NGC 2000 = ESO 056-SC135 = S-L 493

05 27 29 -71 52 48

V = 12.1;  Size 1.5'

 

30" (10/15/15 - OzSky): fairly bright, moderately large LMC cluster, slightly elongated, 50" diameter, very mottled, contains a brighter and denser core.  The halo is resolved into many mag 14.5-16 stars, particularly on the south and west side.  Located on the south end of the LMC, 25' SW of NGC 2025.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2000 = h2889 on 8 Feb 1836 and described as "F; R; vlbM; 60"."  His position (single sweep) is accurate.

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NGC 2001 = ESO 056-SC137 = S-L 507 = LH 64

05 29 02 -68 46 12

V = 9.5;  Size 7.3'x3.6'

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): a gