vF; above a * 11m, dist 1.5'."  It was included in a "supplementary nebulae" list at the end of the Cape catalogue (h4016 to h4021) which Dreyer identified as "h o n" ([John] Herschel Omitted Object) in the NGC.  His position and description matches ESO 317-024.

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NGC 3245 = UGC 5663 = MCG +05-25-013 = CGCG 154-017 = PGC 30744

10 27 18.4 +28 30 26

V = 10.8;  Size 3.2'x1.8';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 177d

 

17.5" (3/29/97): bright, fairly large, elongated ~3:2 N-S, 2.2'x1.3'.  Unusually bright 30" core, increases to a very small but nonstellar nucleus.  The faint edge-on NGC 3345A = UGC 5662 lies 8.8' NNW.

 

NGC 3345A appeared extremely faint, thin edge-on 7:1 NNW-SSE, ~2.0'x0.3'.  Requires averted vision and concentration to glimpse, no noticeable concentration.  Surprisingly low surface brightness and might not have been noticed unless aware of position. The major axis points just north of a mag 11.5 star 2.1' NW of center. Also a mag 12 star is 2.4' N.

 

WH discovered NGC 3245 = H I-86 = h711 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "cB, pL, mbM, the greatest brightness lE."  JH made 4 observations and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3246 = UGC 5661 = MCG +01-27-009 = CGCG 037-037 = PGC 30684

10 26 41.8 +03 51 43

V = 12.7;  Size 2.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (3/25/00): faint, moderately large, oval 3:2 E-W, broad weak concentration, 1.5'x1.0'.  Forms the northern vertex of an equilateral triangle with two mag 11.5-12.5 stars 2.8' SW and 3.0' SSW of center.  Located 9' SW of mag 6.7 SAO 118299.

 

JH discovered NGC 3246 = h712 on 9 Apr 1828 and recorded "eF; S; R: two stars, 10 and 11m sp, dist 90"."  HIs position and description matches UGC 5661.

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NGC 3247 = ESO 127-SC18 = Westerlund 2 = OCL-807 = Gum 29 = RCW 49

10 24 13 -57 45 48

Size 6'x4'

 

14" (4/4/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x and 230x): NGC 3247 consists of a compact cluster (often referred to as Westerlund 2), one of the most massive young star clusters known in the Milky Way and a large, irregular H II region (RCW 49) with star-forming pillars similar to the Eagle Nebula.  At 230x, the cluster extends ~1.5', but the richest part is dense, elongated clump only 45" long with a half-dozen tightly packed mag 13.5-14 stars resolved in an WNW-ESE string.  Located 12' N of mag 5.8 HD 90289.

 

At 142x, fairly faint emission haze was easily visible in an irregular 2.5' region just to the east of the knot of stars. A mag 12 star is embedded near the center of the nebula, a mag 11.5 star is just off the north edge and a few additional stars are involved.  Adding a NPB filter, RCW 49 is a fairly bright, irregular nebula!  The brightest part (centered on the star) is roughly circular with a well-defined northern boundary, but it spreads further south and southwest to a ~4'x3' region.

 

Cr 220 (often misidentified as NGC 3247) is located ~15' SE of the NGC 3247 complex in the same low power field.  Roughly three dozen stars were resolved at 142x in a 6' circle, with the central part slightly condensed.  The brightest mag 9.8 star is at the north end with a mag 12 companion [13" separation].  A small quadrilateral of mag 13-13.5 stars [sides 14", 14", 18", 17"] is on the southwest side.  No involved nebulosity was seen.

 

JH discovered NGC 3247 = h3250 on 1 Apr 1834 and described "a curious object. Stars involved in evident nebula."  The next sweep he logged, "there is a nebulous appearance, which merits re-examination. Observed much past meridian, and no reliance on the PD [polar distance]."  A third observation only has a very approximate polar distance. His rough (mean) position is 10 24.8 -57 51 (2000).

 

Using a Harvard plate, DeLisle Stewart identified NGC 3247 at 10 23 58 -57 48.5 (2000), and Dreyer repeated this position in the IC 2 notes.  Brian Skiff places NGC 3247 more accurately at 10 24 01 -57 45.6, corresponding with ESO 127-SC18 = Westerlund 2.  This compact cluster (~1.5' dia) is embedded in the HII region RCW 49 = Gum 29, which spreads out ~10' in size.  ESO and Lynga misidentify Cr 220 as NGC 3247.  This group of stars is 1.0 tmin following and 5' south of JH's position.

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NGC 3248 = UGC 5669 = MCG +04-25-020 = CGCG 124-024 = PGC 30776

10 27 45.4 +22 50 49

V = 12.4;  Size 2.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (3/25/95): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 0.8x0.4, sharp concentration with a bright prominent core and stellar nucleus.  A mag 13.5 star lies 1.7' S of center.  Located 6.5' S of mag 9.1 SAO 81359.

 

WH discovered NGC 3248 = H II-347 = h713 on 10 Apr 1785 (sweep 394) and noted "pB, S, bM, r."  His position is a good match with UGC 5669.

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NGC 3249 = ESO 375-024 = MCG -06-23-028 = LGG 203-001 = PGC 30657

10 26 22.1 -34 57 50

V = 12.9;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 139d

 

18" (4/10/04): extremely faint, moderately large, round, 1.0' diameter.  Requires averted vision and concentration to glimpse a very low surface brightness circular patch with no details.  Located 4.3' SE of a mag 10.5 star. Member of the Antlia Cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 3249 = h3251 on 2 Feb 1835 and recorded "eF; pL; R; vgvlbM; 60"."  His position matches ESO 375-024 = PGC 30657.

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NGC 3250 = ESO 317-026 = MCG -07-22-007 = PGC 30671

10 26 32.3 -39 56 39

V = 11.1;  Size 2.8'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 148d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, bright core.  A mag 12 star is 3.8' NE.  Forms a pair with NGC 3244 14' NW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3250 = h3252 on 1 Feb 1835 and recorded "pB; R; psbM; 30"; has a * 13m nf."  His position (measured accurately on 4 other sweeps) and description matches ESO 317-026 = PGC 30671.

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NGC 3251 = UGC 5684 = MCG +04-25-023 = CGCG 124-029 = IC 2579 = Holm 195a = PGC 30892

10 29 16.8 +26 05 57

V = 13.3;  Size 2.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (4/13/91): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 4:1 SW-NE, weak concentration.  Located 7' SW of mag 8.8 SAO 81378.  A group of three stars are SW including a mag 10 star 3.4' SW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 3251 on 19 Feb 1862 and recorded "vF, pL, 3 bright star precede to the south." There is nothing at his position, but exactly 1.0 min of time following is UGC 5684, and his comments of the 3 stars pins down the identification.

 

Stephane Javelle found the galaxy again on 2 Apr 1900, assumed it was new, and recorded the position accurately in list III-1158.  Dreyer must have realized the possible equivalence with NGC 3251 as he added the note "?3251" to the description of IC 2579.  So, NGC 3251 = IC 2579.  UGC labels this galaxy IC 2579.

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NGC 3252 = UGC 5732 = MCG +12-10-049 = CGCG 333-039 = PGC 31278

10 34 22.6 +73 45 51

V = 13.5;  Size 2.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (1/28/89): fairly faint, fairly small, edge-on 4:1 NNW-SSE.  A double star ·1437 = 7.6/10.1 at 32" lies 5' N.

 

WH discovered NGC 3252 = H III-316 on 3 Apr 1785 (sweep 390) and noted "eF, mE, pL, r."  CH's reduced position is 6.5' northwest of UGC 5732, though in the GC, JH noted "CH's reduction of this nebula being affected with a considerable error, Auwer's RA is adopted, after verification."  But the GC/NGC position is even forther off in RA (too far west by 2.0 min of time) than CH's reduction.

 

An accurate position was given in MN, 71, 509 (based on the Greenwich plate to determine positions on the sweep of 2 Apr 1801).  UGC does not label its entry (UGC 5732) as NGC 3252.  See Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 3253 = UGC 5674 = MCG +02-27-021 = CGCG 065-043 = PGC 30829

10 28 27.4 +12 42 14

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

17.5" (3/25/00): very faint, fairly small, round, 45" diameter, low surface brightness, very weak concentration.  Located 3' S of a mag 10.8 star.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3253 = Sw III-55 on 27 Apr 1886 and noted "vF, pS, R."  His position is 6 tsec west and 1' south of UGC 5674 = PGC 30829.  Spitaler measured an accurate RA in 1891.

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NGC 3254 = UGC 5685 = MCG +05-25-018 = CGCG 154-020 = PGC 30895

10 29 19.9 +29 29 30

V = 11.7;  Size 5.0'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 46d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): moderately bright, moderately large, edge-on 4:1 SW-NE, 3.0'x0.8', sharp concentration with small oval core surrounded by faint unconcentrated extensions, occasional very faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star is 2.9' W and a pair of mag 10 stars at 1.2' separation follows by 6'.

 

WH discovered NGC 3254 = H I-72 = h714 on 13 Mar 1785 (sweep 386) and recorded "cB, cL, E, mbM.  The brightness [core] also extended."  His position is just off the west side of UGC 5685.  R.J. Mitchell noted "dark spaces suspected" in his 20 Mar 1854 observation at Birr Castle.

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NGC 3255 = ESO 127-SC20 = Cr 221

10 26 31 -60 40 42

V = 11.0;  Size 2'

 

14" (4/4/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x and 184x): small, glowing spot only 1' diameter at 142x.  A half-dozen stars are resolved over haze at 184x. A mag 12.5-13 star is at the southeast edge and a mag 13.5 star is on the south side of the main clump.  Most of the others are mag 14-14.5.

 

JH discovered NGC 3255 = h3253 on 4 Feb 1835 NGC 3255 and described "a very compressed knot or cluster of milky way stars, 4' in diameter, somewhat insulated from the rest. Stars .. 15th mag."  This small cluster shows up fairly well on the DSS.

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NGC 3256 = ESO 263-038 = MCG -07-22-010 = VV 65 = LGG 198-001 = PGC 30785

10 27 51.1 -43 54 19

V = 11.5;  Size 3.8'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 100d

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): this disturbed galaxy appeared as a moderately bright and large oval, extended 3:2 NW-SE with dimensions 1.6'x1.2'.  It contains a fairly bright 1' round core embedded in a very faint halo.  NGC 3256 is the furthest north and the brightest in a group of Vela galaxies stretching south to NGC 3261, located 46' to the SSE.

 

This group is a member of the Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster and possible outlying member of the Antlia Cluster (9 degrees north).  This cluster was first catalogued as Klemola 12.  On photographs NGC 3256 is a chaotic system that appears to be undergoing a spectacular merger with long tidal tails.  This starburst galaxy is a superluminous infrared source with X-ray emission.

 

JH discovered NGC 3256 = h3254 on 15 Mar 1836 and recorded "B, R, gmbM, 25"."  His position (measured on two sweeps) matches ESO 263-038.

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NGC 3257 = ESO 375-036 = MCG -06-23-031 = LGG 203-004 = PGC 30849

10 28 47.1 -35 39 29

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

18" (3/17/07): faint, fairly small, round, 0.4' diameter, weak concentration with no definite core.  Faintest of trio with NGC 3258 3.4' NNE and NGC 3260 5.4' NE in the Antlia Cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 3257 = h3255 on 2 May 1834 and recorded "vF; vS; R; sbM; 10".  The preceding of a group [with NGC 3258 and 3260]."  His mean position (3 observations) matches ESO 375-036.

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NGC 3258 = ESO 375-037 = MCG -06-23-032 = LGG 196-008 = PGC 30859

10 28 53.6 -35 36 20

V = 11.5;  Size 2.9'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 75d

 

18" (3/17/07): fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated, ~1.7'x1.5', sharply concentrated with a very bright core which increases to the center, very faint outer halo.  A mag 13 star is at the NW side of the halo (50" from center).  Brightest in trio with NGC 3260 2.6' ENE and NGC 3257 3.4' SSW

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, small, round, bright core.  A pair of stars are near north.  Forms a pair with NGC 3260 2.6' E in the Antlia Cluster (NGC 3257-3281).

 

JH discovered NGC 3258 = h3256 on 2 May 1834 and recorded "vF; S; R; sbM; 12"."  He observed this galaxy (along with NGC 3257 and 3258) on 4 nights.

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NGC 3259 = UGC 5717 = MCG +11-13-027 = CGCG 313-021 = PGC 31145

10 32 34.8 +65 02 28

V = 12.1;  Size 2.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 20d

 

17.5" (4/6/91): fairly faint, oval elongated SSW-NNE, broad moderate concentration.  Located 10' WNW of mag 8.4 SAO 15220.  NGC 3266 lies 20' SSE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3259 = H II-870 = h715 on 3 Apr 1791 (sweep 1004) and logged "F, S, iR, almost of equal light throughout." JH noted "F; R; gbM; 18 arcseconds" and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3260 = ESO 375-040 = MCG -06-23-033 = LGG 200-001 = PGC 30875

10 29 06.4 -35 35 43

V = 12.6;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 2d

 

18" (3/17/07): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 N-S, 0.5'x0.3', slightly brighter core.  A mag 12.5 star is attached at the south end.  In a small triio with NGC 3258 2.6' WSW and NGC 3257 5.4' SW.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): very faint, small, oval.  A mag 12 star is attached at the south end 0.4' from center.  Forms a pair with NGC 3258 2.6' W.  Member of the Antlia Cluster (NGC 3257-3281).

 

JH discovered NGC 3260 = h3257 on 2 May 1834 (along with NGC 3257 and 3258) and recorded "eF; vS; R; slbM; 6"."  He recorded 4 observations.

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NGC 3261 = ESO 263-040 = MCG -07-22-015 = LGG 198-003 = PGC 30868

10 29 01.4 -44 39 25

V = 11.2;  Size 3.7'x2.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 85d

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 ~WSW-ENE, 1.4'x0.7', weak concentration.  Bracketed between two mag 12 stars at the SW and NE ends (separation 2.6').  Located 4' SE of a mag 10 star in a rich Vela starfield.  NGC 3261 is in a subgroup of the Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster (brightest member NGC 3256) and is 9¡ south of the rich Antlia Cluster (but has the same redshift).

 

JH discovered NGC 3261 = h3258 on 15 Mar 1836 and recorded "F; S; R: 15"; entangled among 2 or 3 stars, but is certainly a nebula."  His position matches ESO 263-040.

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NGC 3262 = ESO 263-042 = MCG -07-22-017 = LGG 204-001 = PGC 30876

10 29 06.2 -44 09 35

V = 13.2;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 108d

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): faint, small, slightly elongated WNW-ENE, 30"x25", low even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 3263 2.6' NNE in a group (Klemola 12).

 

JH discovered NGC 3262 = h3260 on 2 Feb 1835 (along with NGC 3263) and recorded "eF; S; R."  His position is 2.4' too far south.

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NGC 3263 = ESO 263-043 = MCG -07-22-018 = LGG 204-002 = PGC 30887

10 29 13.4 -44 07 22

V = 11.9;  Size 5.1'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 103d

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, broad weak concentration.  A faint star is at the WNW tip.  Forms an interacting pair (a faint plume extends E) with NGC 3262 2.6' SSW.  Brightest member of the Klemola 12 group.

 

JH discovered NGC 3263 = h3260 on 3 Feb 1835 (along with NGC 3262) and recorded "F; mE in pos = 280¡ +/- [WNW-ESE]; psbM; 20"."

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NGC 3264 = UGC 5719 = MCG +09-17-069 = CGCG 266-054 = LGG 201-003 = PGC 31125

10 32 19.7 +56 05 00

V = 12.0;  Size 2.9'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 177d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 1.6'x1.0'.  Appears as a diffuse glow with no concentration.  Bracketed by a mag 13.5 star at the SW end 0.8' from the center and a mag 13 star just off the ENE side 1.0' from center.  A brighter mag 11 star lies 3.8' N.  Located 16' ENE of 36 Ursa Majoris (V = 4.8).

 

JH discovered NGC 3264 = h716 on 9 Feb 1831 and noted "eF; between 2 small stars."  His position and description matches UGC 5719.

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NGC 3265 = UGC 5705 = MCG +05-25-019 = CGCG 154-023 = PGC 31029

10 31 06.8 +28 47 48

V = 12.9;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 73d

 

17.5" (4/25/92): faint, small, round, weak even concentration, bright core.  Forms a close "double" with a mag 14.5 star just off the ESE edge and 0.6' from center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3265 = H III-349 = h718 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "Suspected, 240 showed a few small stars with seeming nebulosity, and I rather suppose it to be a patch."  CH's reduction is 8 sec of time preceding and 2' north of UGC 5663.  JH made 4 observations and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3266 = UGC 5725 = MCG +11-13-030 = CGCG 313-022 = PGC 31198

10 33 17.6 +64 44 57

V = 12.4;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (4/6/91): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated small bright core, stellar nucleus.  NGC 3259 lies 20' NNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3266 = H II-871 = h717 on 3 Apr 1791 (sweep 1004) and noted "F, vS, mbM."  His position matches UGC 5725.

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NGC 3267 = ESO 375-042 = MCG -06-23-036 = PGC 30934

10 29 48.5 -35 19 21

V = 12.5;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 148d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, brighter core.  Forms a pair with NGC 3268 2.5' E.  Also A1027-35B = PGC 30939 lies 3.3' S.  First of five in a 10' field in the Antlia Cluster (NGC 3257-3281).

 

JH discovered NGC 3267 = h3262 on 18 Apr 1835 (along with NGC 3268) and recorded "eF; vS; R.  By a diagram made out of the meridian in which 4 nebulae are delineated, two of them being those determined in sweep 446, Nos. 6 and 7."  His position is 1.7' south of ESO 375-042.

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NGC 3268 = ESO 375-045 = MCG -06-23-041 = PGC 30949

10 30 00.5 -35 19 32

V = 11.5;  Size 3.5'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 71d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, fairly small, round, brighter core.  Fourth of five in the field within the Antlia Cluster (NGC 3257-3281) with NGC 3267 2' W, NGC 3269 6.0' N, NGC 3271 5.7' ESE.

 

JH discovered NGC 3268 = h3263 on 18 Apr 1835 (along with NGC 3267) and noted "F; S; R.  By a diagram made out of meridian..."  His position is 2.7' south of ESO 375-045.  The position was corrected by de Vaucouleurs in Mem. Commonwealth Obs., (Mt. Stromlo), No. 13, 1956.

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NGC 3269 = ESO 375-044 = MCG -06-23-040 = PGC 30945

10 29 56.9 -35 13 29

V = 12.2;  Size 2.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 8d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, moderately large, slightly elongated N-S.  Bracketed by a mag 13.5 star at the SE end 0.7' from center and a mag 14.5 star at the NW end 0.5' from center.  Located 6' N of NGC 3268.  A mag 10.5 star is 2.5' NNW.  Third of five in the Antlia Cluster (NGC 3257-3281).

 

JH discovered NGC 3269 = h3264 on 1 May 1834 and reported "F; S; R: bM; 15"; one of a group of 3 or more.  His position matches ESO 375-044.

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NGC 3270 = UGC 5711 = MCG +04-25-029 = CGCG 124-034 = PGC 31059

10 31 30.0 +24 52 10

V = 13.1;  Size 3.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (4/13/91): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 N-S, bright core, faint stellar nucleus, extremely faint thin extensions with averted vision.

 

WH discovered NGC 3270 = H III-331 = h719 on 10 Apr 1785 (sweep 394) and recorded "vF; vS; vlbM."  JH logged "F; E; gbM" and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3271 = IC 2585 = ESO 375-048 = MCG -06-23-044 = PGC 30988

10 30 26.3 -35 21 35

V = 11.8;  Size 3.1'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 106d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, moderately large, oval NW-SE, small bright core.  Appears similar to NGC 3268 5.7' WNW which is the brightest in the group.  Fifth of five in the field in the Antlia Cluster (NGC 3257-3281).

 

JH discovered NGC 3271 = h3265 on 1 May 1834 and recorded "F; S; lE; bM; 15"; one of a group of 3 or more."  His position is 23 sec of RA west of ESO 375-048, but this is one of the brightest galaxies in the cluster, so the identification is certain.

 

DeLisle Stewart found it on an Arequipa plate and assumed it was new, so it also acquired the designation IC 2585.  The numbers are equated in ESO and Corwin's Southern Galaxy Catalogue.  The correct position was given by de Vaucouleurs in Mem. Commonwealth Obs., (Mt. Stromlo), No. 13, 1956.

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NGC 3272 = ADS 7827

10 31 48.1 +28 28 07

Size 4"

 

=**, Gottlieb.  Misidentified in RNGC.

 

Herman Schultz discovered NGC 3272 = Nova VI on 9 Mar 1866 with the 9.6-inch refractor at Uppsala Observatory.  His micrometric position is a perfect match with a close double star (mag 12.7/13.7 at 4").  In the notes section of his monograph "Micrometrical Observations of 500 Nebulae" Schultz describes "an insignificant object; preceding [NGC 3277] about 68s and 160" s; a * 10m f 0s.2 and 135" n."

 

A mag 11 star is exactly 135" north of the double star and the offset with NGC 3277 also matches, so there is no doubt of this identification.  On the night this double star was found, Schultz recorded the sky conditions as "Aurora.  Images dull."  This probably contributed to the close double star appearing nebulous, although a number of Schultz' objects are single or double stars.  RNGC misidentifies PGC 31115 as NGC 3272 at 10 32 10.4 +28 28 59.

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NGC 3273 = ESO 375-049 = MCG -06-23-045 = LGG 200-002 = PGC 30992

10 30 29.1 -35 36 39

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 97d

 

18" (3/17/07): moderately bright, elongated 2:1 E-W, 1.1'x0.5', bright core.  Located 15' S of NGC 3271 in the Antlia Cluster.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, bright core.  Member of the Antlia Cluster (NGC 3257-3281) with NGC 3271 15' N.  Located 19' E of NGC 3258.

 

JH discovered NGC 3273 = h3259 on 3 May 1834 and recorded "F; R; pslbM; 12".  The 4th and last of a group."  He was uncertain of the minute of time, which should be 10 22 48.7 (for 1830).

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NGC 3274 = UGC 5721 = MCG +05-25-020 = CGCG 154-024 = PGC 31122

10 32 17.1 +27 40 07

V = 12.8;  Size 2.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (4/25/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 E-W, brighter core appears slightly offset.  Forms the east vertex of an obtuse isosceles triangle with two mag 12 stars 2' NNW and 2' SW.  A double star mag 11.5/13.5 at 13" lies 4' ESE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3274 = H II-358 = h720 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "F, pL".  His position is a good match with UGC 5721.  JH made 4 observations and noted the double star HJ 484 to the southeast.

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NGC 3275 = ESO 375-050 = MCG -06-23-046 = PGC 31014

10 30 51.6 -36 44 14

V = 11.8;  Size 2.8'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, oval ~E-W, bright core.  Located 2.9' N of a mag 10 star within the Antlia Cluster (NGC 3257-3281).

 

JH discovered NGC 3275 = h3266 on 1 Feb 1835 and recorded "F; lE; psbM; 20 arcsec."  His position matches ESO 375-050.

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NGC 3276 = ESO 317-040 = PGC 31031

10 31 09.1 -39 56 41

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 74d

 

18" (2/19/09): very faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE.  A mag 9.3 star (HD 91213) 2.8' N detracts from viewing.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 3276 5' E.

 

JH discovered NGC 3276 = h3267 on 3 Mar 1835 and noted "F; S; has a * 8m, np."  His position and description matches ESO 317-040.

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NGC 3277 = UGC 5731 = MCG +05-25-022 = CGCG 154-026 = PGC 31166

10 32 55.4 +28 30 42

V = 11.7;  Size 1.9'x1.7';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (4/9/94): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 1.2' diameter, even moderate concentration, bright core increases to a faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 5.1' WSW and a mag 10 star 6.9' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3277 = H II-359 = h721 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and recorded "pB, pS, almost R, bM."  CH's reduction is 2.3' northwest of UGC 5731.  JH made three observations and measured a more accurate position.  d'Arrest made 5 accurate observations and measured a mag 12 star that precedes by 23 seconds and 1' south.

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NGC 3278 = ESO 317-043 = MCG -07-22-021 = PGC 31068

10 31 35.3 -39 57 20

V = 12.3;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 62d

 

18" (2/19/09): brighter of a pair with NGC 3276 located 5' W.  At 175x it appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.3', contains a slightly brighter core.  Located just SW of a wide, bright pair (h4326 = 9.8/10.6 at 39").

 

JH discovered NGC 3278 = h3268 on 2 Mar 1835 and recorded "F; S; R; sp a coarse double star."  His position and description matches ESO 317-043.

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NGC 3279 = UGC 5741 = MCG +02-27-027 = CGCG 065-059 = FGC 1100 = IC 622 = Todd 30 = Holm 201a = PGC 31302

10 34 42.8 +11 11 50

V = 13.4;  Size 2.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 152d

 

17.5" (4/13/91): faint, moderately large, edge-on 6:1 NW-SE, low even surface brightness. UGC 5737 lies 12' W.

 

David Todd discovered NGC 3279 = Todd 30 on 5 Mar 1878 using the 26-inch Clark refractor at the USNO during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet.  His position is roughly 2 min of RA preceding UGC 5741, although this is a typical error in his RA, which was very rough.  His discovery sketch shows a very elongated galaxy, exactly matching the surrounding field stars, so this identification is certain.

 

Lewis Swift found this galaxy on 29 1890, assumed it was a new discovery, and reported it in list IX-23 = IC 622 as "vF; pS; E; *9m s."  The bright star is 3.7' north.  UGC and MCG label this galaxy as IC 622, though based on the earlier discovery, NGC 3279 should be the primary designation.

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NGC 3280 = NGC 3295 = IC 617 = MCG -02-27-006/007/008 = 2.0323/12.0324 = PGC 31153

10 32 43.7 -12 38 15

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

18" (3/29/03): this is a triple system listed as NGC 3280A/3280B/3280C in NED and NGC 3280/3280A/3280B in the second edition of the Uranometria DSFG.  At 262x there was a confused glow, ~1' diameter.  Within the glow, two small knots (NGC 3280w and NGC 3280e), ~0.4' and 0.3' were resolved, oriented E-W, with the larger component on the west side (separation is 40" between centers).  At moments there was a impression of the very small and faint third component squeezed between these two galaxies.  In a small group with NGC 3296 4.8' S and NGC 3297 7.1' ESE.  Located 4.6' NE of a mag 9.5 star.

 

Andrew Ainsley Common discovered NGC 3280 in 1880 with a 36-inch silvered glass reflector and described a "F double neb with 2 stellar centres".  Common's position is poor, but the description clearly refers to the triple system MCG -02-27-006, -007 and -008 and Common probably noted -006 and -008.

 

Six years later (26 Feb 1886), Francis Leavenworth made an independent discovery with the 26" refractor at the Leander-McCormick Observatory (LM I-173) though his rough position was off by 2.7 min of RA. Leavenworth noted "D neb or sev st inv in neb", which is very similar to Common's description.  Assuming these objects were different, Dreyer also catalogued it as NGC 3295.

 

Finally, Stephane Javelle independently found this object on 19 Apr 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at Nice, assumed it was new and measured an accurate position.  He noted "D or st involved", so again partially resolved the components.  Dreyer also assumed this was a new object and catalogued once again as IC 617.  So, NGC 3280 = NGC 3295 = IC 1617.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes and Malcolm Thomson's IC Research Database.

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NGC 3281 = ESO 375-055 = MCG -06-23-050 = LGG 203-002 = PGC 31090

10 31 52.4 -34 51 19

V = 11.7;  Size 3.3'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 140d

 

18" (4/25/09): moderately bright, fairly large, very elongated 5:2 or 3:1 NNW-SSE, 1.5'x0.6', bright core, fainter extensions.

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, large bright core gradually brightens to the center.  A mag 13-14 star is off the NW extension and a mag 11.5-12 star is 2.8' S of center.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated NW-SE, weak concentration.  Largest in the Antlia Cluster (NGC 3257-3281).

 

JH discovered NGC 3281 = h3269 on 2 May 1834 and recorded "eF; E; glbM; 60" l; 40" br."  His position and description matches ESO 375-055.

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NGC 3282 = ESO 568-016 = MCG -04-25-013 = PGC 31129

10 32 21.9 -22 18 08

V = 13.0;  Size 1.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 82d

 

18" (3/13/04): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, 1.2'x0.4', weak concnetration.  A mag 13-14 star is at the tip of the eastern extension.  Located 9' SE mag 8.2 HD 91261.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3282 = Sw III-56 on 5 Mar 1886 and recorded "eF; vS; middle one of 3 eF stars involved in neby.  Two B stars point to it.".  His position is 7 sec of RA west of ESO 568-016 and the description applies, thoiugh only 1 star is attached (1 other mentioned by Swift is the nucleus).

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NGC 3283 = ESO 263-048 = PGC 31035

10 31 11.5 -46 15 05

V = 11.5;  Size 2.6'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 168d

 

18" (4/6/16 - Coonabarabran, 236x): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 N-S, 1.2'x0.8'.  Contains a relatively large, bright core surrounded by a low surface brightness halo, elongated N-S.  Located 6.9' SE of mag 8.8 HD 91215 and 6' S of a mag 10.1/10.4 pair at 5".  Located in a rich star field.  ESO 263-047, an extremely low surface brightness galaxy 7' WSW, was highly suspected as a very small patch attached to a faint star.

 

JH discovered NGC 3283 = h3271 on 3 Mar 1837 and recorded "pF, S, R, gbM, 25".  RA coarsely taken by an auxiliary star".  The given position (updated to 2000 coordinates) is 10 32 47 (approximate), -46 15 14.  JH also made a 10' error in declination (too far north) in the GC, which was copied into NGC.

 

ESO couldn't find a suitable candidate and RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.  But assuming the RA was rough, I looked at ESO galaxies and found a likely candidate ESO 263-G48 located at 10 31 11.5 -46 15 05 (J2000).  This galaxy is 1.6 tmin preceding JH's rough RA and a nearly perfect match in declination.  It is also fairly bright (V = 11.5), so it's unlikely it would have been missed in his sweep.  Both NED and HyperLeda use this identification.

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NGC 3284 = NGC 3286: = MCG +10-15-112 = CGCG 290-056

10 36 21.3 +58 37 13

 

See observing notes for NGC 3286.

 

WH discovered NGC 3284 = H III-912 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and noted "eF, vS, 300 confirmed it and showed it very plainly."  His position is just 2' southwest of NGC 3288 and 5' south of brighter NGC 3286, both observed by WH the following night.

 

Dreyer comments in his 1912 "Scientific Papers of William Herschel" that "it precedes III-913 (NGC 3408) 16.0 tmin, 5' N, so it is no doubt identical to either III-917 or III-918 [NGC 3286 or NGC 3288] which were observed the following night (sweep 1039) without any mention of III-912.  Harold Corwin states the GC/NGC position of NGC 3284 is 10 tsec too small and that NGC 3284 is likely a duplicate observation of NGC 3286.  See Corwin's notes.

 

Karl Reinmuth equated NGC 3284 with a "*14 npp 1.5' of NGC 3288; no neb seen; nothing sp of NGC 3288."  This conclusion was repeated by Dorothy Carlson in her NGC correction paper and it is repeated by the RNGC.  It's more likely WH picked up one of the nearby galaxies.

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NGC 3285 = ESO 501-015 = MCG -04-25-019 = PGC 31217

10 33 35.8 -27 27 19

V = 12.0;  Size 2.6'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 108d

 

13.1" (2/23/85): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, small bright nucleus.  Located 7' SSW of mag 7.7 SAO 178978.  This member of AGC 1060 forms a trio with NGC 3285A 12' WSW and NGC 3285B 18' SE.

 

JH discovered NGC 3285 = h3270 on 24 Mar 1835 NGC 3285 and noted "pB; E; gbM."  He measured the position four times (including the next two sweeps), so it was well determined.

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NGC 3286 = NGC 3284? = MCG +10-15-112 = CGCG 290-056 = PGC 31433

10 36 21.3 +58 37 13

V = 13.6;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

17.5" (4/9/94): fairly faint, small, round, moderate even concentration with a bright core and nonstellar nucleus.  Located 4.9' NW of a mag 10.5 star.  Forms a pair with NGC 3288 3.9' SSE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3286 = H III-917 = h722 on 9 Apr 1793 (sweep 1039) and recorded "Two [along with III-918 = NGC 3288], both vF, pS, R, lbM."  JH noted "vF; pS; R pslbM; 15"." and his position is within 1' of CGCG 290-056 = PGC 31433.

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NGC 3287 = UGC 5742 = MCG +04-25-032 = CGCG 124-038 = PGC 31311

10 34 47.3 +21 38 52

V = 12.3;  Size 2.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 20d

 

13.1": faint, diffuse, moderately large, elongated N-S, even surface brightness.  A bright double star ·1448 = 7.6/9.0 at 11" is 7' WSW.  NGC 3301 lies 30' NE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 3287 on 1 Jan 1862 and made observations on 3 different nights.  He noted the bright double star ·1448 was 24 sec of time preceding and 3 3/4' south.

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NGC 3288 = NGC 3284?? = UGC 5752 = MCG +10-15-114 = CGCG 290-057 = PGC 31446

10 36 25.8 +58 33 23

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): very faint, small, round, low even surface brightness.  Located 3.7' WSW of a mag 10.5 star.  Forms a pair with NGC 3286 3.9' NNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3288 = H III-918 = h723 on 9 Apr 1793 (sweep 1039) and recorded "Two [along with III-917 = NGC 3286], both vF, pS, R, lbM."  JH noted "eF; S; R; vglbM; 12"." and his position is within 1' of UGC 5752 = PGC 31446.  WH may have observed this galaxy the previous night and recorded it as III-912 = NGC 3284, though that number may apply to brighter NGC 3288, which is 4' north.

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NGC 3289 = ESO 375-065 = MCG -06-23-054 = LGG 196-013 = PGC 31253

10 34 07.4 -35 19 24

V = 12.5;  Size 2.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 153d

 

18" (3/17/07): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 0.9'x0.3', weak concentration.  A mag 12 star is off the SW side, 50" from the center and two mag 14.5 stars flank the galaxy on the NNW end.  Member of the Antlia Cluster and situated at the eastern end of the cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 3289 = h3272 on 20 Apr 1835 and noted "eF: R; 15"."  His position is 1.6' north of ESO 375-065.

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NGC 3290 = Arp 53 = MCG -03-27-020 = PGC 31346

10 35 17.4 -17 16 36

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 60d

 

18" (3/29/03): faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 0.9'x0.6', low surface brightness, very weak concentration.  In field with mag 8.4 SAO 156083 7' N and mag 7.8 SAO 156089 9' SW which detract from viewing.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3290 = LM II-422 in 1886 and recorded "mag 15.7, 0.4' dia, lE 180¡, gbM, * 7.5 n 6'."  His position is 0.5 min west of MCG -03-27-020 = PGC 31346 and a mag 8 staris  5' north, so the identification is certain.

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NGC 3291 = Holm 202b

10 36 06.4 +37 16 28

 

=* 3.5' SSW of NGC 3294, Carlson and Corwin.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 3291 = Big 44 on 5 Apr 1885.  His position is 5' southwest of NGC 3294, and falls between two mag 12.6 and 14.9 stars with a separation of 1.3'.

 

Harold Corwin identifies NGC 3291 with the mag 14.9 star 3.5' SSW of NGC 3294 based on Bigourdan's offsets.  Dorothy Carlson also arrived the same conclusion in her 1940 paper on NGC corrections.

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NGC 3292 = MCG -01-27-023 = PGC 31370

10 35 34.4 -06 10 46

V = 14.1;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 175d

 

18" (3/29/03): at 260x, very faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S, 0.6'x0.4'.  Either has a faint stellar nucleus or there is a faint star superimposed.  Forms a close double system with MCG -01-27-022 0.9' WSW which was not noticed.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3292 = Sw VI-36 on 16 Apr 1887 and noted "vF; vS; lE."  His position is 27 sec of RA west of MCG -01-27-023 = PGC 31370 and 1.6' north.  Herbert Howe provided an accurate position with the 20" refractor in Denver (repeated in the IC 2 Notes section).

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NGC 3293 = ESO 128-SC5 = Cr 224 = Gum 30 = Gem Cluster

10 35 49 -58 13 30

V = 4.7;  Size 10'

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): stunningly rich and bright open cluster, situated 2¡ northwest of the Eta Carina nebula.  At 105x, 60-70 stars are packed into 7' with many of the stars seemingly arranged in concentric circles!  Appears compact and well-detached, even in a rich Carina star field.  A striking linear trio of mag 6.5-7.5 stars (total length 1.5') runs SW-NE to the center including an orange star (V361 Car) on the SW end, a blue star and a white star at the center.  This young cluster is one of the top southern clusters and a worthy rival in beauty to the Jewel Box. Visible naked-eye and resolved in the 9x50 finder.  The large HII region/cluster NGC 3324 lies 30' SSE.

 

12" (6/29/02 - Bargo, Australia): this very rich, young cluster is situated just NW of the Eta Carina complex and is one of the top open clusters in the southern sky.  It is bright, compact and very rich with a half-dozen mag 6-8 stars over a rich background of dozens of mag 10-13 star in a 10' diameter.  Appears somewhat similar to the Jewel Box including a mag 7 reddish supergiant, but with even a more compact appearance.  The listed 40' diameter is much larger than the visual impression.

 

Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered NGC 3293 = Lac II-8 = D 321 = h3276 in early 1752, using a 1/2-inch telescope at 8x during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope.  He described a "Small heap of 4 small stars forming a lozenge."

 

James Dunlop observed the cluster 4 times (first on 29 Apr 1826) and described "a very small cluster of very small bright stars; round figure, about 4' diameter; rich in extremely small stars resembling faint nebula".  His position is poor -- 17' ESE of the cluster.

 

JH only has a rough position in the Cape catalogue using his small refractor (no published observations with his 18-inch) and noted "a fine, bright, rich, not very L cluster. (Equatorial zone review)."  A corrected RA was given in the IC 2 notes (Harv. Ann., xxvi, p207).  Neither Lacaille or Dunlop are listed as discoverers in the Cape catalogue, GC or NGC.

 

H.C. Russell coined the nickname the "Gem Cluster" in an 1879 paper.

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NGC 3294 = UGC 5753 = MCG +06-23-021 = CGCG 183-030 = Holm 202a = PGC 31428

10 36 16.1 +37 19 30

V = 11.8;  Size 3.5'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 122d

 

17.5" (4/13/91): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, large brighter core but no nucleus.  A mag 14 star is 2.5' W and a mag 11 star 4.8' SSW.  Located 5.5' WSW of mag 9 SAO 62151.  NGC 3304 lies 18' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3294 = H I-164 = h724 on 17 Mar 1787 (sweep 713) and recorded "cB, E from 30¡ np to sf, 3 or 4' long and 1 1/2' br, easily resolvable, almost uniformly bright."  CH's reduced position is 20 sec of RA east of UGC 5753.  JH called this galaxy "pB; mE; blbM; 2' l, 45" br." and measured an accurate position.

 

On 5 Mar 1851, LdR and Bindon Stoney recorded "an appendage at south side.  LdR though at times the nebula extended beyond this."  The sketch shows a single spiral arm on the west side, curling clockwise to the south.

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NGC 3295 = NGC 3280 = MCG -02-27-006/007/008 = IC 617 = PGC 31153

10 32 43.7 -12 38 15

 

See observing notes for NGC 3280 = IC 617.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3295 = LM I-173 on 26 Feb 1886 and described a "D nebula or several stars involved in nebula".  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is ~2 1/2 min of RA following NGC 3280 (discovered in 1880 by Andrew Ainslie Common and also a poor position!).  Leavenworth's description clearly applies to this triple system.  So, NGC 3295 = NGC 3280 and IC 617 is a third identity.

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NGC 3296 = IC 618 = PGC 31155

10 32 45.4 -12 43 03

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

18" (3/29/03): faint, very small, round, 0.4' diameter, weak concentration to a starry center.  Forms a trio with NGC 3280 5' N and NGC 3297 7' ENE.  Located 4.7' ESE of a mag 9.5 star.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3296 = LM I-174, along with I-173 = NGC 3295 and I-175 = NGC 3297, on 26 Feb 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  All 3 were given same rough position to the nearest min of RA.   His position is 2.7 min of RA following PGC 31155 (typical error in the first discovey list)).

 

Stephane Javelle found this galaxy on 19 Apr 1892, assumed it was new, and reported it in list I-180.  Herbert Howe measured a corrected position for NGC 3296 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes section), which clearly establishes NGC 3296 = IC 618.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 3297 = PGC 31189

10 33 11.8 -12 40 18

V = 14.5;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 160d

 

18" (3/29/03): very faint, very small, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, 20"x10", situated between two mag 13.5-14 stars SSW and NE (4.3' separation).  In a group with NGC 3280 (triple system) 7' WNW and NGC 3296 7' WSW. This galaxy is listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3297 = LM I-175, along with NGC 3295 and NGC 3296.  His single rough position (nearest min of RA) is 2.3 min of RA following PGC 31189.   Herbert Howe measured an accurate position for NGC 3296 with the 20" refractor in Denver (repeated in the IC 2 Notes) and he added "I could only suspect NGC 3297."  RNGC misclassifies NGC 3297 as nonexistent.

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NGC 3298 = MCG +08-19-043 = CGCG 240-065 = CGCG 241-001 = PGC 31529

10 37 12.3 +50 07 15

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 138d

 

18" (3/11/07): faint, small, round (core only viewed), 0.4' diameter, contains a very small brighter nucleus.  A very faint star lies 1' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3298 = H III-767 = h725 on 12 Apr 1789 (sweep 919) and recorded "vF, pS, iE.  May be a patch, or a few stars too small to be perceived. His position is 6' south of MCG +08-19-043 = PGC 31529.  JH noted "vF; two distant star nearly on parallel".  His position is 1.3' too far southeast.  Because of the different positions, he questioned if h725 was identical to his father's III-767.

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NGC 3299 = UGC 5761 = MCG +02-27-029 = CGCG 065-064 = KTG 30A = LGG 217-001 = PGC 31442

10 36 23.8 +12 42 27

V = 12.8;  Size 2.2'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 3d

 

24" (4/20/14): faint, fairly large, very low surface brightness, very weak concentration, elongated 4:3 N-S, ~1.6'x1.2'.  No noticeable core or zones.  First in the KTG 30 trio (not physically related) with NGC 3306 11.8' SE and CGCG 065-069 11' ENE.  Redshift-independent distance of 17.6 million l.y and part of the M96 Group.

 

17.5" (3/1/03): very faint, fairly large, unusually large low surface brightness galaxy with a very weak concentration making detection difficult.  Appears at least 1.5' in diameter and roughly circular.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 3306 12' ESE.  Required averted but once identified I could hold it most of the time with concentration and averted vision.

 

WH discovered NGC 3299 = H III-54 = h726 on 19 Mar 1784 (sweep 177) and logged "eF, cL, R, r, without nucleus."  There is nothing at his position (Caroline Herschel's reduction), but 42 sec of RA east and 3' south (10' ESE) is UGC 5761 = PGC 31442 and it fits his description.  JH called it "pL; so faint as to be barely perceptible, but a sure observation." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3300 = UGC 5766 = MCG +02-27-030 = CGCG 065-066 = PGC 31472

10 36 38.5 +14 10 15

V = 12.1;  Size 1.9'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 173d

 

17.5" (4/18/87): moderately bright, bright core, stellar nucleus, fairly small diffuse halo slightly elongated ~N-S.  Surrounded by several brighter stars including a mag 10 star 4.2' NNW, a mag 9.5 star 6.4' E and mag 8.1 SAO 99207 7.8' SSE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3300 = H III-55 = h727 = h3273 on 19 Mar 1784 (sweep 177) and recorded "vS, r, lE and unequally bright.  It is surrounded with brilliant stars at the same time in the field with it."  His position is 23 sec of RA too far west.  JH made observations both at Slough and the Cape of Good Hope and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3301 = NGC 3760 = UGC 5767 = MCG +04-25-035 = CGCG 124-045 =  PGC 31497

10 36 56.0 +21 52 55

V = 11.4;  Size 3.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 52d

 

17.5" (3/12/94): fairly bright, moderately large, very elongated 4:1 SW-NE, 3.5'x0.7', good concentration with a small very bright core and bright stellar nucleus, halo is brighter on the ENE side.  Off the north side is a thin isosceles triangle of mag 10-11 stars consisting of two mag 10 stars 2.9' N and 5.7' NNW, and a mag 11 star 4.2' N.

 

8" (4/24/82): fairly faint, very elongated.

 

WH discovered NGC 3301 = H II-46 = h728 on 12 Mar 1784 (sweep 166) and recorded "not very faint, small.  North of it is a small triangle of pB stars."  CH's reduced position is 8' north of UGC 5767, but his description clinches the identification.

 

JH made three observations under h728, though apparently was uncertain if this was the same as his father's II-46, so assigned two different GC designations.  The NGC position is accurate and Dreyer comments in the Notes section that JH's and d'Arrest's positions agree.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest also found the galaxy on 21 Feb 1863, but made a 1 hour error in RA (uncovered by Harold Corwin).  Once corrected, the position of N3760 matches NGC 3301 (the same error was made with NGC 3575).

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NGC 3302 = ESO 437-007 = MCG -05-25-020 = PGC 31391

10 35 47.4 -32 21 31

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 118d

 

18" (3/13/04): faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.6', weak concentration.  A mag 14 star is off the NW edge.  ESO 437-014 lies 14' E.  Outlying member of the Antlia Cluster (Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster).

 

JH discovered NGC 3302 = h3274 = h3275 on 28 Jan 1835 and reported it again on 16 Feb 1865.  His first observation reads "vF; S; R; 15"." and the later observation "eF; S; R."  The two positions are very similar (after a typo was corrected for h3274 in his errata list), so I'm surprised he didn't combine the entries in the GC.  But Dreyer combined the two GC numbers into NGC 3302.

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NGC 3303 = Arp 192 = VV 71 = UGC 5773 = MCG +03-27-066 = CGCG 094-096 = PGC 31508

10 37 00.0 +18 08 09

V = 13.5;  Size 3.5'x2.4';  Surf Br = 15.6

 

48" (2/19/12): Arp 192 is a highly disturbed double system with a enormous irregular plume to the south and diffuse haze off the east side.  At 488x, the main body was ~1.0'x0.7', extended NNW-SSE and split into two components.  On the northwest side of the main core is 2MASXJ10365945+1808157, a large knot with a stellar center that is likely the core of an interacting companion.  The plume or tail was visible as a diffuse, fairly wide extension attached at the south-southeast end and extending south for ~1.0', roughly doubling the length of the galaxy.  A mag 15 star lies 1.6' S.

 

17.5" (3/1/03): faint, moderately large, elongated 4:3 N-S, 1.0'x0.8', broad concentration to a slightly brighter core but no nucleus.  Overall fairly low surface brightness.

 

WH discovered NGC 3303 = H III-66 = h730 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 181) and recorded "vF, S, E, r.  240 showed it no better than 157, though larger."  JH made two observations and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3304 = UGC 5777 = MCG +06-23-026 = CGCG 183-032 = CGCG 184-001 = PGC 31572

10 37 37.9 +37 27 20

V = 13.4;  Size 1.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 158d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, sharply concentrated with small bright core surrounded by faint extensions.  A mag 14 star is 2.1' E.  NGC 3294 lies 18' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3304 = H III-615 = h729 on 17 Mar 1787 (sweep 713) and noted "eF, vS, er."  JH made two observations, noting "vF; S; psbM; 12 arcseconds" and measured an accurate position. 

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NGC 3305 = ESO 501-030 = MCG -04-25-031 = PGC 31421

10 36 11.8 -27 09 44

V = 12.8;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

13.1" (2/23/85): faint, very small, round, no details.  Located 15' N of NGC 3308 in AGC 1060.

 

JH discovered NGC 3305 = h3277 on 24 Mar 1835 and logged "vF; S; R.  The 2nd of a group scattered over more than one field."  HIs position matches ESO 501-030 = PGC 31421.

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NGC 3306 = UGC 5774 = MCG +02-27-032 = CGCG 065-068 = KTG 30C = LGG 207-005 = PGC 31528

10 37 10.2 +12 39 09

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 141d

 

24" (4/20/14): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.4', relatively large brighter core.  Brightest in a trio (KTG 30) with CGCG 065-069 7.2' SSE and NGC 3299 11.8' WNW.

 

17.5" (3/1/03): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.3, weak concentration to a slightly brighter core.  A mag 11 star lies 1.9' NE.  NGC 3299, a very low surface brightness galaxy, lies 12' WNW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3306 = Sw III-57 on 27 Apr 1886 and recorded "F; S; R; sf of [NGC 3299]."  His position is 1.5' too far south.  Rudolph Spitaler measured an accurate micrometric position in 1891.

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NGC 3307 = ESO 501-031 = MCG -04-25-029 = PGC 31430

10 36 17.1 -27 31 46

V = 14.5;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 28d

 

24" (2/22/14): at 260x, this member of AGC 1060 (Hydra I) appeared faint, small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 24"x12", low even surface brightness.  Located in the core of the cluster, ~5' W of the NGC 3309/3311 pair and 9.5' NW of mag 6.6 HD 91964.

 

JH discovered NGC 3307 = h3278 on 22 Mar 1836 and "eeF.  The 3rd of a group [with NGC 3285 and NGC 3270]."  His position is 5' south of ESO 501-031 = PGC 31430.  He noted he recorded the polar distance as 5' further north, but felt this was in error.  Using his original position, the position is accurate.  MCG does not label -04-25-029 as NGC 3307.

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NGC 3308 = ESO 501-034 = MCG -04-25-032 = LGG 206-004 = PGC 31438

10 36 22.3 -27 26 17

V = 11.9;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 32d

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, 1.0'x0.8', broad concentration to a brighter core.  Furthest NW in the core of AGC 1060 and 11.5' WSW of the mag 5 star in the core.

 

13.1" (2/23/85): fairly faint, small, round, small weak concentration.  First of five in a 20' field in the core of AGC 1060.

 

JH discovered NGC 3308 = h3279 on 24 Mar 1835 and simply noted "F".  Less than a week later he added "One of a grouip; 7 of which were seen and laid down in a careful diagram."

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NGC 3309 = ESO 501-036 = MCG -04-25-034 = LGG 211-005 = PGC 31466

10 36 35.7 -27 31 05

V = 11.6;  Size 1.9'x1.6';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): fairly bright, moderately large, well-concentrated with a bright 40" core, halo increases with averted from 1.2'x1.0' to 1.5'x1.2' oriented SW-NE.  Forms a pair with NGC 3311 1.7' ESE in the core of AGC 1060.

 

13.1" (2/23/85): moderately bright, small, round.  A mag 13.5 star is at the east edge.  Forms a close pair with NGC 3311 1.7' E.  Second of five in the core of AGC 1060.

 

JH discovered NGC 3309 = h3280 on 24 Mar 1835 and noted "B: L; double [with NGC 3311]."  Less than a week later he added "A double nebula, or rather two distnct nebulae near together.  By diagram, both pL, R, pos about 10¡ np or sf, and nearly equal."

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NGC 3310 = Arp 217 = VV 356 = VV 406 = UGC 5786 = MCG +09-18-008 = CGCG 267-004 = PGC 31650

10 38 45.8 +53 30 10

V = 10.8;  Size 3.1'x2.4';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

48" (5/16/12): extremely bright, fairly large, sharply concentrated with a large, very bright, slightly elongated N-S core, ~1' diameter.  The core appears mottled with a couple of "stellarings" or small knots.  The core is surrounded by a larger, much lower surface brightness irregular halo, extending the central portion to nearly 2'.  An outer spiral arm is attached on the north side of the halo and was most evident near the halo.  Occasionally, a very large, very low surface brightness looping arm was glimpsed, rotating 180¡ clockwise and ending west of the core, ~1.7' from center.

 

17.5" (1/19/91): very bright, moderately large.  Unusual appearance as contains a very bright, very large central core with uniform high surface brightness with only a very faint, fairly small halo, elongated NW-SE.  Located 10.4' SSW of mag 5.5 HR 4165 at the edge of the 220x field.  A mag 12 star lies 3.0' N.

 

WH discovered NGC 3310 = H IV-60 = h731 on 12 Apr 1789 (sweep 919) and recorded "vB, R, planetary, but very ill-defined.  About 1' dia of it is equally bright, and 1/4 of a minute hazy or ill-defined round the margin."  His position is accurate.  JH logged "B; R; vsmbM, so as to for almost a disc 15" diam.  Surrounded by a very feeble atmosphere."

 

On 5 Mar 1848, Lord Rosse and William Rambaut observed NGC 3310 (the earliest observation in LdR's 1861 monograph) and reported, "See minute points in it at intervals, also spiral arrangement."  Their 11 Mar observation states, "Nebula well resolved into little stellar points.  Saw a broad band across the bottom distinctly and two at the top."  NGC 3310 was included in the list of nebulae exhibiting spiral structure.  Later observations mentioned the possibility of this object being a cluster.  A detailed observation was made on 20 Feb 1868: "Three principal branches f, nf and np towards a * np [probably a HII region].  Dark cavity on nf side.  Mr De la Rue, who was with me, saw it as a bay between 2 horns, and much neby surrounding it, with many stars exterior and involved.Ó

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NGC 3311 = ESO 501-038 = MCG -04-25-036 = PGC 31478

10 36 43.1 -27 31 36

V = 11.6;  Size 3.5'x2.9';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): fairly bright, fairly large, broad concentration, slightly elongated SSW-NNE.  Outer halo increases to 2.0'x1.5' but has a slightly lower surface brightness than NGC 3309 as the core is not as concentrated.  NGC 3312 is less than 5' SE and NGC 3308 is 7' NW.

 

13.1" (2/23/85): third of five in the core of AGC 1060 = Hydra I.  Fairly faint, small, even surface brightness.  Appears larger than NGC 3309 1.7' W but with a lower surface brightness.  NGC 3312 lies 4.8' SE.  Located 7.7' N of mag 6.8 SAO 179027.

 

JH discovered NGC 3311 = h3281 on 30 Mar 1835 and noted as "The following neb of a double one [with NGC 3309]."  He actually noted both objects in his observation on 24 Mar, but didn't list the objects separately for that sweep.

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NGC 3312 = ESO 501-043 = MCG -04-25-039 = LGG 210-002 = IC 629 = PGC 31513

10 37 02.5 -27 33 55

V = 11.9;  Size 3.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 175d

 

18" (4/9/05): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE.  Contains a fairly bright, roundish core ~20" diameter with fainter extensions 1.2'x0.6'.  The core steadily increases to a stellar nucleus.  A small isosceles triangle of stars is close SE.

 

13.1" (2/18/04) - Costa Rica: moderately bright, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 N-W, 1.5'x0.5', weak concentration.  Possible a brighter knot is at the north end or a star may be near the edge of the halo.  Three stars are close SE including two mag 11/12 stars 2' SE and 3' ESE of center.  In the core of AGC 1060 with NGC 3311/3309 5' NW.

 

13.1" (2/23/85): fourth of five in the core of AGC 1060.  Moderately bright, small, stellar nucleus, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE.  NGC 3311 lies 4.8' NW.  Located 7.0' NE of mag 6.8 SAO 179027.

 

JH discovered NGC 3312 = h3282 on 26 Mar 1835 and recorded "vF; pmE; the last of 4 in the field at once with two stars 6m near them, one above and one below them (which serves to identify the object beyond doubt)."  His dec (noted as only accurate to the nearest min) is 1.3' too far south.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found this galaxy on 26 Feb 1887, assumed it was new, and recorded it as Big. 158.  Apparently neither Bigourdan nor Dreyer questioned the equivalence of IC 629 with NGC 3312, but there is no doubt.

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NGC 3313 = ESO 501-050 = MCG -04-25-044 = UGCA 213 = LGG 209-004 = PGC 31551

10 37 25.5 -25 19 10

V = 11.4;  Size 3.9'x3.2';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 55d

 

18" (4/10/04): fairly bright, large, round.  Sharply concentrated with a small very bright core surrounded by a large, low surface brightness halo, ~1.5'-2' in diameter, which fades into the background.  Outlying member of the Hydra I cluster and member of the group LGG 209 along with NGC 3331 and NGC 3335.  On photos, this is a beautiful, face-on barred spiral with and inner ring and two main long spiral arms.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3313 = LM I-176 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is a good match with ESO 501-050.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position with the 20" refractor at Denver around the turn of the century and noted the "* 15 n3" is really south of the nebula."  (repeated in the IC 2 Notes section).  I'm not sure what star either observer was referring to!

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NGC 3314 = ESO 501-IG046A/B = MCG -04-25-041 = LGG 210-003 = PGC 31531

10 37 12.8 -27 41 01

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 143d

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): moderately bright, moderately large, spindle-shaped, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 1.5'x0.5'.  A mag 13 star is at the NW tip.  Located 7' ESE of a mag 6.7 star which detracts from viewing.  Similar to NGC 3312 in the core of AGC 1060, but slightly smaller.

 

The HST took a remarkable image of NGC 3314, revealing an overlapping pair with a face-on galaxy superimposed on an edge-on galaxy.  Dust structures within the foreground galaxy are visible because the face-on is silhouetted against the light from the galaxy behind it.

 

13.1" (2/23/85): fifth of five in the core of AGC 1060.  Fairly faint, small, elongated ~NW-SE.  Located 6.8' ESE of mag 6.8 SAO 179027.  NGC 3312 lies 7.6' NNW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3314 = h3283 on 24 Mar 1835 and simply noted "the 8th of a group."  His position is an exact match with ESO 501-IG046A/B.

 

NGC 3314 consists of a face-on galaxy (NGC 3314B) superimposed on an edge-on galaxy.  The HST has a remarkable image showing the dust within the foreground galaxy visible because it is silhouetted against the light from the object behind it.

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NGC 3315 = ESO 501-048 = MCG -04-25-042 = LGG 206-018 = PGC 31540

10 37 19.2 -27 11 30

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

18" (3/17/07): faint, small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 0.3'x0.2'.  Located 40" SE of a mag 11 star and 13' N of mag 4.9 HD 92036.  HCG 48 lies 9' NE.  This member of AGC 1060 (Hydra I) has a disputed identification due to a poor discovery position.

 

Edward Austin discovered NGC 3315 = HN 40, along with NGC 3097 and 3317, on 24 Mar 1870 with the 15" Merz refractor at the Harvard College Observatory (Annals of Harvard Observatory, Vol 13, #207).  There is nothing at his position of 10 34 55 -27 30 (1950).

 

RNGC identifies ESO 501-047 (situated 3.4' south of mag 4.9 HD 92036) as NGC 3315.  While this identication is possible, Austin mentioned a "star 1' NW" which does not apply to this galaxy and no mention is made of the bright star which would have interfered with the observation.

 

However, 30' N of Austin's position is ESO 501-048 at 10 37 19.2 -27 11 30 (2000) which has a 10th magnitude star 1' NW.  Based on Austin's visual description and a probable digit error in declination, this identification appears more likely and is the one used in ESO-Uppsala and RC3.  Corwin originally listed this number as a duplicate of NGC 3314 (which Austin observed the same night) but now agrees it was more likely a 30' error in dec by Austin.  The RNGC candidate is 17' south of ESO 501-048.

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NGC 3316 = ESO 501-054 = MCG -04-25-046 = LGG 211-006 = PGC 31571

10 37 37.3 -27 35 39

V = 12.6;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

18" (4/9/05): faint, small, round, 30" diameter, increases to a small, brighter core.  On a line with NGC 3312 8' WNW and a mag 11 star 4.8' WNW.

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter, weak even concentration, no well-defined core.  A mag 11.5 star lies 3' SSE and two mag 13.5 stars are 1.2' S and 1.7' SE of center.  Situated in the core of AGC 1060 and forms the eastern vertex of an equilateral triangle with much brighter NGC 3314 7.5' SW and NGC 3312 8' WNW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3316 = h3284 on 26 Mar 1835 and noted "vF; R."  In a later note he mentions "This numerous and very interesting group has been made out by a careful collation of diagrams made in sweep 564 and 689, for the purpose of identificaiton, from which if appears that though in each diagram only 7 were seen and laid down, yet there are in reality at least 9 in the whole group."  Harold Corwin notes there are only 7 galaxies he likely picked up, and the remaining two are unknown or may not exist.

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NGC 3317 = ESO 501-**55

10 37 43 -27 31 12

 

24" (2/22/14): this ~9" pair of stars was difficult to resolve at 260x (partially due to the low elevation) and seems more like a small nebulous glow.  It was resolved at 375x, though the (single) companion on the south side was quite faint (mag 15.5-15.8) and sometimes not distinctly seen as a star but as an indistinct glow.  The northern component (very close pair) was not resolved.

 

Edward Austin discovered NGC 3317 = HN 41, along with NGC 3097 and 3315, on 24 Mar 1870 with the 15" f/18 Merz refractor at Harvard College Observatory (Annals of Harvard Observatory, Vol 13, #210).  The description reads "nebulous star 5' N of [NGC 3316]".  Very close to Austin's position is a close double star, with the northern component an overlapping pair on the DSS.  Classified as a double star in RNGC (from Dorothy Carlson) and a triple star in ESO/Uppsala (2+1).  NGC 2000 misidentifies ESO 501-047 (located just 3.5' S of a mag 4.9 HD 92036) as NGC 3317.

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NGC 3318 = ESO 317-052 = MCG -07-22-026 = LGG 199-008 = PGC 31533

10 37 15.5 -41 37 40

V = 11.6;  Size 2.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 78d

 

18" (2/19/09): faint, fairly small, irregularly round, 30" (probably the core only due to the low elevation), very weak concentration. A very faint star or stellar nucleus was glimpsed.  Located 18' S of mag 7.0 HD 92057.

 

JH discovered NGC 3318 = h3285 on 2 Mar 1835 and noted "vF; pL; pmE; gvlbM; 2'."  His mean position (2 observations) matches ESO 317-052.

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NGC 3319 = UGC 5789 = MCG +07-22-036 = CGCG 212-033 = PGC 31671

10 39 09.3 +41 41 14

V = 11.1;  Size 6.2'x3.4';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 37d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): fairly faint, very elongated 5:2 SW-NE.  The brightest portion is a large bar with a knotty extension attached at the SW end and extending on a right angle to the south.  At this position on the POSS are several bright knots.

 

WH discovered NGC 3319 = H III-700 on 3 Feb 1788 (sweep 804) and recorded "cF, L, irr E, about 4' long and 2 1/2' br, much brighter south of the middle."  CH's reduction is just off the southeast side of UGC 5789.

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NGC 3320 = UGC 5794 = MCG +08-20-010 = CGCG 241-005 = PGC 31708

10 39 36.6 +47 23 53

V = 12.3;  Size 2.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 20d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): moderately bright, fairly small, oval 2:1 SSW-NNE, broad concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is at the SSW end 40" from center and a mag 11 star is off the NNE end 2.1' from center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3320 = H II-745 = h732 on 1 Apr 1788 (sweep 822) and recorded "cF, pS, E.  Mixed with some stars visible, but probably not belonging to it. A pL star north and a little following the nebula."  His position is 5' north of UGC 5794 (similar offset as other nebula in the sweep).  JH made two observations, recording on sweep 329 "F; mE; between a *10m and one of 14 m."  His mean position is 1' too far north.

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NGC 3321 = NGC 3322 = MCG -02-27-010 = UGCA 214 = PGC 31653

10 38 50.6 -11 38 55

V = 13.0;  Size 2.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 36d

 

18" (3/29/03): faint, fairly small, diffuse, elongated nearly 3:2 SSW-NNE, 0.7'x0.5', low surface brightness halo, weak concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is at the NW edge. Located 2.9' N of a mag 11 star on the Hydra-Sextans border.

 

Francis Leavenworth found NGC 3321 = LM II-423 on 3 Jan 1887 and recorded "mag 15.7, 1.0' dia, vE 160¡, * np end."  His position is ~35 sec of RA preceding MCG -02-27-010 = PGC 31653 and the star is just where he placed it.  His PA, though, should read 35¡, instead of 160¡.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position with the 20" refractor at Denver (given in the IC 2 Notes section).

 

This galaxy was originally discovered by Andrew Ainslie Common in 1880 with his 36-inch silvered glass reflector, but his position for NGC 3322 was 16' too far north.  So, NGC 3322 = NGC 3321.

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NGC 3322 = NGC 3321 = MCG -02-27-010 = UGCA 214 = PGC 31653

10 38 50.7 -11 38 55

 

See observing notes for NGC 3321, Howe and HC.

 

Andrew Ainslie Common discovered NGC 3322 in 1880 with his 36-inch silvered-glass reflector and recorded "F, irregular shape, f star."  There is nothing at his position, but 16' south is MCG -02-27-010. = PGC 31653.  The "f star" in his description is at the NW end of this galaxy.

 

Francis Leavenworth independently discovered the galaxy on 3 Jan 1887 and reported it in list II-423 (and later NGC 3321).  Leavenworth's position is off by 35 tsec in RA too far west.  Howe was unsuccessful in searching for Common's object on twonights though he notes "Probably = NGC 3321 as their descriptions are fairly similar and their RA's agree fairly."  So, NGC 3322 = NGC 3321, with discovery priority to Common. See Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 3323 = UGC 5800 = MCG +04-25-036 = CGCG 124-049 = PGC 31712

10 39 39.0 +25 19 21

V = 13.3;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (3/25/95): fairly faint, small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, even surface brightness.  Located just east of the midpoint of a mag 11 star 2.2' WNW and a close double star 2.3' SE (mag 13/14 at 10" in PA 40¡).

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3323 = St IX-22 on 15 Mar 1877.  His position matches UGC 5800 = PGC 31712.

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NGC 3324 = "Gabriela Mistral" Nebula = ESO 128-EN006 = Gum 31 = Ced 108 = IC 2599 = Cr 225

10 37 19 -58 39 36

V = 6.7;  Size 16

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): I only took a quick look at the "Gabriela Mistral" Nebula nebula at 200x and a UHC filter, but the brightest portion appeared like a cartoon drawing of a whale with a huge, very bright bulbous "head" forming the northern end of the nebula.  The brightest portion is perhaps 15'x6' in size, but quite an extensive amount of fainter nebulosity spreads out the east and southeast of the main body, significantly increasing the size to ~15'x11', elongated N-S.  Some faint nebulosity also spreads to the west of the main portion.  At the south end is the mag 5.5 star HD 92207.

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): striking HII region and cluster 30' SE of NGC 3293 and 90' NW of the center of the Eta Carina nebula! (this is an outlying piece of the Eta Carina complex)  At 105x and UHC filter this huge, elongated, irregular nebula is quite bright, perhaps 15'x6' in size and tapers towards the south end where mag 5.5 HD 92207 is embedded.  The nebula widens to a well-defined bulbous mass on the north end.  Faint nebulosity hooks off the north end and spreads to the east and northeast.  This HII region is ionized by mag 8 HD 92206 = h4338 (an 8.2/9.2 pair at 5") situated near the center of the nebula.  Unfiltered, a scattered group of stars is superimposed but this just appears to be a random star grouping in the Carina section of the Milky Way.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 3324 = D 322 = h3286 on 1 May 1826 and described a "star of the 7th magnitude, involved in faint nebula."  His position was roughly 6' NW of center of the nebula.

 

JH credited Dunlop with the discovery and reported on 1 Apr 1834 "A double star involved in nebula, which is one of the outliers of the great nebula about Eta Argus. It extends to a star 6.7 mag half a field distant southwards, and almost as far north; pretty bright; irregular figure; fine object."

 

IC 2599, found by Williamina Fleming on a Harvard College Observatory plate in May 1893, refers to the southern portion of this nebula.

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NGC 3325 = UGC 5795 = MCG +00-27-036 = CGCG 009-093 = PGC 31689

10 39 20.4 -00 12 01

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (3/22/96): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 0.8'x0.6', brighter core.  A mag 13 star is 1.3' W of center.  Located 11' WSW of mag 8.6 SAO 118422.  IC 633 lies 11' S.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3325 = St X-25 on 19 Mar 1880.  His position matches UGC 5795 = PGC 31689.

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NGC 3326 = UGC 5799 = MCG +01-27-025 = CGCG 037-104 = Mrk 1260 = PGC 31701

10 39 31.9 +05 06 27

V = 13.7;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

17.5" (3/22/96): faint, small, round, 0.4' diameter, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is 2.4' W of center.  Located 5.5' SSW of a mag 9.5 star.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3326 = m 196 on 22 Mar 1865 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and noted "vF, eS, stellar."  His position matches UGC 5799.

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NGC 3327 = UGC 5803 = MCG +04-25-038 = CGCG 124-051 = PGC 31729

10 39 58.1 +24 05 29

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (3/25/95): faint, small, round, 0.6' diameter, moderate even concentration to a very small bright core.  A faint star is almost attached at the west side 25" from the center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3327 = H II-348 = h734 on 10 Apr 1785 (sweep 394) and noted "F, S, lE."  JH made two observations and noted (sweep 58) "vF: S; has either a star which gives it an apparent elongation in parallel, or is a double nebula."  The star is at the west edge.

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NGC 3328

10 39 54.2 +09 18 01

 

=*, Gottlieb.  =NF, RNGC.

 

Christian Peters discovered NGC 3328 on 27 Mar 1880 with the 13.5" refractor at the Litchfield observatory in New York.  At his position is a mag 14.8 star with a fainter companion 20" west.  Corwin equates NGC 3328 with this pair of stars.  Rudolph Spitaler, observing with the 27" refractor at Vienna, identified NGC 3328 with a pair of mag 15 stars 5' south and 14 seconds of RA west of Peters' position.

 

Wilhelm Tempel (also credited in the NGC) found an object on 21 May 1879 while observing NGC 3332 and reported in list V that it preceded NGC 3332 by ~30 seconds of time.  There is nothing near this location (except Spitaler's pair) and it is unlikely his object (whatever he saw) is the same as Peters'.

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NGC 3329 = NGC 3397 = UGC 5837 = MCG +13-08-033 = CGCG 351-034 = PGC 32059

10 44 39.4 +76 48 35

V = 12.2;  Size 1.8'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (3/28/92): moderately bright, small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, broad concentration but no sharp nucleus.  A mag 13 star is 1.4' NW.

 

JH found NGC 3329 = h733 on 3 Sep 1828 and recorded (third sweep 414) "pB; lE; gbM; 25"."  His position matches UGC 5837.

 

This galaxy was discovered by WH on 2 Apr 1801, the problematic northern sweep 1096 with large systematic errors.  His revised position, using Greenwich plates (MN, 71, 509), reveals H I-284 = NGC 3397 = NGC 3329.  The modern designation is NGC 3329, despite the earlier discovery of NGC 3397.

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NGC 3330 = ESO 168-SC11 = Cr 226 = Harvard 4

10 38 48 -54 06 54

V = 7.4;  Size 7'

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): at 105x, ~30 stars mag 10-13 in a 6'x3' group elongated N-S.  Three brighter mag 10 stars are on the south side but the main group of stars is on the north side including another mag 10 star.  This was an easy object in my 10x30 IS bincoculars and was partially resolved in the 9x50 finder.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 3330 = D 355 = h3287 on 27 Apr 1826 and described "a triangular group of small stars resembling faint nebula, with several stars in it of some considerable magnitude."  This was the first object he discovered with his homemade 9-inch speculum reflector after recording a few known objects.  JH recorded on 6 Apr 1834 "The chief star (9th mag) of a poor cluster of 20 or 30 stars."

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NGC 3331 = ESO 501-072 = MCG -04-25-056 = PGC 31743

10 40 09.0 -23 49 13

V = 13.2;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (4/21/01): faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 ~N-S, 0.8'x0.6', weak concentration, no distinct core.  The NGC position is 24 tsec too far west and this galaxy follows NGC 3335 situated 10' SW.  Member of nearby group LGG 209 (6 galaxies).  IC 625 (faint edge-on) 10' NW was not seen.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 3331 = LM II-424 in 1886 and noted "mag 14.0, 0.8' dia, vlE 180¡."  His position is 0.4 min of RA west of ESO 501-72 = PGC 31743 and his position angle (N-S) is a good match.

 

A "corrected" position by Ormond Stone (repeated in the IC I Notes section) is 1.1 min of RA too far west!  Herbert Howe's measured an accurate position in 1899-00 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes section).

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NGC 3332 = NGC 3342 = UGC 5807 = MCG +02-27-038 = CGCG 065-080 = Todd 24 = PGC 31768

10 40 28.4 +09 10 57

V = 12.3;  Size 1.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (3/22/96): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter.  Even concentration to a brighter core and a nearly stellar nucleus.  A mag 11.5-12 star is 1.2' SE of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3332 = H I-272 on 4 Mar 1796 while observing the satellites of Uranus (not in CH's fair copy of the sweeps).  This discovery was made after he had abandoned his sweeps since 1794, although even by 1790 and married for two years they had become much less frequent.  He used Uranus as the reference for the offset and recorded "cB, S, iR, mbM, BN."  In the NGC notes, Dreyer states the nebula observed by Schšnfeld on 26 Apr 1862 and by Vogel in 1867 differ a good deal in place from H I-272, while the vF neb found by Tempel in Arcetri on 21 May 1879 and by Peters (AN 3328) is nearly in Herschel's place.  The NGC position (also measured by Engelardt) matches UGC 5807.

 

This galaxy was probably first discovered on 18 Jan 1784 (early sweep 83) and catalogued as H III-5 = NGC 3342, but his position was very poor (see notes on this number).  Interestingly, this galaxy was also picked up by David Todd on 26 Feb 1878 during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet, but his position for object #24 is about 3 tmin too far west!  Nevertheless, Todd's sketch is an exact match with the surrounding field stars for this galaxy.  Dreyer did not include Todd's object in the NGC.  So, it appears this galaxy was independently "discovered" 3 times.

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NGC 3333 = ESO 376-002 = MCG -06-24-001 = PGC 31723

10 39 49.8 -36 02 12

V = 13.2;  Size 2.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 160d

 

18" (3/17/07): faint, thin edge-on NNW-SSE, 0.6'x0.15'.  A mag 15 star appears to be superimposed at the SSE end.  Occasionally, there is a strong impresssion that a second very faint star is superimposed, though the second point is probably a faint stellar nucleus.  Member of a group (Klemola 16 = LGG 213) along with NGC 3347, NGC 3354 and NGC 3358.  NGC 3347 lies 40' SE.

 

JH discovered NGC 3333 = h3288 on 2 Feb 1835 and noted "eF; vS; mE; appended like a tail to a * 15m."  His position and description matched the edge-on galaxy ESO 376-002.

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NGC 3334 = UGC 5817 = MCG +06-24-004 = CGCG 184-005 = PGC 31845

10 41 31.2 +37 18 46

V = 12.8;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (3/25/95): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter, almost even surface brightness.  A nice evenly matched mag 11.5 pair at 28" lies 3' ENE.  Situated in an interesting field consisting of several fairly bright stars.

 

WH discovered NGC 3334 = H II-641 = h735 on 17 Mar 1787 (sweep 713) and noted "F, vS."  CH's reduced position is NGC 3334 is 34 sec of RA following UGC 5817.  JH's position on sweep 401 is a good match with this galaxy.

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NGC 3335 = ESO 501-071 = MCG -04-25-055 = PGC 31706

10 39 34.1 -23 55 21

V = 13.0;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (4/21/01): fairly faint, round, 1.0' diameter, weak even concentration to a small, brighter core and a faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with slightly fainter and smaller NGC 3331 10' NE.  Member of nearby group LGG 209.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 3335 = LM II-425 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  He noted "mag 13.5, 0.4' dia, iR, gbM" and his position is 0.7 min east of ESO 501-071 = PGC 31706.  Ormond Stone's corrected RA (given in the IC 1 Notes section) is accurate.

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NGC 3336 = ESO 437-036 = MCG -05-25-036 = LGG 211-007 = PGC 31754

10 40 17.0 -27 46 36

V = 12.3;  Size 1.9'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 123d

 

18" (3/13/04): faint, moderately large, slightly elongated NW-SE, 1.2'x1.0', fairly even surface brightness.  This member of AGC 1060 (Hydra I) is located ~45' ESE of the core of the cluster.  Observation made through thin clouds.

 

JH discovered NGC 3336 = h3289 on 24 Mar 1835 and noted "vF; pL; lE; glbM."  His position is 1' north of ESO 437-036 = PGC 31754.

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NGC 3337 = CGCG 037-119 = PGC 31860

10 41 47.6 +04 59 18

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (3/22/96): very faint, small, round, 30" diameter.  Two mag 11.5 stars lie 1.8' and 3.1' SW.  Located 11.4' WSW of NGC 3341.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3337 = m 197 on 22 Mar 1865 and noted "eF, vS, alm stellar."  His position matches CGCG 037-119 = PGC 31860.

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NGC 3338 = UGC 5826 = MCG +02-27-041 = CGCG 065-087 = PGC 31883

10 42 07.5 +13 44 49

V = 11.1;  Size 5.9'x3.6';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 100d

 

18" (4/14/12): at 280x appeared fairly bright, large, elongated E-W, ~2.8'x1.6'.  Broad concentration to a round brighter core but no distinct nucleus.  The halo fades out gradually (nearly face-on spiral) and there is a hint of mottling, though no clear spiral structure.  Mag 8.9 HD 92622 lies 2.7' WNW of center, beyond the western edge of the galaxy.  UGC 5832 = Arp 291 lies 20' SE.

 

17.5" (4/18/87): fairly bright, fairly large, broad concentration to an elongated brighter core with a brighter nucleus embedded, hints of internal structure.  The fainter outer halo is elongated 3:2 E-W in the direction of mag 8.7 SAO 99253 which lies 2.7' W of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3338 = H II-77 = h737 on 19 Mar 1784 (sweep 177) and recorded "a considerable, pB, E, resolvable nebula, brightest about the middle." JH called it "F; E; pL; vgbM; follows a * 7m 10s."

 

R.J. Mitchell, observing with LdR's 72" on 22 Mar 1854, noted "B Nucl, R, about 2' dia, light irr, has a second minute Nucl preceding the L one?  Spiral?"  There is not second nucleus, but he was correct about the spiral structure.

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NGC 3339 = Holm 210b

10 42 10.0 -00 22 08

 

=* 2.1' WNW of NGC 3340, Corwin.  Misidentified in the RNGC as NGC 3340.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3339 = m 198 (along with NGC 3340 = m 199) on 30 Jan 1865 and noted "eF, stellar."  Very near his position is a single mag 15.4 star that Marth assumed was nebulous.  This star was also measured at Birr Castle on 4 Mar 1877 and called "eF, S."

 

The data in the RNGC listed under NGC 3339 applies to NGC 3340, MCG misidentifies MCG +00-27-042 as NGC 3339 and UGC mislabels NGC 3340 as NGC 3339 = NGC 3340.

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NGC 3340 = UGC 5827 = MCG +00-27-042 = CGCG 009-101 = Holm 210a = PGC 31892

10 42 18.0 -00 22 37

V = 13.0;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (4/29/00): faint, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter, very weak even concentration to a slightly brighter core.  The halo fades into the background.  Located 12' SW of uneven double ·1464 = 8.2/10.9 at 5".  This galaxy is incorrectly identified as NGC 3339 in the RNGC.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3340 = m 199 on 30 Jan 1865 and noted "F, S, R."  His position matches UGC 5827.  NGC 3339 is a faint star 2.1' west-northwest.  UGC and CGCG label this galaxy as NGC 3339 = NGC 3340, although only NGC 3340 should apply.

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NGC 3341 = UGC 5831 = MCG +01-27-031 = CGCG 037-124 = PGC 31915

10 42 31.5 +05 02 38

V = 14.0;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 24d

 

17.5" (3/22/96): faint, small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 0.7'x0.4', smooth surface brightness.  A mag 11.5 star is 1.0' NW and a mag 14 star is at the WSW edge 25" from center.  Located 21' NW of mag 5.8 35 Sex.  NGC 3337 lies 11.4' WSW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3341 = m 200 on 22 Mar 1865 and noted "vF, vS."  His position corresponds with UGC 5831 = PGC 31915.

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NGC 3342 = NGC 3332: = UGC 5807 = MCG +02-27-038 = CGCG 065-080

10 40 28.4 +09 10 57

 

See observing notes for NGC 3332.

 

WH discovered NGC 3342 = H III-5 on 18 Jan 1784 (sweep 83) and gives the following long description: "The faintest and smallest nebula imaginable.  I viewed it a long while and with a higher power than the sweeper.  Having no person at the clock, I went in to write down the time and found it impossible to recover the nebula.  It appeared like a vS nebulous star, and is probably of the cometic sort; there was another vS star south-following (I think, or rather, am pretty sure), and it preceded a pB *.  It should have been secured before I went into the light.  Its place must be about 2 1/2 deg following rho Leonis and about 10 arcmin more north than that star.''

 

His position falls on a blank part of the sky, but Harold Corwin notes that WH's description matches NGC 3332 = H I-272, discovered on 4 Mar 1796 while observing the satellites of Uranus (not actively pursuing sweeps).  This implies his RA for III-5 was off by over 2 tmin of RA and 15' in dec, not an unusual error for his early sweeps.  This galaxy was independently found later by David Todd (#24) on 26 Feb 1878 during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet.  Because of WH's poor position, this galaxy was not recovered by Spitaler or Bigourdan and Reinmuth equated the number with a mag 15 star.

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NGC 3343 = UGC 5863 = MCG +12-10-073 = CGCG 333-051 = PGC 32143

10 46 10.4 +73 21 10

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 55d

 

18" (3/30/05): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 0.7'x0.5'.  Fairly sharp concentration with a very small 15" bright core which increases to a stellar nucleus.  Forms the vertex of a right angle with a 23" pair of mag 10.5/11.5 stars situated 4.5' NE and a mag 10.5 star 4' WNW.  NGC 3348 lies 30' S and NGC 3403 is 40' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3343 = H III-317 = h736 on 3 Apr 1785 (sweep 390) and noted "vF, vS, requires attention to be seen." JH logged "not vF; R; gbM." His position matches UGC 5863.

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NGC 3344 = UGC 5840 = MCG +04-25-046 = CGCG 124-060 = PGC 31968

10 43 31.0 +24 55 20

V = 9.9;  Size 7.1'x6.5';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

17.5" (1/19/91): fairly bright, large, about 4'x3' extended ~E-W.  Unusual appearance as two bright stars are involved on the east side.  Sharply concentrated with a faint outer halo and a well-defined much brighter core.  A mag 10.5 star is on the east side 52" from the center and a mag 10 star is at the east edge of the halo 1.6' from the center.  Also a mag 13.5 star is superimposed about 30" SSE of the core.

 

8" (3/28/81): faint, large, low surface brightess.  Two mag 10 stars are at the east edge.

 

WH discovered NGC 3344 = H I-81 = h739 on 6 Apr 1785 (sweep 393) and recorded "cB, cL, milky, very near and preceding 2 stars; a small part of the nebula is considerably brighter than the rest; the 2 stars and the brightest part of the nebula are all within 2' and nearly in one parallel.  The greatest part of the milkiness is preceding the bright part, and the termination of it is imperceptible."  JH logged "pB; L; gbM; has (?) a star excentric within it and a double star closely following it."

 

Bindon Stoney, observing on 3 Mar 1851 with LdR's 72", declared it a "spiral, vF, has a branch from p edge round to n and f."

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NGC 3345

10 43 31.9 +11 59 07

 

=**, Carlson.  =M95 = NGC 3351, WS.

 

JH discovered NGC 3345 = h740 on 24 Mar 1830, while searching for his father's H I-26 (see below).  He simply noted "eF, hardly visible."  At his position is a pair of mag 14 stars at 18" separation.  Peters also reported the same position.  Dorothy Carlson, in her 1940 paper on NGC corrections, identifies NGC 3345 as a double star.  As his description is so disparate from his father's, Dreyer added two question marks to the equivalence of h740 with H I-26.

 

WH found H I-26 on 19 Mar 1784 and recorded "cB, pL, not R, and much brighter about the middle than towards the ends."  There is nothing at his position, but ~10' south is M95, which was not observed in the sweep, and Dreyer notes in his 1912 notes to WH's catalogues that I-26 is probably a duplicate of M95.  Wolfgang Steinicke emphasizes the identity with M95, but Harold Corwin feels JH's observation should not be ignored.

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NGC 3346 = UGC 5842 = MCG +03-28-001 = CGCG 094-116 = CGCG 095-003 = PGC 31982

10 43 39.0 +14 52 19

V = 11.7;  Size 2.9'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (3/12/94): fairly faint, fairly large, slightly elongated E-W, 3.0'x2.5', fairly low almost even surface brightness, just a weak broad concentration.  A pair of mag 11-12 stars are 2.6' WSW and 3.5' due west.

 

WH discovered NGC 3346 = H V-7 = h3290 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and noted "F, vL, almost R, resolvable."  From the Cape of Good Hope, JH recorded "vF; L; R; vgvlbM; 3' or 4' diam.  A soft globe of light, resolvable with the left eye."  His position matches UGC 5842.

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NGC 3347 = ESO 376-013 = MCG -06-24-007 = LGG 213-004 = PGC 31926

10 42 46.6 -36 21 12

V = 11.3;  Size 3.6'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 173d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, bright core, moderately large, elongated ~N-S.  First of three with NGC 3354 3.4' E and NGC 3358 10' ESE.  Member of the Klemola 16 group.

 

JH discovered NGC 3347 = h3291 on 1 May 1834 (along with NGC 3354) and recorded "pF; S; R; vsmbM to a * 12m."  He observed this group on four nights.

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NGC 3348 = UGC 5875 = MCG +12-10-077 = CGCG 333-054 = PGC 32216

10 47 10.1 +72 50 22

V = 11.1;  Size 2.0'x2.0';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (3/28/92): moderately bright but small, 1' diameter, slightly elongated E-W.  Unusual appearance because at first glance there appears to be a double nucleus.  Instead a mag 13.5 star is superimposed at the east side of the halo.  The core of the galaxy is close west and a small halo surrounds the star with averted vision.  Using direct vision the star is slightly brighter than the core.  A mag 11 star lies 1.7' WNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3348 = H I-80 = h738 on 3 Apr 1785 (sweep 390) and noted "cB, S, irregularly elliptical."  His position matches UGC 5875.  JH mentioned the * 11m 20 sec of RA preceding.  Karl Reinmuth noted this was a double galaxy (based on Heidelberg plates).

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NGC 3349 =  VV 514 = MCG +01-28-002 = CGCG 038-002 =PGC 31989

10 43 50.6 +06 45 47

V = 14.2;  Size 1.0'x0.7'

 

17.5" (4/9/94): very faint, very small, round, low surface brightness.  Located 5.3' W of brighter NGC 3356.  An extremely faint mag 15 "star" is just off the SE edge [38" SE of center].  On the POSS this "star" is actually an extremely compact companion galaxy (just nonstellar) which has very faint disrupted arms.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3349 = m 201 on 22 Mar 1865 and noted "eF, vS."  His position matches the triple system VV 514.

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NGC 3350 = CGCG 155-002 = CGCG 154-044 = PGC 32035

10 44 22.9 +30 43 29

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.5'

 

18" (3/11/07): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, occasional very faint stellar nucleus.  Located just north of a wide pair of mag 9.5 and 10 stars (SAO 62223 and 62226) and 19' W of 5.4-magnitude 42 Leo Minor.

 

JH discovered NGC 3350 = h742 on 10 Apr 1831 and recorded "eF; vS; very difficult, but a certain observation; is n of 2 st 9 or 10m."  His position matches CGCG 154-044 = PGC 32035.

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NGC 3351 = M95 = UGC 5850 = MCG +02-28-001 = CGCG 066-004 = PGC 32007

10 43 57.8 +11 42 14

V = 9.7;  Size 7.4'x5.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 13d

 

17.5" (2/28/87): very bright, very bright core. The outer halo is 4.5'x3.0' oriented SSW-NNE.  A bar is highly suspected extending WNW-ESE of the central core with inner ring structure suspected extending from this bar.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): very bright, small bright nucleus.

 

8": bright, fairly large, round.

 

Pierre MŽchain discovered M95 = H I-26 = h743 on 20 Mar 1781.  WH observed M95 on 11 Mar 1784 (sweep 164) and recorded a "fine, bright nebula, much brighter in the middle than at the extremes, of a pretty considerable extent, perhaps 3 or 4' or more. The middle seems to be of the magnitude of 3 or 4 stars joined together, but not exactly round; from the brightest part of it there is a sudden transition to the nebulous part, so that I should call it cometic."

 

Just a week later (19 Mar 1784) he found H I-26 and wrote, "cB, pL, not R, and much brighter about the middle than towards the ends."  There is nothing at his position, but ~20' south and 1 min of RA east is M95, which was not observed in the sweep, and Dreyer concludes in his 1912 revision of H's catalogoues that H I-26 is probably a duplicate of M95.

 

R.J. Mitchell, observing with LdR's 72" on 16 Feb 1858, noted "I sev times thought it had two spiral arms, p and f."  Sir Robert Ball commented on 10 Feb 1867, "The central bright section seems rather more complex than usual.  It may be divided into two ellipses, the inner one is uniform in light and brighter than the other one."  This appears to describe the core and the surrounding inner ring.

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NGC 3352 = UGC 5851 = MCG +04-25-048 = CGCG 124-061 = PGC 32025

10 44 15.0 +22 22 16

V = 12.6;  Size 1.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (3/28/92): faint, very small, round, brighter core.  A mag 14 star is 1.8' WNW.  NGC 3363 lies 21' SE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3352 = St X-26 on 19 Mar 1880.  His position matches UGC 5851 = PGC 32025.

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NGC 3353 = UGC 5860 = MCG +09-18-022 = CGCG 267-009 = Mrk 35 = PGC 32103

10 45 22.4 +55 57 37

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (3/12/94): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, increases to an irregular brighter core and occasional stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star is 1.6' S of center.

 

8": faint, small, round.  A mag 13 star is 1' S.

 

WH discovered NGC 3353 = H III-842 = h741 on 18 Mar 1790 (sweep 949) and noted "vF, vS, R."  His RA is 30 sec too large.  JH recorded "pB; S; R; pgbM; 15"; a small star 90" S." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3354 = ESO 376-014 = MCG -06-24-008 = LGG 213-005 = PGC 31941

10 43 02.8 -36 21 46

V = 13.2;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated ~N-S.  Second of three with NGC 3347 3.5' W and NGC 3358 7' ESE.  Member of the Klemola 16 group.

 

JH discovered NGC 3354 = h3292 on 1 May 1834 and recorded (two sweeps later) "vF; S; lbM; 8".  The 2nd of 3 [with NGC 3347 and NGC 3358]."

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NGC 3355

10 43 30 -23 12

 

=Not found, RNGC.  =MCG -04-25-058 = ESO 501-G79?, ESO.

 

Samuel Langley found NGC 3355 = HN 29 on 12 Apr 1866 using the 15-inch Merz Refractor at Harvard Observatory (Annals of Harvard Observatory, Vol 13, #215).  He simply noted "found in search for Biela's comet; place approximate."  There is nothing near his position (the only NGC credited to Langley).  NGC 3355 is not listed in any modern catalogue except ESO, which lists MCG -4-25-58 = ESO 501-G79 as a possible identity.  This galaxy is located 2 min of RA west and 11.4' south of Langley's position.

 

Harold Corwin suggests a more likely candidate is IC 625 = ESO 501-G80, a "normal'' early-type object with a surface brightness two magnitudes brighter than ESO 501-G79, which is located 45' south of Langley's position.  Either of these identifications are pretty speculative as they are not close to Langley's position.  So, I've listed this number as lost.

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NGC 3356 = UGC 5852 = MCG +01-28-004 = CGCG 038-005 = VV 529 = PGC 32021

10 44 12.3 +06 45 32

V = 13.3;  Size 1.7'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 102d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE.  A mag 11 star is 2.9' S.  Forms a pair with NGC 3349 5.3' W.  NGC 3362 lies 13.8' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3356 = H III-107 = h744 on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 196) and recorded "A suspected, eF, pL.  Too much daylight remaining to verify it; but I do much doubt it."  There is nothing near his position he might have picked up.  But on 12 Apr 1801 (sweep 1098), his position is just 2' northeast of UGC 5852.  On sweep 117, JH described this galaxy "eF; R; bM; 30"; a * 9m south dist 2' or 3'."

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NGC 3357 = UGC 5206 = UGC 5854A = MCG +02-28-002 = CGCG 066-006 = PGC 32032

10 44 20.7 +14 05 03

V = 12.6;  Size 1.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (3/22/96): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, broad concentration to an ill-defined brighter 15" core.  A mag 12 star is 2.3' W of center.  A wide pair of evenly matched mag 9.5 stars lies 8.5' NE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3357 = m 202 = T V-5 on 5 Apr 1864 and noted "F, S, mbM." His position is 1' north of UGC 5206.  Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered this galaxy on 22 Feb 1865, noted the mag 13-14 star 10 seconds of time due west and measured a very accurate position.  Wilhelm Tempel made another independent discovery on 18 Nov 1881 while looking for Denning's Comet.

 

UGC incorrectly gives the RA as 9h instead of 10h, although identifies this UGC 5206 as NGC 3357.  In the UGC addenda, NGC 3357 is listed again as UGC 5854A, as the corrected position falls between UGC 5854 and 5855.

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NGC 3358 = ESO 376-017 = MCG -06-24-009 = LGG 213-006 = PGC 31974

10 43 32.9 -36 24 37

V = 11.4;  Size 3.3'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 141d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, moderately large, prominent core, fainter elongated halo.  Several stars are near.  Third of three with NGC 3354 7' WNW and NGC 3350 10' WNW.  Member of the Klemola 16 group.

 

JH discovered NGC 3358 = h3293 on 2 Feb 1835 and recorded "F; vS; R: close to a vS star; the last of 3 [with NGC 3347 and 3354]."

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NGC 3359 = UGC 5873 = MCG +11-13-037 = CGCG 313-033 = PGC 32183

10 46 36.7 +63 13 28

V = 10.6;  Size 7.2'x4.4';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 170d

 

48" (2/21/12): at 375x, this beautiful barred spiral contains a prominent central bar extending ~1.3' N-S, with a bright, elongated core.  A spiral arm is attached at the south end of the bar.  It quickly rotates and sweeps northeast (clockwise) for 1.5', dimming out 1' E of center.  A longer, beautiful arm is attached on the north end of the bar and sweeps south along the west side of the galaxy.  This arm is brightest where it attaches to the bar.  The western arm passes well south of the central bar and includes a couple of HII knots towards the end.  The brightest is a faint 10" knot, situated 1.4' SW of center.  This HII region is catalogued as [H69] 42 in Hodge's 1969 paper "HII Regions in 20 Nearby Galaxies" and as SDSS J104627.95+631220.6 (V = 16.5).  It is also referenced in NED as NGC 3359:[RZB2000] #7/9, from the paper "The ionized gas in the spiral galaxy NGC 3359. Part I." in A&A, 354, 823-835 (2000).  Just south of this knot the arm fades out, but brightens slightly again at the tip (2' S of center), where there is a very faint, low surface brightness knot, ~12" diameter, listed in the RZB paper as region #12/14.

 

17.5" (3/12/94): fairly bright, large, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE.  A brighter bar is visible through the center along the major axis!  Has a large, diffuse halo about 5'x3' which fades into the background.  The brighter core has an irregular surface brightness.  Two mag 14 stars are 3.4' WNW and 2.8' ESE of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3359 = H V-52 = h745 on 28 Nov 1801 (sweep 1102) and recorded "cB, L, lE in the meridian, vgbM, about 5' long and 3' broad.  The nebulosity seems to be of the milky kind [unresolvable], it loses itself imperceptibly all around.  The whole breadth of the sweeps seems to be affected with vF nebulosity."  His position is 3.5' too far north.  JH logged "pF; L; E in merid; glbM; 2.5' l, 2' br." and measured a more accurate position.

 

Ralph Copeland, observing on 21 Feb 1874 at Birr Castle, made two sketches showing both a striking "S" shaped spiral and a "figure 8".  No description accompanies the diagrams.

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NGC 3360 = MCG -02-28-003 = PGC 32026

10 44 16.1 -11 14 33

V = 13.7;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (4/21/01): faint, small, elongated 4:3 WSW-ENE, 0.8'x0.6'.  Low, nearly even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with NGC 3360 3.8'  NE.

 

Andrew Ainslie Common discovered NGC 3360 in 1880 with his 36-inch silvered-glass reflector.  His description reads "A F[aint] pair, f one brighter."  There is nothing at his position, but 10' north is MCG -02-28-003 = PGC 32026, which forms a pair with NGC 3361 = MCG -02-28-004 about 3.8' NE.

 

Herbert Howe's published position in his series of MN articles matches MCG -02-28-003, although it is incorrect in the IC Notes.

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NGC 3361 = MCG -02-28-004 = PGC 32044

10 44 29.1 -11 12 27

V = 12.8;  Size 2.0'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (4/21/01): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 1.2'x0.8', broad concentration.  A mag 15 star is close preceding.  Forms a pair with NGC 3360 3.8' SW.

 

Andrew Ainslie Common discovered NGC 3361 in 1880 with his 36-inch silvered-glass reflector.  His description reads "A F[aint] pair, f one brighter."  There is nothing at his position, but 10' north is MCG -02-28-004 = PGC 32044, which forms a pair with NGC 3360 about 3.8' SW.  The position angle 160¡ given in the NGC description is accurate, though it was not given in Common's list.

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NGC 3362 = UGC 5857 = MCG +01-28-005 = CGCG 038-007 = PGC 32078

10 44 51.8 +06 35 48

V = 12.8;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 2.0'x1.0', broad concentration.  Located 3.8' WNW of mag 8.7 SAO 118472 3.8' ESE.  NGC 3356 lies 13.8' NW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3362 = m 203 on 22 Mar 1865 and noted "vF, S, R."  His position is within 1' of UGC 5857.  Stephan independently discovered this galaxy on 18 Mar 1882 and reported it in list XII-39, though he questioned if it was equivalent to GC 5534 [NGC 3362] in the notes section.

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NGC 3363 = UGC 5866 = MCG +04-26-002 = CGCG 125-003 = PGC 32089

10 45 09.5 +22 04 42

V = 13.3;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (3/28/92): faint, small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 1.0'x0.7', even surface brightness.  A mag 12 star is 1.5' E of center and 1.0' off the edge.  NGC 3353 lies 21' NW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3363 = St XII-40 on 22 Mar 1882 and recorded "F, pS, iR, lbM, r."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 3364 = UGC 5890 = MCG +12-10-082 = CGCG 333-056 = PGC 32314

10 48 29.7 +72 25 30

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (3/28/92): faint, small, round, low even surface brightness.  Collinear with a mag 13/13.5 double star at 29" separation located 4' N.

 

WH discovered NGC 3364 = H III-318 = h746 on 3 Apr 1785 (sweep 390) and noted "vF, pL, r."  CH's reduction is ~2.5' east of UGC 5890.  JH reported "eF; L; R; vgbM; 60"; a coarse double star sf [about 5'] points back directly to it."

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NGC 3365 = UGC 5878 = MCG +00-28-006 = CGCG 010-008 = FGC 1131 = PGC 32153

10 46 12.6 +01 48 48

V = 12.6;  Size 4.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 159d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): very faint, fairly large, edge-on 6:1 NNW-SSE, 4.0'x0.6'.  Appears as a low surface brightness streak, very weak concentration with a small slightly brighter core.  Surprisingly faint for the listed magnitude.

 

JH discovered NGC 3365 = h747 on 13 Apr 1828 and recorded "eF; L; 2' long, 20" broad; vgvlbM; a ray nebula."  His position is 1.4' south of the edge-on UGC 5878.  The NGC has a typo in the RA hour (19).

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NGC 3366 = ESO 264-007 = MCG -07-22-024 = IC 2592 = LGG 204-003 = PGC 31335

10 35 08.4 -43 41 30

V = 11.3;  Size 2.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 37d

 

18" (2/19/09): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, ~0.6'x0.4' (viewed brighter core region).  Located just 1.7' S of mag 6.1 HD 91805 and the combination of low elevation and the glare of the bright star severely hampered viewing the galaxy.  At 225x I was able to place the star just outside the edge of the field which increased the visibility.  This galaxy is located 1.3 degrees ENE of NGC 3256 and is probably part of the southern group Klemola 12 (NGC 3256, 3256B, 3261, 3262 and 3263 were observed from Costa Rica).

 

JH discovered NGC 3366 = h3294 on 15 Mar 1836 and recorded ""F; E; gbM; close to a * 6.7m.  The minute of RA is doubtful.  The written record makes it 47; but as this is impossible from the context, 37 is assumed."  His assumed RA is still 10 tmin too far east. Once corrected it matches ESO 264-007 in position and description so this identification is certain.

 

DeLisle Stewart found this galaxy on an Arequipa plate around 1899 and Dreyer catalogued it again as IC 2592.  So, NGC 3366 = IC 2592.  See Harold Corwin's notes.

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NGC 3367 = UGC 5880 = MCG +02-28-005 = CGCG 066-011 = PGC 32178

10 46 34.8 +13 45 02

V = 11.5;  Size 2.5'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

13.1" (2/25/84): fairly bright, fairly large, almost even surface brightness, slightly elongated ~E-W.  NGC 3377 lies 20' NE.

 

8" (3/28/81): fairly bright, slightly elongated, slightly brighter core.  Located about 25' SSE of 5th magnitude 52 Leonis.

 

WH discovered NGC 3367 = H II-78 = h748 on 19 Mar 1784 (sweep 177) and simply noted "pB".  His position is off by 15' (too far northwest), but he measured a more accurate position on a later sweep.  JH noted "pB; vL; irreg R; vgbM; 2' diam" and measured an accurate position in sweep 338.  The description under h748 in sweep 242 probably refers NGC 3379.

 

Bindon Stoney, observing with LdR's 72" on 23 Mar 1851, noted "probably spiral, dark spaces in it and * suspected in preceding edge."

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NGC 3368 = M96 = UGC 5882 = MCG +02-28-006 = CGCG 066-013 = PGC 32192

10 46 45.5 +11 49 18

V = 9.3;  Size 7.6'x5.2';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (2/28/87): very bright, fairly large, elongated NW-SE, 5'x3.5', small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Brightest in the Leo group (M96 Group) with M95 40' WSW.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): very bright, small bright nucleus.

 

8" (3/28/81): bright, fairly large, slightly elongated.

 

Pierre MŽchain discovered M96 = NGC 3368 = h749 on 20 Mar 1781.  Four nights later it was confirmed by Messier.  WH observed M96 on 11 Mar 1784 (sweep 164) and recorded "A fine, bright nebula, much like the former [M95], but the brightest part in the middle is more joined to the nebulosity than in the former, and the bright part is rather longer, though not quite so vivid as in the former. It may still be called cometic, though it begins to depart a little from that kind."

 

Johnstone Stoney, observing with LdR's 72" on 3 Mar 1850, noted "Is, I think, certainly a spiral."  In Mar 1851, Bindon Stoney added "vBM, perhaps shaped like an S reversed." A sketch clearly shows a spiral arm curving counterclockwise on the east side towards the south.  It also shows a darker strip just west of the central region between the western arm.  M96 was included in the list of "Spiral or curvilinear" nebulae in LdR's 1850 PT paper.

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NGC 3369 = ESO 501-095 = MCG -04-26-009 = PGC 32191

10 46 44.6 -25 14 39

V = 13.6;  Size 1.4'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 117d

 

18" (3/17/07): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, weak concentration, 0.5'x0.4'.  Outlying member of the Hydra I (Abell 1060) cluster to the NE of the main group.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3369 = LM I-177 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory. His rough position (nearest min of RA) matches ESO 501-095.  Howe's corrected position in 1899-00 (given in the IC 2 Notes section) is accurate.

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NGC 3370 = UGC 5887 = MCG +03-28-008 = CGCG 095-019 = PGC 32207

10 47 04.0 +17 16 24

V = 11.6;  Size 3.2'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 148d

 

13.1" (1/18/85): moderately bright, fairly weak concentration, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE.  The nucleus is displaced to the west.

 

WH discovered NGC 3370 = H II-81 = h750 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 181) and noted "pB, pL, not R, r."  JH made two observations and his mean position matches UGC 5887.

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NGC 3371 = NGC 3384 = UGC 5911 = MCG +02-28-012 = CGCG 066-021

10 48 16.9 +12 37 45

 

See observing notes for NGC 3384.

 

JH discovered NGC 3371 = h751 on 23 Mar 1830 (single sweep 282) and recorded "F, R. The second of 3 [with h748 and h753 = NGC 3373] in a triangle."  There is only the single galaxy NGC 3367 in the vicinty, ~7' WSW of JH's position.  But if his 3 positions are offset 73 sec in RA east and 70' south, they match up perfectly with NGC 3379, NGC 3384 and NGC 3389.  Possibly while observing NGC 3379, he used the position of NGC 3367 and measured offsets to obtain positions of other two galaxies.  So, h748 (sweep 282) = NGC 3379, NGC 3371 = NGC 3384 and NGC 3373 = NGC 3389.  His position angles (given under h748) also match these 3 galaxies.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for more.

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NGC 3372 = ESO 128-EN013 = Gum 33 = 109a = RCW 53 = Eta Carina Nebula = Keyhole Nebula

10 45 09 -59 52 00

V = 4.8;  Size 120'x120'

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this observation of the Homunculus was made at 350x in good seeing with the 24".  Eta Car appeared an iridescent electric-orange color surrounded by the bipolar blowouts of the Homunculus.  The brighter and larger lobe extends to the southeast and was pretty circular (a bit flattened on the end), but punctured by a small, elongated hole that splits the lobe near Eta, creating a small 6" loop (connected on the SE end).  The NW blowout is fainter and smaller with an unusual "fountain" or half-apple core appearance, tapering in and dimming to an extremely narrow bridge at Eta and then spreading out to the NW.  The NW edge of this lobe is rounder, giving a "fountain" appearance.  The two lobes create empty notches near Eta and extending into the NE notch between the two lobes is a very thin, short spike that was not difficult to view but the SW "spike" was only intermittently visible.

 

18" (7/4/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): spectacular detail within the Homunculus at 293x.  The bright 6" lobe to the SE of Eta is split by a dark lane (forming the two "legs" of the Homunculus).  This lane actually consists of two darker "holes" with the outer dark hole more prominent.  In moments of good seeing the outer periphery of the lobe has a slightly tattered or scalloped structure and it is flattened on the SE end.  Jutting out a few arcseconds to the NE is a small, thin spike that was visible continuously with averted vision.  On the opposite SW side, only a small, brighter extension or oval nodule bulges out slightly from the SE lobe.  The fainter NW lobe has a more translucent appearance with a pinched "key" or "bust" outline as the nebulosity is very weak or absent in the middle of the sides (this lobe forms the "head" of the Homunculus).  At the center of this remarkable sight is the bright, quasi-stellar, reddish-orange Eta Carinae.

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): I spent quite a bit of time on the Eta Carina complex, particularly examining the remarkable Homunculus Nebula. This is easily the largest bright emission nebula in the sky and a very prominent naked-eye object within the amazingly rich Carina Milky Way.  Bright islands of billowing nebulosity are separated by dark lanes or rifts and the entire complex overfilled the 105x field at the eyepiece.

 

The surface brightness of the various sections is fairly uniform and pretty high, though it lowers in the outskirts.  No section is comparable in intensity to the central heart of the Orion Nebula, but the large wedge that contains Eta Car is quite prominent.  A UHC filter enhances the nebulosity without significantly dimming the stars.  Just west of Eta (within the central wedge) is the fairly prominent, dark "Keyhole Nebula" that extends ~5' length and elongated N-S (not as contrasty as when John Herschel named it in the 1830's).  Eta Carina's orange color and the small bipolar blowouts are quite stunning at high power.  Involved with the nebulosity are several clusters, the most prominent being Tr 16 just south of Eta Car.

 

Tr 14 is a  rich group of ~30 stars mag 7 and fainter stars including  h4356 (7.2/8.9 at 2.8") within a 4' diameter.  There are several additional mag 8/9 stars and a swarm of mag 12 stars!  This cluster is just 12' NW of Eta Carinae within the bright, huge triangular section of nebulosity to the NW of Eta.  HD 93129A (the brighter component of the pair h4356) is one of the most luminous and massive known stars with ~120 solar masses and 5,000,000 times the sun's luminosity.

 

Tr 16 is a rich group of stars trailing immediately south of Eta Carinae itself and close southeast of the dark Keyhole Nebula, all within the same bright triangular wedge.  At 166x, about three dozen stars mag 9-13 were resolved within 4'.  A number of the stars are arranged in chains and groups.

 

Tr 15 consists of roughly 15 stars crammed into a 2' group including a neat triple h4364 (mag 8/9/11 at 8" and 9" in a string with brightest member HD 93249) on the north side.  Situated within a streamer of nebulosity just 20' NNW of Eta Carina itself.

 

At 200x, the Homunculus Nebula surrounding Eta Carina was remarkable in excellent seeing on the last evening of observing.  Both Eta and the nebula were a uniquely vivid color - an amazing fluorescent orange-tangerine.  Extending to the SE of Eta is the brighter lobe, perhaps 6" in diameter with a sharp outline that was flattened along the southern edge in a mushroom shape.  There appeared to be a partial darker lane in the interior.  Extending to the NW was a smaller (4"-5") and much fainter lobe that faded with increased magnification.  A tiny spike of nebulosity jutted out along to the NE between the two lobes.  A couple of very close and faint companions lie just NE of Eta.  This bi-polar reflection nebula resulted from the most recent outburst of supermassive Eta Car in 1841.

 

20" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): Using a 20 Nagler (127x) and UHC filter, the field of Eta Carina was a breathtaking sight.  The outer wings and streamers extended well outside the 39' field.  The turbulent nebulosity had a curdled, electric appearance with a strong 3-dimensional effect as brighter streaks, wings, fainter masses and dark lanes were mixed together throughout the field.

 

The best overall view of the nebula in the 20" was at 80x (32 mm) using a UHC filter.  Even at this low power, the Eta Carina nebula still overfilled the field with contrasty dark lanes and amazingly structured islands of nebulosity.  I stared into the eyepiece quietly, somewhat stunned by its beauty.  With this aperture at 282x, the 12"x8" bipolar Homunculus nebula was an astounding sight.  The orange central star appeared quasi-stellar with the unequal blowouts fairly prominent.  They had an eerie, translucent appearance with the western lobe somewhat smaller, fainter and more pinched with the eastern lobe more circular.  A possible dark lane is near the center and punctures the lobes.

 

Tr 14 rich group of stars mag 7 and fainter in a 5' diameter situated ~12' NW of Eta within one of the sections of nebulosity. Contains the binary h4356 (7.2/8.9 at 2.8").  The brighter star of this pair (HD 93129A) is one of the most massive stars known and rivals Eta Car in mass and luminosity.  A triple system h4360 just 2' SE includes a 2" pair.  Cr 232 is a small, scattered 4' group of ~20 stars just following Tr 14 in the outer NW section of the Eta Carina nebula.  The brightest star is mag 7.7 HD 93250.  Tr 16 is a triangular group of stars just south of Eta and includes a chain of a half-dozen brighter stars.  Tr 15 is a fairly small group of a couple dozen stars mag 8.5 and fainter less than 30' N of Eta Car.

 

Cr 228 is a large, scattered cluster ~25' SSW of Eta Carina in the southern part of the complex.  Includes two mag 6.5 stars with brightest member 6.2-6.5 QZ Carinae and the Wolf-Rayet star HD 93131.  Includes a number of mag 8-9 stars spread over a 15'x10' field.  The group is elongated SW-NE.

 

Bochum 10 is a group of two dozen stars in a ~5'x2' region.  It includes 7 mag 9 stars that dominate the group.  Fairly scattered and distributed in the two subgroups NW and SE with the SE group containing most of the stars.  Located just 5' NW of mag 5.4 HD 92964 and just south of the southern arc of the HD 92809 Wolf-Rayet ring.  Situated just north of the huge wedge that extends north of Eta, ~40' NW of the star.  Visually the cluster appears much smaller than the listed diameter of 20'.

 

At 282x, the 12"x8" bipolar Homunculus nebula surrounding Eta Carina was an astounding sight.  The orange central star appeared quasi-stellar with the unequal blowouts fairly prominent.  They had an eerie, translucent appearance with the NW lobe somewhat smaller, fainter and more pinched with the SE lobe more circular.  A possible dark lane is near the center and punctures the lobes.

 

12" (6/29/02 - Bargo, Australia): My first views of the Eta Carina nebula through Les Dalrymple's 12.5" and Gary's 20" were truly breathtaking and dwarfed the Orion Nebula in size and detail.  The nebula is broken into 4 or 5 main separate masses of varying sizes, shapes and surface brightness by three wide, dark obscuring dust lanes.  The mottled nebulosity has an amazing 3-dimensional curdled appearance and is riddled with dark bays and rifts.  Outer loops and brighter streaks complete an amazing vista.

 

The brightest section forms a triangular wedge isolated by prominent dark lane which cuts at a striking right angle.  This wedge contains the centerpiece Eta Carina which has an amazing orange color.  Extending from Eta are the two small lobes (one is brighter), referred to as the "Homunculus nebula" and appearing as an explosive event from the early 19th century in a HST image.  Just preceding Eta is an elongated N-S, curving dark lane nicknamed the "Keyhole Nebula" by John Herschel as well as the open cluster Tr 16 just south of Eta.

 

Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered NGC 3372 = Lac III-6 = D 309 = h3295 in 1751-1752 with a 1/2-inch telescope at 8x during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope.  He recorded a "Large group of a great number of small stars, little compressed, and filling out the space of a kind of a semi-circle of 15 to 20 minutes in diameter; with a slight nebulosity widespread in space."  Of course, the nebula and embedded clusters is a prominent naked-eye object, so was certainly known by southern sky watchers.

 

James Dunlop observed it at least 13 times and recorded "(Eta Roboris Caroli, Bode) is a bright star of the 3rd magnitude, surrounded by a multitude of small stars, and pretty strong nebulosity; very similar in its nature to that in Orion, but not so bright ... I can count twelve or fourteen extremely minute stars surrounding Eta in the space of about 1'; several of them appear close to the disk: there is a pretty bright small star about the 10th magnitude N.f. the Eta, and distant about 1'. The nebulosity is pretty strongly marked; that on the south side is very unequal in brightness, and the different portions of the nebulosity are completely detached, as represented in the figure. There is much nebulosity in this place, and very much extensive nebulosity throughout the Robur Caroli, which is also very rich in small stars."

 

During a 5-year period in the 1840's and '50s Eta Car brightened from 1.5 to -1 (chronicled by John Herschel) and was temporarily the second brightest star in the sky, nearly rivaling Sirius. This outburst later created the double-lobed Homunculus Nebula, discovered in 1944.  According to Wolfgang Steinicke, in 1863, Francis Abbott, an amateur in Tasmania, claimed a decrease in the size and brightness of the main nebula and displacement relative to Eta Car using a 4-inch refractor, but a number of critical replies followed by Lt. John Herschel (son of JH), Airy and Lassell.  Interestingly, the dark "Keyhole Nebula" does appear to have lost contrast based on JH's sketches and descriptions.

 

As far as the origin of the nickname "Keyhole Nebula" it's generally assumed that JH coined the phrase and his sketch of the elongated dark patch near Eta certainly appears like a perfect classic "keyhole".  But a search through his Cape Observations and articles about the brightening of Eta Car and possible variability of the nebula reveals he used the term "lemniscate" to describe the shape (must have been his early mathematical training).

 

In an 1873 issue of Appletons' Journal, Emma Converse, who reported on astronomical topics for the popular press, summarizes the dispute about changes in the nebula in an article titled "Eta Argus".  She mentions "In the middle of the brightest part of the nebulous light there was a dark vacancy, of a form resembling a keyhole, or the geometrical figure called a lemniscate, around which the light of the nebula was not uniform." Later she mentions "The southern loop of Herschel's lemniscate, or keyhole-shaped cavity had bulged out into the vacuity, forming an isthmus that trended north-south."  Agnes Mary Clerke refers to the "Key-Hole Nebula" in her "The System of the Stars" (second edition, 1905), plate XVII taken with the Bruce 24-inch at Arequipa in 1896.

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NGC 3373 = NGC 3389 = UGC 5914 = MCG +02-28-013 = CGCG 066-022 = PGC 32306

10 48 27.9 +12 31 59

 

See observing notes for NGC 3389.

 

JH discovered NGC 3373 = h753 on 23 Mar 1830 (single sweep 282) and recorded "F, R, the last of 3 [with h748 and h751 = NGC 3371] in a triangle."  There is only the single galaxy NGC 3367 in the vicinty, ~7' WSW of JH's position.  But if his 3 positions are offset 73 sec in RA east and 70' south, they match up perfectly with NGC 3379, NGC 3384 and NGC 3389.  Possibly while observing NGC 3379, he used the position of NGC 3367 and measured offsets to obtain positions for the other two galaxies.  So, h748 (sweep 282) = NGC 3379, NGC 3371 = NGC 3384 and NGC 3373 = NGC 3389.  His position angles (given under h748) also match these 3 galaxies.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for more.

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NGC 3374 = UGC 5901 = MCG +07-22-066 = CGCG 212-057 = PGC 32266

10 48 01.1 +43 11 11

V = 13.7;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 142d

 

18" (3/30/05): fairly faint, fairly small, irregularly round though difficult to pin down an orientation, 0.7'x0.6'.  Broad, weak concentration with no noticeable core.  Located 16' NE of mag 7.3 HD 93271 and 18' NW of mag 7.8 HD 93663.  Forms a pair with CGCG 212-055 2.3' SSW (not seen).

 

WH discovered NGC 3374 = H III-701 = h752 on 3 Feb 1788 (sweep 804) and recorded "vF, vS, iF."  JH called it "vF; S; R; 12"."  Both measured fairly accurate positions.

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NGC 3375 = MCG -01-28-008 = PGC 32205

10 47 00.8 -09 56 29

V = 12.6;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 153d

 

18" (3/29/03): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.6', bright 15" core, stellar nucleus.  No brighter stars in the 20' field at 220x.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 3375 = T I-26 = T V-6 on 21 Feb 1878 and called it class II-III with a stellar nucleus.  It was found independently by Stephan on 23 Apr 1881 and included in list XI-9.  Both Tempel's and Stephan's micrometric positions match MCG -01-28-008 = PGC 32205, although the MCG doesn't label this galaxy NGC 3375.

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NGC 3376 = UGC 5891 = MCG +01-28-007 = CGCG 038-013 = PGC 32231

10 47 26.5 +06 02 53

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 167d

 

17.5" (3/22/96): faint, small, slightly elongated, 25" diameter, moderate surface brightness, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star is 1.3' N which has a very faint companion close west.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 3376 on 19 Feb 1863.  His position, measured on 2 nights, is an exact match with UGC 5891.

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NGC 3377 = UGC 5899 = MCG +02-28-009 = CGCG 066-016 = PGC 32249

10 47 42.3 +13 59 08

V = 10.4;  Size 5.2'x3.0';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 35d

 

13.1" (2/25/84): bright, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, well concentrated to a small bright nucleus. Member of the Leo Group = M96 Group.

 

8" (3/28/81): fairly bright, slightly elongated SW-NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3377 = H II-99 = h754 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and noted "pB, S, r."  JH called it "first Class" and measured an accurate position.  Auwers and d'Arrest also measured precise positions.

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NGC 3378 = ESO 318-012 = MCG -07-22-029 = PGC 32189

10 46 43.3 -40 00 59

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

18" (3/28/09): faint, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, very weak concentration.

 

JH discovered NGC 3378 = h3296 on 1 Feb 1835 and noted "pB; R; bM.  Out of limit of sweep.  Place rough.  He measured a more accurate position on 3 later sweeps.

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NGC 3379 = M105 = UGC 5902 = MCG +02-28-011 = CGCG 066-018 = Holm 212a = KTG 33A = PGC 32256

10 47 49.6 +12 34 54

V = 9.3;  Size 5.4'x4.8';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

24" (4/20/14): very bright, large, slightly elongated ~SW-NE, ~3.0'x2.5'.  Sharply concentrated with a large, brilliant core containing to an intense nucleus, which increases towards the center.  First in a prominent trio with NGC 3384 7.3' NW and NGC 3389 9.8' ESE.  Member of the M96 Group = Leo Group.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): bright, very small bright core, slightly elongated.  First of three bright galaxies in the field with NGC 3384 7.3' NW and NGC 3389 9.7' ESE.

 

8" (3/28/81): fairly bright, round.

 

Pierre MŽchain discovered M105 = H I-17 = h757 on 24 Mar 1781, four days after he discovered M95 and M96.  WH found it on 11 Mar 1784 (sweep 164) and recorded "Three nebula in the field together [with NGC 3384 and 3389].  The two preceding ones [M105 NGC 3384] cometic and much like the two former bright ones [M95 and M96], but considerably less."  The NGC position is accurate (measured by Auwers and d'Arrest).

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NGC 3380 = UGC 5906 = MCG +05-26-012 = CGCG 155-015 = PGC 32287

10 48 12.2 +28 36 06

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, 1.3'x0.8'.  Gradually increases to a brighter core which rises suddenly to a quasi-stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star lies 2.1' ESE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3380 = H II-360 = h755 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "F, pL, i.".  JH made 5 observations and measured a fairly accurate position.  Another 4 observations were made a Birr Castle, though other than the elongation, no structural details were mentioned by any observer.

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NGC 3381 = UGC 5909 = MCG +06-24-015 = CGCG 184-016 = PGC 32302

10 48 24.8 +34 42 41

V = 11.7;  Size 2.0'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly faint, moderately large, round, 1.6' diameter, broad weak concentration, no distinct core.  Located near midpoint of two mag 13 stars 5.5' NNW and 5.2' SSE. Forms a pair with IC 641 6' W (not seen).

 

WH discovered NGC 3381 = H II-565 = h756 on 28 Mar 1786 (sweep 549) and logged "pB, cL, lbM, iF."  CH's reduced position is 10 sec of RA west of UGC 5909.  JH made two observations and three were made at Birr Castle.  The NGC description is in error stating "1st of 3", which applies to NGC 3379.

 

R.J. Mitchell, using LdR's 72" on 8 Mar 1858, noted "I think there is a B streak through it."  This likely refers to the bar running east-west.

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NGC 3382

10 48 24.9 +36 43 46

 

=**, Gottlieb. =NF, RNGC.

 

Lawrence Parsons, the 4th Earl of Rosse, discovered NGC 3382 on 5 Apr 1874 and described "About 4 min p [NGC 3432]. pF, cL, R, bM, *14 mag in centre. *9 Pos 238.0, Dist 173.7."  There is no nebula near his position. A second observation on 24 Mar 1878 reads "4m. p and 6'± n of [NGC 3432].  vF, S, irr R, only a S group of st, *9m Pos 192 deg, Dist 162.9"  This second position corresponds with a wide pair of mag 14/15 stars at 38" separation and a mag 10 star to the SSW (not mentioned in the first observation).  So this pair of stars might correspond to the second observation only or perhaps the reference galaxies were misidentified.  Dreyer didn't include this object in the GS Supplement.  See Harold Corwin's notes for further discussion.

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NGC 3383 = ESO 501-097 = MCG -04-26-010 = LGG 223-005 = PGC 32224

10 47 19.2 -24 26 18

V = 12.7;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 24d

 

18" (3/17/07): fairly faint/moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, 1.0'x0.9', weak concentration.  A mag 15-15.5 star is at the SW edge of the halo.  Located 7' NNE of mag 8 HD 93474.

 

18" (3/13/04): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated 4:3 ~N-S, 1.0'x0.8'.  Low, even surface brightness with just a weak concentration.  Observation made through thin clouds.

 

JH discovered NGC 3383 = h3297 on 20 Mar 1835 and noted "F; pL; irreg R; glbM; 40"; moonlight."  He also recorded it on the next sweep and his mean position matches ESO 501-097 = PGC 32224.

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NGC 3384 = NGC 3371 = UGC 5911 = MCG +02-28-012 = CGCG 066-021 = Holm 212b = KTG 33B = PGC 32292

10 48 16.9 +12 37 45

V = 9.9;  Size 5.5'x2.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 53d

 

24" (4/20/14): very bright, large, elongated at least 2:1 SW-NE, ~3.2'x1.5' though the outer halo increases in size with averted vision.  Sharply concentrated with a large, brilliant, rounder core that gradually increases to the center.  Forms a prominent trio with M105 7.4' SW and NGC 3389 6.4' SSE.  Member of the Leo Group = M96 Group.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): bright, bright stellar nucleus, elongated 5:2 SW-NE.  Second of three with M105 7.3' SW and NGC 3389 6.4' SSE.

 

8" (3/28/81): fairly bright, round, moderately large.

 

WH discovered NGC 3384 = H I-18 = h758, along with NGC 3379 = M105 and NGC 3389, on 11 Mar 1784 (sweep 164)  and recorded "Three nebula in the field together.  The two preceding ones [NGC 3379 and 3384] cometic and much like the two former bright ones [M95 and M96] but considerable less. The following [NGC 3389] r[esolvable] and of a longish form, elongated.  These three together form a beautiful sight."

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NGC 3385 = UGC 5908 = MCG +01-28-009 = CGCG 038-015 = PGC 32285

10 48 11.6 +04 55 40

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 97d

 

24" (3/22/14): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 E-W, 30"x15", weak concentration, irregular surface brightness.  A mag 14.8 star is just off the south side [20" from center].  NGC 3386 lies 4.2' N and CGCG 38-19 is 8.8' SE.

 

17.5" (3/28/92): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~E-W, weak concentration, diffuse ill-defined halo.  A mag 10.5 star lies 5' NE.  Forms a pair with NGC 3386 4.3' N.

 

JH discovered NGC 3385 = h760 (along with NGC 3386 = h759) on 9 Apr 1828 and recorded "pB; R; bM; 15"."   On a later sweep he called it "eF, E[longated.", so the conditions or transparency were likely worse.

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NGC 3386 = MCG +01-28-010 = CGCG 038-016 = PGC 32284

10 48 11.9 +04 59 55

V = 13.8;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.1

 

24" (3/22/14): fairly faint, small, irregularly round, 20"x16", weak concentration.  NGC 3385 lies 4.3' S.  A mag 11 star lies 3.0' SE.

 

17.5" (3/28/92): very faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 3385 4.3' S.  This is a double system with NGC 3387 (not seen).

 

JH discovered NGC 3386 = h759 (along with NGC 3385 = h760) on 9 Apr 1828 and noted "vF; R."  His position matches CGCG 038-016 = PGC 32284.

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NGC 3387

10 48 16.5 +04 58 03

V = 14.2/15.7;  Size 7"

 

24" (3/22/14): at 375x a faint unequal double star at 7" separation was resolved.  The brighter component on the SW side is mag 14.2 and the fainter component is mag ~15.5.  Although sometimes the pair was cleanly resolved into two sharp points, when the seeing was softer the fainter component appeared as a vague, dim spot so I can see how John Herschel might have called this pair a "suspected nebula".  Located 2.1' SE of NGC 3386 and 2.7' NNE of NGC 3385.

 

JH discovered NGC 3387 = h762 on on 15 Mar 1830 and noted a "suspected nebula.  Has a bright star near." Just 30" northwest of his position is a 7" pair of mag ~14/15.5 stars and a mag 11 star (probably Herschel's "B* near") is 1.3' ENE.  There is a very faint galaxy less than 1' SW of pair, but it's almost certainly too faint to have been picked up by Herschel. 

 

Harold Corwin notes that the NGC position is from Heinrich d'Arrest (single observation), who placed the nebula just off the southeast side of NGC 3386. He noted the observation was uncertain and there is nothing there.

 

The RNGC has misidentified a mag 17.5 galaxy on the northwest edge of the halo of NGC 3386 as NGC 3387.  MCG and CGCG also misclassify NGC 3386/3387 as double nebula.  Corwin originally classified this 7" pair as a "star (SE) + compact galaxy (NW)?", but Brian Skiff confirms the northwest component is a star.  The brighter star is itself a 4" double with the fainter component 18th mag.

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NGC 3388 = NGC 3425? = UGC 5967 = MCG +02-28-021 = CGCG 066-044

10 51 25.5 +08 34 01

 

See observing notes for NGC 3425 (possibly equivalent).

 

Andrew Common discovered NGC 3388 in 1880 with his 36-inch reflector.  He mentions his RA was roughly taken (estimate to the nearest minute of RA), and there is nothing near his position.  Harold Corwin suggests NGC 3388 may be a duplicate observation of NGC 3425 = III 108, discovered by WH on 17 Apr 1784.  This galaxy has a similar declination but located 3 min of RA east.

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NGC 3389 = NGC 3373 = UGC 5914 = MCG +02-28-013 = CGCG 066-022 = Holm 212c = KTG 33C = PGC 32306

10 48 27.9 +12 31 59

V = 11.9;  Size 2.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 112d

 

24" (4/20/14): moderately or fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, 1.6'x0.7', brighter core.  The surface brightness is irregular with a very mottled appearance.  A knot is embedded on the SW side. A mag 15.8 star is 50" south of center (outside the halo).  Faintest in a striking trio with M105 and NGC 3384.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): fairly faint, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, diffuse.  Third and faintest of three with bright galaxies NGC 3384 6.4' NNW and M105 9.7' WNW.

 

8" (3/28/81): faint, small.

 

WH discovered NGC 3389 = H II-41 = h761, along with NGC 3379 = M105 and NGC 3384, on 11 Mar 1784 (sweep 164) and recorded "Three nebula in the field together.  The two preceding ones [NGC 3379 and 3384] cometic and much like the two former bright ones [M95 and M96] but considerable less. The following [NGC 3389] r[esolvable] and of a longish form, elongated.  These three together form a beautiful sight."

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NGC 3390 = ESO 437-062 = MCG -05-26-007 = LGG 215-003 = PGC 32271

10 48 04.4 -31 32 00

V = 11.9;  Size 3.5'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 177d

 

18" (4/9/05): fairly faint, moderately large, edge-on, at least 7:2 N-S, ~2'x0.5', broad weak concentration.  A faint star is at the north tip and a similar star is just beyond the southern extension.  Located 9.4' NNW of mag 5.9 SAO HD 93657.  The DSS image is similar to NGC 891 with a thin equatorial dust lane and bulging core.

 

JH discovered NGC 3390 = h3298 on 29 Apr 1834 and recorded "pF; S; pmE in merdian [N-S].  His description matches the edge-on galaxy ESO 437-062.

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NGC 3391 = UGC 5920 = MCG +02-28-014 = CGCG 066-027 = PGC 32347

10 48 56.4 +14 13 11

V = 12.9;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE although appears irregular, broad weak concentration.  A mag 14.5 star is at the NE tip (about 15" from center) and an extremely faint mag 15.5+ star is attached at the west end.  Lies 2.7' NW of a mag 10 star.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3391 = m 204 on 1 Apr 1864 and noted "triple star in nebulosity." His position matches UGC 5920 = PGC 32347 and the description is accurate as two stars are involved (the third is the nucleus of the galaxy).

 

Heinrich d'Arrest independently found the galaxy on 1 Apr 1864 with the 11-inch at Copenhagen and noted it was between two stars. His two positions are very accurate.  The RNGC questions if a star or knot is involved, but the two superimposed objects are single stars.

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NGC 3392 = MCG +11-13-042 = CGCG 313-037 = PGC 32512

10 51 03.0 +65 46 53

V = 13.7;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (4/6/91): faint, very small, round, bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 3394 4' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3392 = H III-88I = h763 on 3 Apr 1791 (sweep 1004) and noted "vF, S".  His offset from II-872 = NGC 3394, the previous object in the sweep is accurate.  JH measured an accurate position for h763 ("eF; S; psbM; near some stars"), but placed h764 = NGC 3394 24 tsec east, instead of 24 tsec west.  MCG does not label +11-13-042 as NGC 3392.

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NGC 3393 = ESO 501-100 = MCG -04-26-011 = LGG 223-006 = PGC 32300

10 48 23.5 -25 09 43

V = 12.2;  Size 2.2'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

18" (3/13/04): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 0.8'x0.4'. Contains a small, round, bright nucleus.  The galaxy precedes two mag 9 (HD 93674) and 10.5 stars 2.9' E and 1.6' E (nearly equally spaced with galaxy).  This observation (made through thin clouds) refers to the brighter core region and I probably missed the large, low surface brightness halo.  Outer member of AGC 1060 (Hydra (1), located 3.5 degrees NE of the core.

 

JH discovered NGC 3393 = h3299 on 24 Mar 1835 and recorded "F; S; R;  precedes two bright stars."  His position (3 sweeps) matches ESO 501-100.

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NGC 3394 = UGC 5937 = MCG +11-13-041 = CGCG 313-036 = PGC 32495

10 50 39.9 +65 43 38

V = 12.4;  Size 1.9'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (4/6/91): fairly faint, moderately large, diffuse, slightly elongated, low surface brightness.  Forms a pair with NGC 3392 4' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3394 = H II-872 = h764 on 3 Apr 1791 (sweep 1004), along with III-881 = NGC 3392.  He recorded "F, cL, iR" and his relative offsets (21 sec in RA and 2' in dec) matches the pair.

 

JH placed h764 = NGC 3394 24 tsec east of h763 = NGC 3392, instead of 24 tsec west.  This caused the NGC RA to be 44 tsec east of the true position of NGC 3394 = UGC 5937.

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NGC 3395 = Arp 270 NED1 = VV 246b = IC 2613 = Holm 215a = UGC 5931 = MCG +06-24-017 = CGCG 184-018 = LGG 218-002 = PGC 32424

10 49 50.1 +32 58 58

V = 12.1;  Size 2.1'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 50d

 

48" (5/4/16): this very bright, two-armed disrupted spiral forms an interacting, contact pair (Arp 270 = VV 246) with NGC 3396.  At 375x, it contains a large bright core that increases to the center.  On the north side of the core a spiral arm curls counterclockwise towards NGC 3396, nearly merging with the halo of the companion.  A brighter, more defined spiral arm is on the south side; it rotates sharply counterclockwise nearly 180¡, ending on the east side of the galaxy.  A vague outer arm is at the south edge of the halo; it was visible as a low surface brightness extension to the southwest.

 

17.5" (3/12/94): fairly bright, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 1.5'x0.8', fairly high surface brightness, broadly concentrated halo, core appears rounder, no nucleus, mottled texture.  This galaxy is slightly larger and brighter of a striking interacting pair, almost in contact with NGC 3396 at the NNE end 1.6' from center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3395 = H I-116 = h765, along with NGC 3396, on 7 Dec 1785 (sweep 487) and recorded "Two, the 1st [NGC 3395] cB, the 2nd [NGC 3396] pB.  The 1st cL, the 2nd pL.  Both a little and irr E.  Their extent makes an angle, the vertex of which is towards the north about 1' from each other at the vertex."

 

R.J. Mitchell sketched the pair on 9 Feb 1855 and it was included in the LdR 1861 publication.  His description reads "[NGC 3395] is, I think, a spiral with a left-handed twist; immediately foll it is [NGC 3396], which is B and well defined, E pf.  I suspect F neby extending from 3395 and running up throiugh 3396."  The sketch showes a spiral arm wrapping 270¡ counterclockwise from the north, east and south side, ending west of the core.

 

Stephane Javelle found the galaxy on 13 May 1896 but made a sign error in the RA offset from his comparison star.  So, Dreyer assumed it was new as catalogued it again as IC 2613.  IC 2605, discovered by Bigourdan on 11 Apr 1899, apparently refers to the southwest spiral arm.

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NGC 3396 = Arp 270 NED2 = VV 246a = Holm 215b = UGC 5935 = MCG +06-24-018 = CGCG 184-019 = LGG 218-003 = PGC 32434

10 49 55.2 +32 59 27

V = 12.1;  Size 3.1'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 100d

 

48" (5/4/16): NGC 3396 is the eastern member of a striking interacting double system (Arp 270 = VV 246) with NGC 3395 1.2' SW.  At 375x, it appeared bright, very elongated ~3:1 E-W, ~1.5'x0.5', contains a very bright small core and quasi-stellar nucleus that's offset to the west side of the galaxy.  A much lower surface brightness glow extends east from the main body and appears slightly offset or bent in orientation to the main part of the galaxy.  The galaxy is virtually merged with NGC 3395 on the west end.

 

17.5" (3/12/94):  moderately bright, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, 1.0'x0.3', brighter along the major axis, sharply concentrated with a high surface brightness core.  Forms a prominent double system with NGC 3395 almost attached just south of the west end! 

 

WH discovered NGC 3396 = H I-117 = h766, along with NGC 3395, on 7 Dec 1785 (sweep 487).  See notes on NGC 3395.

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NGC 3397 = NGC 3329 = UGC 5837 = MCG +13-08-033 = CGCG 351-034 = PGC 32059

10 44 39.4 +76 48 35

 

See observing notes for NGC 3329.

 

WH discovered NGC 3397 = H I-284 on 2 Apr 1801 (sweep 1096) and noted "cB, vS, iF." This is one of 15 far northern galaxies with large systematic errors.  The corrected position using Greenwich plates (MN, 71, 509, 1911) matches UGC 5837 and Dreyer repeated this position in the notes to his 1912 edition of WH's catalogues.  See NGC 2938 for more on this sweep.

 

JH independently discovered this galaxy on on 2 Sep 1828 and described h733 as "pB; irreg R; psmbM; 15"."  His position (measured 3 times) clearly shows NGC 3397 (H I-284) = NGC 3329 (h733).  The primary designation for this galaxy is NGC 3329, despite the earlier discovery by WH.

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NGC 3398 = UGC 5954 = MCG +09-18-038 = CGCG 267-018 = IC 644 = PGC 32564

10 51 31.5 +55 23 27

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 78d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): brighter of a pair of galaxies oriented N-S.  NGC 3398 is a faint, narrow edge-on streak 4:1 E-W, 1.0'x0.25'.  IC 646, 4.6' NNE, is very faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 0.5'x0.4'.  Located 4.7' NW of mag 8.1 SAO 27802.

 

Some catalogues refer to this galaxy as IC 644.  UGC 5976 (identified as NGC 3398 in CGCG and UGC) lies 13' NNE (see observation).

 

WH discovered NGC 3398 = H III-792 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 922) and logged "vF, S, E 20 deg sp nf, easily resolvable".   His re-reduced position with respect to 44 UMa is 10 51 27 +55 25.2 (2000), which is 5 tsec west and 1.5' north of UGC 5954.

 

Lewis Swift independently discovered this galaxy on 8 May 1890 and included it in list IX-24.  Dreyer assumed it was new and catalogued it again as IC 644.  UGC, CGCG and RC3 label this galaxy IC 644.

 

CGCG and UGC misidentify UGC 5987 as NGC 3398 and the RC3 misidentifies IC 646 = MCG +09-18-039 as  NGC 3398.  The correct identification is given in MCG.  See UGC notes for NGC 3398 and Harold Corwin's identification notes for a complete analysis.

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NGC 3399 = MCG +03-28-012 = CGCG 095-031 = PGC 32395

10 49 27.6 +16 13 06

V = 13.6;  Size 1.5'x1.5'

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly faint, small, round, very small bright core.  Forms a pair with double system NGC 3405 4.0' ENE.  Located near one corner of an asterism of mag 13-14 stars in a rectangular outline with a mag 13 star 50" WNW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3399 = m 205 on 1 Apr 1864 and noted "F, vS".  There is nothing at his position, but 1.0 min of RA preceding is CGCG 095-031 = PGC 32395.  Marth made a similar error with NGC 3405, located 4' ENE.

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NGC 3400 = UGC 5949 = MCG +05-26-020 = CGCG 155-025 = PGC 32499

10 50 45.5 +28 28 09

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly faint, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 1.2'x0.7'.  Fairly even concentration to a small bright core and stellar nucleus.  Located 6.2' WSW of mag 9.1 SAO 81552.

 

WH discovered NGC 3400 = H II-361 = h768 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and simply noted "F".  JH made 3 observations and his mean position matches UGC 5949.

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NGC 3401

10 50 24 +05 48

 

=Not found, RNGC.

 

WH discovered NGC 3401 = H III-88 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and noted "Suspected but did not verify it, as I would lose no time in this place."  Dreyer commented in the 1912 "Scientific Papers of WH" that this nebula was "only seen in Sw. 191; place in NGC is that of Auwers from 56 Leonis.  In the sweep it is 1m 9 sec p, 3' n of II 131 = NGC 3423."  See Corwin's identification notes and Jeff Corder's observation.

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NGC 3402 = NGC 3411? = MCG -02-28-012 = PGC 32479

10 50 26.1 -12 50 43

 

See observing notes for NGC 3411, HC.  Misidentified in the RNGC.

 

Andrew Ainslie Common found NGC 3402 in 1880 with his 36-inch reflector.  There is nothing at his position, but 10 sec of RA east and 10' south is NGC 3411.  This galaxy was discovered by WH on 25 Mar 1786.  RNGC misidentifies PGC 32444 (a much fainter galaxy) as NGC 3402.  See Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 3403 = UGC 5997 = MCG +12-10-089 = CGCG 333-062 = CGCG 334-004 = PGC 32719

10 53 55.1 +73 41 24

V = 12.2;  Size 3.0'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 73d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, weakly concentrated.  A mag 12.5 star is 3.1' SE of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3403 = H II-335 = h767 on 3 Apr 1785 (sweep 390) and noted "pF, cL, iE."  JH reported "pF; L; E; vgbM; 60" l, 40" br."

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NGC 3404 = MCG -02-28-011 = IC 2609 = PGC 32466

10 50 17.9 -12 06 30

V = 13.1;  Size 2.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 84d

 

18" (3/29/03): fairly faint, edge-on 4:1 ~E-W, 1.4'x0.3', bright core.  NGC 3421 lies 23' SW and NGC 3422.

 

Andrew Common discovered NGC 3404 in 1880 with his 36-inch silvered-glass reflector.  There is nothing at his position but 15' south is MCG -02-28-011 and his description of "pB, very long, pos 270 deg [E-W]" is a good match with this galaxy.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan independently found this galaxy on 19 Apr 1898, placed it correctly, and it was catalogued again as IC 2609 = Big. 403.  So, NGC 3404 = IC 2609, with discovery to Common.  MCG labels the galaxy IC 2609.  See Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 3405 = UGC 5933 = MCG +03-28-014 = CGCG 095-033 = PGC 32414

10 49 43.3 +16 14 19

V = 13.9;  Size 1.0'x1.0'

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly faint, fairly small.  At first glance appeared elongated 3:2 SW-NE but on closer inspection resolves into a very close pair of small faint galaxies with a 20" separation between centers.  The brighter component (NGC 3405) is at the southwest end and is very small and round.  The fainter member (MCG +03-28-015) is just barely separated at the northeast side.  NGC 3399 lies 4.0' WSW.  Forms an perfect equilateral triangle with two mag 13 stars 1.7' SW and 1.7' SSE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3405 = m 206 on 1 Apr 1864 and noted "F, eS, alm stell, close to S*."   Marth's position is 1.0 tmin east of UGC 5933.  The same offet error was made with NGCC 3399.  This is a double system; 0.7' x 0.7' + 0.2' x 0.2', with a separation of 0.35' SW-NE.

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NGC 3406 = UGC 5970 = MCG +09-18-040 = CGCG 297-020 = Holm 271a = PGC 32580

10 51 44.2 +51 01 26

V = 12.7;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.0

 

17.5" (4/22/95): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 WSW-ENE.  Appears to be a double system with a very small bright core and stellar nucleus offset at the southwest end and a faint extension to the northeast of this core (verified on the POSS).

 

Located in a field with several mag 11 stars and situated between mag 9 SAO 277806 8' NE and mag 8.9 SAO 27796 4.8' SW.  Forms a close pair with NGC 3410 1.8' SE.

 

JH discovered NGC 3406 = h771 on 17 Feb 1831 and recorded "pB; 2nd class; R; pgbM; among many stars.  His position matches UGC 5970.

 

C.E. Burton, LdR's observer on 17 Mar 1868, recorded "Suspected to be triple, principal Nucl being double in direction sp nf, B point in p edge of sp part.  Neby susp from this p with a 3rd knot in it."  On 1 Apr 1878 Dreyer observed the field again, discovered nearby NGC 3410, and noted "preceding one [NGC 3406] pB, pL irr R gmbM.  2 points of condensation, brighter one sp centre..."  The fainter northeast nucleus is the merged companion LEDA 93106, though for some reason Dreyer didn't even note the galaxy as double in the NGC description.

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NGC 3407 = UGC 5978 = MCG +10-16-017 = CGCG 291-007 = PGC 32626

10 52 17.9 +61 22 46

V = 13.6;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (3/19/88): faint, very small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, small bright core.  A mag 14 star just 1.1' NNE is collinear with the major axis of the galaxy.

 

WH discovered NGC 3407 = H III-919 = h769 on 9 Apr 1793 (sweep 1039) and recorded "vF, vS, near a vS star.  JH noted "eF; S; R; 6"." and his position matches UGC 5978.

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NGC 3408 = UGC 5977 = MCG +10-16-016 = CGCG 291-006 = PGC 32616

10 52 11.7 +58 26 18

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (3/19/88): faint, small, round, broad concentration, diffuse, no sharp edges or nucleus.  A mag 15 star is 1.6' NE.  Located 4.2' NNE of mag 8.8 SAO 27804.

 

WH discovered NGC 3408 = H III-913 = h770 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and noted "vF, vS."  His RA, which I rereduced, is 15 sec too small.  JH recorded "vF; S; R: is north of 2 pB stars forming an isosceles triangle."  His position is within 1' of UGC 5977.

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NGC 3409 = MCG -03-28-012 = PGC 32470

10 50 20.3 -17 02 37

V = 15.0;  Size 1.1'x0.25';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 9d

 

18" (3/11/07): extremely faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 ~N-S, 0.5'x0.15'.  A faint star is just west of the south end of the galaxy.  Located 12' NNE of NGC 3420 and 13' WSW of NGC 3431 which are both brighter galaxies.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3409 = LM II-426 (along with NGC 3420 and NGC 3431) in 1886 and recorded "mag 16.0, 0.3' dia, E 200¡, 2 vF st inv in eF neb ". His position and PA of 20¡ matches MCG -03-28-012 = PGC 32470.

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NGC 3410 = MCG +09-18-042 = CGCG 267-021 = Holm 217b = PGC 32594

10 51 53.5 +51 00 23

V = 14.1;  Size 0.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 11.9

 

17.5" (4/22/95): very faint, very small, round, low surface brightness, no concentration.  A mag 14 star is 2' SSE.  Located 1.8' SE of double system NGC 3406.

 

Lawrence Parsons, the 4th Earl of Rosse, discovered NGC 3410 on 1 Apr 1878 while observing GC 2222 = NGC 3406.  He reported "2 neb, pos 121.6¡, dist 115.2".   The actual separation is ~110" and the identification with MCG +09-18-042 is certain.

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NGC 3411 = NGC 3402? = MCG -02-28-012 = PGC 32479

10 50 26.1 -12 50 43

V = 11.9;  Size 2.1'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

18" (3/29/03): at 257x, moderately bright, moderately large, round, small brighter core, 1.0' diameter.  A line of 3 mag 14 stars is close west.  Forms a pair with IC 647 2.1' ESE.  At 300x this tiny companion appeared very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, required averted vision.

 

WH discovered NGC 3411 = H III-522 = h776 on 25 Mar 1786 (sweep 545) and recorded "cF, S, lbM, iR."  His position matches MCG -02-28-012 = PGC 32479.  Andrew Common's NGC 3402 is probably a duplicate observation of this galaxy.

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NGC 3412 = UGC 5952 = MCG +02-28-016 = CGCG 066-038 = PGC 32508

10 50 53.3 +13 24 43

V = 10.5;  Size 3.6'x2.0';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 3.0'x1.5', smooth halo, sharply concentrated with a striking bright core.  The core is evenly concentrated to an almost stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star is at the NE edge of the halo 1.4' N of center.  Member of the Leo Group = M96 Group.

 

WH discovered NGC 3412 = H I-27 = h774 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and recorded "pB, S, lE.  It seems to have a nucleus or very bright place in the middle."  JH made two observations, noting (sweep 241), "B; R; vsmbM almost to a *; 30" dia."

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NGC 3413 = UGC 5960 = MCG +06-24-024 = CGCG 184-027 = Holm 218c = PGC 32543

10 51 20.8 +32 45 58

V = 12.1;  Size 2.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 178d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 1.4'x0.7', broad concentration, no nucleus.  First of three in the field with NGC 3424 9.6' NE and NGC 3430 15' NE.  The NGC 3395/NGC 3396 pair lies 20' NW.  Member of the NGC 3395 group.

 

WH discovered NGC 3413 = H II-493 on 7 Dec 1785 (sweep 487) and noted "F, S."  CH's reduced position is 20 sec of RA east of UGC 5960.  The NGC position from d'Arrest is accurate.

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NGC 3414 = Arp 162 = UGC 5959 = MCG +05-26-021 = CGCG 155-029 = PGC 32533

10 51 16.3 +27 58 30

V = 11.0;  Size 3.5'x2.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 20d

 

13.1" (3/24/84): bright, slightly elongated ~N-S, small bright nucleus, fairly small.  Forms a pair with NGC 3418 8.5' NNE.  Located 18' E of 44 Leonis (V = 5.6).

 

8": faint, slightly elongated.

 

WH discovered NGC 3414 = H II-362 = h773 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and note "pB, pL."  JH made four observations (h773) and 8 observations were made at Birr Castle.

 

Bindon Stoney, using LdR's 72" on 6 Mar 1851, noted "Another neb eF, S. 2' np."  Again on 23 Feb 1857 as well as 22 Mar 1857, R.J. Mitchell mentioned "about 1' np is vvF neb? lE." and "about 1.5' np [NGC 3414] there is a vvF patch of neby."  These observations clearly refer to 2MASX J10511304+2800221 = PGC 93597, although it was not assigned a GC or NGC designation!

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NGC 3415 = UGC 5969 = MCG +07-22-072 = CGCG 212-062 = CGCG 213-001 = PGC 32579

10 51 42.7 +43 42 44

V = 12.6;  Size 2.1'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (4/6/91): moderately bright but fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, small bright core, fairly high surface brightness overall.  Three mag 12 stars to the south form an equilateral triangle with the nearest star 56" S.  Forms a pair with NGC 3416 3' NNE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3415 = H II-718 = h772 on 15 Jan 1788 (sweep 800) and logged "F, S, stellar; the np corner of a small trapezium."  His position and description matches UGC 5969.

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NGC 3416 = MCG +07-22-073 = CGCG 212-063 = CGCG 213-002 = PGC 32588

10 51 48.3 +43 45 51

V = 14.4;  Size 0.6'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (4/6/91): extremely faint, small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE.  Forms a close pair with NGC 3415 3' SSW.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 3416 on 30 Mar 1854 using LdR's 72", while observing NGC 3415.  He noted "[NGC 3415 is] elongated N-S, another neb [NGC 3416] north of it, about 3' dist." At this position is CGCG 212-063 = PGC 32588.  Interestingly, Dreyer's observation on 13 Apr 1876 observation states "[N3416] is about 6' nnf, eF, eS, but is only a star."  There is a faint star at this separation, so he may have missed NGC 3416.

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NGC 3417 = CGCG 066-039 = PGC 32520

10 51 01.7 +08 28 25

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 85d

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): very faint, small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 0.4'x0.25', slightly brighter core.  Located 8' SW of NGC 3425.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3417 = m 207 on 25 Mar 1865 and noted "eF, vS, alm stell."  His position matches CGCG 066-039 = PGC 32520.  Tempel found NGC 3427 to the southeast as well reobserving NGC 3425, but missed this galaxy.

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NGC 3418 = UGC 5963 = MCG +05-26-023 = CGCG 155-030 = PGC 32549

10 51 24.0 +28 06 43

V = 13.2;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 75d

 

13.1" (3/24/84): faint, slightly elongated, diffuse, even surface brightness, held steadily with averted.  Located 8.5' NNE of NGC 3414.

 

WH discovered NGC 3418 = H II-363 = h775 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "F, S."  JH made four observations and the LdR assistants recorded this galaxy on 5 nights.

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NGC 3419 = UGC 5964 = MCG +02-28-018 = CGCG 066-041 = PGC 32535

10 51 17.8 +13 56 45

V = 12.5;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 115d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter, brighter core.  Forms the southwest vertex of a triangle with two mag 14 stars 1.5' N and 1.3' ESE.  Pair with NGC 3419A = UGC 5965 4.7' N (not seen).

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3419 = m 208 on 1 Apr 1864 and recorded "F, vS, R, alm stell, close to a small star." Wilhelm Tempel independently discovered the galaxy on 15 Mar 1876 and noted in list I-27, "F, S, class III, forms an obtuse triangle with the stars."  A micrometric position was published in list V-7.  The NGC position matches UGC 5964.

 

The original discovery, though, was made by WH on 14 Jan 1787 (sweep 691) and noted as "vF, vS, most likely a small patch."  His position (CH's reduction) is 2.7' southwest of the galaxy.  As the observation was uncertain, it was never published and he was not credited in the NGC.

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NGC 3420 = MCG -03-28-011 = PGC 32453

10 50 09.7 -17 14 33

V = 13.7;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 30d

 

18" (3/11/07): faint, small, round, very low surface brightness halo is difficult.  Contains a 15"-20" core that is weakly concentrated surrounded by a hint of an larger halo.  NGC 3431 is 21' NE and NGC 3409 lies 12' NNE.  This group is located about 0.9 degrees SSE of 3.1-magnitude Nu Hydrae.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3420 = LM II-427 (along with NGC 3409 and NGC 3431) in 1886 and recorded "mag 15.4, 0.2' dia, R, *8.5 6' S.".  His position is 30 sec of RA west of MCG -03-28-011 = PGC 32453 and the description matches (a mag 9.8 star is 5' south).  Herbert Howe's micrometric position measured in 1899-00 is accurate.

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NGC 3421 = IC 652 = MCG -02-28-013 = PGC 32514

10 50 57.6 -12 26 55

V = 13.7;  Size 2.0'x1.6';  Surf Br = 14.8;  PA = 175d

 

18" (3/29/03): faint, small, round, 0.4' diameter.  Possibly viewed the core only.  Forms a pair with NGC 3422 5.5' NE.  NGC 3422 lies 23' NW and NGC 3411/IC 647 is 25' SSW.

 

Andrew Common discovered NGC 3421 in 1880 with his 36-inch silvered glass reflector and noted "Two, F, R".  His (rough) position is 13' north of MCG -02-28-013 and this galaxy has a companion (NGC 3422 = MCG -02-28-015) at 5.5' NE.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position (given in the IC 2 Notes section). 

 

Stephane Javelle independently discovered the galaxy on 19 Apr 1892 and recorded it in list I-187.  Dreyer didn't catch the equivalence as Javelle's position was also poor and he recatalogued it as IC 652.  So, NGC 3421 = IC 652.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 3422 = MCG -02-28-015 = PGC 32534

10 51 17.3 -12 24 09

V = 13.6;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 54d

 

18" (3/29/03): fairly faint, very small, round, 20" diameter (viewed core only).  A mag 10.3 star is 42" SSW of center, just off the SW end.  Forms a pair with NGC 3421 5.5' SW.  NGC 3404 lies 23' NW and NGC 3411 29' SSW.

 

Andrew Common discovered NGC 3422 in 1880 with his 36-inch silvered glass reflector, along with NGC 3421.  The pair were simply noted as "Two, F, R".  There is nothing at his position, but 13' south is the pair MCG -02-28-013 (NGC 3421) and MCG -02-28-015 (NGC 3422).  Herbert Howe, observing with the 20" refractor in Denver around the turn of the century, could not recover NGC 3422, although he viewed brighter NGC 3421.

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NGC 3423 = UGC 5962 = MCG +01-28-012 = CGCG 038-029 = PGC 32529

10 51 14.3 +05 50 24

V = 11.1;  Size 3.8'x3.2';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 10d

 

48" (4/16/15): very bright, large, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~3'x2.5', large bright core. A mag 15.8 star is superimposed on the SSW side, 1.2' from center.  Spiral structure is evident at 488x, particularly along a curving outer arm running from clockwise from east to north.  This arm contains three HII knots.

 

An obvious faint knot, 8"-10" diameter, is at the north end 1.1' from center.  The brightest knot is at the northeast end of the halo 1.1' from center, and it appeared fairly faint/faint, round, 12" diameter.  The faintest knot (SDSS J105118.10+055024.7) is directly east of center by 1.0' and noted as very faint, round, 6" diameter.  In addition to these three, a 4th knot is due south of center by 0.6'.  This HII region was very faint, round, 8" diameter.

 

Two additional objects were seen just off the south side of NGC 3423, but these are separate galaxies.  2MASX J10511769+0548323, situated 2.0' SE of the center, is fairly faint to moderately bright (V = 15.7), small, round, moderate surface brightness, 15" diameter. 2MASX J10511769+0548323, 2.0' S of center, is very faint (V = 17.1), very small, ~9"x6" SW-NE.  This latter galaxy has a redshift of z = .069 and lies far in the background at a light-travel time of ~920 million years.

 

17.5" (4/6/91): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, 3'x2', fairly low surface brightness, elongated bright core appears offset to the west.  Has a faint halo which seems more extensive to the east of the core.  Two mag 12/13 stars are off the NE edge with the mag 12 star 2.4' from the center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3423 = H IV-6 = H II-131 = h777 on 23 Feb 1784 (sweep 157) and recorded IV-6 as "F, L, cometic with a bright point in the center.  The nebulous part is eF."  His RA (CH's reduction) is 30 sec too large. He found the nebula again on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and logged II-131 as "pB, vL, almost R, lbM, r."  The RA on this sweep was 1 min too large and 5' too far south.  Another observation was made on 2 Feb 1786 (sweep 521): "pB, vL, R, vgbM, about 5' dia."

 

JH made 3 observations under h777, measured an accurate position and equated his father's two entries, though mistakenly included III-88 (NGC 3401). While compiling the NGC, Dreyer sorted out the identities IV-6 = II-131 = h777 = NGC 3423.

 

Bindon Stoney, observing on 7 Mar 1851 at Birr Castle, noted "2 knots [HII regions] on n side."  On the 29 Mar 1856 observation, R.J. Mitchell noted a "star in the south edge, another fainter in f edge, 2 knots in n edge.  I think it is resolvable."

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NGC 3424 = UGC 5972 = MCG +06-24-025 = CGCG 184-028 = Holm 218a = PGC 32584

10 51 46.7 +32 53 59

V = 12.4;  Size 2.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 112d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): moderately bright, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, 2.1'x0.7'.  A mag 13.5 is superimposed at the east edge and a brighter mag 11.5 star is 1.4' SE of center.  Forms a striking pair with NGC 3430 6.0' ENE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3424 = H II-494 = h778 on 7 Dec 1785 (sweep 487) and recorded "pB, pL, iR."  CH's reduced position is 8 sec of RA west of UGC 5972. JH noted "B; E in a wisp; the sp of 2 [with NGC 3420].  On a later sweep he called the galaxy "faint".

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NGC 3425 = NGC 3388? = UGC 5967 = MCG +02-28-021 = CGCG 066-044 = PGC 32555

10 51 25.5 +08 34 01

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): fairly faint, small, round, 0.5' diameter, stellar nucleus.  Forms an equilateral triangle with a mag 10 star 2.3' SE and a mag 11 star 2.7' SSW.  NGC 3417 lies 8' SW.

 

17.5" (4/15/99): faint, fairly small, round, 0.7' diameter, weak concentration.  View hampered by a mag 10 star 2.2' SE.  This star is collinear with two mag 11/13 stars to the WSW.  A faint companion off the south side was not noticed.

 

WH discovered NGC 3425 = H III-108 = T I-28 on 17 Apr 1784 (sweep 197) and noted "eF, eS, r."  There is nothing at his position, but 30 sec of RA west and 3' north is UGC 5967 = PGC 32555.

 

Wilhelm Tempel couldn't find H III-108 at H's position in 1877, but instead found two nebulae and assumed one was Herschel's III-108.  Dreyer chose the slightly brighter northern nebula as III-108 and catalogued T I-29 as NGC 3427.  Andrew Common's NGC 3388 (found in 1880) may be a duplicate observation of NGC 3425 (equivalence suggested by Harold Corwin).

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NGC 3426 = UGC 5975 = MCG +03-28-020 = CGCG 095-046 = PGC 32577

10 51 41.8 +18 28 50

V = 13.1;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly faint, small, round, sharply defined 30" halo, well concentrated to a small bright core.  A wide pair of mag 11.5-12 stars (1.0' separation) are 2.2' and 2.8' N.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3426 = Sw VI-37 on 23 Mar 1887 and recorded "pF; S; R: coarse double star near north."  His position is 7 sec of RA preceding UGC 5975 and his description of a "coarse double star near N" clinches the identification.

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NGC 3427 = UGC 5966 = MCG +02-28-020 = CGCG 066-043 = Todd 4 = PGC 32559

10 51 26.3 +08 17 55

V = 13.2;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 77d

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, small brighter core.  Situated just south of the line connecting a mag 11.9 star 1.7' ENE and a mag 12.5 star 2.3' W.  NGC 3417 lies 12' NW.

 

17.5" (4/15/99): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 40"x20", slightly brighter core, faint stellar nucleus.  With averted vision the halo increases to nearly 1.0'x0.5'.  Nestled in a 10' stream of stars oriented NW-SE between a mag 12 star 1.7' NE and a mag 12.5 star 2.3' W.  NGC 3425 lies 16' due north.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 3427 = T I-29 in 1877, while searching for H III-108 = NGC 3425.  He ran across two nebulae, one of which was NGC 3425 and the other was new. His position is 2' too far south.

 

David Todd independently discovered this galaxy on 11 Nov 1877 and listed it as object #4 in AN 2698 during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet.  The surrounding field stars match this galaxy.  Tempel didn't give a specific date in list I, so either Tempel or Todd could be the discoverer.

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NGC 3428 = NGC 3429? = UGC 5968 = MCG +02-28-022 = CGCG 066-045 = PGC 32552

10 51 29.5 +09 16 46

V = 13.1;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 170d

 

18" (3/29/03): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, 0.6'x0.4', weak concentration.  Located 5' NE of mag 7.9 SAO 118535.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3428 = m 209 on 25 Mar 1865 and noted "vF, S, lE, glbM."  His position matches UGC 5968.  The MCG declination has a typo, being 20' too far north.

 

Ainslie Common probably found this galaxy again in 1880 with his 36" reflector. See NGC 3429.

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NGC 3429 = NGC 3428? = UGC 5968 = MCG +02-28-022 = CGCG 066-045 = PGC 32552

10 51 29.5 +09 16 46

 

See observing notes for NGC 3428.  Identification uncertain.

 

Andrew Ainslie Common discovered NGC 3429 in 1880 using his 36-inch silvered glass reflector.  His position is just 3 sec of RA east and 1' south of NGC 3428, which was discoverd by Marth on 25 Mar 1865.  So, likely NGC 3429 is a duplicate observation of this galaxy.

 

RNGC misidentifies PGC 32510 as NGC 3429.  This is a much fainter galaxy 8' WSW as NGC 3429.  Alister Ling and Harold Corwin feel the RNGC identification is unlikely and Common more likely recorded NGC 3428, the brighter of the pair.

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NGC 3430 = UGC 5982 = MCG +06-24-026 = CGCG 184-029 = Holm 218b = PGC 32614

10 52 11.7 +32 56 59

V = 11.6;  Size 4.0'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (4/9/94): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 3.0'x1.5', only a weak broad concentration.  A mag 14.5 star is off the south side 1.4' SE from the center.  Three bright stars are in the field; mag 8.6 SAO 62287 6.0' NNW, mag 7.5 SAO 62291 6.6' ENE and mag 9.1 SAO 62293 7.8' ENE.  Forms a striking pair with NGC 3424 6.0' WSW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3430 = H I-118 = h779 = 782 on 7 Dec 1785 (sweep 487) and recorded "cB, cL, iR, mbB."  There was apparently an error of 1 degree with his offset from 46 UMa as NGC 3424 was the previous object in the sweep, so both would have been picked up together.

 

JH found NGC 3430 = h779 on 6 Mar 1828, logged it as a Nova with description "B; L; E; gbM; the nf of 2 [with NGC 3424]."  Still looking for his father's I-118, he recorded it again as h782 on 3 Apr 1831 as a "Nova or I. 118" and described "B; L; the nf of 3 on a line [with NGC 3413 and NGC 3424].  The neb may possibly be I. II8 as none exists in the place indicated by my Father."  JH added designations for both of his observations in the GC, as well as one for his Father's I-118.  He has a long note in the GC that there was probaby a one degree error in his father's sweep.  By the time of the NGC, Dreyer sorted things out and equated NGC 3430 = I-118 with GC 2236 and 2239, though 2233 is also an alias.

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NGC 3431 = MCG -03-28-014 = PGC 32531

10 51 15.0 -17 00 29

V = 13.6;  Size 1.3'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 130d

 

18" (3/11/07): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.25', weak concentration.  A mag 13 star lies 1' NE and a similar star 2.8' SSW.  NGC 3409 lies 13' WSW while NGC 3420 is 21' SW.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3431 = LM II-428 on 5 Jan 1887 with the 26" refractor at the Leander-McCormick Observatory.  His position and description (mag 15.0, 0.6'x0.2', E 130¡, gbsbMN) matches MCG -03-28-014 = PGC 32531.

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NGC 3432 = Arp 206 = VV 11 = UGC 5986 = MCG +06-24-028 = CGCG 184-030 = PGC 32643

10 52 31.0 +36 37 09

V = 11.3;  Size 6.8'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 38d

 

17.5" (3/25/95): fairly bright, large, edge-on 6:1 SW-NE, 3'x0.5.  Irregular surface brightness and fainter on the southwest end.  Appears to have a sharper light cut-off on the north side (due to dust?).  A mag 12.5 star is 48" E of center and two mag 12/13 star are very close to the southwest tip 1.4' from center.  The galaxy appears asymmetric and brightest just northest of the star near the core although this is not the geometric center.  Just west-southwest of this star is a very weak enhancement (this is the core).

 

WH discovered NGC 3432 = H I-172 = h780 on 19 Mar 1787 (sweep 719) and recorded "cB, about 2' long and 1/2' broad from sp to nf.  In the preceding part a few stars pretty close together, and in the following part one, but unconnected." His position matches UGC 5986.

 

JH recorded (sweep 331) "pB; vmE; 90" l, 12" br; pos = 44.2¡  It southern extremity touches the large star of a double star [at the south end].  Can thisnebula have moved?"  On sweep 401, he logged "vF; a long ray pos = 40.8¡; has a double star class 4 in middle, and one more."  But the star at the east edge of the middle is only single.  Rudolph Spitaler measured the position of a knot or HII region at the northeast end in an observation at Vienna in 1891.

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NGC 3433 = UGC 5981 = MCG +02-28-023 = CGCG 066-048 = PGC 32605

10 52 03.9 +10 08 54

V = 11.6;  Size 3.5'x3.2';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 50d

 

24" (2/22/14): moderately bright, large, irregularly round, 2.5'x2.0', fairly low surface brightness, weak even concentration to small, slightly bright core and a faint stellar nucleus.  Appears to be a face-on spiral, though too faint to resolve the arms.  A mag 9.6 star is 8.5' E and 6' further NE of this star is NGC 3444.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): moderately bright, moderately large, diffuse, weak concentration, slightly elongated.  NGC 3438 lies 25' NNE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3433 = H III-20 = h783 on 11 Mar 1784 (sweep 164) and noted as "vF, r[esolvable]".  There is nothing at his position, but 1 min of RA east and 2' N is UGC 5981 = PGC 32605.  JH recorded "eF; vL; R; vglbM; 2' diam." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3434 = UGC 5980 = MCG +01-28-015 = CGCG 038-036 = PGC 32595

10 51 58.1 +03 47 31

V = 12.1;  Size 2.1'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (3/25/00): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 N-S, ~1.3'x1.0'.  Located 4.6' NW of mag 9 SAO 118551. Contains a large, brighter, elongated core with a much fainter outer halo which grows with averted vision.  A mag 14 star lies 1.3' NNE of center.

 

Brightest in close trio with CGCG 38-37 2.7' N and CGCG 38-35 2.4' WSW.  CGCG 38-37 appeared extremely faint and small, round, required averted to glimpse.  Located 2.7' N of NGC 3434 and 1.5' N of a mag 14 star.

 

WH discovered NGC 3434 = H III-497 = h784 on 27 Jan 1786 (sweep 513) and recorded "cF, S, R, vlbM."  His position is at the north edge of UGC 5980.  JH logged "pB; R; vglbM; 30"."

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NGC 3435 = UGC 6025 = MCG +10-16-022 = CGCG 291-012 = PGC 32786

10 54 48.4 +61 17 23

V = 13.2;  Size 1.9'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (3/19/88): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated SW-NE, bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 3435 = H II-887 = h781 on 9 Apr 1793 (sweep 1039) and noted "F, pL, bM, iF."  His position is 3.8' southwest of UGC 6025 (similar offset as NGC 3407, the previous object in the sweep).  JH's position is 1.0 tmin too far west and this error was copied into GC and NGC.

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NGC 3436 = MCG +01-28-016 = CGCG 038-039 = Mrk 1266 = Todd 6 = PGC 32633

10 52 27.5 +08 05 38

V = 13.9;  Size 0.8'x0.5'

 

17.5" (4/15/99): very faint, very small, irregular.  Sometimes I had the impression that a very faint star was superimposed.  Located 7' S of mag 8.5 SAO 118552.

 

David Todd discovered NGC 3436 = Todd 6 on 30 Nov 1877 (AN 2698) using the 26-inch Clark refractor at the USNO during his search of a trans-Neptunian planet.  There is nothing at his very rough position, but based on Todd's sketch, Corwin was able to identify NGC 3436 as CGCG 038-039.  This galaxy is located 2.2 min of RA following Todd's position and 9' north.  The offsets with the stars he sketched to the east and west are a perfect match with this galaxy.

 

RNGC places NGC 3426 at 10 42.4 +07 56 (2000) or 8.9 min west of Todd's position. There is nothing at this location in CGCG, MCG or RC3 and I couldn't identify any object at this position on the DSS!   I mentioned this error in RNGC Corrections #6.

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NGC 3437 = UGC 5995 = MCG +04-26-016 = CGCG 125-013 = PGC 32648

10 52 35.7 +22 56 04

V = 12.1;  Size 2.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 122d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): moderately bright, fairly large, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 2.4'x0.8'.  Two mag 14 stars are near the NW end collinear with the major axis and a mag 13.5 star is off the SW side 3.0' from center.  Slightly brighter at the SE end and also just west of the weak core.  Appears slightly bowed out on the north side and flatter on the south side.  There is a sharp light cutoff along the north side with a strong impression of a dust lane. 

 

8" (4/24/82): fairly faint, small, very elongated NW-SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3437 = H II-47 = h786 on 12 Mar 1784 (sweep 166) and recorded "pL, E, r."  I think I can distinguish 3 or 4 stars in it, towards the middle, and in a row."  CH's reduced position is 11 sec of RA east and 1' north of UGC 5995.  JH made three observations and measured an accurate RA.

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NGC 3438 = UGC 5988 = MCG +02-28-025 = CGCG 066-052 = PGC 32638

10 52 26.0 +10 32 50

V = 13.3;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly faint, small, round, bright core.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.0' SE.  NGC 3433 lies 25' SSW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3438 = m 210 on 25 Mar 1865 and noted "vF, eS, alm stell."  His position corresponds with UGC 5988.

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NGC 3439 = CGCG 066-050 = PGC 32634

10 52 25.7 +08 33 27

V = 14.2;  Size 0.4'x0.3'

 

17.5" (4/15/99): extremely faint, very small, slightly elongated, 20" diameter.  This galaxy was surprisingly faint and required averted and could not hold steadily.  A mag 12 star lies 2.8' S.  Located 15' E of NGC 3425.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3439 = m 211 on 25 Mar 1865 and noted "eeF, vS, alm stell."  His position corresponds with CGCG 066-050 = PGC 32634.

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NGC 3440 = UGC 6009 = MCG +10-16-019 = CGCG 291-009 = PGC 32714

10 53 49.6 +57 07 08

V = 13.2;  Size 2.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 48d

 

17.5" (3/12/88): fairly faint, small, very elongated SW-NE, small bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 3445 10.0' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3440 = H III-914 = h785 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and noted "vF, S, lE."  JH gave no description, but his position matches UGC 6009.

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NGC 3441 = UGC 5993 = MCG +01-28-017 = CGCG 038-040 = PGC 32642

10 52 31.1 +07 13 30

V = 13.6;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 5d

 

18" (3/29/03): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 N-S, 0.8'x0.5', very weak concentration.  A mag 14 star lies 1.2' NE.  Located 4.9' W of mag 8.7 SAO 118560.

 

Edward Holden discovered NGC 3441 on 6 Apr 1882 with the 15.6-inch Clark refractor at the Washburn Observatory in Madison, Wisconsin.  He simply noted "pB", but his position is fairly accurate (1' south of UGC 5993).

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NGC 3442 = UGC 6001 = CGCG 184-034 = Mrk 418 = PGC 32679

10 53 08.1 +33 54 36

V = 13.4;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 11.9;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly faint, small round, 25" diameter, fairly high surface brightness.  Even concentration but no well-defined core or nucleus.  A mag 14 star is 1.9' SE.  Forms a pair with MCG +06-24-034 8.5' NE. A mag 10 star is 7' ESE.  Located south and west of several bright stars including 18' S of 46 Leonis Minoris (V = 3.8).

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3442 = St XIII-59 on 25 Mar 1884 and noted "F, vS, R, mbM, r?"  His position matches UGC 6001.

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NGC 3443 = UGC 6000 = MCG +03-28-025 = CGCG 095-056 = PGC 32671

10 53 00.4 +17 34 30

V = 13.1;  Size 2.8'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 145d

 

24" (2/22/14): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 1.0'x0.5', low surface brightness halo with a small brighter core. A mag 13-13.5 star is 1.6' E.  NGC 3454/3455 pair is ~26' SE and NGC 3457 is a similar distance E.

 

17.5" (2/8/91): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated 4:3 NW-SE, small very bright core, substellar nucleus.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3443 = Sw VI-38 on 24 Apr 1887 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and noted "eeF; vS; R."  His RA is just 8 sec west of UGC 6000 = PGC 32671, but his declination is 8.3' too far south.  Furthermore, his description doesn't add any information about the field.  But there are no other nearby candidates, so this identification is the most likely.

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NGC 3444 = UGC 6004 = CGCG 066-055 = FGC 1148 = PGC 32670

10 53 00.1 +10 12 32

V = 14.7;  Size 1.1'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 19d

 

24" (2/22/14): at 260x appeared faint, small, edge-on 3:1 SSW-NNE, 21"x7", low even surface brightness, not difficult.  Located 6' NE of a mag 9.6 star and 14' ENE of NGC 3433.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3444 = m 212 on 25 Mar 1865 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and commented "eF, vS, pmE".  His position is 1' south of UGC 6004 and the description "pmE" applies to this edge-on.

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NGC 3445 = Arp 24 = VV 14a = UGC 6021 = MCG +10-16-023 = CGCG 291-011 = PGC 32772

10 54 35.9 +56 59 24

V = 12.6;  Size 1.6'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

48" (5/16/12): bright, moderately large, very irregular shape, roughly 1.2' diameter.  The brightest portion of the galaxy is on the north and east side and is very mottled with slightly brighter knots (a couple are on the east end).  Attached on the west side and spreading further south is a spiral arm, appearing more like a diffuse extension.  This "arm" fades out on the southeast side of the galaxy and just beyond is MCG +10-16-24, 1.2' SE of center.  This interacting companion appeared faint to fairly faint, elongated 5:2 E-W, 20"x8".  2MASX J10544552+5659588 lies 1.5' ENE, between the main galaxy and a mag 10.3 star just 2.2' NE of NGC 3445.  It appeared faint, very small, round, 12" diameter.  The bright star detracted somewhat from viewing the fainter companions.

 

17.5" (3/12/88): fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, broad concentration, bright core.  Located 2.2' SW of a mag 10 star.  Brightest in a group with NGC 3458 13.9' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3445 = H I-267 = h787 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and recorded "cB, pL, iR, about 1 1/4' dia.  The greatest part of it almost equally bright." JH described "pB; L; R; vglbM; has a star 10m 2' nf."  His position is accurate.

 

R.J. Mitchell, observing with LdR's 72" on 30 Mar 1856, recorded "[NGC 3445] is very curious, it is round with bright nucleus excentric and a dark curved passage sp this nucleus as in sketch.  [See Plate III, fig 6].  The neby outside this dark curve runs up perhaps to a streak sf which is vF, but of the existence of which I have doubt."  The "streak south-following", which was displayed on the sketch, is certainly MCG +10-16-024 = PGC 32784.  It was mentioned again in the 3 Apr 1858 observation as "a vF, S patch of neby sf."

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NGC 3446 = ESO 264-SC045

10 52 07 -45 08 24

Size 7'

 

14" (4/2/16 - Coonabarabran, 123x and 160x): ~30 stars visible in a 6' group with a mag 8.7 star at the northeast corner. The richest part is a 3'x1' group elongated NW-SE on the northeast side of the cluster.  This subgroup includes a mag 10.6 star.  An unequal mag 10.2/13 pair at 19" is on the south side with another mag 10.5 star ~45" SW.  The brightest star in the field is mag 8.4 at ~10' NW.

 

The galaxy ESO 264-047 is situated just off the east side of the cluster, 2' E of the mag 10.6 star mentioned above.  It appeared very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.

 

24" (2/22/14): viewed on the meridian at an elevation of 8¡, but not an optimal view.  At 200x, mag 8.7 SAO 222386 is at the NW edge.  A group of ~20 stars is south and east including four mag 10-11 stars in a 7' region.  The ESO galaxy just off the east edge was not seen.  Mag 8.4 HD 94198 is roughly 10' NW.  A number of stars are also scattered around this star including a couple of brighter ones, but this seems like an unrelated, random gathering.

 

JH discovered NGC 3446 = h3301 on 15 Mar 1836 and recorded "The chief * (9m) of a cluster class VIII, 7' dia, not rich or comp.  Stars 10...13."

 

Brian Skiff gives a position of 10 52 07 -45 08.3 centered on CoD-44 6866 (mv 9.0) and suggests a diameter of 15' if a few bright stars to the west are included, though Herschel's "chief *" is part of a 7' group.  The galaxy ESO 264-G47 is at the east side, though was missed by Herschel.  RNGC classifies this object as non-existent.

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NGC 3447 = VV 252a = UGC 6006 = MCG +03-28-027 = CGCG 095-058 = LGG 225-001 = PGC 32694

10 53 23.9 +16 46 25

V = 12.6;  Size 3.7'x2.1';  Surf Br = 14.7;  PA = 0d

 

18" (3/29/03): very faint, fairly large, very diffuse glow.  Located 3' NE of mag 9.9 SAO 99342 and nearly collinear with mag 9.1 SAO 99340 8.3' SW.  This disturbed gas-rich system form a close pair with NGC 3447B = MCG +03-28-028 1.7' NE.  Although highly suspected at 300x, it could not be confirmed with certainty.  An extremely distant galaxy PGC 32713 (z = .086) lies 7.8' NE.

 

17.5" (4/18/87): very faint, moderately large, very diffuse.  Three bright stars form an isosceles triangle to the SW; the closest is mag 9.2 SAO 9934 3.1' SW (very wide unequal double with a mag 13 star).  Forms a double system with NGC 3447B = MCG +03-28-028 1.7' NE (not observed).

 

JH discovered NGC 3447 = h3300 on 18 Mar 1836 and recorded "eF; vL; vgvlbM; 3' or 4' diam.  Has a bright coarse double star (9m) sp."  This galaxy is the most northerly discovery JH made from the Cape of Good Hope (four galaxies in Leo were discovered on that date)  His position and description matches UGC 6006.

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NGC 3448 = Arp 205 = UGC 6024 = MCG +09-18-055 = CGCG 267-027 = PGC 32774

10 54 39.0 +54 18 19

V = 12.1;  Size 5.6'x1.8';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 65d

 

48" (5/16/12): this interacting starburst galaxy appeared very bright, large, very elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, high surface brightness, irregular shape, mottled appearance.  At the northeast end of the galaxy is large, bright knot, ~25"x12", which is possibly the disrupted core of the galaxy.  Occasionally an extremely faint tidal tail could be glimpsed, extending perhaps 1.5' ENE.  The beginning of the tail near the bright knot was easily seen.  At the very tip was a marginally visible galaxy, perhaps glimpsed a couple of times.  The dim tail extends the length from 2.4' to 3.6'.

 

NGC 3448 is interacting with UGC 6016, a low surface brightness dwarf galaxy, 4.1' WSW.  The companion appeared as a faint to fairly faint, low surface brightness patch, elongated SW-NE (in the direction of NGC 3448) , ~1.2'x0.5', no concentration. 

 

17.5" (3/12/88): fairly bright, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, halo increases to a small bright core.  A mag 13.5 star follows 3.1' from center.  An extremely faint knot is visible east of the core along the major axis about 35" from the center.  Located 19' SE of 44 Ursa Majoris (V = 5.1).

 

WH discovered NGC 3448 = H I-233 = h788 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 922) and logged "vF, L, E 20¡ sp to nf, r."  JH made a single observation, noting "B; mE; gbM; no nucl; 1 3/4' l, 20" br; pos = 67¡."

 

R.J. Mitchell, observing on 8 Mar 1856 at Birr Castle, recorded "mE, certainly dark spaces on each side of the nucleus, but not well seen; the foll one rather more distinct.  A sketch or diagram matches the photographic appearance with brighter knots at each ends of the extensions.

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NGC 3449 = ESO 376-025 = MCG -05-26-010 = KTS 41B = LGG 222-003 = PGC 32666

10 52 53.7 -32 55 39

V = 12.2;  Size 3.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 148d

 

18" (4/9/05): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 NW-SE, 0.7'x0.5'.  Moderate, even concentration to a stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Located 6' NW of mag 8.5 HD 94389.

 

JH discovered NGC 3449 = h3302 on 29 Apr 1834 and recorded "F; S; R; 15".  Has a * 6.7m sf."  His position and description matches ESO 376-025.

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NGC 3450 = ESO 569-006 = MCG -03-28-004 = UGCA 218 = LGG 220-001 = PGC 32270

10 48 03.4 -20 50 57

V = 11.9;  Size 2.5'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 128d

 

18" (3/29/03): fairly faint, moderately large, nearly round, 1.8'x1.5'.  Situated between two mag 12/13 stars 3.4' N and 3.4' S.  DSS reveals a face-on symmetric barred spiral.

 

JH discovered NGC 3450 = h3303 on 22 Mar 1835 and logged "vF; L; R; vglbM; r; 90"."  There is nothing near his position, though ESO 569-023 is exactly 3.0 min of RA east.  RC3, ESO-LV and ESGC identify ESO 569-006 = PGC 32270 as NGC 3450.  This galaxy is 5.2 min of RA west of JH's position, but is a much brighter galaxy and a better fit with the description."  MCG does not label this galaxy as NGC 3450.  The other objects observed in the sweep (NGC 3514, 3528 and 3529) show no large errors in RA.

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NGC 3451 = UGC 6023 = MCG +05-26-028 = CGCG 155-035 = PGC 32754

10 54 21.0 +27 14 22

V = 13.0;  Size 1.7'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 50d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, weakly concentrated but no core.  A mag 11.5 star is 4.2' NW of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3451 = H II-364 = h789 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "pF, pL, lE, brightest towards the sf part."  JH made 4 observations and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3452 = MCG -02-28-019 = PGC 32742

10 54 13.9 -11 24 18

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 65d

 

18" (3/29/03): faint, very small streak, 20"x6", elongated ENE-WSW in the direction of a mag 12.5 star 1' ENE of center.

 

Ainslie Common discovered NGC 3452 in 1880 with his silvered-glass 36" reflector and logged "eF, R, n of small star".  His position is 30 sec of RA west and 3' north of MCG -02-28-019 = PGC 32742.  A mag 13 star is close east-northeast, so Common probably confused the orientation.

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NGC 3453 = ESO 569-017 = MCG -04-26-013 = LGG 220-002 = PGC 32707

10 53 40.4 -21 47 35

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 4d

 

18" (3/29/03): fairly faint, fairly small, 0.9'x0.7', slightly elongated N-S, very weak concentration.  A mag 14.5 star lies 1' SSW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3453 = h3304 on 21 Mar 1835 and logged "F; S; R; bM; 15"."  His position matches ESO 569-017 = PGC 32707.

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NGC 3454 = UGC 6026 = MCG +03-28-030 = CGCG 095-060 = FGC 1155 = Holm 221b = LGG 219-004 = PGC 32763

10 54 29.4 +17 20 38

V = 13.5;  Size 2.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 116d

 

24" (2/22/14): moderately bright and large, thin edge-on 5:1 WNW-ESE, 1.4'x0.3', weak concentration, tapers at the tips.  Forms a striking pair with NGC 3455 3.6' S, with a mag 10.5-11 star directly between the pair.

 

17.5" (4/18/87): fairly faint edge-on streak 5:1 WNW-ESE, fairly small, slightly brighter along the major axis.  Forms a pair with NGC 3455 3.6' S.  Located 1.7' NNW of a mag 10.5 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 3454 = h790 on 17 Mar 1831 and recorded "pF; lE; the np of two [with NGC 3455].  His position matches UGC 6026 = PGC 32763, although I'm surprised JH didn't describe this galaxy as very elongated.

 

R.J. Mitchell, observing on 28 Mar 1856 with LdR's 72", called it "the n one is a long narrow ray np-sf."

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NGC 3455 = UGC 6028 = MCG +03-28-031 = CGCG 095-062 = Holm 221a = LGG 219-005 = PGC 32767

10 54 31.0 +17 17 04

V = 12.0;  Size 2.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 80d

 

24" (2/22/14): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 WSW-ENE, 0.9'x0.6', broad concentration, no distinct core but an irregular surface brightness.  Forms a striking pair with NGC 3454 3.6' N.  A mag 10.5-11 star is directly between the two galaxies.

 

17.5" (4/18/87): moderately bright, fairly small, broad concentration, oval elongated 3:2 WSW-ENE.  A mag 10.5 star is 2.0' N of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 3454 3.6' N.  The bright star is symmetrically placed between the galaxies.

 

WH discovered NGC 3455 = H II-82 = h791 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 181) and recorded ""F, S, lE, r.  It's situation is south of a pB star."  His position matches UGC 6028 = PGC  32767.  JH noted "pB; E; gbM; The south-following of 3 [with NGC 3454]; a *9-10m between them."

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NGC 3456 = MCG -03-28-018 = PGC 32730

10 54 03.2 -16 01 39

V = 12.6;  Size 1.9'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 102d

 

18" (3/29/03): moderately bright and large, elongated 4:3 ~E-W, 1.2'x0.9', brighter core.  A mag 13 star is at the NE edge.  Located just over one degree ENE of mag 3.1 Nu Hydrae.

 

WH discovered NGC 3456 = H IV-29 = h792 on 8 Feb 1785 (sweep 371) and recorded "a small star with an eF brush towards the preceding side, or a vF nebula close to and preceding the star.  I perceived it in stopping to gage, otherwise should certainly have overlooked it.  240 shewed the the same."  There is nothing at his position, but 40 sec of RA east and 4' further south is MCG -03-28-018 = PGC 32730, and the description applies.

 

JH also described "a *12m with an extremely F neb appendage.  At first it seemed to envelope the *; but Mr Dunlop, to whom I showed it, considered it be detached." His position is accurate.

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NGC 3457 = NGC 3460 = UGC 6030 = MCG +03-28-032 = CGCG 095-065 = PGC 32787

10 54 48.7 +17 37 16

V = 12.6;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.3

 

24" (2/22/14): bright, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, sharply concentrated with a very bright core that increases to a bright stellar nucleus.  NGC 3461 lies 5.4' NNE.  IC 655, a faint double star (actually a triple plus a dim galaxy), lies 4.4' E.  NGC 3454 and 3455, an excellent pair, lies ~20' S.  CGCG 095-061 (interacting pair) lies 10' NW and PGC 3090337 is 7.6' NW.

 

17.5" (4/18/87): fairly bright, small, round, compact, high surface brightness, bright core, stellar nucleus.  NGC 3455 lies 20' SSW.

 

Francis Baily discovered NGC 3457 = h793 on 25 Mar 1827 using John Herschel's 18" reflector and recorded as "Stellar. 2 or 3 stars with a nebulous blur observed by Mr. Bailey."  Bailey was a regular guest of JH and the President of the Astronomical Society of London at the time.  The position is an excellent match (0.9' SE) with UGC 6030, though the description does match this fairly bright galaxy.  It applies well, though, to IC 656, a small clump consisting of three faint stars and a dim galaxy just 4' E, though how could the more prominent galaxy be missed?

 

R.J. Mitchell also observed UGC 6030 on 27 Mar 1854 using LdR's 72" and noted a "A S neb [NGC 3461] north of a bright one [UGC 6030], distance about 5' or 6'."

 

Lewis Swift also recorded this galaxy on 24 Aug 1883, though his position in list I-9 is 25 sec of RA too far east.  Swift's and LdR's observations were combined by Dreyer into NGC 3460.  So, most likely NGC 3457 = NGC 3460, despite the very poor description of NGC 3457 (perhaps Bailey noted the clump, but JH measured the galaxy).  See Harold Corwin's discussion.

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NGC 3458 = UGC 6037 = MCG +10-16-026 = CGCG 291-014 = PGC 32854

10 56 01.5 +57 07 01

V = 12.2;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (3/12/88): fairly bright, very small, round, very bright stellar nucleus, very faint small halo.  Forms a wide galaxy pair with NGC 3445 13.9' SW in the field.

 

WH discovered NGC 3458 = H I-268 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and recorded a "vB, vS, R, stellar nebula."  In his 1811 PT paper, he noted "this may be a former planetary in a higher state of condensation.

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NGC 3459 = MCG -03-28-022 = PGC 32782

10 54 44.2 -17 02 31

V = 13.4;  Size 1.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 156d

 

18" (3/29/03): appeared as a ghostly streak 4:1 NNW-SSE, 1.2'x0.3', slightly brighter center but no well-defined core.  Collinear with a mag 14 star 2' NNW of center.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3459 = LM II-429 on 5 Jan 1887 and recorded "mag 14.0, 1.0'x0.3', gbsbMN."  His position is ~20 sec of RA west of MCG -03-28-022 = PGC 32782 and the description matches.

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NGC 3460 = NGC 3457 = UGC 6030 = MCG +03-28-032 = CGCG 095-065 = PGC 32787

10 54 48.7 +17 37 16

 

See observing notes for NGC 3457.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 3460 on 27 Mar 1854 using LdR's 72" and recorded "A small neb [NGC 3461 = PGC 32793] north of a bright one [NGC 3460 = PGC 32787]. distance about 5' or 6'."  Lewis Swift also recorded this galaxy on 24 Aug 1883 in list I-9, though his position is 25 sec of RA too far east.  These two observations were combined into NGC 3460.

 

Most likely JH or observing guest Francis Baily first discovered this galaxy on 25 Mar 1827, and it was catalogued as h793 = NGC 3457.  The Slough Catalogue position is accurate, though the description "Stellar. 2 or 3 stars with a nebulous blur observed by Mr. Bailey", appears to describe IC 656, a small clump consisting of three faint stars and a dim galaxy just 4' east.

 

Mitchell's observation clearly refers to NGC 3460 = UGC 6030 and NGC 3461.  Later, on 22 Mar 1878, Dreyer mentions finding an "eS cl , with a *12 in Pos 175 deg, dist 305 arcsec".  It's most likely that this observation is not related to the galaxy but may refer to the 3 faint stars + galaxy 4.5' following NGC 3457 (mentioned above).  RNGC has a typo and equates NGC 3557 = NGC 3460.  See Corwin's notes for further discussion.

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NGC 3461 = PGC 32793

10 54 55.3 +17 42 29

V = 15.4;  Size 0.5'x0.4'

 

24" (2/22/14): very faint, very small, round, 12" diameter.  Can just hold steadily with averted vision at 260x.  Located 5.4' NNE of NGC 3457 = NGC 3460.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 3461 on 27 Mar 1854 using LdR's 72" and recorded "A small neb [NGC 3461] north of a bright one [NGC 3460]. distance about 5' or 6'."  On 4 Apr 1878, Dreyer also logged this faint galaxy, "..I found a neb [NGC 3457 = NGC 3460] pB, pL, R, gbM with a vF, diffused nebula [NGC 3461] in position 17¡, distance 326".  At this offset is PGC 32793.  Although Mitchell's observation is in the 1861 publication, there was no offsets to compute a position and it was not included in the GC or GC Supplement.

 

NGC 3461 is not included in the CGCG, MCG or RC3.  RNGC misidentifies LEDA 1537008, an extremely faint galaxy very close to 3 stars (IC 656), as NGC 3461.

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NGC 3462 = UGC 6034 = MCG +01-28-019 = CGCG 038-049 = Todd 5 = PGC 32822

10 55 21.1 +07 41 48

V = 12.2;  Size 1.7'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 60d

 

18" (3/29/03): fairly faint, fairly small, nearly round, 0.8'x0.7', very small bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

WH discovered NGC 3462 = H II-16 = h794 on 23 Jan 1784 (sweep 102) and recorded "a small cometic nebula.  I am not sure whether it is cometic or not."  JH logged "vF; S; R: psbM; 12"." and measured an accurate position.

 

David Todd also picked up this galaxy on 13 Nov 1877 and recorded it as #5 in his search for a trans-Neptunian planet (AN 2698).  The surrounding field stars are an exact match.

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NGC 3463 = ESO 502-002 = MCG -04-26-014 = LGG 223-001 = PGC 32813

10 55 13.4 -26 09 26

V = 12.9;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 77d

 

18" (4/29/06): faint, small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 0.8'x0.4', weakly concentrated.  Nearly collinear with a pair of mag 13/14 stars ~5' N (at 17" separation).  An identical distance to the south is a mag 10.5 star with the galaxy at the midpoint of these stars.  Located ~4.5¡ ESE of Hydra I cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 3463 = h3305 on 26 Mar 1835 and logged "F; R; glbM; 20"."  His position matches ESO 502-002 = PGC 32813.

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NGC 3464 = ESO 569-022 = MCG -03-28-021 = UGCA 222 = LGG 220-003 = PGC 32778

10 54 39.9 -21 04 00

V = 12.6;  Size 2.6'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 112d

 

18" (3/29/03): fairly faint but moderately large, roughly oval, 1.7'x1.2' WNW-ESE, broad concentration with a hint of mottled structure.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3464 = LM I-178 on 14 Jan 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.0, 1.3'x0.4', E 125¡."  His very rough position (nearest min of RA) is less than 1 min of RA east of ESO 569-022 and the description applies. Herbert Howe measured an accurate micrometric position in 1899-00 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes section).

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NGC 3465 = UGC 6056 = MCG +13-08-048 = CGCG 351-050 = KTG 34A = PGC 33099

10 59 31.3 +75 11 29

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 171d

 

24" (5/25/14): at 375x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 ~E-W, 30"x22", contains a very small brighter core and occasional stellar nucleus.  A mag 14-14.5 star is just 40" SE.  First in the KTG 34 triplet with NGC 3500 9' E and NGC 3523 14.5' ESE.

 

18" (3/30/05): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~NW-SE, ~0.7'x0.5', contains a small, brighter core.  A mag 13.5 star is off the SE side and a 29" pair of mag 12 stars lies 3.5' NE.  First in a trio with NGC 3500 9' E.

 

17.5" (4/25/98): extremely faint, fairly small, round.  First of three in trio with NGC 3500 9' E and NGC 3523 14.5' ESE.  Appears as a low surface brightness spot of 25" diameter (probably viewed core) with little or no concentration.  Observation of the group was severely affected by hazy skies.

 

WH discovered NGC 3465 = H III-967 = h795, along with H III-968, on 2 Apr 1801 (sweep 1096) and noted "Two, the 1st [NGC 3465] vF, vS.  The 2nd eF and smaller than the first.  It is a little more north and following, but very near to it." This is one of 15 far northern galaxies with large systematic errors.  The corrected position using Greenwich plates (MN, 71, 509, 1911), matches III-967 = UGC 6056 and III-968 = UGC 6090, and Dreyer repeated this position in the notes to his 1912 edition of WH's catalogues.  In the NGC, Dreyer assigned both III-967 and III-968 to NGC 3500 (calling it a "D neb, v near").  See NGC 2938 for more on this sweep.

 

JH independently discovered NGC 3465 on 4 Apr 1832 and logged h795 as "eF; pL; R; vglbM; 30", a double star nf points to it."  His position and description clearly applies to UGC 6056.  JH is listed as the discoverer in the GC and NGC, though WH should be credited.

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NGC 3466 = UGC 6042 = MCG +02-28-028 = CGCG 066-065 = PGC 32872

10 56 15.5 +09 45 16

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 0.9'x0.7', weak even concentration.  A mag 11 star is 3.0' due west.  Forms a pair with NGC 3467 7.0' E.

 

JH discovered NGC 3466 = h796 on 18 Jan 1828 and recorded "vF; has another [NGC 3467] still fainter following; has also a * 9m preceding the same parallel."  His position and description matches UGC 6042.  Heinrich d'Arrest measured the difference in RA to the star as 13.3 seconds and the difference in Dec as 15".

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NGC 3467 = UGC 6045 = MCG +02-28-030 = CGCG 066-067 = PGC 32903

10 56 44.1 +09 45 32

V = 13.4;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly faint, small, round, 40" diameter.  Appears slightly smaller than NGC 3466 located 7.0' W but has a sharper concentration with a small bright core.  A mag 11 star lies 3.5' NW (similar brightness to the mag 11 star preceding NGC 3466).

 

JH discovered NGC 3467 = h798 on 18 Jan 1828, along with NGC 3466.  His position matches UGC 6045.

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NGC 3468 = UGC 6048 = MCG +07-23-006 = CGCG 213-010 = PGC 32940

10 57 31.2 +40 56 46

V = 13.0;  Size 1.6'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 8d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 0.6' diameter.  Sharp concentration with a small bright core and stellar nucleus.  A mag 12.5 star is 1.7' ENE of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3468 = H III-632 = h797 on 18 Mar 1787 (sweep 716) and noted "cF, vS, R, gmbM."  On 3 Feb 1788 (sweep 804) he added "lE in the meridian [north-south]." JH's mean position (from two observations) is accurate.

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NGC 3469 = MCG -02-28-024 = PGC 32912

10 56 57.7 -14 18 03

V = 13.1;  Size 1.9'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 115d

 

18" (3/13/04): faint, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter, weak concentratin with a very small slightly brighter core.  Located 6' SSE of a mag 9 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 3469 = h3306 on 7 May 1836 and simply noted "eeF; S."  His position matches MCG -02-28-024 = PGC 32912.

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NGC 3470 = UGC 6060 = MCG +10-16-038 = CGCG 291-016 = PGC 33040

10 58 44.9 +59 30 39

V = 13.2;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (3/19/88): faint, small, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, weak concentration, diffuse outer halo.

 

WH discovered NGC 3470 = H II-888 = h799 on 9 Apr 1793 (sweep 1039) and noted "F, S, R, bM."  His position is within 1' of UGC 6060.

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NGC 3471 = UGC 6064 = MCG +10-16-039 = CGCG 291-018 = Mrk 158 = PGC 33074

10 59 09.1 +61 31 51

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 14d

 

17.5" (3/19/88): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, broad concentration, faint elongated halo.  Located 35' WSW of Alpha Ursa Majoris.

 

WH discovered NGC 3471 = H III-972 on 28 Nov 1801 (sweep 1102) and recorded "vF, vS, R, bM."  His position is 4' north of UGC 6064 = PGC 33074, the only nearby galaxy.

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NGC 3472 = ESO 569-?26

10 57 18 -19 38

 

=Not found, Corwin and RNGC.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3472 = LM I-179 in 1886 and recorded "mag 15.5, 0.4' dia, R, gbM." with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  There is nothing near his rough position (nearest min of RA).  Harold Corwin was not able to identify a likely candidate, but lists ESO 572-025 as a possibility. RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent.

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NGC 3473 = UGC 6052 = MCG +03-28-041 = CGCG 095-079 = PGC 32978

10 58 05.2 +17 07 27

V = 13.6;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 1.0'x0.5'.  Unusual appearance due to nearby foreground stars.  A mag 12.5 star is attached at the NNE tip 0.5' from the center and the galaxy extends to the SW almost to a fainter mag 14 star 45" from center. Appears unconcentrated with a low surface brightness.  Forms a close pair with NGC 3474 1.9' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3473 = H III-67 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 181) and noted "a suspected nebulosity reaching from one star to a smaller which is about 2' south of it; 240 confirmed it." He missed nearby NGC 3474.  He used III-67 in his 1814 PT paper to argue that this was too unusual to be a pure line of sight arrangement and the stars had formed within the nebula.  Heinrich d'Arrest measured an accurate position and noted " bet 2 st 14 and 15m, the brighter one attached to the north limb."

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NGC 3474 = MCG +03-28-042 = CGCG 095-081 = PGC 32989

10 58 08.8 +17 05 44

V = 13.9;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (4/22/95): faint, very small, round, 30" diameter, very small brighter core.  Forms a close pair with brighter NGC 3473 1.9' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3474 = Sw VI-39 on 24 Apr 1887 and noted "vF; pS; R; 2267 [NGC 3475] near north."  His position is 8 sec of RA east of MCG +03-28-042 and the description applies.

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NGC 3475 = UGC 6058 = MCG +04-26-022 = CGCG 125-017 = PGC 33012

10 58 25.3 +24 13 34

V = 13.1;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 65d

 

17.5" (4/9/99): easily picked up at 100x while scanning the field.  Fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~WSW-ENE.  Well concentrated with a bright, round core and an ill-defined diffuse halo at least 1' along the major axis.  A mag 13 star is 1.4' N.  A couple of nearby faint companions were not seen but MCG +04-26-023 located 9' N was observed.

 

WH discovered NGC 3475 = H III-332 = h800 on 10 Apr 1785 (sweep 394) and noted "vF, about 1' north aof a small star."  CH's reduction is nearly 4' south of UGC 6058.  JH recorded "vF; R; gbM; 2' s of a * 12m."  His position is fairly accurate.

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NGC 3476 = NGC 3480? = MCG +02-28-032 = CGCG 066-073 = PGC 32987

10 58 07.6 +09 16 34

V = 13.8;  Size 0.5'x0.5'

 

17.5" (3/22/96): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  A mag 14 star is 1.2' E of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 3477 3.7' SSE.  There is faint pair of mag 14.5/15 stars 1.5' SSE at 14" separation which appeared nebulous at first glance.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3476 = m 213, along with NGC 3477, on 25 Mar 1865 and noted "eF, vS, alm stell." His position is 4' N of CGCG 066-073 = PGC 32987.  This is the same offset as NGC 3477 so this identification appears solid.

 

NGC 3480, found by Andrew Common in 1880, may be a duplicate observation.  See notes on this number.

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NGC 3477 = CGCG 066-074 = PGC 32997

10 58 12.6 +09 13 03

V = 14.7;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  PA = 70d

 

17.5" (3/22/96): extremely faint, very small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE (difficult to determine PA as requires averted vision to glimpse).  A faint pair of mag 15 stars lies 2.3' N.  At the SE edge of the 220x field is a matched pair of mag 9.5 stars at 16" separation. Forms a pair with brighter NGC 3476 3.7' NNW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3477 = m 214 on 25 Mar 1865 and noted "eeF, eS, stell."  His position is 4' north of CGCG 066-074 = PGC 32997, the same offset he made with nearby NGC 3476.

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NGC 3478 = UGC 6069 = MCG +08-20-059 = CGCG 241-051 = PGC 33101

10 59 27.3 +46 07 21

V = 12.9;  Size 2.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 132d

 

17.5" (4/6/91): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 1.5'x0.75', large brighter middle but no defined nucleus.  A pair of mag 11 stars are 3.9' S and 5.5' SSW with a separation of 2.0'.

 

WH discovered NGC 3478 = H III-705 = h801 on 5 Feb 1788 (sweep 808) and simply noted "vF".  His position is 1.5' too far north (similar offset as NGC 3583, the next discovery in the sweep). JH logged "F; S; R" and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3479 = NGC 3502: = MCG -02-28-027 = PGC 33053

10 58 55.5 -14 57 41

V = 13.0;  Size 1.7'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 175d

 

18" (3/5/05): faint, moderately large, slightly elongated N-S, 1.1'x0.8'.  Broad, weak concentration to a relatively large, slightly brighter core.  NGC 3502 may be a duplicate observation of this galaxy.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3479 = LM I-180 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is about 30 tsec west of MCG -02-28-027 = PGC 33053.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes section).

 

NGC 3502 = LM I-181, found by Leavenworth, is probably an independent observation with an error of 2.5 minutes in RA.

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NGC 3480 = NGC 3476? = MCG +02-28-032 = CGCG 066-073 = PGC 32987

10 58 07.6 +09 16 34

 

See observing notes for NGC 3476.  Identification uncertain.

 

Ainslie Common discovered NGC 3480 in 1880 with his 36" silvered glass reflector and simply noted "S, stellar."  There is nothing at his position, though 12' southwest is NGC 3476.  Bigourdan was unsuccessful in finding NGC 3480.  Because of the scant description, the identification NGC 3476 = NGC 3480 is uncertain.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 3481 = MCG -01-28-016 = PGC 33097

10 59 26.6 -07 32 40

V = 13.0;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 136d

 

18" (3/29/03): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.6' diameter, smooth surface brightness.  Located 5' NW of mag 8.8 SAO 137930 (wide yellow/blue unequal double).  Also nearby is a mag 10.7 star 2' W and a mag 11 star 3.5' N.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3481 = LM II-430 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.5, 0.3' dia, rr; prob vF Cl; *9 in PA 120¡ [east-southeast] at 5'."  His position is 0.3 min of RA west and 2' south of MCG -01-28-016 = PGC 33097 and the description clinches the identification.

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NGC 3482 = ESO 264-056 = PGC 33025

10 58 34.3 -46 35 03

V = 12.4;  Size 1.9'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 14d

 

14" (4/2/16 - Coonabarabran, 123x and 160x): fairly faint to moderately bright, elongated 5:3 ~N-S, ~50"x30", broad concentration to a small brighter core.  Situated in a rich Vela star field 8.8' WNW of mag 8.2 HD 95274.

 

JH discovered NGC 3482 = h3308 on 1 Mar 1835 and recorded "eF; S; R; gbM; 30"."  His position is within 1' of ESO 264-056 = PGC 33025.  RNGC calls it an unverified southern object.

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NGC 3483 = ESO 438-001 = MCG -05-26-016 = PGC 33060

10 59 00.2 -28 28 37

V = 12.1;  Size 1.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 105d

 

18" (3/17/07): fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated, 1.2'x1.0', fairly high surface brightness.  Well concentrated with a small bright core that brightens to the center.  Forms the southern vertex of a small triangle with mag 9 HD 95183 1.8' NE and a mag 11.5-12 star 1.3' NNW.

 

18" (4/29/06): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 ~E-W, 0.8'x0.6', irregular halo.  Increases to a small bright core and stellar  nucleus.  Located 1.8' SW of mag 9 HD 95183.  Completing a triangle with the galaxy is a mag 12 star 1.3' N.

 

JH discovered NGC 3483 = h3307 on 10 May 1834 and recorded "pF, S, R, bM, 15". Among stars."  His position matches ESO 438-001 = PGC 33060.

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NGC 3484

11 03 00 +75 49

 

=Not found, Carlson.

 

JH discovered NGC 3484 = h802 on 5 Apr 1832 and noted "A very doubtful object."  I assume he was looking for H III-967 as he questioned if this was his father's object.

 

In the 1911 MN paper on WH's 15 objects discovered on 2 Apr 1810, it was noted "Nothing shown [for NGC 3484] on the photographic [Greenwich plate]" and Dreyer repeats this in his 1912 NGC Correction list.

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NGC 3485 = UGC 6077 = MCG +03-28-044 = CGCG 095-085 = PGC 33140

11 00 02.4 +14 50 28

V = 11.8;  Size 2.3'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (4/18/87): fairly faint, moderately large, fairly diffuse, oval slightly elongated WSW-ENE, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 12 star is 1.7' W of center.  Possible member of the Leo group.

 

WH discovered NGC 3485 = H II-100 = h804 = 3309 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and noted "F, pL r."  JH made three observations at Slough and one at the Cape of Good Hope.

 

Bindon Stoney, observing on 9 Apr 1852 at Birr Castle "suspected a dark curved passage sp centre."  Also on 15 Mar 1855, R.J. Mitchell "suspect[ed] a knot in p and one in f edge.  Query, a ring with a Nucl in centre?"

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NGC 3486 = UGC 6079 = MCG +05-26-032 = CGCG 155-041 = PGC 33166

11 00 23.8 +28 58 30

V = 10.5;  Size 7.1'x5.2';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 80d

 

13.1" (3/24/84): fairly bright, large, slightly elongated E-W, 4'x3', diffuse outer halo with a brighter core.  Located 15' SW of mag 7.9 SAO 81621.

 

WH discovered NGC 3486 = H I-87 = h805 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and recorded "vB, vL, the brightness decreasing very gradually."  JH made a total of 10 observations of this galaxy!

 

R.J. Mitchell, observing on 7 Mar 1856 with LdR's 72", noted "pB, R, B central Nucl, light mottled about Nucl?

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NGC 3487 = UGC 6092 = MCG +03-28-047 = CGCG 095-089 = PGC 33195

11 00 46.6 +17 35 15

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 153d

 

18" (5/31/03): very faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 0.7'x0.25', nearly even surface brightness.  Arp 198 = VV 267 lies 15' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3487 = Sw III-58 on 5 Mar 1886 and logged "eeF; pS; R; e diff; in vacancy."  His position is 35 sec of RA west of UGC 6092.

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NGC 3488 = UGC 6096 = MCG +10-16-045 = CGCG 291-022 = PGC 33242

11 01 23.6 +57 40 39

V = 12.9;  Size 1.9'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (3/12/88): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated ~N-S, gradually brighter core.  A mag 13.5 star is at the SSE edge 1.0' from center.  Forms a pair with CGCG 291-021 7' NNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3488 = H I-269 = h803 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and logged "cB, R, about 1' dia, just north of a small star."  His position is accurate.  JH noted "It is north of a *13, just at the edge of the nebula."

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NGC 3489 = UGC 6082 = MCG +02-28-039 = CGCG 066-084 = PGC 33160

11 00 18.6 +13 54 04

V = 10.3;  Size 3.5'x2.0';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 70d

 

18" (5/14/07): very bright, large, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 2.5'x1.25'.  Sharply concentrated with a round, intense core (relatively small) highlighted by a very bright quasi-stellar nucleus.  A mag 12.5 star lies 1.5' WSW of center, just outside the halo.  Member of the Leo Group = M96 Group.

 

17.5" (4/1/95): very bright, moderately large, elongated 5:3 WSW-ENE, 2.5'x1.5'.  Unusually bright, round core dominates view with an almost stellar nucleus with direct vision.  The halo nearly reaches to a mag 13 star 1.5' SW of center.

 

8" (12/6/80): fairly bright, bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 3489 = H II-101 = h806 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and recorded "pB, S, mbM than at the extremes."  Two observations were made by JH and four at Birr Castle.  JH and d'Arrest commented this galaxy should have been placed in class I.

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NGC 3490 = MCG +02-28-036 = CGCG 066-080 = PGC 33128

10 59 54.4 +09 21 42

V = 13.8;  Size 0.5'x0.5'

 

18" (5/15/10): at 220x appeared as a faint, very small, round glow, just 15" diameter.  The surface brightness was fairly low and occasionally a very faint stellar nucleus was glimpsed.  Located 1.5' NW of a mag 12 star.

 

Andrew Ainslie Common discovered NGC 3490 in 1880 with his 36" silvered-glass reflector.  His approximate position is 0.4 min of RA west of CGCG 066-080 = PGC 33128.  Neither MCG or CGCG label this galaxy as NGC 3490.  See Thomson's CGCG Corrections and Corwin's notes.

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NGC 3491 = UGC 6088 = MCG +02-28-041 = CGCG 066-089 = PGC 33180

11 00 35.4 +12 09 42

V = 13.2;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (3/22/96): faint, very small, round, 30" diameter, very small bright core.  Located in a blank region bordered by brighter stars forming a circular pattern 16'-18' diameter.  The brightest of these are mag 8 SAO 99401 10' SE and SAO 99398 12' SSE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3491 = H III-21 = h807 on 11 Mar 1784 (sweep 164) and noted "vF, S.  I could not be sure till I put on 240x."  His position (CH's reduction) is ~50 sec of RA preceding UGC 6088.  JH's simply noted "eF; R" but measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3492 = UGC 6094 = MCG +02-28-045 = CGCG 066-093 = VIII Zw 116 = PGC 33207

11 00 57.3 +10 30 21

V = 13.2;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (4/25/98): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~E-W, 1.0'x0.8'.  Weak, even concentration to a slightly brighter core and nucleus.  This galaxy is the brightest in AGC 1142 with IC 664 4.1' NW, IC 663 6.4' SW and IC 666 4.6' SE.  Observation made in hazy skies.

 

Christian Peters discovered NGC 3492 around 1880, though it was not published in either of his two lists of 1881 and 1882, so was probably communicated directly to Dreyer.  His NGC position matches UGC 6094.

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NGC 3493 = UGC 6099 = MCG +05-26-036 = CGCG 155-044 = PGC 33249

11 01 27.8 +27 43 10

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 84d

 

18" (5/31/03): faint, small, edge-on 7:2 ~E-W, 0.6'x0.15', even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star lies 0.7' SW of center.  Located 27' SW of NGC 3504.

 

JH discovered NGC 3493 = h808 on 24 Dec 1827 and noted "eF; has a small star sp."  His position (two sweeps) and description matches UGC 6099.

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NGC 3494

11 01 10.9 +03 46 28

 

=**?, Corwin. =NF, Carlson.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 3494 in 1882 and described in his 5th paper "6' north from the middle knot [of NGC 3495] I saw repeated a little nebula, I initially took as (part of) III-498 [NGC 3495]."  There are no nearby galaxies at this offset and Harold Corwin proposes a 5" pair of mag 14.5/16.7 stars located 9' north-northwest of NGC 3495.

 

Dorothy Carlson listed NGC 3494 as nonexistent in her 1940 NGC Correction paper and RNGC repeats this classification.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 3495 = UGC 6098 = MCG +01-28-027 = CGCG 038-088 = PGC 33234

11 01 16.3 +03 37 40

V = 11.8;  Size 4.9'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 20d

 

17.5" (5/10/86): fairly faint, fairly large, edge-on oriented SSW-NNE, 4'x1', broad concentration, mottled or uneven surface brightness (probably caused by a dark lane).  Located 10.5' E of 58 Leonis (V = 4.8).

 

WH discovered NGC 3495 = H III-498 = h809 on 27 Jan 1786 (sweep 513) and noted "vF, mE."  His position is very accurate (so close to the offset star 58 Leo).  JH made three observations on consecutive sweeps, first recording it as "F; mE; 60¡ with meridian; 60" length; 15-20" broad."

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NGC 3496 = ESO 128-SC26 = Cr 237

10 59 34 -60 20 12

V = 8.2;  Size 9'

 

14" (4/2/16 - Coonabarabran, 160x): this cluster is situated in a glorious Milky Way field!  The cluster is beautifully rich with mag 12 and fainter stars, roughly 60-75 stars in a 5'-6' circular region (this is the richest section) and 100-125 stars within a 9' region elongated E-W.  On the east side is HJ 4395 = 11.5/12.0 pair at 9" and a small knot of stars is on the northwest side. A mag 9.3 star is off the east side and a mag 9.2 star is off the south side. Located 34' ENE of 6th magnitude T Carinae and 80' WNW of NGC 3572.

 

Sher 1, a very small cluster, is 13' NE of NGC 3496. Using an 18" f/4.5 at 182x it appeared as a small 1' knot of ~10 stars including a few bright mag 9.5-11 stars, but several are very faint.

 

JH discovered NGC 3496 = h3310 on 14 Mar 1834 and recorded the "Place of a small double star in the following part of a loose, rich, pretty large cluster of stars 13m.  8 or 10' in diameter; a fine object; a very much condensed milky way group."  His position is on h4395, a mag 12 pair at 9".

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NGC 3497 = NGC 3528 = NGC 3525 = IC 2624 = ESO 570-006 = MCG -03-28-037 = PGC 33667

11 07 18.1 -19 28 19

 

See observing notes for NGC 3528

 

WH discovered NGC 3497 = H III-824 on 8 Mar 1790 (sweep 936) and logged "vF, vS, iR, glbM."  His position is within 2' (typical error) of ESO 570-006 = PGC 33667.  The position in the GC, which was copied into the NGC, is 6 min too far west (reduction or copying error).  

 

JH independently discovered this galaxy on 22 Mar 1835 and logged h3316 as "F; S; R; pslbM; 20".  The preceding of two [with NGC 3529]."  His position is 6 sec of RA west of ESO 570-006.   Ormond Stone independently found this galaxy in 1886 at the Leander-McCormick Observatory and his rough position for LM I-183 (nearest min of RA) is 1.0 tmin west of ESO 570-006.  Finally, Lewis Swift rediscovered this galaxy again (along with NGC 3529) on 11 Apr 1898 and his position in list XI-118 is 5' too far south (nearly identical to NGC 3529).

 

So, there are four aliases in the NGC/IC!  Namely, NGC 3497 = NGC 3528 = NGC 3525 = IC 2624.  NGC 3528 is the primary designation in modern catalogues.

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NGC 3498

11 01 41.5 +14 21 04

 

=***, Carlson.

 

WH discovered NGC 3498 = H III-75 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and recorded "eF, not S.  I had some doubts and therefore put on 240, but as there was not a star very near I could not adjust the focus, which cannot be done on a nebula.  Therefore as it would have taken too much time to verify it, I went on."

 

There is nothing near his position and neither d'Arrest nor Bigourdan were able to find this nebula.  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 photographic survey "Die Herschel-Nebel" reported "In Dreyer's place is a vF triple star, *14.7, *14.7, *16, a *14.7 f 1.8' of *16."  The DSS shows a triple star with a brighter pair of mag 14.2/14.6 stars at 10" separation.  Harold Corwin also identifies this number with this triple.

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NGC 3499 = UGC 6115 = MCG +09-18-080 = CGCG 267-037 = CGCG 241-065 = PGC 33375

11 03 11.0 +56 13 18

V = 13.6;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (3/12/88): fairly faint, very small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 14.8' SE of Beta Ursa Majoris (V = 2.4).

 

WH discovered NGC 3499 = H III-793 on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 922) and logged "vF, vS, stellar neb.  The brightness of Beta UMa is so considerable that it requires much attention to perceive this nebula."  His position matches UGC 6115.  No observations were made by JH or LdR. The RNGC position is 1.0 tmin too large.

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NGC 3500 = UGC 6090 = MCG +13-08-052 = CGCG 351-052 = KTG 34B = PGC 33099

11 01 51.5 +75 12 05

V = 13.8;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 45d

 

24" (5/25/14): at 280x appeared faint or fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.3', very small brighter core.  Second of three in the KTG 34 triplet, with NGC 3465 9.0' W and NGC 3523 7.0' SE.  This galaxy's redshift-based distance is ~150 million l.y., while the other two lie at 325 million l.y.

 

18" (3/30/05): very faint, small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.3', low surface brightness.  Smallest and faintest of a trio with NGC 3523 7.2' SE and NGC 3465 9' W.  This galaxy is incorrectly listed as nonexistent in the RNGC and it is not identified as NGC 3500 in UGC, MCG or CGCG.

 

17.5" (4/25/98): extremely faint, small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 30"x20".  Faintest of trio with NGC 3465 9' W and NGC 3523 7' SE.  A pair of mag 12 stars [30" separation] is 6' preceding. Observation difficult due to very poor transparency.

 

WH discovered NGC 3500 = H III-968, along with H III-967, on 2 Apr 1801 (sweep 1096) and noted "Two, the 1st [NGC 3465] vF, vS.  The 2nd [NGC 3500] eF and smaller than the first.  It is a little more north and following, but very near to it." This is one of 15 far northern galaxies with large systematic errors  The corrected position using Greenwich plates (MN, 71, 509, 1911), matches UGC 6090 and Dreyer repeated this position in the notes to his 1912 edition of WH's catalogues.  JH gave 2 GC designations to III-967 and III-968, but in the NGC Dreyer mistakenly assigned both to NGC 3500, calling it a "double nebula, very near."  See NGC 2938 for more on this sweep.

 

UGC 6090 is not labeled as NGC 3500 in any modern catalogue including RC3.  RNGC classifies NGC 3500 nonexistent. CGCG and UGC misidentify NGC 3465 as "NGC 3465 = NGC 3500" (following Karl Reinmuth and Dorothy Carlson).  See Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 3501 = UGC 6116 = MCG +03-28-051 = CGCG 095-097 = FGC 1187 = Holm 224b = PGC 33343

11 02 47.3 +17 59 21

V = 12.9;  Size 3.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 27d

 

17.5" (4/1/95): faint, edge-on 7:1 SSW-NNE, 3.0'x0.4', low surface brightness, very slightly brighter elongated core.  A mag 14 star is 2.3' SE of center.  NGC 3507 lies 12.7' NE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3501= St XI-10 on 23 Apr 1881 and recorded "vF, gbM, mE N30¡E, 3' long."  His position and description matches UGC 6116.

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NGC 3502 = NGC 3479: = MCG -02-28-027 = PGC 33053

10 58 55.4 -14 57 41

 

See observing notes for NGC 3479.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3502 = LM I-181 in 1886 and noted "mag 16.0, 1.2' dia, iR."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 2.5 tmin east of MCG -02-28-027 = PGC 33053.

 

Ormond Stone also found this galaxy at Leander-McCormic Observatory the same year (discovery priority unknown) and recorded LM I-180 = NGC 3479 as "mag 15.5, 0.6' dia, E 90¡."  His rough position is essential correct -- 30 tsec west of PGC 33053.  So, NGC 3502 = NGC 3479.

 

RNGC misidentifies MCG -02-28-041 as NGC 3502.  This galaxy is located 50' north of Leavenworth's position.  See Harold Corwin's NGC identification notes for more.

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NGC 3503 = ESO 128-EN28 = OCL-833 = Ced 109b = Pismis 17

11 01 17 -59 50 42

Size 3'

 

24" (4/5/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): The brightest section of this nebulosity surrounds a group of 5 stars, consisting of a brighter mag 10.5 star with a faint, close companion (h4397 = 10.6/13.3 at 8") and three additional stars in a string. Several additional faint stars spiral out from the grouping.  The haze that surrounds these 5 stars is ~3' in diameter.  There was little or no contrast gain using a UHC filter, so the nebulosity probably does not have a significant emission component.  Situated in a rich star field.

 

JH discovered NGC 3503 = h3311 on 1 Apr 1834 NGC 3503 and described "3 very close stars, 10m, in a nearly straight line, and a double star north of them, the whole involved in a very faint nebula."

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NGC 3504 = UGC 6118 = MCG +05-26-039 = CGCG 155-049 = PGC 33371

11 03 11.2 +27 58 20

V = 11.0;  Size 2.7'x2.1';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (3/25/95): bright, large, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 2.5'x1.2'.  The halo has a fairly high irregular surface brightness.  Sharp concentration with a very small well-defined core dominating.  The bright core appears offset to the south side with the halo more extensive to the north.  Two mag 14 stars lie 1.7' NNW (45" separation).  First of three with NGC 3512 12' ENE and NGC 3515 24' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3504 = H I-88 = h810, along with NGC 3512, on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "cB, cL, iR, bM."  JH made a total of 7 observations.  R.J. Mitchell, observing at Birr Castle on 22 Feb 1857, recorded "mE, B nucl, arms faint, patchy,suspect dark space all around the nucleus."  A month later he described "pL, Nucl vB and has a sensible disc, arms vF and patchy.  I think I see a knot or patch in np end of neb."

 

The RA in the RNGC is 1.0 tmin too far east and the galaxy is misplotted on the first version of U2000 (later fixed).  Also see NGC 3506.

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NGC 3505 = NGC 3508? = MCG -03-28-031 = IC 2622

11 02 59.7 -16 17 19

Size 1.0'x0.9'

 

See observing notes for NGC 3508.

 

JH discovered NGC 3505 = h3312 on 7 May 1836 and logged "pF; S; R; glbM.  Has a star 14m near."  There are two mag 14.5-15 stars about 1' northest and 1' southeast of JH's position, but no nearby galaxy.

 

Harold Corwin suggests this may be a duplicate observation of NGC 3508, which has a mag 13 star attached on the north-northeast tip of the galaxy.  If this identification is correct, his declination is off by over 45'.

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NGC 3506 = UGC 6120 = MCG +02-28-047 = CGCG 066-105 = PGC 33379

11 03 12.9 +11 04 37

V = 12.5;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly faint, round, 1.0' diameter.  Just a weak central brightening with no distinct core or nucleus.  Preceded by a trio of mag 13.5 stars within 4'.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, fairly small, roundish, slightly brighter core.  A triangle of mag 13 stars is just west.

 

WH discovered NGC 3506 = H III-22 = h811 on 11 Mar 1784 (sweep 164) and recorded "vF, vS.  240x made it considerably larger, but I saw it well enough with the common power not to doubt of the reality."  His position matches UGC 6120.  JH made three additional observations.

 

The RA in the RNGC is 1.0 tmin too large and the galaxy was misplotted in the first printing of Uranometria 2000 Atlas.  Also see notes for NGC 3504.

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NGC 3507 = UGC 6123 = MCG +03-28-053 = CGCG 095-100 = Holm 224a = LGG 288-002 = PGC 33390

11 03 25.6 +18 08 08

V = 10.9;  Size 3.4'x2.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (4/1/95): unusual appearance as a bright mag 10.5 star is superimposed very close to the center!  Fairly faint, moderately large, 2.5' diameter, irregularly round.  The core is difficult to view but is located just 30" SW of the superimposed star and the galaxy is slightly offset to the west side of the star.  NGC 3501 lies 12.7' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3507 = H IV-7 = h812 on 14 Mar 1784 (sweep 170) and recorded "F, pL.  The nebulosity is of the milky kind.  It situated between 2 bright stars but near the most north of them and to the south of that star.  At first sight the nebula appears like an electric brush to the great star, but on examination I find it to have no connection with it.  There is in the nebula, and pretty near the center of it, a vF star.  The milky nebulosity is of a circular form."   JH noted on sweep 63 "a * 9m with vF neb attached; pos 70¡ sp = 200¡ +/- dist 30".

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NGC 3508 = IC 2622 = NGC 3505: = MCG -03-28-031 = PGC 33362

11 02 59.7 -16 17 19

V = 13.2;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 15d

 

18" (3/13/04): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.7' diameter, even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is attached on the NNE tip of the galaxy.  At times the galaxy appears slightly elongated N-S, ~1.0'x0.7' and the DSS image confirms this impression.  Observation made through thin clouds.  This is a starburst and luminous infrared galaxy with an active nucleus.

 

WH discovered NGC 3508 = H II-507 = h814 on 31 Dec 1785 (sweep 503) and noted "F, S, E."  JH made a single observation and his position matches MCG -03-28-031. Interestingly, he described this galaxy as "vL".

 

Lewis Swift found this galaxy on 14 Jan 1898 and reported it as new in list XI-117.  Swift's position was 0.5 min of RA too far east and 3' north, so Dreyer catalogued it again as IC 2622.   Also see the NGC 3505, which may be another observation of this galaxy.  So, NGC 3508 = NGC 3505 = IC 2622.

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NGC 3509 = Arp 335 = VV 75 = UGC 6134: = MCG +01-28-033 = CGCG 038-109 = PGC 33446

11 04 23.6 +04 49 43

V = 12.7;  Size 2.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 40d

 

48" (2/20/12): NGC 3509 = Arp 335 displayed a fascinating amount of structure at 375x, though conditions were subpar in terms of transparency and seeing.  The appearance is very asymmetric with the brighter "central" portion elongated SW-NE and containing a very small, round, bright core.  A small knot is just 15" S of the core.  Attached on the northeast side of the central body is a well defined, easily visible tidal arm that gracefully sweeps to the northeast and then hooks sharply counterclockwise towards the south.  The total length of the arm is perhaps 1.5', though it ends about 45" E of the core.  The southwest side of the galaxy has no corresponding arm, but is slightly brighter along the south edge. A mag 16.5-17 star is 30" SW of the core on the west edge.

 

PGC 93108, recorded as "fairly faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, ~15"x7", weak central concentration", lies 3.0' NW.  The PGC galaxy is listed as C2 (collider) in the 2009 Atlas and Catalog of Collisional Ring Galaxies (Madore et al) and the knot close south of the core is listed as C1.

 

17.5" (4/1/95): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, 1.6'x0.7'.  Low surface brightness with a very weak concentration (no visible core).  It was difficult to determine the outer extent of the halo but appears to have an asymmetric shape (slightly curved?).

 

WH discovered NGC 3509 = H III-598 on 30 Dec 1786 (sweep 675) and recorded "Suspected, eF, S, lE.  I could not verify it."  There is nothing at his position, but 1.0 min of RA east and 3' north is UGC 6134 = Arp 335.  JH made no observations and it was not found by Bigourdan.

 

Dreyer commented in his 1912 "Scientific Papers of WH" that this number should probably be rejected since WH noted there was fog "which indeed was so strong as to make everything swim about me."  Still, this identification is reasonable as NGC 3604 has a similar offset error.

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NGC 3510 = UGC 6126 = MCG +05-26-040 = CGCG 155-050 = PGC 33408

11 03 43.6 +28 53 06

V = 12.2;  Size 4.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 163d

 

13.1" (3/24/84): faint, edge-on streak 4:1 NNW-SSE.  Located 7.6' ESE of mag 7.3 SAO 81642 which interferes with viewing.

 

WH discovered NGC 3510 = H II-365 = h813 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "F, mE, about 1 1/2' long but very narrow.  JH made two observations and the Birr Castle assistants made a total of 5.

 

R.J. Mitchell, observing on 1 Mar 1854, noted "Query, an oval shaped spiral; major axis n-s."

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NGC 3511 = ESO 502-013 = MCG -04-26-020 = UGCA 223 = PGC 33385

11 03 23.7 -23 05 11

V = 11.0;  Size 5.8'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 76d

 

48" (4/18/15): at 488x; very bright, very large, elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, 5'x1.5'.  Well concentrated with a large bright oval core that gradually increases to a small bright nucleus and stellar pip.  The region surrounding the core is mottled, due to slightly brighter regions and dust patches.  An ill defined broad spiral arm is on the west side of galaxy, curving from north to south.  A mag 14 star, 2.0' SW of center, is barely off the southwest end of this arm.  A bright patch is 1' SW of center (not part of the arm), and just to its north is a relatively large darker (dust) region.  A second broad arm arc is visible at the east end of the galaxy making a sharp curve clockwise, and passing just inside a mag 13 star at the eastern tip.  NGC 3513 lies 11' SE.

 

17.5" (4/1/95): fairly bright, large, very elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, 4.0'x1.4'.  Broad concentration to a larger brighter core.  Bracketed by a mag 13 star at the ENE end and a mag 14 star at the WSW tip.  Forms a pair with NGC 3513 10.8' SE.  A mag 9.5 star (SAO 179479) is 5' S, roughly midway between the galaxies.

 

WH discovered NGC 3511 = H V-39, along with NGC 3513, on 21 Dec 1786 (sweep 660), and recorded "vF, mE, vgbM, about 8' long and 3' br, near the parallel but about 10¡ sp to nf."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 3512 = UGC 6128 = MCG +05-26-041 = CGCG 155-051 = PGC 33432

11 04 02.9 +28 02 12

V = 12.3;  Size 1.6'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (3/25/95): moderately bright, fairly small, 1.2' diameter, round, weak concentration with an irregular surface brightness.  Second of trio with NGC 3504 12' WSW and NGC 3515 14' NNE.  Surrounded by three mag 12-13 stars 2.9' N, 3.7' E and 2.1' SW.

 

8" (4/24/82): faint, small, round.  Forms a pair with NGC 3504 12' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3512 = H II-366 = h815, along with NGC 3504, on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "pF, pL, goes into the field with [NGC 3504]."  He made an offset error as his position is southeast of NGC 3504, instead of northeast.  JH measured an accurate position, though he thought it was a new object.  He equated h815 with II-366 in the GC.

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NGC 3513 = ESO 502-014 = MCG -04-26-021 = UGCA 224 = PGC 33410

11 03 46.0 -23 14 38

V = 11.5;  Size 2.8'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 95d

 

48" (4/18/15): at 488x and 610x; this superb barred spiral has a strong bright bar oriented northwest to southeast.  It is brighter along a narrow spine and contains a slightly brighter stellar nucleus.  A prominent spiral arm is attached to the bar at the southeast end and sweeps sharply to the north  This well defined arm is relatively narrow and contains a small bright knot near the north end of the arm.  A second arm arm is attached at the northwest end of the bar.  This narrow arm shoots due south and rotates nearly 180¡ clockwise to the east on the south side of galaxy.  It is slightly more separated from the central region than the northern arm and is patchy or knotty near the eastern end.  Overall, the size is roughly 2.5'x2.0' extending northwest to southeast. A mag 15 star is 1.2' W of center, a mag 13 star is 1.7' E of center and a mag 17 star is just off the north side of the galaxy.

 

17.5" (4/1/95): fairly faint, moderately large, 2.5'x2.0', irregular surface brightness, only a slight central brightening.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.7' E of center.  A line of three equally spaced mag 11 stars lies about 4' S.  Forms a pair with NGC 3511 10.8' NW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3513 = H V-40 on 21 Dec 1786 (sweep 660) and recorded "vF, mE, vlbM, about 7' l and 3 or 4' br in the middle, about 10 or 15¡ from sp to nf near the parallel.  His position matches ESO 502-014 = PGC 33410, so the identification is certain, but the description is virtually identical to that of NGC 3511, which was the previous object in the sweep!  So, there was apparently a mistake in copying the description for NGC 3511 twice.

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NGC 3514 = ESO 570-001 = MCG -03-28-035 = PGC 33430

11 03 59.9 -18 46 51

V = 12.8;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 115d

 

18" (3/5/05): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~E-W, 1.0'x0.7'.  Broadly concentrated with a slightly brighter middle.  Located 1.1¡ SE of mag 4.1 Alpha Crateris.

 

JH discovered NGC 3514 = h3313 on 22 Mar 1835 and noted "vF; pL; R; vgvlbM."   His position is 15 tsec west of ESO 570-001.

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NGC 3515 = UGC 6139 = MCG +05-26-044 = CGCG 155-055 = PGC 33467

11 04 37.3 +28 13 40

V = 13.9;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (3/25/95): very faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 0.8'x0.5', weak concentration.  Located 13.7' NE of NGC 3512.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3515 = St XII-41 on 20 Apr 1882 with the 31-inch reflector at Marseille.  His position matches UGC 6139 = PGC 33467

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NGC 3516 = UGC 6153 = MCG +12-11-009 = CGCG 334-011 = PGC 33623

11 06 47.5 +72 34 07

V = 11.7;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (3/28/92): moderately bright but small, slightly elongated SW-NE, sharp small bright core dominates, fairly small halo.  A mag 14 star is 1.2' SE.  Two mag 10 stars lie 2.3' NE and 4.1' W.  This is a Seyfert galaxy with an large, active black hole.

 

WH discovered NGC 3516 = H II-336 = h816 on 3 Apr 1785 (sweep 390) and noted "pB, vS, iR."  CH's reduction is within 2' of UGC 6153.  JH called this "a singular object.  A burred star 11m diam 12"; vsmbM; a double stars follows."

 

NGC 3516 is a strong X-ray Seyfert galaxy and one of the 6 original galaxies studied by Seyfert in his seminal 1943 paper "Nuclear Emission in Spiral Nebulae".

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NGC 3517 = UGC 6144 = MCG +10-16-057 = CGCG 291-027 = PGC 33532

11 05 36.9 +56 31 28

V = 13.0;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 120d

 

17.5" (3/12/88): fairly faint, fairly small, round, diffuse edges, broad concentration.

 

WH discovered NGC 3517 = H II-884 = h817 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and noted "F, S, R, bM."  JH called it "eF; R; 12"; vglbM."  His position matches UGC 6144.

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NGC 3518 = NGC 3110 = NGC 3122 = MCG -01-26-014 = PGC 33442

10 04 02.0 -06 28 29

V = 12.7;  Size 1.8'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 5d

 

See observing notes for NGC 3110.  One hour error in RA in Stone's position.

 

Ormond Stone found NGC 3518 = LM I-182 on 31 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.0, 0.1', lE 110¡, in same field with neb disc by Stephan."  There is nothing near his position.

 

Harold Corwin examined his discovery sketch and found a double nebula with four stars nearby.  Corwin found that Stone made a 1 hr error in RA (too large) and his sketch matches NGC 3110 = NGC 3122. This galaxy was discovered by WH (II-305 = NGC 3122), but he misidentified his offset star.  Once all positions are corrected, NGC 3122 = NGC 3110 = NGC 3518 (in order of discovery).  The RNGC and misidentify PGC 29361 as NGC 3518. See Corwin's notes for the full story. 

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NGC 3519 = ESO 128-SC30 = Ru 93

11 04 09 -61 22 30

V = 7.7;  Size 8'

 

14" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x and 184x): roughly 80 stars resolved in an irregular 6' region (boundary pretty arbitrary), many of these arranged in chains or curving streamers of stars.  On the west side is the brightest mag 9.7 star (mag 12.5 companion at 8" = HJ 4400) with a linear chain of mag 13 stars just west (oriented SW-NE).  Another chain of mag 12-13 stars (oriented NW-SE) is on the northeast side.  A mag 7.4 star (HD 96193) is roughly 8' SSE and a long chain of stars heads north from this bright star, reaching the south side of the cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 3519 = h3314 on 14 Mar 1834 and reported, "Chief star of a pretty rich cluster, class VII."  His position match the unequal double star HJ 4400 within a small cluster.

 

According to Brian Skiff, Ru 93 appears to be a string of stars on the northeast side of the cluster or may simply be a duplicate of NGC 3519.  In a visual observation with a C-8, Jenni Kay observed about two dozen stars in a single cluster of 5' diameter with two brighter stars at the southwest edge. RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent, though the group was confirmed as a star cluster by Bica and Bonatto in 2011A&A...530A..32B ("Star clusters or asterisms? 2MASS CMD and structural analyses of 15 challenging targets.")

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NGC 3520 = ESO 570-004 = PGC 33648

11 07 09.2 -18 01 25

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 165d

 

24" (2/22/14): at 260x appeared faint to fairly faint, fairly small, oval 4:3 WSW-ENE, 20"x15", fairly low surface brightness.  An extremely low surface brightness halo was not seen.  This is a close double system [9" between centers] but was not resolved at 260x.  The NGC identification is uncertain due to a poor position.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3520 = LM II-431 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick and reported "mag 15.3, 0.4' dia, iR, gpmbM, sev vF st inv."  Just 2' north of his position is a 1' group of four stars (brightest two are mag 13 and 14.5) and originally Harold Corwin identified this group as NGC 3520.  He now feels a more likely match based on the description is ESO 570-004 = PGC 33648, an interacting triple or quadruple system located 1.6 min of RA east and 5' south of Leavenworth's position.  ESO misidentified ESO 570-003 as NGC 3520.  This edge-on galaxy is situated 44 sec of RA east of Leavenworth's position and 19' south.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent. See Corwin's NGC identification notes.

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NGC 3521 = UGC 6150 = MCG +00-28-030 = CGCG 010-074 = PGC 33550

11 05 49.2 -00 02 02

V = 9.0;  Size 11.0'x5.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 163d

 

18" (5/14/07): very bright spiral with impressive structure, elongated at least 5:2 NNW-SSE, ~7.5'x3'.  Contains a bright, elongated core highlighted by an intense, stellar nucleus.  The halo is noticeably mottled at first glance and a dust lane runs NNW-SSE along the west side of the core.  There is a strong impression of spiral structure with an arm attached on the east side that extends to the north and appears to curve towards the west in the outer halo.  The halo appears more extensive or slightly brighter on the northern end.  A more difficult arm appears to sweep to the south on the west side of the core.

 

17.5" (1/19/91): very bright, very large, elongated 5'x2' NNW-SSE.  This is an impressive galaxy!  Contains a well-defined small bright oval core NNW-SSE and a stellar nucleus.  Appears mottled near the core and on the west side.  Along the west side is a dust lane evident as a sharp light cut-off.  The west side is somewhat fainter due to dust but extends beyond the dust lane.

 

8": fairly bright, fairly large, elongated, bright core.  Located 33' E of a mag 6 star.

 

WH discovered NGC 3521 = H I-13 = h818 on 22 Feb 1784 (sweep 153) and recorded "a fine B nebula, with a bright star or nucleus in the middle; it sends out a milky ray towards the north, and another more F towards the south, the extent of the whole, faint rays included, may be about 7 or 8'.  JH described NGC 3521 as "vB; L; mE in PA 140¡ +/-, 4' l, 1' br; vsvmbM; a double star follows.  The NGC position (measured by Auwers, d'Arrest, Peters) is accurate.

 

R.J. Mitchell, observing at Birr Castle on 29 Mar 1856, recorded "The nucleus projects into the dark space along the p edge.  Outside this dark space there is faint nebulosity, which I see joining the nebula at the north end."

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NGC 3522 = UGC 6159 = MCG +03-28-060 = CGCG 095-113 = PGC 33615

11 06 40.4 +20 05 08

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 117d

 

18" (5/31/03): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 WNW-ESE, 0.7'x0.4'.  Fairly sharply concentrated with a brighter 15" round core.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3522 = Sw III-59 on 26 Apr 1883 and described "pF; vS; lE; in starless field."  His position is 18 sec of RA west of UGC 6159.  This was one of the first two discoveries (along with NGC 3588 on the same night) with the 16-inch Clark refractor at Warner Observatory.  Kobold measured an accurate position in 1901 at the Strassburg Observatory.

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NGC 3523 = UGC 6105 = MCG +13-08-053 = CGCG 351-054 = KTG 34C = PGC 33367

11 03 06.3 +75 06 57

V = 12.9;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

24" (5/25/14): at 280x appeared fairly faint or moderately bright, moderately large, irregularly round, 1' diameter, weak concentration to a slightly brighter core that seems offset center within the halo.  Third in the KTG 34 triplet with NGC 3500 = UGC 6090 7' NW.

 

18" (3/30/05): fairly faint, moderately large, round, 1.2' diameter.  Symmetrical appearance with a weak even concentration to the center but no defined core.  NGC 3500 lies 7.2' NW.

 

17.5" (4/25/98): extremely faint, fairly small, round, 45" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Collinear with two mag 11 stars 5' ESE and 9' ESE.  Brightest in trio with NGC 3465 14.5' WNW and NGC 3500 7' NW.  Observation severely hampered by poor transparency.

 

WH discovered NGC 3523 = H II-904 on 2 Apr 1801 (sweep 1096) and noted "F, pL, lbM."   This is one of 15 far northern galaxies with large systematic errors.  The corrected position using Greenwich plates (MN, 71, 509, 1911) reveals H II-904 = UGC 6105 = MCG +13-08-053, and Dreyer repeated this position in the notes to his 1912 edition of WH's catalogues.  MCG does not label this galaxy as NGC 3523.  See NGC 2938 for more on this sweep.

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NGC 3524 = UGC 6158 = MCG +02-28-050 = CGCG 066-112 = PGC 33604

11 06 32.1 +11 23 08

V = 12.8;  Size 1.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 14d

 

17.5" (4/1/95): moderately bright, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, 1.5'x0.6'.  Fairly sharp concentration with a well-defined 15" bright core and an occasional stellar nucleus.  A mag 11.5 star lies 0.9' NNW and a mag 13 star 2.0' NNW of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3524 = H III-23 = h819 on 11 Mar 1784 (sweep 164) and recorded "vF, vS.  I was not quite assured of it till I put on 240x.  Very near it to the north are two smalls stars in a line with it."   JH made three observations, first recording "vF; R; bM; has 2 stars exactly in a line with centre, on 11-12 m, the other 13-14 m."

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NGC 3525 = NGC 3528 = NGC 3497 = IC 2624 = ESO 570-006 = MCG -03-28-037 = PGC 33667

11 07 18.1 -19 28 19

 

See observing notes for NGC 3528

 

Ormond Stone independently discovered NGC 3525 = LM I-183 in 1886 and recorded "mag 12.0, 0.8' dia, gbMN."  His rough (nearest min of RA) is ~1.0 tmin west of ESO 570-006 (matches in dec).

 

This galaxy was discovered by WH on 8 Mar 1790 and recorded as III-824 and later GC 2281 = NGC 3491.  His position is within 2' (typical error) of ESO 570-006, but the position in the GC, which was copied into the NGC, is 6 min too far west (reduction or copying error).  JH and Lewis Swift also independently discovered the same galaxy, so there are four aliases in the NGC/IC!  Namely, NGC 3497 = NGC 3528 = NGC 3525 = IC 2624.  NGC 3528 is the primary designation in modern catalogues.  See notes on NGC 3497 for more on the story.

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NGC 3526 = NGC 3531 = UGC 6167 = MCG +01-28-039 = CGCG 038-129 = PGC 33635

11 06 56.3 +07 10 23

V = 13.2;  Size 1.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (4/1/95): fairly faint, nearly edge-on 4:1 SW-NE, 2.0'x0.5', very weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is just off the SW end 1.3' from center.  Located 12' ENE of mag 8.3 SAO 118656 (at the west edge of the field).

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3526 = m 215 on 25 Mar 1865 and noted "eF, perhaps 2' long, vm E ray, pos about 50¡."  His position and description matches UGC 6167.

 

Edward Holden found this galaxy on 27 Apr 1881 with the 15.6-inch refractor at the Washburn Observatory in Wisconsin, and assumed it was new.  His description for NGC 3531 reads "E 50¡, * 11 at sp end", but his position is 30' too far south. Spitaler equated the two identities NGC 3526 = NGC 3531.

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NGC 3527 = UGC 6170 = MCG +05-26-059 = CGCG 155-066 = PGC 33669

11 07 18.2 +28 31 39

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

13.1" (3/24/84): very faint, very small, round, smooth surface brightness.  A mag 12 star is 2.1' WNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3527 = H III-350 = h820 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and noted "vF, S."  JH made 4 observations and noted the mag 10-11 star that is 1' preceding.

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NGC 3528 = NGC 3525 = NGC 3497 = IC 2624 = ESO 570-006 = MCG -03-28-037 = PGC 33667

11 07 18.1 -19 28 17

V = 11.9;  Size 2.6'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 59d

 

17.5" (5/4/02): moderately bright, fairly large contains a bright core ~45" diameter increasing to a stellar nucleus.  Surrounding the core is a fairly large ill-defined halo elongated 3:2 SW-NE, ~2.5'x1.5' with a low surface brightness.  A couple of faint stars are superimposed on the south side.  This galaxy may hold the record for the most NGC/IC aliases as NGC 3528 = NGC 3525 = NGC 3497 = IC 2624.  Forms a pair with NGC 3529 5' S.

 

JH independently discovered NGC 3528 = h3316 on 22 Mar 1835 and recorded "F; S; R; pslbM; 20".  The preceding of 2 [with NGC 3529]."  His position is just 6 tsec west of ESO 570-006 = MCG -03-28-037.

 

WH discovered this galaxy on 8 Mar 1790 (sweep 936) and recorded it as III-824 and later GC 2281 and NGC 3497.  His position is within 2' (typical error) of ESO 570-006, but the position in the GC, which was copied into the NGC, is 6 min too far west (reduction or copying error).  Ormond Stone and Lewis Swift also independently discovered the same galaxy, so there are four aliases in the NGC/IC!  Namely, NGC 3497 = NGC 3528 = NGC 3525 = IC 2624.  NGC 3528 is the primary designation in modern catalogues, despite the earlier discovery of NGC 3497.  See notes on NGC 3497 for more on the identities.

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NGC 3529 = ESO 570-007 = MCG -03-28-038 = IC 2625 = PGC 33671

11 07 19.1 -19 33 20

V = 14.2;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.5;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (5/4/02): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated with very faint extensions suspected at moments, ~45"x35", very weak concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 3528 = NGC 3525 = NGC 3497 just 5' N.

 

JH discovered NGC 3529 = h3317 on 22 Mar 1835 and logged "eF; S; R; vlbM; 15".  The following of 2 [with NGC 3528]."  His position is just 0.1 tmin west of ESO 570-007.  NGC 3529 is 5' south of NGC 3528, which has 4 NGC/IC designation!

 

Lewis Swift independently discovered this galaxy on 11 Apr 1898 and recorded it in list XI-119.  His position is just 1' southeast of ESO 570-007, but Dreyer catalogued it again as IC 2625.  So, NGC 3529 = IC 2625.

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NGC 3530 = UGC 6188 = MCG +10-16-064 = CGCG 291-030 = PGC 33766

11 08 40.4 +57 13 48

V = 13.8;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 11.7;  PA = 99d

 

17.5" (3/12/88): fairly faint, very small, elongated ~E-W, bright core, probable stellar nucleus.

 

WH discovered NGC 3530 = H III-915 = h821 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and noted "vF, S."  His position is within 1' of UGC 6188.  JH logged "eF; S; R; pgbM; 10"."

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NGC 3531 = NGC 3526 = UGC 6167 = MCG +01-28-039 = CGCG 038-129 = PGC 33635

11 06 56.3 +07 10 23

 

See observing notes for NGC 3526.

 

Edward Holden found NGC 3531 on 27 Apr 1881 with the 15.6-inch refractor at the Washburn Observatory in Wisconsin.  His description from a second observation on 20 Apr 1882 reads "Nebula is elongated 50¡ +/-, and at its sp end is a star 11m. * 11 at sp end"  He added the comment "This may be Marth 215 (GC 5546). If so, Marth's position appears to be a wrong. "  His position is a perfect match with UGC 6167.

 

This galaxy was discovered by Albert Marth on 25 Mar 1865, but his position was 30' too far south. Rudolph Spitaler equated the two identities NGC 3526 = NGC 3531 (IC 1 Notes section).  See Harold Corwin's NGC identification notes.

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NGC 3532 = Pin Cushion Cluter = Wishing Well Cluster = ESO 128-SC31 = Cr 238

11 05 48 -58 46 12

V = 3.0;  Size 55'

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): this amazing naked-eye cluster packs several hundred stars, filling the 20mm Nagler field (74x and 65' field of view) with wall-to-wall stars in a 55'x35' region!  The central region is condensed and quite rich with several dense knots consisting of pairs, triples, chains, etc.  The brighter stars are extended ~E-W and includes 6th magnitude K2-type star (HD 96544).  There is no well-defined edge to this immense cluster although a huge "U" shaped chain of stars extends around the periphery.  A neat equal mag equilateral triangle of stars stood out within the central maze of stars.  The cluster is quite prominent naked-eye as a 45' cloud just 3¡ ENE of Eta Carina in the NE corner of the rich Carina starcloud and was densely packed with dozens of resolved stars in the 9x50mm finder.  Mag 3.9 V382 Carinae (not a cluster member) is off the SE side.

 

18" (7/7/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): This spectacular naked-eye and binocular cluster (3¡ ENE of Eta Carina) filled the entire 51' field of the 27mm Panoptic (76x) with several hundred stars mag 7 and fainter resolved.  The cluster is unusually elongated ~E-W, perhaps 55'x30' and widening on the following side.  The stars are irregularly distributed with many in pairs, small groups, chains and loops.  A group of about a dozen stars forms a perfect "S" asterism.  Interestingly, there is a lack of dense knots although the entire central region is rich.  Many of the stars appear to have a blue or yellowish tint.  This is one of the very top open clusters in the sky although it is probably best in a wider field view.

 

Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered NGC 3532 = Lac II-10 = D 323 = h3315 in 1751-1752 with a 1/2-inch telescope at 8x during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope.  He described a "prodigious number of faint stars forming a semi-circle of 20/25 minutes diameter."

 

James Dunlop observed the cluster 3 times and described "a very large cluster of stars about the 9th magnitude, with a red star of the 7-8th magnitude, north following the centre of the cluster. Elliptical figure: the stars are pretty regularly scattered."

 

JH was very impressed with the cluster, including it in a list of 'greatest hits': "Among the nebulae which occur from 9h to 12h we have .. the beautiful planetary nebula [NGC 2867], a perfect planet in appearance, with an attendant satellite; the falcated nebula [NGC 3199]; Eta Argus with its nebula; the superb cluster [NGC 3532]; the blue [Herschel's italics] planetary nebula [NGC 3918], a most exquisite and unique object ; and the beautiful cluster of various coloured stars about Kappa Crucis [NGC 4755]."  His first sweep on 31 Mar 1834 reported "Chief star of a very large, round, loosely scattered cluster of stars 8..12th magnitude, which fills 2 or 3 fields. A fine bright object." His next observation recorded "The chief star of a superb cluster, which has several elegant double stars, and many orange-coloured ones." His third reads: "A glorious cluster of immense magnitude, being at least 2 fields in extent every way. The stars are 8, 9, 10 and 11 mag, but chiefly 10th magnitude, of which there must be at least 200. It is the most brilliant object of the kind I have ever seen."

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NGC 3533 = NGC 3557A = ESO 377-011 = MCG -06-25-002 = AM 1104-365 = LGG 229-009 = PGC 33647

11 07 07.5 -37 10 22

V = 12.9;  Size 2.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 65d

 

13.1" (2/17/04 - Costa Rica): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 5:2 or 3:1 WSW-ENE, low fairly even surface brightness with just a weak, broad concentration.  A mag 14 star is just north of the ENE tip.  First in the NGC 3557 group (40' NW of NGC 3557).

 

JH discovered NGC 3533 = h3318 on 22 Apr 1835 and simply noted "eeF; attached to a vS star."  His position is 14 sec of RA east of ESO 377-011 = PGC 33647 with the star at the northeast tip.

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NGC 3534 = NGC 3534A = UGC 6190 = MCG +05-26-062 = CGCG 155-072 = Holm 229a = KTG 35A = WBL 303-001 = PGC 33782

11 08 55.6 +26 36 38

V = 14.1;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 88d

 

24" (4/20/14): faint to fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 E-W, 0.8'x0.4', low even surface brightness.  Largest in a trio (KTG 35) and brighter of a close pair with NGC 3534B = UGC 6193 just 0.9' S.  The companion appeared faint, small, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, 24"x12", with the major axis perpendicular to NGC 3534.  MCG +05-26-064 lies 2.9' ENE and appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 N-S, 25"x15", small bright core.

 

17.5" (4/22/95): very faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 E-W, 1.0'x0.5', broad weak concentration.  A mag 9.5 star is 4.3' NW.  This is a double system with separation 0.9' between centers (unresolved) and forms a triplet with MCG +05-26-064 2.9' ENE.

 

Otto Struve discovered NGC 3534 on 18 Mar 1869 with the 15-inch Merz refractor at St Petersburg while searching for Comet Winnecke (7P/Pons-Winnecke).  He recorded a "Very faint nebua of uniform light, located 3' southeast (PA 145¡) from a mag 9 star.  His position is 12 sec of RA west of UGC 6190.

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NGC 3535 = UGC 6189 = MCG +01-29-004 = CGCG 039-010 = PGC 33760

11 08 34.0 +04 49 55

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 178d

 

17.5" (3/22/96): faint, small, round, 30" diameter, brighter core.  A mag 15 star is just 43" E of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3535 = H III-111 = h823 on 18 Apr 1784 (sweep 201) and recorded "vF, vS, r, 240x confirmed it."  There is nothing at his position, but 33 sec of RA preceding and 1.5' north is UGC 6189.  JH measured an accurate position.  In Dreyer's 1912 revision of WH's catalogues, he explains issues with the telescope that led to different reductions between Auwers and CH in the declination.

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NGC 3536 = UGC 6191 = MCG +05-26-061 = CGCG 155-073 = PGC 33779

11 08 51.2 +28 28 32

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): very faint, round, 40" diameter, low even surface brightness.  The 20' field has only a half dozen stars.  NGC 3539 lies 12.3' NNE. Probable member of AGC 1185 and located about 30' SW of the core of the cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 3536 = h822 on 24 Dec 1827 and noted "F; S; R; bM; 15 to 20" dia." His position is 1.2' south of UGC 6191 = PGC 33779.

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NGC 3537 = PGC 33752 = PGC 33753

11 08 26.6 -10 15 25

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (5/4/02): fairly faint, fairly small, irregularly round, ~1.0'x0.8', moderate surface brightness, weak concentration to an irregular nucleus.  This is a double system with a superimposed companion on the south side. Located 8' W of mag 8.7 SAO 138012.  NGC 3527 is misidentified in the RNGC and MCG as MCG -02-29-003 which is located 14' S (see visual observation).

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 3537 = T V-8 on 7 Feb 1878.  He resolved and accurately measured the two components of this double galaxy (PGC 33752 = PGC 33753).

 

Andrew Ainslie Common found this galaxy in 1880 and described object #13 in his discovery list as "2 stars inv in haze, Pos. 160 deg."  RNGC and MCG both misidentify MCG -02-29-003 as NGC 3537.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 3538

11 11 33.1 +75 34 15

Size 9"

 

=**, Corwin  =NF, RNGC.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 3538 on 15 Sep 1866 and noted "vF, pL, *17 near."  Just 20" north of his single position is a pair of mag 14.9/15.1 stars at 9" separation oriented NW-SE at this position.

 

In the 1911 Monthly Notices correction paper on WH's sweep of 2 Apr 1801, NGC 3538 was noted (based on a Greenwich plate) as "Doubtful.  Appears as a double star on the photographs. P 310¡, d 12", mags 17, 17."  Based on Heidelberg plates, Reinmuth noted "vS, = neb *14.0, *16 np 0.1', *14.5 f 0.7'.  This description applies to the brighter component of the double star, which is cleanly resolved on the DSS.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 3539 = MCG +05-26-065 = CGCG 155-077 = PGC 33799

11 09 08.9 +28 40 20

V = 14.5;  Size 1.1'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 3d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): very faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 N-S, 0.6'x0.2'.  Contains a small bright core with very faint extensions.  NGC 3536 lies 12.3' SSW.  Member of AGC 1185.

 

JH discovered NGC 3539 = h825 on 13 Apr 1831 and simply noted as "eF".  His position matches CGCG 155-077 = PGC 33799.

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NGC 3540 = NGC 3548 = UGC 6196 = MCG +06-25-011 = CGCG 185-011 = PGC 33806

11 09 16.1 +36 01 15

V = 13.3;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly faint, fairly small, round, small bright core.  Located 8' E of mag 7.3 SAO 62421 and 17' S of mag 5.7 SAO 62427.

 

JH discovered NGC 3540 = h824 on 11 Mar 1831 and recorded "pF; R; psbM; 20"; a * 7m preceding, distance 7' - 8'."  His position and description match UGC 6196.

 

NGC 3548, found by JH the following year, is probably a duplicate observation with a 1.0 min error in RA.  See that number. This galaxy was not plotted on the first edition of the Uranometria 2000.0 star atlas.

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NGC 3541 = MCG -02-29-003 = PGC 33759

11 08 32.2 -10 29 30

V = 14.5;  Size 1.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.8

 

17.5" (5/4/02): very faint, fairly small, round, 0.5' diameter.  Has a much lower surface brightenss than NGC 3537 14' N.  The NGC identification is very uncertain due to an imprecise position by Common and NGC 3541 may apply to MCG -02-29-004 28' SSE.  This galaxy is identified as NGC 3537 in MCG and RNGC.

 

Andrew Ainslie Common discovered NGC 3541 with his 36-inch silvered-glass reflector in 1880 and described a "Nebulous star, B centre."  His rough discovery position is 12' north of MCG -02-29-004 and 15' south of MCG -02-29-003.  Both of these galaxies are possible candidates.  Harold Corwin feels that based on Common's description, MCG -02-29-003 = PGC 33759 is more likely.

 

Wolfgang Steinicke credits Wilhelm Tempel with the discovery on 7 Feb 1878, but the position and description in list I-31 appears to apply to a couple of very faint stars.

 

MCG -02-29-003 is misidentified as NGC 3537 in MCG and RNGC (see notes for NGC 3537).  RNGC misclassifies NGC 3541 as nonexistent.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 3542 = MCG +06-25-013 = CGCG 185-013 = PGC 33868

11 09 55.5 +36 56 47

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (3/12/94): faint, small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, low surface brightness, no concentration.  Forms a trio with NGC 3545 3.5' ENE and MCG +06-25-014 3.3' N.  MCG +06-25-015 is at the edge of the field 11' N.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3542 = St XIII-60 on 26 Mar 1884.  His position matches CGCG 185-013 = PGC 33868.

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NGC 3543 = UGC 6213 = MCG +10-16-075 = CGCG 291-034 = PGC 33953

11 10 56.5 +61 20 49

V = 14.1;  Size 1.3'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 8d

 

17.5" (3/19/88): faint, moderately large, edge-on 5:1 ~N-S.  A wide pair of mag 14 stars at 51" separation lie 2' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3543 = H III-920 = h826 on 9 Apr 1793 (sweep 1039) and noted "eF, vS, E nearly in the meridian."  CH's reduced position is 3.5' southwest of UGC 6213.  JH's position is just 4 sec of time east of this edge-on.

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NGC 3544 = NGC 3571 = ESO 570-011 = MCG -03-29-001 = PGC 34028

11 11 30.3 -18 17 23

 

See observing notes for NGC 3571.

 

Ormond Stone independently discovered NGC 3544 = LM I-184 on 7 Jan 1886 at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 2 tmin west of NGC 3571 = ESO 570-011.  Stone's position angle (95¡) and dimensions (2.5'x0.4') are a perfect match with NGC 3571.

 

This galaxy was discovered by WH on 8 Mar 1790 and catalogued as II-819 = NGC 3571.  So, NGC 3544 = NGC 3571. The primary designation should be NGC 3571, although RC3 labels this galaxy NGC 3544.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 3545 = VV 182 = MCG +06-25-016/-017 = CGCG 185-015 = PGC 33893

11 10 12.3 +36 57 53

V = 13.8;  Size 0.7'x0.3'

 

17.5" (3/12/94): faint, small, round, 40" diameter, slight even concentration.  Forms a trio with NGC 3542 3.5' WSW and MCG +06-25-014 4.7' NW.  MCG +06-25-015 lies 10.5' NNW.  This is a double system with components separated by just 13" (oriented SW-NE).

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3545 = St XIII-61 on 26 Mar 1884.  His position matches the double system MCG +06-25-016/017 or (R)NGC 3545A/B.  The individual components appear to be at most 0.3'x0.3' and in contact SW-NE.

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NGC 3546 = MCG -02-29-007 = PGC 33846

11 09 46.8 -13 22 50

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (5/4/02): faint, very small, slightly elongated, 25"x 20", stellar nucleus.  Apparently I picked up the core region only as the arms have a much lower surface brightness.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 3546 = LM II-432 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and noted "* 12m in PA 40¡ at 2.1'."  His position is 0.3' of RA west of  MCG -02-29-007 = PGC 33846 and his description matches.

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NGC 3547 = UGC 6209 = MCG +02-29-007 = CGCG 067-019 = PGC 33866

11 09 55.9 +10 43 14

V = 12.8;  Size 1.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 7d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated N-S, bright core.  Possible member of the Leo group.

 

WH discovered NGC 3547 = H II-42 = h828 on 11 Mar 1784 (sweep 164) and recorded "F, S.  Does not require 240x to see it."  JH noted "F; S; lE; of nearly uniform brightness."

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NGC 3548 = NGC 3540 = UGC 6196 = MCG +06-25-011 = CGCG 185-011 = PGC 33806

11 09 16.1 +36 01 15

 

See observing notes for NGC 3540.

 

JH discovered NGC 3548 = h827 on 7 Feb 1832 and noted "eF; R; a * 8m precedes."  There is nothing at his position buyt 1.0 min of RA west is NGC 3540, which he discovered the previous year on 11 Mar 1831, and the two descriptions are very similar.  RNGC equates NGC 3548 with NGC 3540.  See Harold Corwin's NGC identification notes for more on this number.

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NGC 3549 = UGC 6215 = MCG +09-18-097 = CGCG 267-047 = PGC 33964

11 10 56.8 +53 23 17

V = 12.1;  Size 3.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 38d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 2.6'x1.0', broad concentration. The ends fade into the background but do not taper giving a boxy impression.  Three collinear mag 13.5 stars nearly parallel the galaxy off the SE side.  The nearest is 1.7' ESE of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3549 = H I-220 on 12 Apr 1789 (sweep 919) and recorded "cB, E, 70¡ np to sf, 3 or 4' long, about 2' br."  His position is within 1.5' (typical error) of UGC 6215.  A second observation was made two nights later to start sweep 920.

 

A sketch made on 29 Feb 1868 at Birr Castle shows a curving shape with the comments "Lord R. remarks; - south end much spread out.  We were almost certain of the branches given in diagram, n one most decided."

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NGC 3550 = UGC 6214 = MCG +05-27-002 = CGCG 155-082 = CGCG 156-003 = PGC 33927

11 10 38.5 +28 46 04

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

13.1" (3/24/84): brightest in the AGC 1185 cluster.  Faint, small, round.  A mag 11 star is 1.5' E and a mag 12 star1.5' SSW.  NGC 3552 lies 4.7' SSE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3550 = H III-351 = h829 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and recorded "Two [along with III-352 = NGC 3552], both vF and vS.  The most south [NGC 3552] is the faintest and but for the other could not have been observed."  JH made 6 disparate descriptions in terms of brightness, ranging from eF to B, and in the GC notes, he suggested this was possibly a variable nebula.

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NGC 3551 = CGCG 125-032 = Holm 230b = PGC 33825

11 09 42.8 +21 44 07

Size 0.2'x0.2'

 

17.5" (4/15/99): extremely faint, very small, possibly elongated but difficult to confirm, 20" in diameter.  Could not resolve this double system with certainty (or only viewed the brighter component).  Located 1.4' SSW of NGC 3555.

 

17.5" (3/12/94): very faint, very small, round, fairly low even surface brightness.  Forms a close pair with NGC 3555 1.4' NNE.  This is a double system [29" between centers] which was not resolved or only one component visible.  Member of AGC 1177.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3551 = Sw I-10, along with Sw I-11 = NGC 3555 on 24 Aug 1883, and noted "eeF; vS; R; diff; s of 2."  His position is 50 sec of RA east of CGCG 125-032 (close pair) but similar in declination.  His relative separation with NGC 3555 is 10 sec of RA and 0.5' north.  This suggests NGC 3555 = UGC 6203 (brightest in the cluster), though the actual RA difference is 3.2 tsec of RA.  CGCG 125-032 is not labeled NGC 3551 in UGC (notes) or CGCG.  RNGC and PGC identify the brighter western component of this double as NGC 3551.

 

As an alternative identification, Corwin suggests that NGC 3551 = UGC 6203 and NGC 3555 = CGCG 125-034, but the declination separation of 3' is much larger than Swift's 0.5'.  I feel this solution is less likely.

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NGC 3552 = MCG +05-27-004 = CGCG 155-085nf = CGCG 156-006nf = PGC 33932

11 10 42.9 +28 41 35

V = 14.6;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

13.1" (3/24/84): very faint glow that is slightly brighter than NGC 3553, situated very close SW just 44" from center.  Located in the core of AGC 1185.

 

WH discovered NGC 3552 = H III-352 = h832 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 396) and recorded "Two [along with III-351 = NGC 3550], both vF and vS.  The most south [NGC 3552] is the faintest and but for the other could not have been observed."  JH made 3 observations, describing on sweep 65 "so excessively faint as hardly to be discerned on long attention.  The second of a group of 3 [with NGC 3561]."  See notes on NGC 3553.

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NGC 3553 = MCG +05-27-003 = CGCG 155-085sw = CGCG 156-006sw = PGC 1842970

11 10 40.5 +28 41 06

V = 13.8;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

13.1" (3/24/84): very faint, extremely small.  Located very close SW of NGC 3552 (44" between centers).  The pair is just resolved at 220x.  Located in the core of rich cluster AGC 1185.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 3553 = Big 45 on 13 Mar 1885 and recorded "20" diam; forms a double nebula with GC 2320 [NGC 3552]."  His position, though, matches NGC 3552, as he assumed the galaxy 0.7' southwest (MCG +05-27-003 = PGC 1842970) was GC 2320.  So, the positions in the NGC for NGC 3552 and NGC 3553 actually apply to the same galaxy.  Since Bigourdan clearly discovered MCG +05-27-003, Harold Corwin suggests it should be labeled NGC 3553.  That places the numbering out of order in RA.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 3554 = MCG +05-27-007 = CGCG 155-086 = CGCG 156-007 = PGC 33948

11 10 47.9 +28 39 36

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

13.1" (3/24/84): extremely faint and small.  Located in the core of AGC 1185 close SSE of the NGC 3552/NGC 3553 pair.  Appears just non-stellar and near the visual threshold.

 

JH discovered NGC 3554 = h833 on 24 Dec 1827 and noted "F; R; bM; not vS; PD mistaken 10'; corrected."  His position is 1.5' north of CGCG 155-086 = CGCG 156-007 = PGC 33948.

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NGC 3555 = UGC 6203 = MCG +04-26-035 = CGCG 125-033 = Holm 230a = PGC 33836

11 09 44.4 +21 45 32

V = 12.8;  Size 1.8'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (4/15/99): brightest of trio with NGC 3551 1.4' SSW and CGCG 125-034. Appears very faint, small, round, 0.7' diameter.  Located 9' NW of three mag 9 stars which form a shallow arc. This galaxy is the brightest in AGC 1177.

 

17.5" (3/12/94): faint, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, weak even concentration to brighter core and very small nucleus.  A trio of mag 9 stars are in the field 8'-9' S including mag 8.9 SAO 81702 9.1' SE and mag 9.2 SAO 81700 8.7' SSE.  Forms a close pair with NGC 3551 1.4' SSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3555 = Sw I-11, along with NGC 3551 = Sw I-10, on 24 Aug 1883.  There is nothing at his position, but exactly 1.0 min west is UGC 62035, the brightest member of the cluster.  UGC, MCG and CGCG fail to label this galaxy as NGC 3555.  This assignment implies NGC 3551 = CGCG 125-032, a faint double double system close southwest.  See Corwin's notes for an alternate interpretation of the identifications.

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NGC 3556 = M108 = UGC 6225 = VV 529 = MCG +09-18-098 = CGCG 267-048 = CGCG 268-001 = PGC 34030

11 11 31.8 +55 40 14

V = 10.0;  Size 8.7'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 80d

 

48" (5/12/12): extremely bright and large, very elongated at least 4:1 WSW-ESE, ~8'x2'.  This galaxy has a unique tortured appearance and is riddled with irregular dust lanes and patches.  A very irregular dust lane courses through the galaxy along the major axis, but north of the core.  A bright mag 12.5 star is superimposed just west of center and following this star is a bright, large elongated knot [HK83] 87.  Very close west of the star is a small, faint knot [HK83] 108 and a large dust patch is just west of this knot.  On the west edge of the dust patch (1.2' W of the star) is another bright, elongated knot with multiple HII designations including [HK83] 146.

 

18" (5/14/07): very bright, very large, elongated 4:1 WSW-ENE, ~8'x2'.  This striking galaxy has a very mottled, patchy appearance with the main body appearing twisted or distorted.  A few brighter patches or knots are visible along the major axis with a prominent knot along the west side.  The core region is streaked with dust.  The brightest portions of the two extensions have slightly different orientations or central axes!  The galaxy bulges out a bit on the east end and the galaxy appears to bend a bit towards the north on the west end adding to the asymmetry.  A couple of faint stars are superimposed on the eastern extension and close to the center is a prominent mag 12.5 star masquerading as a bright, stellar nucleus.  The Owl Nebula, M97, lies 48' SE.

 

17.5" (2/25/84): very bright, very large, edge-on 4:1 WSW-ENE, 8.0'x2.0'.  A mag 12 star is superimposed just west of center (V = 12.5) appearing similar to a bright stellar nucleus.  Two fainter stars are also superimposed east of the core.  A bright knot is visible west of the core (1.3' W of the star) and the region near the core appears dusty.  A mag 12 star is just south of the west end, 4.9' from the center.

 

17.5" (3/12/88): very bright, very large, a bright star is superimposed near the center, knot visible west of the core.

 

13" (2/25/84): fairly bright, very elongated, stellar nucleus.

 

Pierre MŽchain discovered M108 = NGC 3556 = V-46 = h831 in Feb or Mar 1781. An accurate position was measured by Messier and added by hand to his personal copy of the catalogue, but a later edition was never published.

 

WH independently discovered the galaxy on 17 Apr 1789 (sweep 922) and recorded V-46 as "vB, 10' long and 2' br, resolvable.  An unconnected pB star in the middle."  JH made a single observation and noted "B; vL; p b r; vmE; pos 79¡.  Has a distinct star in centre and 1 or 2 vS stars elsewhere."  At Birr Castle, M108 was described in various observations as "twisted", "mottled", "patched and irregular", "knots".

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NGC 3557 = ESO 377-016 = MCG -06-25-005 = AM 1107-371 = LGG 229-003 = PGC 33871

11 09 57.6 -37 32 21

V = 10.4;  Size 4.1'x3.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 30d

 

13.1" (2/17/04 - Costa Rica): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, 2.5'x1.5'.  Sharply concentrated with a prominent 40" core.  With averted vision the diffuse outer halo extends to 3'x2' in size.  A mag 10.5 star lies 3.3' SE.  Brightest in a group (Klemola 18) including NGC 3564 7.7' E and NGC 3568 11.5' NE and part of the Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 3557 = h3319 on 21 Apr 1835 and noted "pB; S; R; bM."  His position (2 observations) matches ESO 377-016.

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NGC 3558 = MCG +05-27-008 = CGCG 155-089 = CGCG 156-010 = Mrk 422 = PGC 33960

11 10 55.9 +28 32 37

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

13.1" (3/24/84): this is the second brightest galaxy in the rich cluster AGC 1185.  Faint, very small, round.  There is a string of four faint stars preceding.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 3558 on 15 Apr 1866 and viewed at 123x, 148x and 226x.  His position is 1.3' too far north.

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NGC 3559 = UGC 6217 = MCG +02-29-008 = CGCG 067-025 = PGC 33940

11 10 45.2 +12 00 58

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (5/4/02): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 1.2'x0.8', fairly low surface brightness, brighter core.  IC 2628 is located 14' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3559 = H III-79 on 12 Apr 1784 (sweep 188) and noted "eF, not L, lE, r."  His position (CH's reduction) is  6' too far south.  Heinrich d'Arrest measured an accurate position (twice) and noted the 6' error in WH's position.  NGC 3560 is a duplicate observation with a poor declination.

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NGC 3560 = NGC 3559 = UGC 6217 = MCG +02-29-008 = CGCG 067-025

11 10 45.2 +12 00 58

 

See observing notes for NGC 3559.

 

JH discovered NGC 3560 = h834 on 6 Apr 1831 and recorded "F; R; gbM; 20" (conspicuous).  The PD of the working list [for H III-79] is 6' out, owing to which I have often looked for it in vain."  Although he was correct about the error in the polar distance of III-79, JH's polar distance was off by 50'.

 

Ignoring his previous equivalence with III-79 (NGC 3559), JH gave h834 a separate GC designation (2324) at his erroneous position.  Dreyer followed JH, and added the duplicate designation NGC 3560.  Harold Corwin (private correspondence on 10 Aug 1995) identifies NGC 3560 = h834 = H III 79 = NGC 3559 as JH originally stated.  See Corwin's notes for full discussion.

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NGC 3561 = Arp 105 NED2 = VV 237a = UGC 6224a = MCG +05-27-010 = CGCG 155-090 NED2 = CGCG 156-011 NED2 = PGC 33991

11 11 13.3 +28 41 46

V = 13.7;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

48" (5/12/12): bright, fairly small, round, 0.6' diameter, small bright core.  Forms a close pair with NGC 3561A 0.9' N.  The companion appeared fairly bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 30"x20", small bright core.

 

At 488x, a very low surface extension or plume reaches 30" S.  The dwarf galaxy "Ambartsumian's Knot" was occasionally visible near its southern end as an extremely faint stellar spot.  A number of galaxies within AGC 1185 are nearby including MCG +05-27-012 1.6' SW, which appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, 0.3'x0.2'.

 

MCG +05-27-012, 1.2' SE of NGC 3561, is fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, 0.3'x0.2'.  2MASX J11112084+2840183, 2.2' SE of NGC 3561 and 39" SE of MCG +05-27-012, appeared faint, small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 16"x8".

 

13.1" (3/24/84): very faint, very diffuse spot with averted.  This member of AGC 1185 is slightly larger than most members.

 

JH discovered NGC 3561 = h835 on 30 Mar 1827 and simply noted "vF.  The last of a group of 4 [with NGC 3550, 3552 and 3554]."  On a later sweep he called it "F; pL; 8' dist from another [NGC 3550] and 30¡ south-following it."  He likely picked up the brighter southern component of this multiple system.

 

RC2 lists the components as NGC 3561A = MCG +05-27-011 (northern) and NGC 3561B = MCG +05-27-010 (southern). The dwarf galaxy "Ambartsumian's knot" is located at the southern end of a plume extending from NGC 3561B.

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NGC 3562 = UGC 6242 = MCG +12-11-011 = CGCG 334-013 = PGC 34134

11 12 58.7 +72 52 45

V = 12.2;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  PA = 165d

 

17.5" (3/28/92): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated ~E-W, gradually brighter halo, small bright core.  A mag 14.5 star is 1.2' NNE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3562 = H II-337 = h830 on 3 Apr 1785 (sweep 390) and noted "pF, pS, bM."  CH's reduction is within 2' of UGC 6242.  JH recorded "pF; lE; gbM; 20"; a * 15m dist 70"; pos from neb 22.1¡."

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NGC 3563 = UGC 6234 = MCG +05-27-013/14 = (CGCG 156-014) = Holm 234a = PGC 34025

11 11 25.3 +26 57 49

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 15d

 

18" (5/31/03): faint, very small, round, 0.4' diameter.  This is a double galaxy and a very small companion was just resolved on the west edge.  NGC 3563A appears as an extremely faint, round "knot" (perhaps 10" diameter) just 17" W of center.  Located 3.3' S of mag 9.5 SAO 81711.

 

Otto Struve discovered NGC 3563 on 18 Mar 1869 with the 15-inch Merz refractor at Pulkovo Observatory in St Petersburg.  He found this galaxy while searching for Comet Winnecke (7P/Pons-Winnecke) and noted it was 2' south of a mag 8 star in PA 169¡.  RC 3 and the first edition of the Deep Sky Field Guide label this galaxy NGC 3563B and the fainter companion NGC 3563A.

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NGC 3564 = ESO 377-018 = MCG -06-25-006 = AM 1108-371 = LGG 229-004 = PGC 33923

11 10 36.4 -37 32 51

V = 12.1;  Size 2.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 15d

 

13.1" (2/17/04 - Costa Rica): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, 1.4'x0.6', weak concentration and tapers at the ends (spindle-shaped).  Follows NGC 3557 by 7.7' in a group (Klemola 18) and bracketed by two mag 13 stars 2' NW and 2' SE.

 

JH discovered NGC 3564 = h3320 on 21 Apr 1835 and logged "F; S; R; bM.  On the same parallel with [NGC 3557]."  His position and description matches ESO 377-018 = PGC 33923.

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NGC 3565 = NGC 3566: = ESO 570-IG 008 = PGC 33701

11 07 47.8 -20 01 18

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 126d

 

18" (3/17/07): very faint, very small, slightly elongated, 20"x15".  Located 13' WNW a mag 8.3 HD 96800.  The identification of this galaxy with NGC 3565 is not certain and the number (along with NGC 3566) may apply to IC 2623 and a star just south.  Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3565 = LM I-185, along with NGC 3566, in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  Both objects were given the same rough position (nearest min of RA and marked as +/-).  There is nothing near his position.

 

ESO, RC3 and PGC identify NGC 3565 = NGC 3566 = ESO 570-008, an interacting double galaxy roughly 2.5 min of RA east of Stone's position (typical error in the first discovery list).  On the POSS, the images of these two small galaxies are merged and difficult to resolve.  So, it's possible that Stone observed this galaxy and a nearby faint star for his second object.  RNGC classifies NGC 3565 and 3566 as nonexistent.  Also, see my RNGC Corrections #6 and Harold Corwin's NGC identification notes.

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NGC 3566 = NGC 3565: = ESO 570-IG008 = PGC 33701

11 07 47.8 -20 01 20

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 126d

 

See observing notes for NGC 3565.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3566 = LM I-186, along with NGC 3565, in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  See NGC 3565.

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NGC 3567 = UGC 6230 = MCG +01-29-011 = CGCG 039-051 = PGC 34004

11 11 18.7 +05 50 10

V = 13.3;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 132d

 

18" (3/5/05): fairly faint, round, contains a relatively bright stellar or quasi-stellar nucleus surrounded by a round, faint halo.  Forms a double system with MCG +01-29-012 39" SE.  The companion appeared very faint, very small, 20" diameter.

 

WH discovered NGC 3567 = H III-89 = h836 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and logged "eF.  I am a little doubtful of the reality.  His position is 30 sec of RA west and 3' north of UGC 6230, the only object in the vicinity.  JH made two observations, measured a fairly accurate position, but was uncertain of the identification with III-89 (because of the poor position).  He also noted "an appearance of stars", perhaps picking up the close companion as stellar!

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NGC 3568 = ESO 377-020 = MCG -06-25-009 = LGG 229-008 = PGC 33952

11 10 48.5 -37 26 52

V = 12.3;  Size 2.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 7d

 

13.1" (2/17/04 - Costa Rica): fairly faint, very elongated 7:2 N-S, 1.5'x0.4', fairly low even surface brightness.  Cradled by a trio of mag 10-11 stars just following (the 2 stars off the north and south ends are parallel to the major axis).  NGC 3564 lies 6.7' SSW and NGC 3557, the brightest member of the Klemola 18 group, is 11.5' SSW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3568 = h3321 on 21 Apr 1835 and recorded "eF; pL; involving several stars.  The last of 3 [with with NGC 3557 and 3564].  The next night he noted "F; R; near 3 bright stars."  His position is 1' south of ESO 377-020 = PGC 33952 and the description matches.

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NGC 3569 = UGC 6238 = MCG +06-25-020 = CGCG 185-018 = PGC 34075

11 12 08.1 +35 27 08

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

18" (5/31/03): faint, small, round, 0.5' diameter, very weak concentration with no visible core.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 3569 on 27 Apr 1864.  His single position matches UGC 6238 and the description mentions the mag 12 star to the west-northwest by 3.5'. A faint companion 1.8' SW was discovered by Hermann Kobold (K 14) in 1899 with the 18-inch at Strassburg, though published in 1909, too late for inclusion in the IC2.

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NGC 3570 = UGC 6240 = MCG +05-27-019 = CGCG 156-018 = PGC 34071

11 12 03.3 +27 35 23

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (4/14/01): fairly faint, small, round, 30" diameter.  Forms a pair with NGC 3574 at 2.9' NE.  Brightest in a faint group.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3570 = St IX-23, along with NGC 3574, on 15 Mar 1877.  His position matches UGC 6240.  This galaxy is the brightest in a group with NGC 3754 2.9' NE.

 

In Emmanuel Esmiol's re-reduction of Stephan's positions at Marseille Observatory, he removed NGC 3570 and replaced it with an anonymous galaxy, as if the NGC position is in error, but his new position matches the old!

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NGC 3571 = NGC 3544 = ESO 570-011 = MCG -03-29-001 = PGC 34028

11 11 30.3 -18 17 23

V = 12.1;  Size 3.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 94d

 

17.5" (1/31/87): fairly faint, moderately large.  Contains a small bright core surrounded by a faint halo elongated 2:1 ~E-W.  Located 19' NW of mag 6.1 Psi Crateris.

 

WH discovered NGC 3571 = H II-819 on 8 Mar 1790 (sweep 936) and reported "pF, pL, bM, iF."  His position matches ESO 570-011 = PGC 34028.

 

Ormond Stone independently discovered the galaxy on 7 Jan 1886 at the Leander-McCormick Observatory. His rough position (nearest min of RA) for NGC 3544 = LM I-184 is two tmin too far west, but his description matches.  So, NGC 3571 = NGC 3544.  The primary designation should be NGC 3571, although RC3 labels this galaxy NGC 3544.

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NGC 3572 = ESO 129-SC1 = Cr 239

11 10 19 -60 14 54

V = 6.6;  Size 20

 

18" (7/7/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x, this is an 8' irregular group of 80-100 stars including a mag 7.9 star on the west side and about a dozen mag 10 stars.  A mag 6.7 star lies 11' SE of center outside of the apparent cluster (but part of Cr 240).  A dark patch abuts the cluster and there is an impression of more bright and dark nebulosity in the field.  At 128x with the UHC filter, the cluster is adjacent to a large field of faint nebulosity to the north (RCW 54) with the borders of the nebulosity seemingly obscured by dust.  Located 16' NW of mag 4.6 HD 97534.

 

JH discovered NGC 3572 = h3323 on 14 Mar 1834 and noted "Middle of a tolerably rich cluster, class VIII."  His position is good.

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NGC 3573 = ESO 377-022 = MCG -06-25-011 = LGG 229-010 = PGC 34005

11 11 18.3 -36 52 33

V = 12.3;  Size 3.6'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 4d

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, bright core, very small bright nucleus, faint extensions.  A string of three mag 11.5-12.5 stars oriented E-W follow with the closest star 2.3' E and a mag 14.5 star is at the east edge.  Located on the north side of the NGC 3557 group (part of the Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster) in the NW corner of Centaurus near the Antlia border.

 

JH discovered NGC 3573 = h3322 on 20 Apr 1835 and recorded "eF; R; glbM; 20"; precedes 3 stars 11 and 12 mag, nearly on the same parallel.  His position is 1.3' north o fESO 377-022 = PGC 34005 and the description matches.

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NGC 3574 = MCG +05-27-022 = CGCG 156-020 = PGC 34080

11 12 12.2 +27 37 28

V = 14.8;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (4/14/01): extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, no details and requires averted vision.  Located 2.9' NE of NGC 3570 and second brightest in a group.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 3574 = St IX-24, along with NGC 3570 on 15 Mar 1877.  His position matches MCG +05-27-022.

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NGC 3575 = NGC 3162 = UGC 5510 = MCG +04-24-019 = CGCG 123-026

10 13 31.6 +22 44 15

 

See observing notes for NGC 3162.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest found NGC 3575 on 21 Feb 1863.  He noted it was "moderately bright, R, 45" diam.  A mag 11 stars precedes at 3' separation and a mag 16 star is 1' southeast.  There is nothing at his position and Bigourdan and Reinmuth (Heidelberg plate) both reported negative results.

 

But Harold Corwin discovered that d'Arrest's RA was exactly one hour too large, and once corrected his position as well as description is a perfect match with NGC 3162, discovered by WH in 1784.  d'Arrest made the same error with NGC 3760 that evening and with NGC 3167 on 1 May 1862.

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NGC 3576 = ESO 129-EN005 = RCW 57 = PP 79 = Ced 113a

11 11 32.7 -61 21 48

Size 20'x15'

 

18" (7/7/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): NGC 3576 is the first of six sections in a small, but very interesting nebulous complex consisting of NGC 3576, NGC 3579, NGC 3581, NGC 3582, NGC 3584 and NGC 3586 – all situated in the same low power field with NGC 3603!  NGC 3576 is a somewhat isolated patch on the southwest side, about 5' from the main sections.  At 128x and a UHC filter it appeared as a faint, circular hazy patch of low surface brightness with a mag 12.5 star at the west side and ~1.5' in diameter.  NGC 3579 is a small, fan or wedge-shaped section located just to the west of larger NGC 3584.  It appears 2' in size with a 12th magnitude star at the south tip and spreading to the north and west from this star.  NGC 3581 is the brightest section of this complex and has sharply defined borders running SW-NE and NW-SE, meeting at a right angle about 1' WNW of mag 9.2 SAO 251313. The overall size is ~2'x1.5' with an irregular surface brightness.  It is just disconnected from NGC 3582, which is close NE.  NGC 3582 is another fan-shaped section which wraps around a mag 10.6 star.  It has a well-defined edge running SW to NE with the northern border running E-W. The brighter star is embedded roughly in the center and several mag 13 stars are near the border.  The diameter is ~2' (similar in size to NGC 3581 just SW).  NGC 3584 is the furthest NE and the largest section of nebulosity.  It appears as a looping arc about 3.5'x1', bowed out towards the east and extending mostly N-S and narrowing at the north end.  A few mag 12 stars are off the edges.  NGC 3579 appears as nearly a continuation of this loop towards the west.  Finally, NGC 3586, the last in the complex, is situated ~4' SE of the center of the group of nebulae.  It appears as a faint, elongated steak of 2' length oriented N-S with an 11th magnitude star about 40" NE of the north tip.  The entire group was roughly sketched and easily matched up with the DSS later.  NGC 3603 lies ~25' E.

 

JH discovered NGC 3576 = h3324 on 16 Mar 1834 and recorded "F, oval.  The first of a group of 6.  Place by collation of diagrams."  His (rough) position is too far southwest.  His sketch was included in the CGH Observations, plate IV, figure

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NGC 3577 = UGC 6257 = MCG +08-21-006 = CGCG 242-010 = PGC 34195

11 13 44.9 +48 16 22

V = 13.4;  Size 1.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

17.5" (4/6/91): very faint, small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE.  A mag 11.5 star is 30" SE of the outer halo and 1.2' from center.  Forms a pair with NGC 3583 5.2' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3577 = H III-723 on 1 Apr 1788 (sweep 822) and noted "eF, vS.  It is south preceding the foregoing nebula [NGC 3583]."  His position is 4.5' north of UGC 6257, but this is the same offset as NGC 3583, so the identification is certain.

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NGC 3578

11 12 48 -15 57

 

=**?, Corwin  =NF, Carlson.

 

JH discovered NGC 3578 = h837 on 16 Dec 1827 and recorded an uncertain "Nova" as "A doubtful object, but probably a nebula."  There is nothing near his position that he might have picked up.  Dorothy Carlson reports "not found" in her 1940 NGC errata list.  Harold Corwin lists a couple of single or double stars that JH might have noted.

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NGC 3579 = ESO 129-EN008 = RCW 57 = Ced 113b

11 11 58 -61 14 41

 

18" (7/7/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): NGC 3579 is a small, fan or wedge-shaped section located just to the west of larger NGC 3584 within the RCW 57 complex.  It appears 2' in size with a 12th magnitude star at the south tip and spreading to the north and west from this star.  This is the second of 6 separate pieces catalogued by John Herschel.

 

JH discovered NGC 3579 = h3325, in a group of nebulae, on 14 Mar 1834 and noted "R, sbM, by diagram. Place by collation of diagrams."

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NGC 3580 = MCG +01-29-018 = CGCG 039-075 = PGC 34159

11 13 15.9 +03 39 26

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 178d

 

17.5" (5/4/02): faint, very small, 20" diameter (core), quasi-stellar nucleus.  At moments there are faint extensions N-S.  A mag 13 star lies 1.3' ESE of center.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 3580 = T I-32 in 1876.  His position and description (a mag 14 star follows by 3 - 4 sec of time) matches CGCG 039-075 = PGC 34159.

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NGC 3581 = ESO 129-EN009 = Gum 38a = RCW 57 = Ced 113c

11 12 00.0 -61 18 18

 

18" (7/7/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): NGC 3581 is the brightest section of this complex and has sharply defined borders running SW-NE and NW-SE, meeting at a right angle about 1' WNW of mag 9.2 SAO 251313. The overall size is ~2'x1.5' with an irregular surface brightness.  It is just disconnected from NGC 3582, which is close NE.

 

JH discovered NGC 3581 = h3326 on 14 Mar 1834 in an HII complex and noted "a * 12m, with a fan nebula attached.  Place by direct observation."

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NGC 3582 = ESO 129-EN010 = RCW 57 = Ced 113d

11 12 08.1 -61 16 30

 

18" (7/7/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): NGC 3582 is another fan-shaped section which wraps around a mag 10.6 star.  It has a well-defined edge running SW to NE with the northern border running E-W.  The brighter star is embedded roughly in the center and several mag 13 stars are near the border.  The diameter is ~2' (similar in size to NGC 3581 just SW).

 

JH discovered NGC 3582 = h3327 on 14 Mar 1834 in a complex of emission nebulae.  He noted "R; has a * in middle.  Place by collation of diagrams."

 

Joseph Turner sketched the complex of nebulae in 1876 with the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope (see http://www.docdb.net/history/texts/1885osngmt________e/lithograph_m_4_35.php)

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NGC 3583 = UGC 6263 = MCG +08-21-008 = CGCG 242-012 = PGC 34232

11 14 10.8 +48 19 06

V = 11.1;  Size 2.8'x1.8';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 125d

 

17.5" (4/6/91): fairly bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 1.5'x1.0', bright core, stellar nucleus at moments.  A mag 14 star is just off the south side 1.5' from the center.  Forms a pair with NGC 3577 5.2' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3583 = H II-728 on 5 Feb 1788 (sweep 808) and recorded "pB, pL, R, vgmbM."  His position on sweep is 4' north of UGC 6263 (similar offset as NGC 3577 = II-723 on sweep 822).

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NGC 3584 = ESO 129-EN012 = RCW 57 = Ced 113e

11 12 19.2 -61 13 12

 

18" (7/7/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): NGC 3584 is the furthest northeast and the largest section of nebulosity.  It appears as a looping arc about 3.5'x1', bowed out towards the east and extending mostly N-S and narrowing at the north end.  A few mag 12 stars are off the edges.  NGC 3579 appears as nearly a continuation of this loop towards the west.

 

JH discovered NGC 3584 = h3329 on 16 Mar 1834 in a complex of emission nebulae and recorded "L, bM, E in meridian.  Place by collation of diagram."

 

Joseph Turner sketched the complex on 19 May 1876 with the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope (http://www.docdb.net/history/texts/1885osngmt________e/lithograph_m_4_35.php), and NGC 3584 is shown as a looping nebulosity, narrowing on the north end and matching my description and the photographic appearance.

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NGC 3585 = ESO 502-025 = MCG -04-27-004 = PGC 34160

11 13 17.1 -26 45 18

V = 09.9;  Size 4.7'x2.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 107d

 

17.5" (4/6/91): very bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, very high surface brightness, very bright core, stellar nucleus.  Two mag 13.5 stars are 2.5' NE and 3.3 ' NNW.  Forms the western vertex of a near equilateral triangle with two mag 8.5 stars (SAO 179663 and 179667) 8.4' E and 8.4' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3585 = H II-269 = h3328 on 9 Dec 1784 (sweep 676) and noted "pB, pL, lE, mbB."  His position at the south edge of the galaxy. JH made two observations from the CGH and first logged "vB, pL, pmE; forms equilateral triangle with two stars 8th and 8-9 mag following, distant 6' or 7'."

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NGC 3586 = ESO 129-EN013 = RCW 57 = Ced 113f

11 12 29.2 -61 20 54

 

18" (7/7/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): NGC 3586 is the last in the complex is situated ~4' SE of the center of the complex.  It appears as a faint, elongated steak of 2' length oriented N-S with an 11th magnitude star about 40" NE of the north tip.

 

JH discovered NGC 3586 = h3330 on 14 Mar 1834 in a complex of emission nebulae and recorded "S, oval, E in pos 160¡ +/- by diagram.  Place by collation of diagrams; the last of a group of 6."

 

Joseph Turner sketched NGC 3586 as a thin filament on 19 May 1876 with the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope.  This matches the photographic appearance.

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NGC 3587 = M97 = Owl Nebula = PK 148+57.1 = PN G148.4+57.0

11 14 47.7 +55 01 08

V = 9.8;  Size 202"x196"

 

48" (4/19/15): at 375x and 488x w/NPB filter; although the unfiltered view was excellent, adding a NPB filter at 488x ramped up the contrast!  The two famous holes were very high contrast with the northwest eye slightly larger with a irregular outline.  The slightly darker southeast eye has an easily visible star at the south edge [40" SSE of the central star].  In addition, a third very faint star (best seen unfiltered) is close west of this hole [37" SSE of center].  Overall the surface brightness of the planetary is irregular or mottled.  It fades around the periphery creating a dimmer ragged circular rim of uneven brightness.  The main bright portion of the planetary is slightly elongated NNW-SSE.

 

48" (4/15/10): the Owl Nebula was quite impressive at 330x (unfiltered) and exhibited a fascinating amount of detail.  The mag 16 central star was easily visible at the center of the 3.4' disc.  To the northwest and southeast of the central star are two large, darker "holes" (Owl's "eyes"), each roughly 45" in diameter.  The southeast eye has a little more contrast and a very faint star is close to its southeast edge.  The northwest eye is a little larger, though not quite as dark in the center.  A mag 12 star lies 2.6' NE of center and a mag 14 star lies 3' S of center.  MCG +09-19-014, a faint galaxy, lies 3.8' SSE adjacent to a mag 14.5 star.  HCG 50 (faintest of the Hickson Compact Groups) lies 20' ESE.

 

24" (2/9/13):  although I didn't take notes on the structure of M97, the mag 16 central was readily visible using magnifications of 200x and higher.

 

17.5" (3/12/88): both holes definitely visible at 280x using a UHC filter.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly bright, very large, round.  Two low contrast darker "holes" are visible with averted vision which form the "eyes" of the "Owl Nebula".  The southeast hole is darker but the northwest hole appears larger.  Central star not visible.

 

13" (4/29/84): moderately bright, large, round.  A single hole west of center is highly suspected.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): darker "holes" visible near threshold, no central star at 166x-220x.

 

Pierre MŽchain discovered M97 = NGC 3587 = h838 on 16 Feb 1781.  In the 1818 Philosophical Transactions, William Herschel wrote: "1799, 7 feet finder. The object is not visible in it. 1789, 20 feet telescope; considerably bright, globular, of equal light throughout, with a diminishing border of no great extent. About 3' diameter.

 

A total of 45 observations were made at Birr Castle with the dark holes first recorded on 5 Mar 1848: "Two dark and vL spots in middle."  On 11 Mar: "Brialliant star in the centre.  After 5 min observation, detected the star to the right, which Dr. Robinson immediately saw.  Round each star seems a black space."  William Rambaut's sketch, made in 1848, showed a distinct spiral structure ("a double perforation appears to partake of the structure both of the annular and spiral nebulae."), clearly influenced by the emphasis at Birr Castle on resolving spiral structure in a variety of objects.

 

It's assumed the nickname "Owl Nebula" originated from Lord Rosse's remarkable sketch from 1848 that resemble the head of an owl with two large dark holes or ÒeyesÓ, punctuated by stars (only one of these is real).  Although the popular name "Owl Nebula" was never used by Lord Rosse in a published paper, William Darby wrote in 1864 that M97 was "familiarly known in the Parsontown Observatory as 'the owl nebula' from its resemblance to an owl.Ó  For an unusual interpretation of the appearance, Romney Robinson described the planetary as Òlooking like the visage of a monkey.Ó

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NGC 3588 = UGC 6264 = MCG +04-27-009 = CGCG 126-011 = PGC 34219

11 14 02.5 +20 23 15

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

18" (5/31/03): very faint, very small, round, 0.4' diameter.  Weak, even concentration to center.  Located just 8' S of mag 2.6 Delta Leonis! (Zosma).  Not difficult at 320x with Delta just outside of field.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3588 = Sw I-12 on 26 Apr 1883 and recorded "cS; vF; follows Delta Leonis 4 sec.  Easily overlooked."  His position, 8' south of Delta Leonis, matches UGC 6264.  This was his first discovery using the 16-inch Clark refractor at Warner Observatory.  He specifically looked at Delta Leonis, hoping to find a nebula, hidden in the glare of a bright star.

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NGC 3589 = UGC 6275 = MCG +10-16-096 = CGCG 291-046 = PGC 34308

11 15 13.4 +60 42 02

V = 13.8;  Size 1.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 48d

 

17.5" (3/19/88): faint, moderately large, oval ~SW-NE, diffuse.  Located just west of the line connecting mag 7.5 SAO 15447 4' NNE and mag 8.6 SAO 15449 5' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3589 = H III-921 = h839 on 9 Apr 1793 (sweep 1039) and noted "eF, pL, E."  His position is 2' south of UGC 6275.  JH recorded "vF; L; vglbM; 45"; situated in the centre of gravity of a triangle of 3 large stars 5' distance."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 3590 = Cr 242 = ESO 129-SC014

11 12 59 -60 47 18

V = 8.2;  Size 4'

 

18" (7/7/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x, this is a small, fairly bright 2' knot of ~20 stars mag 10 and fainter.  At 76x this diminutive cluster is set in a remarkable field, forming a triangle with NGC 3603 and the NGC 3579-86 complex (RCW 57) to the south.

 

JH discovered NGC 3590 = h3332 on 4 Feb 1835 and recorded "a close, p rich, compressed, oval cluster, somewhat insulated."  His position is good.

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NGC 3591 = MCG -02-29-012 = PGC 34220

11 14 03.3 -14 05 14

V = 13.3;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 150d

 

18" (3/19/04): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, 0.9'x0.7'.  Contains a very small brighter nucleus, ~10" diameter.

 

WH discovered NGC 3591 = H III-529 = h3331 on 27 Mar 1786 (sweep 548) and noted "eF, S."  JH recorded "vF; R; 30"; vlbM" and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3592 = UGC 6267 = MCG +03-29-011 = CGCG 096-011 = PGC 34248

11 14 27.5 +17 15 34

V = 13.7;  Size 1.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 120d

 

17.5" (4/9/99): surprisingly faint for listed magnitude, required averted and appeared as a 15" "knot" just 45" following a mag 14.5 star.  Elongation not seen so I only viewed the brighter inner core of this edge-on system.  Located 11' W of NGC 3598.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3592 = m 216 on 4 Mar 1865 and noted "eF, S, pmE, pos 60¡."  Marth's position matches UGC 6267 = M+03-29-011, although the PA is 120¡.

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NGC 3593 = UGC 6272 = MCG +02-29-014 = CGCG 067-040 = PGC 34257

11 14 37.0 +12 49 03

V = 10.9;  Size 5.2'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 92d

 

17.5" (4/1/95): bright, fairly large, very elongated 3:1 E-W, 3.2'x1.2'.  Strong concentration from a faint outer halo to a prominent elongated core and a very small rounder nucleus.

 

WH discovered NGC 3593 = H I-29 = h840 on 12 Apr 1784 (sweep 188) and recorded "B, cL, lE, mbM, r."  JH noted "B; E; psmbM; 40" l, 30" br." and measured an accurate position (3 observations).

 

R.J. Mitchell, observing on 27 Mar 1856 with the 72", logged "suspect as before a dark lane along the n side of the nucleus and neby outside this again, but far from being certain."

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NGC 3594 = UGC 6286 = MCG +09-19-022 = CGCG 267-058 = CGCG 268-011 = PGC 34374

11 16 14.0 +55 42 15

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (3/12/88): faint, very small, round, bright core.  A mag 11 star is 2.7' ENE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3594 = H III-770 on 14 Apr 1789 (sweep 920) and noted "vF, vS, stellar neb."  His position is 0.6 tmin of RA west and 2.5' north of UGC 6286.  But Harold Corwin notes that his position is also 13' following CGCG 268-006, which has a higher surface brightness and is a possible identification.

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NGC 3595 = UGC 6280 = MCG +08-21-009 = CGCG 242-014 = PGC 34325

11 15 25.5 +47 26 49

V = 12.1;  Size 1.6'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 176d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S.  Sharp concentration with a very small bright core and much fainter extensions.  Located 2.0' S of mag 7.4 SAO 43659!  UGC 6255 lies 19' NW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3595 = H III-706 on 5 Feb 1788 (sweep 808) and recorded "vF, vS, stellar, south of a cB star."  His position is 2' too far north (very close to mag 7.6 HD 97773).

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NGC 3596 = UGC 6277 = MCG +03-29-013 = CGCG 096-013 = PGC 34298

11 15 06.2 +14 47 13

V = 11.3;  Size 4.0'x3.8';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

13.1" (4/10/86): moderately bright, fairly large, diffuse, slightly elongated NW-SE, sharp stellar nucleus is possibly offset to the west of the geometric center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3596 = H II-102 = h841 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and recorded "Faintish, pS, R, rather bM, resolvable."  His position is 2'-3' north-northwest of UGC 6277.  JH made two observations of this galaxy and noted (sweep 419) "pF; vL; gbM; 2' dia."

 

R.J. Mitchell, observing with LdR's 72" on 22 Mar 1857, noted he "strongly suspect either a vF nebulous ring round nucleus, or a branch joining centre at the following side.  Difficult object." Interestingly, it appears that Barnard's announcement of a new planetary in AN 4112 applies to this galaxy! 

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NGC 3597 = ESO 503-003 = MCG -04-27-005 = AM 1112-232 = PGC 34266

11 14 42.0 -23 43 39

V = 12.6;  Size 1.9'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 65d

 

18" (3/19/04): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter.  Moderate even concentration to a very small bright core and stellar nucleus.  A pair of mag 13 stars lie less than 2' NE of center.  Located 5' SSW of mag 9.1 HD 97783.

 

JH discovered NGC 3597 = h3333 on 21 Mar 1835 and recorded "vF; R; bM; much diluted at the borders, 30"." His position matches ESO 503-003 = PGC 34266.

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NGC 3598 = UGC 6278 = MCG +03-29-014 = CGCG 096-014 = PGC 34306

11 15 11.6 +17 15 45

V = 12.3;  Size 1.9'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (4/9/99): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, well-concentrated with a bright core steadily increasing to a faint stellar nucleus.  The outer halo is ill-defined and much weaker.  A mag 14 star is just off the north edge 0.6' from center and a pair of mag 13.5 stars is 4' ENE.  NGC 3592 lies 11' W.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3598 = m 217 on 4 Mar 1865 and noted "F, vS, stell."  His position matches UGC 6278 = PGC 34306.

 

Wilhelm Tempel found this galaxy in 1876 and recorded it in list I-33, and noted a star close north.

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NGC 3599 = UGC 6281 = MCG +03-29-015 = CGCG 096-015 = PGC 34326

11 15 27.0 +18 06 37

V = 12.0;  Size 2.7'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 99d

 

17.5" (4/13/02): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated ~4:3, 2.0'x1.5'. Contains a small, fairly bright round core which is concentrated to the center with a much lower surface brightness halo.  Located 21' WNW of NGC 3607 in a group.

 

WH discovered NGC 3599 = H II-49 = h843 on 14 Mar 1784 (sweep 170) and logged "resolvable, brightest in the middle & the brightness going off imperceptibly."  JH called it "B; R: psmbM; 35"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3600 = UGC 6283 = MCG +07-23-038 = CGCG 213-038 = Mrk 1443 = PGC 34353

11 15 52.0 +41 35 28

V = 11.7;  Size 4.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 3d

 

17.5" (4/1/95): fairly faint, very elongated 3:1 N-S, 1.8'x0.6', small bright core, faint extensions.  Two mag 12 stars lie 2.4' and 3.2' NNW of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3600 = H II-709 = h842 on 14 Jan 1788 (sweep 798) and recorded "vF; S; E in the meridian [N-S]."  JH called it "pB; S; lE; vgbM; 20"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3601 = UGC 6282 = MCG +01-29-024 = CGCG 039-091 = PGC 34335

11 15 33.3 +05 06 56

V = 13.8;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.1

 

17.5" (5/4/02): faint, small, irregularly round, 25"x20" diameter, even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star lies 2.9' SSE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3601 = m 218 on 22 Mar 1865 and noted " vF, pS, alm stell."  His position matches UGC 6282 = PGC 34335.

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NGC 3602 = MCG +03-29-017 = CGCG 096-017 = PGC 34351

11 15 48.3 +17 24 57

V = 14.7;  Size 0.8'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 45d

 

18" (5/15/10): extremely faint, very small, required averted vision to initially pick up at 175x although visible ~75% of the time at 260x.  Appears roughly as a tiny, thin streak, ~15"x5", although sometimes the extensions were not seen, only a 5" core.  .  Located 3.4' NE of a mag 10 star.

 

17.5" (4/9/99): not found.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3602 = m 219 on 4 Mar 1865 and noted "eeF, vS, alm stell."  His position matches CGCG 096-017 = PGC 34351.

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NGC 3603 = ESO 129-SC16 = Cr 244 = Gum 38b = RCW 57

11 15 07 -61 15 42

V = 9.1;  Size 12'

 

24" (4/5/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this distant (20,000 light years) superluminous HII region and cluster was mesmerizing at 200x using a UHC filter.  The nebulosity is generally elongated E-W, ~5'x3', but with bays and extensions and dark lanes.  The surface brightness is highest to the south of the embedded cluster with a dark lane slashing through the nebulosity just west of the bright core.  At 350x, 15-20 stars were resolved in the glow, though the tiny, brilliant "core" cluster was only mottled and barely resolved into a few stars.

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): at 105x a bright irregular nebula surrounds a mag 9 "star".  At 200x, a half-dozen very faint stars are packed very close to the central star.  This very compact knot is actually a distant, very dense, young cluster of extremely luminous stars!  Adding a UHC filter, the nebulosity is irregular at 105x, extending mostly south of the star and fading out into two or three sections that are possibly divided by a dark lane.  The brightest section is to the southwest of the central star.

 

18" (7/7/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x this distant but superluminous HII region is a fascinating clump of stars of and nebulosity surrounding a bright 9th magnitude knot.  The bright central region was extremely dense and contained 10-12 stars crammed into 2', yet it seemed only partially resolved at the very center into a couple of stars.  At 128x and UHC filter, the surrounding "haze" is clearly gaseous in nature with the brightest portion offset to the SW side from the core with a roughly broad fan with a total size of approximately 5'x3'.  A dark lane appears to cut through the nebulosity towards the core and there is a strong impression that the field is riddled with dust lanes and patches.  This is a well-studied highly reddened, luminous cluster (~20,000 light years) and HII region with similarities to the Tarantula nebula in the LMC!

 

JH discovered NGC 3603 = h3334 on 14 Mar 1834 NGC 3603 and recorded "a red star 10m, the centre of an excessively condensed group of stars 15...18m, with a nebulosity extending over 2' diameter.  On the next sweep, he noted "the center, when examined with powers 240 and 320, decidedly not a star, and the nebula about it all resolved.  Perhaps it is a globular clusters, vs vvmbM."

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NGC 3604 = NGC 3611 = UGC 6305 = MCG +01-29-026 = CGCG 039-103 = PGC 34478

11 17 30.1 +04 33 19

 

See observing notes for NGC 3611.

 

WH discovered NGC 3604 = H II-626 on 30 Dec 1786 (short sweep 675) and recorded "pB, S, lE, mbM."  There is nothing at Herschel's position and this object was not recovered by Bigourdan.  In the "Scientific Papers of WH", Dreyer states "should probably be rejected as there was fog "which indeed was so strong as to make everything swim about me."  But, WH's position is 1.0 tmin preceding NGC 3611 (similar offset as NGC 3509 on the same sweep) and Dorothy Carlson (1940 NGC correction paper) and Harold Corwin equate NGC 3604 and 3611.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 3605 = UGC 6295 = MCG +03-29-019 = CGCG 096-019 = Holm 240c = WBL 319-001 = PGC 34415

11 16 46.6 +18 01 01

V = 12.3;  Size 1.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 17d

 

13.1" (2/16/85): fairly faint, small, round, small bright nucleus.  In a group with brigtest member NGC 3607 3.0' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3605 = H III-27 = h844, along with NGC 3607 and 3608, on 14 Mar 1784 (sweep 170) and recorded "Three nebula of different sizes; all brightest in the middle & R.  The largest is that in the middle [NGC 3607] & is of a considerable size; that on the north [NGC 3608] is a good deal smaller.  The most south of them [NGC 3605] is much smaller than either of them, so that at first I did not immediately perceive it."

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NGC 3606 = ESO 377-032 = MCG -05-27-004 = PGC 34378

11 16 15.6 -33 49 40

V = 12.4;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

18" (3/17/07): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 0.6' diameter, small bright core, relatively bright stellar nucleus.  Two mag 10 and 11 stars lie 4.5' and 5.5' NNE.  ESO 377-031 lies 9' SSW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3606 = h3335 on 20 Apr 1835 NGC 3606 and logged "eF; R; S; gbM; 15"."   His single observation matches ESO 377-032.

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NGC 3607 = UGC 6297 = MCG +03-29-020 = CGCG 096-021 = Holm 240a = WBL 319-002 = PGC 34426

11 16 54.7 +18 03 06

V = 9.9;  Size 4.9'x2.5';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 120d

 

13.1" (2/16/85): bright, slightly elongated, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Brightest in a group with NGC 3608 5.7' N, NGC 3605 3.0' SW and NGC 3599 21' WNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3607 = H II-50 = h845, along with NGC 3605 and 3608, on 14 Mar 1784 (sweep 170).  See NGC 3605 for description.

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NGC 3608 = UGC 6299 = MCG +03-29-022 = CGCG 096-022 = Holm 240b = WBL 319-003 = PGC 34433

11 16 59.0 +18 08 55

V = 10.8;  Size 3.2'x2.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 75d

 

13.1" (2/16/85): moderately bright, small, stellar nucleus.  Appears slightly fainter than NGC 3607 5.7' S.  In a trio with NGC 3605 and NGC 3607.

 

WH discovered NGC 3608 = H II-51 = h846, along with NGC 3605 and 3607, on 14 Mar 1784 (sweep 170).  See NGC 3605 for description.

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NGC 3609 = NGC 3612 = UGC 6310 = MCG +05-27-043 = CGCG 156-050 = Holm 241a = PGC 34511

11 17 50.6 +26 37 33

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 50d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): faint, moderately large, round, 1.2' diameter.  Weak concentration to a slightly brighter core.  A mag 14 star is just off the south edge 50" from center and a second mag 14 star is 1.8' NW.  A brighter mag 11 star lies 3.3' NE.  Forms a pair with UGC 6321 (misidentified as NGC 3612 in modern sources) 5.4' E.  UGC 6321 appeared extremely faint, small, round, 20" diameter, low surface brightness.  A mag 11 star lies 3.9' NW.

 

Otto Struve found NGC 3609 on 18 Mar 1869 with the 15-inch Merz refractor at Pulkovo Observatory while searching for Comet Winnecke (7P/Pons-Winnecke).  He discovered this galaxy (UGC 6310) just 2 nights earlier so it also carries the designation NGC 3612.  Modern sources mistakenly identify UGC 6321 as NGC 3612.  See NGC 3612 for the story.

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NGC 3610 = UGC 6319 = MCG +10-16-107 = CGCG 291-048 = PGC 34566

11 18 25.3 +58 47 10

V = 10.8;  Size 2.7'x2.3';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (3/19/88): bright, small, slightly elongated NW-SE.  Sharp concentration with a very small bright core and a faint halo!  About 15' NNW is a small group of 7 stars including mag 9.0 SAO 27978.

 

WH discovered NGC 3610 = H I-270 = h847 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and noted "vB, cL."  JH made 3 observations, on sweep 344 logging "B; R; vsvmbM to a * 11m."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 3611 = NGC 3604 = UGC 6305 = MCG +01-29-026 = CGCG 039-103 = Todd 1 = PGC 34478

11 17 30.1 +04 33 19

V = 12.1;  Size 2.1'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (3/22/96): moderately bright, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 1.2'x0.8'.  Fairly sharp concentration with a rounder 30" core and a bright nearly stellar nucleus offset to the north side of the core. A mag 11 star is 3.2' NNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3611 = H II-521 = h849 on 27 Jan 1786 (sweep 514) and recorded "F, vS, iF, er."  A second observation on 15 Apr 1786 (sweep 552) noted "vF, iF, smbM."  WH found this galaxy again on the short sweep 675 on 30 Dec 1786 and recorded II-626 = NGC 3604 as "pB, S, lE, mbM."  His position is 1.0 tmin too far west.  So, NGC 3611 = NGC 3604.  JH made two observations, first recording "B; S; R smbM; has a * 10m, 60¡ np, dist 3'."

 

Finally, David Todd found NGC 3611 = Todd 1 on 3 Nov 1877 in his search for trans-Neptunian planet.  Todd's offsets for nearby stars match this galaxy.

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NGC 3612 = NGC 3609 = UGC 6310 = MCG +05-27-043 = CGCG 156-050 = PGC 34511

11 17 50.5 +26 37 32

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 50d

 

See observing notes for NGC 3609.  Modern sources misidentify UGC 6321, located 5.4' E, as NGC 3612.

 

Otto Struve discovered NGC 3612 on 16 Mar 1869 with the 15-inch Merz refractor at Pulkovo Observatory while searching for Comet Winnecke (7P/Pons-Winnecke).  His description (translately roughly from German using GoogleTranslate) reads "pretty faint, 30"-40" diameter.  A mag 10-11 star is approximately 2' north following, with the nebula in position angle 225¡."  His position is within 1' of UGC 6310, the brighter of a pair with UGC 6321 5.4' east, and his description matches the brighter galaxy (the star is 3' northeast and the PA matches).  Karl Reinmuth identified UGC 6321 as NGC 3612, but noted "No *10-11 nf 2'." and modern sources (including NED) follow this misidentification. 

 

Two nights later (18 Mar) Struve reported finding another nebula,  described as 20" diameter and situated in PA 226¡ from a 10th magnitude star.  His position is 14 seconds of time too far west, but the PA is a perfect match with UGC 6310.  So, although there are two galaxies here, both of Struve's entries point to the same brighter galaxy.  I notified Corwin and Steinicke of the situation in April 2015 and Wolfgang agreed NGC 3612 = NGC 3615 = UGC 6310.  He mentioned that this leaves UGC 6321 without a NGC designation as Bigourdan, Kobold and Hagen only observed the brighter galaxy.  Kobold called the brighter galaxy NGC 3612, but modern sources identify it as NGC 3609.

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NGC 3613 = UGC 6323 = MCG +10-16-109 = CGCG 291-049 = PGC 34583

11 18 36.0 +58 00 00

V = 10.9;  Size 3.9'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 102d

 

17.5" (3/19/88): bright, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, very bright core, stellar nucleus.  NGC 3619 lies 15' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3613 = H I-271 = h848 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and logged "vB, cL, E, mbM."   His RA and Dec is too large (noted by Dreyer in Scientific Papers).  JH recorded "vB; mE; pos 305¡, a nucl and F branches." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3614 = UGC 6318 = MCG +08-21-015 = CGCG 242-019 = PGC 34561

11 18 21.3 +45 44 53

V = 11.6;  Size 4.6'x2.6';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (4/6/91): faint, moderately large, weak concentration, slightly elongated 4:3 E-W with dimensions 2.5'x2.0', low surface brightness, edges fade gradually into background.  Located on a line with a mag 13 star 3.5' E and a mag 12 star 5.1' W.

 

WH discovered NGC 3614 = H II-729 = h850 on 5 Feb 1788 (sweep 808) and recorded "vF, cL, lbM, lE in the parallel."  JH noted "F; pL; glbM; r."  His position matches UGC 6318.  The MCG declination is 2 degrees too far north.

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NGC 3615 = UGC 6313 = MCG +04-27-012 = CGCG 126-021 = PGC 34535

11 18 06.7 +23 23 50

V = 12.8;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (4/9/99): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 1.2'x0.6'.  The prominent 20" core steadily increases to a stellar nucleus.  First and brightest of a trio with NGC 3618 7' NE and extremely faint CGCG 126-022 3.2' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3615 = H III-333 = h851 on 10 Apr 1785 (sweep 394) and recorded "vF, vS.  240x verified it."  CH's reduction is 3.4' northwest of UGC 6313.  JH called it "pF; smbM; stellar."  His position is accurate to within 30".

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NGC 3616

11 18 08.9 +14 45 53

 

=not found, Harold Corwin  =not found, Dorothy Carlson.

 

WH discovered NGC 3616 = H III-76 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and recorded "eF, pL.  Some doubts were removed by putting on 240."  There is noithing near his position and Dreyer notes in his 1912 revision of WH's catalogues that it was not found by Bigourdan (visually) nor by Max Wolf (on a Heidelberg plate).

 

Harold Corwin initially identified this number with a star near WH's position but more recently he feels a single or even close double star would not fit Herschel's description of "pL".  So, this object is not found.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 3617 = ESO 503-012 = MCG -04-27-008 = UGCA 231 = PGC 34513

11 17 50.9 -26 08 04

V = 12.8;  Size 1.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 147d

 

18" (3/19/04): fairly faint, small, round , 30" diameter.  Increases to a very small brighter nucleus.  I probably only viewed the brighter core and missed the dim halo.

 

JH discovered NGC 3617 = h3336 on 22 Mar 1836 and recorded "F; S; R: gbM; 20"."  His position matches ESO 503-012 = PGC 34513.

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NGC 3618 = UGC 6327 = MCG +04-27-014 = CGCG 126-025 = Mrk 1288 = PGC 34575

11 18 32.6 +23 28 08

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (4/9/99): faint, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, weak concentration.  Third of three on a line with CGCG 126-022 and NGC 3615 7' SW.  At low power collinear with two mag 10 stars equally spaced 8' and 17' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3618 = H III-334 on 10 Apr 1785 (sweep 394) and noted "vF, S, goes into the field with the foregoing [NGC 3615]."  CH's reduction is 3.6' northwest of UGC 6327 (similar offset as NGC 3615).

 

NGC 3618 was assumed to be a new on the 23 Mar 1857 observation by R.J. Mitchell at Birr Castle: "about 6' or 7' nf [NGC 3615] is a S, vvF patch, lbM."  JH included this observation in the GC (2365) as well as GC 2368 = III-334.  In the 1880 compilation of LdR observations, Dreyer added the note "the latter [GC 2365] is not a "nova" but = III 334, as pointed out by d'Arrest.  GC 2365 is to be struck out."

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NGC 3619 = UGC 6330 = MCG +10-16-115 = CGCG 291-054 = PGC 34641

11 19 21.6 +57 45 29

V = 11.5;  Size 2.7'x2.3';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (3/19/88): fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated SW-NE, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 3625 9.5' E and NGC 3613 lies 16' NNW.

 

8" (3/28/81): faint, small, round.

 

WH discovered NGC 3619 = H I-244 = h852 on 18 Mar 1790 (sweep 951) and recorded "cB, R, vgmbM, 1 1/2' dia."  CH's reduced position is just off the nortwest edge of UGC 6330.  JH made a single observation and noted "pB; R;  psmbM; 45".  The PD differs 7' from that assigned by my Father; query therefore if the same object."  His position is 1.5' too far south, so there does not appear to be a significant discrepancy.

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NGC 3620 = ESO 038-010 = PGC 34366

11 16 04 -76 12 54

V = 13.9;  Size 2.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 15.0;  PA = 78d

 

24" (4/5/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly faint, very elongated 3:1 E-W, 1.2'x0.4', weak concentration.  A mag 14.5 star is pinned against the south side, a little west of the center.  I reobserved this galaxy not realizing it was logged last night.  Located 32' NE of the bright reflection nebula IC 2631.

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 E-W, 1.5'x0.5', small brighter core.  A mag 14 star is barely off the south side (west of center).  The large reflection nebula, IC 2631, lies 32' SW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3620 = h3338 on 31 Mar 1837 and logged "F; pmE; gbM; 50". His position and description "matches ESO 038-010.  This galaxy is not included in the first edition of the Uranometria 2000.0 star atlas or it companion Deep Sky Field Guide.

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NGC 3621 = ESO 377-037 = MCG -05-27-008 = UGCA 232 = PGC 34554

11 18 16.0 -32 48 42

V = 9.7;  Size 12.3'x7.1';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 159d

 

17.5" (4/6/91): bright, large, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 6' diameter, weak central concentration and along the major axis but no sharp nucleus.  Several stars are nearby; three mag 11-13 stars are off the north tip and two mag 10 stars are 2.7' SW and 3.7' SSE of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3621 = H I-241 = D 617 = h3337 on 17 Feb 1790 (sweep 808) and recorded "cB, vgbM, E from about 70¡ np to sf, about 6 or 7' long and near 4' broad.  Within a parallelogram of stars."  This is the most southerly object he discovered!

 

James Dunlop observed NGC 3621 on 7 May 1826 with his 9-inch reflector from Parramatta, NSZ, and recorded "a very faint pretty large nebula, about 2' broad and 4' long, very faint at the edges. The brightest and most condensed part is near the south following extremity; a small star is involved in the north preceding extremity, and there are two small stars near the south extremity, but not involved."   Dunlop made two observations and his published position is 10' NE of center.

 

JH observed the galaxy on 29 Apr 1834 from the Cape of Good Hope and recorded it as "pB, vL, oval, vgvlbM, resolvable, 5' long, 3' broad."

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NGC 3622 = UGC 6339 = CGCG 314-020 = PGC 34692

11 20 12.5 +67 14 29

V = 13.2;  Size 1.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 7d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): moderately bright, elongated 2:1 N-S, 1.2'x0.6', elongated bright core.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.5' SE of center.  Located 9.3' NNW of mag 6.2 SAO 15478.

 

WH discovered NGC 3622 = H II-879 = h853 on 6 Apr 1793 (sweep 1036) and noted "pB, R, S, bM."  CH's reduced position is 1.8 tmin following UGC 6339.  JH logged "pF; S; R; gbM; 15"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3623 = M65 = Arp 317 NED1 = Leo Triplet = UGC 6328 = MCG +02-29-018 = CGCG 067-054 = Holm 246b = PGC 34612

11 18 55.3 +13 05 35

V = 9.3;  Size 9.8'x2.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 174d

 

17.5" (1/31/87): very bright, very large, very elongated N-S, 7.5'x2.0', bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 12 star is west of the south end 2.1' from the center.  Forms a remarkable trio with M66 20' ESE and NGC 3628 36' NE.  Requires low power (31 Nagler) to easily fit all three in the same field.

 

13.1" (4/10/86): very bright, elongated N-S, elongated bright core, possible stellar nucleus.

 

Charles Messier discovered M65 = NGC 3623 = h854, along with M66, on 1 Mar 1780.   WH first observed it on 31 May 1783 with his 12-inch and noted "almost a certainty of its being stars.  There is however in both the nebulas [65 and 66] a certain whitishness left which may be nebulosity."  With his 20-ft scope (18.7-inch), he recorded "a very brilliant nebula extended in the meridian, about 12' long.  It has a bright nucleus, the light of which suddenly diminishes on its border, and two opposite very faint branches."

 

A sketch by William Rambaut (LdR's assistant) from 31 Mar 1848 was published in the 1850 PT paper.  On 25 Feb 1854, "Lord Rosse suspected dark spaces on either side of the nucleus.", though this suspicion wasn't confirmed the following year.

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NGC 3624 = MCG +01-29-029 = CGCG 039-114 = PGC 34599

11 18 50.9 +07 31 16

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (5/4/02): very faint, diffuse glow with a brighter center.  Halo fades into background, ~40" diameter.  A mag 13 star lies 2.5' N.  Forms a close pair with CGCG 039-113 2.1' SW.

 

JH discovered NGC 3624 = h855 on 27 Dec 1827 and simply noted as "eF." His position matches CGCG 039-114 = PGC 34599.

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NGC 3625 = UGC 6348 = MCG +10-16-120 = CGCG 291-057 = PGC 34718

11 20 31.2 +57 46 53

V = 13.1;  Size 2.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 148d

 

17.5" (3/19/88): faint, fairly small, very elongated NNW-SSE, weak concentration.  Third of three with NGC 3613 20' NW and NGC 3619 9.4' W.

 

WH discovered NGC 3625 = H II-885 on 8 Apr 1793 (sweep 1038) and logged "F, E from np to sf, about 1 1/2' long."  The NGC position from d'Arrest is accurate.

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NGC 3626 = NGC 3632 = UGC 6343 = MCG +03-29-032 = CGCG 096-029 = LGG 237-002 = PGC 34684

11 20 03.9 +18 21 24

V = 11.0;  Size 2.7'x1.9';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 157d

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 ~NNW-SSE.  Sharply concentrated with a small, very bright core that increases to a bright, stellar nucleus.  NGC 3639 lies 23' ENE.

 

17.5" (3/22/96): bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 1.8'x1.2'.  Strong, sharp concentration with a very small elongated core and a bright stellar nucleus.  Located roughly 50' ENE of the NGC 3607 group.

 

WH discovered NGC 3626 = H II-52 = h856 on 14 Mar 1784 (sweep 170) and noted "a nebula like the northern one [II-51 = NGC 3608], but a little longish."  His RA is about 30 sec too large.  NGC 3632 = H II-30, found a month earlier on 15 Feb 1784, is a duplicate observation, though further out in position.  JH measured an accurate position and logged "B; R; sbM; 20"."

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NGC 3627 = M66 = Arp 16 = Arp 317 NED2 = VV 308a = Holm 246a = Leo Triplet = UGC 6346 = MCG +02-29-019 = CGCG 067-057 = PGC 34695

11 20 15.0 +12 59 22

V = 8.9;  Size 9.1'x4.2';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 173d

 

48" (4/13/10): this showpiece galaxy stretches 7'x3' N-S.  The central region is dominated by a prominent, 3'x1.2' central bar that is elongated NNW-SSE.  The central region has a mottled, irregular surface brightness and increases gradually towards the center and then suddenly to a very bright, stellar nucleus.  A very faint star or HII knot was seen at the very north tip of the bar [confirmed as #44 in Hodge's "Second Survey of HII regions in Galaxies", ApJS, 27, 113 (1974)].  The longer, better defined arm is attached at the north end and sweeps directly south along the western flank of the galaxy for a total length of ~5'.  The western edge of this arm is very well defined as it fades to the southern tip, though the inner edge merges with the glow within the central region.  The arm and bar are brightest where they join at the north end of the central region. The second spiral arm is attached at the south end of the bar and shoots north on the eastern side of the galaxy.  This arm fades after a shorter distance, so is not as prominent, but is brightest at the root, as it emerges from the bar.  A mag 9.8 star lies 3' NW of center at the outer edge of the halo.

 

17.5" (1/31/87): very bright, large, elongated N-S, 5'x3', bright elongated core contains a stellar nucleus.  Two spiral arms are visible although the western arm is more prominent.

 

13.1" (4/24/82): bright elongated core, stellar nucleus.  A diffuse spiral arm extends south and a second short arm extends to the east.  A dark patch is visible just east of the nucleus.

 

Charles Messier discovered M66 = NGC 3627 = h857 = h875, along with M65, on 1 Mar 1780.  On 12 Apr 1784, WH recored "vB, mE, iF.  The extension is chiefly in the direction of the meridian, and the greatest brightness near the middle. JH made 4 observations, once listing it as a new (h875), with the RA 3 min too large.  On sweep 22 he logged "vB; vL; sbM; 3' l, 2' br; E 60¡ np to sf in direction of 2 stars 10m, preceding."

 

George Stoney sketched the galaxy with LdR's 72" on 17 Apr 1849 (in the 1861 publication), showing a well defined spiral arm along the western side.  The 31 Mar 1848 observations describes "a little above towards the right [nf] is a dark streak; spiral, resolved well about the Nucl, but no other part.  From the right, and apparently springing from the nucleus, a vF portion of nebulosity extends for nearly 15', gradually melting away."  A schematic in the 1880 publication shows the beginning of two arms on the eastern side and a long, thick arm on the western side.

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NGC 3628 = Arp 317 NED3 = VV 308b = UGC 6350 = MCG +02-29-020 = CGCG 067-058 = Holm 246c = PGC 34697 = Leo Triplet

11 20 16.2 +13 35 22

V = 9.5;  Size 14.8'x3.0';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 104d

 

17.5" (1/31/87): bright, unusually large edge-on WNW-ESE, 11'x2.5'.  A broad irregular dust lane is prominent bisecting the galaxy along the entire length.  Appears brighter to the north of the dark lane and fainter on the south side.

 

13.1" (4/24/82): the dust lane is clearly visible along the entire length and divides the galaxy into two asymmetric halves with the south slice much fainter.

 

WH discovered NGC 3628 = H V-8 = h859 on 8 Apr 1784 (sweep 187) and recorded "B, vmE, lbM than towards the ends.  It seems to extend 9 or 10' if not more."  JH called it "a v long narrow ray, vgbM; 15' long, a most curious object.  E by diag in pos 105¡.

 

Samuel Hunter, observing on 10 Feb 1861 with LdR's 72", noted "split into two parallel rays."  A month later he added "split extends its whole length, the f part being partially filled with faint nebulosity."  Robert Ball, observing on 18 Mar 1866 also noted "there seems to be a dark channel on south side in direction of elongation."

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NGC 3629 = UGC 6352 = MCG +05-27-058 = CGCG 156-064 = Holm 247a = PGC 34719

11 20 31.7 +26 57 49

V = 12.1;  Size 2.3'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 30d

 

18" (3/29/03): faint, moderately large, slightly elongated, 1.2'x0.9', diffuse, low surface brightness, weak broad concentration.  A mag 14 star is 1.1' SE of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3629 = H II-338 = h860 on 6 Apr 1785 (sweep 393) and recorded "vF, pL, r, nearly R, gvlbM."  JH made a total of 7 observations with a composite description of "F; L; R; vgbM; 2' dia; *14 m s f 60"."

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NGC 3630 = NGC 3645: = UGC 6349 = MCG +01-29-031 = CGCG 039-124 = PGC 34698

11 20 17.0 +02 57 52

V = 11.9;  Size 4.6'x3.0';  Surf Br = 14.6;  PA = 37d

 

17.5" (4/4/92): fairly bright, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, small but very bright core, stellar nucleus, thin extensions.  Located 10' NW of mag 8.3 SAO 118800 in the NGC 3640 group. 

 

8" (4/24/82): faint, small, elongated SW-NE, very small bright core.  Located ~20' SW of NGC 3640.

 

JH discovered NGC 3630 = h861 on 7 Apr 1828 and recorded "B; R smbM to nucl: 25".  His two positions are very similar and correspond with UGC 6349 = PGC 34698.

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NGC 3631 = Arp 27 = VV 363 = UGC 6360 = MCG +09-19-047 = CGCG 268-021 = PGC 34767

11 21 02.9 +53 10 10

V = 10.4;  Size 5.0'x4.8';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

48" (4/4/11): beautiful face-on spiral with two long, winding arms and branching extensions!  This very bright galaxy is sharply concentrated with an intensely bright small core that increases to an extremely bright stellar nucleus.  A prominent patchy arm is attached on the west side of the core and rotates counterclockwise to the north, then sharply bends back to the east, extending to the east end of the 4' diameter galaxy. What appears to be an offshoot arm turns counterclockwise on the east side and continues all the way to the south end of the galaxy.  The second arm  is attached on the southeast end of the core and sweeps around the south side towards the west and then continues to the northwest end of the galaxy.  An offshoot or another patchy arm continues east near the edge of the northern halo.  The two main arms are nearly connected by a slightly brighter region on the south side.

 

17.5" (4/1/95): bright, large, round, 3.5' diameter.  Sharp concentration with a prominent core which brightens to a nearly stellar nucleus.  The outer halo fades into the background and shows a hint of the spiral arm structure.  Two mag 12-13 stars are 3.4' NE and 3.3' WNW of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 3631 = I-226 on 14 Apr 1789 (sweep 920) and recorded "cB, R, small br nucl and vF halo of considerable extent, 3' or 4' dia."

 

Four observations describing spiral arms were made at Birr Castle.  On 30 Mar 1856, R.J. Mitchell recorded "Spiral, with I think, two arms thus (thumbnail sketch). The arms are broken and of unequal light. There are bright patches at alpha (preceding the nucleus), beta (south preceding arm) and gamma (end of bright north following arm)."  A week later he logged "Spirality seen as in last observation. The following branch comes down past the other, doubling over it and seems to originate from the preceeding side of nucleus. Very patchy."

 

The1880 publication has a thumbnail sketch and the 1861 publication has a drawing (Plate XXVII, fig 20).  Both show the main features that can be confirmed on the DSS.

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NGC 3632 = NGC 3626 = UGC 6343 = MCG +03-29-032 = CGCG 096-029 = PGC 34684

11 20 03.9 +18 21 24

 

See observing notes for NGC 3626.

 

WH discovered NGC 3632 = H II-30 on 15 Feb 1784 (sweep 146) and described a "pB neb, it seems to contain stars; it is of some extent."  There is nothing at his position (objects found in his early sweeps often have fairly large offset errors), but 24 sec of RA west and 12' N is NGC 3626.  Dreyer, in his 1912 revision of WH's catalogues, states "not seen by d'A (5 times), is no doubt =II 52 = NGC 3626 only 24s p and 12' N.  The latter was observed 14 Mar 1784, a neb like II 51 but a little longish."  This conclusion is repeated by Karl Reinmuth in his photographic survey.  So, NGC 3632 = NGC 3626.

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NGC 3633 = UGC 6351 = MCG +01-29-032 = CGCG 039-126 = PGC 34711

11 20 26.2 +03 35 08

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 72d

 

17.5" (4/4/92): faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, weak concentration.  A mag 14 star is off the west edge.  Located 3.5' WSW of mag 8.9 SAO 118799.  NGC 3640 lies 21' SSE.  Member of the NGC 3640 group.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 3633 = Sw VI-40 on 23 Mar 1887 and reported "vF; S; R; nearly between a pB star and a faint star."  His position and description matches UGC 6351.

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NGC 3634 = VV 724 = MCG -01-29-008 = PGC 34714

11 20 30.3 -09 00 51

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 11.7

 

24" (3/9/13): faint, extremely small, round, 8"-10" diameter.  Situated at the west edge of brighter NGC 3635, appearing as a small knot.  The surface brightness is relatively high (similar to the nucleus of NGC 3635), so this galaxy was fairly easy to see at 375x.  A mag 13.5 star is ~30" W.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3634 = LM II-433, along with NGC 3635, on 24 Jan 1887.  His (single) position is very close to the double system MCG -01-29-008 and -009.

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NGC 3635 = VV 724 = MCG -01-29-009 = PGC 34717

11 20 31.4 -09 00 49

V = 13.4;  Size 1.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 18d

 

24" (3/9/13): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, 30"x20", very small brighter nucleus.  NGC 3634, a very compact interacting companion, is attached on the west edge.  A mag 13.5 star lies 0.9' W.

 

17.5" (4/14/01): faint, small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 0.7'x0.4', weak concentration.  NGC 3634 was not seen.  A mag 14.5 star lies 1' W.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 3635 = LM II-434, along with NGC 3634, on 24 Jan 1887.  His (single) position is very close to the double system MCG -01-29-008 and -009.

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NGC 3636 = MCG -02-29-019 = PGC 34709

11 20 25.1 -10 16 55

V = 12.4;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (3/29/85): moderately bright, very small, bright core, round.  Located just 1.8' NW of mag 6.6 SAO 156618!  Forms a pair with similar galaxy NGC 3637 3.8' ENE.

 

WH discovered NGC 3636 = H II-550 = h862, along with NGC 3637, on 4 Mar 1786 (sweep 597) and recorded "Two, stellar, vF, vS.  A considerable bright star is situated between them, but about 1' south of the line that connects them."

 

Andrew Ainslie Common found the pair in 1880 and reported them as "2 planetary nebulae, B star between" in his Copernicus discovery list.

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NGC 3637 = MCG -02-29-020 = PGC 34731

11 20 39.5 -10 15 27

V = 12.7;  Size 1.6'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (3/29/85): moderately bright, very small, bright core, round.  Located 3.0' NE of mag 6.6 SAO 156618.  Forms a pair with NGC 3636 3.8' WSW.

 

WH discovered NGC 3637 = H II-551 = h863, along with NGC 3636, on 4 Mar 1786 (sweep 597) and recorded "Two, stellar, vF, vS.  A considerable bright star is situated between them, but about 1' south of the line that connects them."  Andrew Ainslie Common found the pair in 1880 and reported them as "2 planetary nebulae, B star between" in his Copernicus discovery list.

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NGC 3638 = MCG -01-29-007 = PGC 34688

11 20 10.0 -08 06 21

V = 13.4;  Size 2.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 141d

 

17.5" (5/4/02): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 1.2'x0.6', brighter along the major axis.  With averted vision, there are hints of longer extensions.  Forms the western vertex of a right triangle with two mag 12 stars 3.4' E and 4.3' NE.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 3638 = L II-435 in 1886 and logged "mag 15.8, 0.4' dia, 2 star 10m following."  His position is 0.6 min of RA east of MCG -01-29-007 = PGC 34688 and his description matches two mag 12 stars 3'-4' northeast and southeast.

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NGC 3639 = UGC 6374 = MCG +03-29-036 = CGCG 096-032 = PGC 34819

11 21 35.7 +18 27 30

V = 13.6;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.3

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): faint, small, elongated 4:3 ~N-S, occasional very faint stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Located 2' N of a mag 12 star.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 3639 on 21 Jan 1855 with LdR's 72" and logged "about 15' following [NGC 3626] and a little north is a neb.  S, R, pF, vlbM."  Dreyer added the comment "d'Arrest could not see [NGC 3639], perhaps the observation from 1855 was of some other neb. in this neighborhood."  But the position matches UGC 6374 = PGC 34819, so there is no question regarding the identification, altlhough UGC, CGCG and MCG do not label this galaxy as NGC 3639.

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NGC 3640 = UGC 6368 = MCG +01-29-033 = CGCG 039-130 = PGC 34778

11 21 06.8 +03 14 05

V = 10.4;  Size 4.0'x3.2';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): bright, moderately large, small very bright core, oval halo 3:2 E-W, 15" substellar mottled nucleus.  A mag 14 star is 2.3' N.  Brightest in a group and forms a close pair with NGC 3641 2.5' SSE.

 

8" (4/24/82): bright, moderately large, bright core, slightly elongated.

 

WH discovered NGC 3640 = H II-33 = h864 on 23 Feb 1784 (sweep 158) and logged "a nebula like the former [pB, bM, vS], but a good deal larger and more regular; almost cometic."  His position is poor (not uncommon in early sweeps) -- 50 sec of RA too large -- but there are no other bright nearby galaxies.  JH logged "B; R; psbM; 30"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 3641 = UGC 6370 = MCG +01-29-034 = PGC 34780

11 21 08.8 +03 11 40

V = 13.2;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (2/8/91): faint, very small, round, faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a close pair with bright NGC 3640 2.6' NNW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3641 = m 220 on 22 Mar 1865 and noted "F, vS, alm stell."  His position matches UGC 6370.  Wilhelm Tempel independently found this galaxy in 1876 and reported NGC 3641 in list I-34 as "Small and faint, Class III; NGC 3640 is 2' south."

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NGC 3642 = UGC 6385 = MCG +10-16-128 = CGCG 291-062 = PGC 34889

11 22 17.9 +59 04 28

V = 11.2;  Size 5.4'x4.5';  Surf Br = 14.5;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (3/19/88): bright, fairly large, round, even concentration down to a very bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Appears mottled (knot?) on the west side of the core.

 

WH discovered NGC 3642 = H I-245 = h865 on 18 Mar 1790 (sweep 951) and noted "p or cB, pS, R, vgbM."  His position is within 1' of the center of UGC 6385.  Samuel Hunter, observing with LdR's 72" on 19 Apr 1862, noted "bright nucleus and I suspect it either a spiral or an annular neb."

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NGC 3643 = MCG +01-29-036 = CGCG 039-136 = PGC 34802

11 21 25.0 +03 00 50

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

17.5" (4/4/92): very faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE.  A mag 13 star is at the SE edge 1.0' from center.  NGC 3644 lies 12' S.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3643 = m 221, along with NGC 3644, on 22 Mar 1865 and noted "eF, vS".  His position matches CGCG 039-136 = PGC 34802.

 

The RNGC misidentifies CGCG 039-143 = PGC 34817 as NGC 3643 (listed in my RNGC Corrections #2).  See Harold Corwin's NGC notes for more errors in the modern identifications.

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NGC 3644 = IC 684 = UGC 6373 = MCG +01-29-037 = CGCG 039-139 = PGC 34814

11 21 32.9 +02 48 37

V = 13.7;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 63d

 

48" (4/4/11): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 40"x16", contains a bright core.  A mag 12.5 star is 40" SSW of center.  Shkh 352, a rich group of faint galaxies, lies 5' N in the field.

 

17.5" (4/4/92): faint, small, elongated 3:2 WSW-ENE.  A mag 13 star is at the SW edge 0.6' from center.  Located 12' ESE of mag 8.3 SAO 118800 in the NGC 3640 group with NGC 3643 12' N.  A very faint quartet of galaxies is midway between NGC 3644 and NGC 3643.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3644 = m 222 on 22 Mar 1865 and noted "vF, vS."  His position matches UGC 6373 = PGC 34814.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found this galaxy on 14 Apr 1888 and assumed it was new, and recorded #163 as a "small nebula with a mag 12.8 situated in PA 214¡ at 0.5'." His position is a bit off to the north and Dreyer recatalogued this galaxy as IC 684.  So, NGC 3644 = IC 684.

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NGC 3645 = NGC 3630: = UGC 6349 = MCG +01-29-031 = CGCG 039-124 = PGC 34817

11 20 17.0 +02 57 52

 

See observing notes for NGC 3630.

 

WH discovered NGC 3645 = H II-32 = h867 on 23 Feb 1784 (sweep 158) and recorded "pB, vS, bM so that it resembles an irregular nebulous star."  His position, reduced correctly by CH, falls 3' south of NGC 3643 (much too faint to fit his description), in a group of very faint galaxies.  But it is also 70 sec of RA due east of NGC 3630, a bright galaxy that fits the description.  JH has a single observation, giving a very rough position (near his father's) but the description "pB; S; E; bM", also implies h867 = NGC 3630.  In fact, JH suggests the equivalence in the GC, though Dreyer rejects this in the NGC Notes section as Tempel claimed an observation of NGC 3645 (h867).

 

The identification of H II-32 is analyzed by Malcolm Thomson in the Webb Society Quarterly Journal #73, Alister Ling in issue #87 and Harold Corwin in his NGC/IC identification notes. They all conclude that NGC 3645 is a duplicate observation of NGC 3630.  RNGC and CGCG misidentify CGCG 039-143 as NGC 3645.

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NGC 3646 = UGC 6376 = MCG +03-29-037 = CGCG 096-034 = PGC 34836

11 21 43.1 +20 10 10

V = 11.1;  Size 3.9'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 50d

 

48" (5/16/12 and 4/6/13): this showpiece spiral appeared bright, large, oval ~2:1 SW-NE, sharply concentrated with a very bright core.  The visual treat was a prominent lens or eye-shaped ring surrounding the core!  The ring was slightly brighter in an arc along the north side.  At the west edge of this arc was a very faint quasi-stellar knot (SDSS J112141.34+201039.0, V = 17.2).  Another section of the ring that stands out is along the southwest edge, with a brighter linear piece about 40" long that has several SDSS designations.  The interior of the ring is fairly dark near this section, as well as other sections, providing a good contrast with the core and ring.  A very small, weak brightening was also noted on the northeast end of the ring.  A mag 14 star lies 1.4' NW of center and a mag 16 star is 1' SSE of center.

 

17.5" (4/14/01): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated 3'x2' SW-NE.  Gradually increases to a brighter 30" oval core.  A quasi-stellar nucleus is occasionally visible with direct vision.  Forms a pair with NGC 3649 7.8' ENE.

 

13.1": moderately bright and large, elongated, broad concentration with no nucleus.  An extremely faint star or knot is involved.

 

WH discovered NGC 3646 = H III-15 = h866 on 15 Feb 1784 (sweep 146) and recorded "Two, a Large nebula [NGC 3646] followed by a small one [NGC 3649], in the same field of view with it.  The large one is extremely and small one still fainter, so tha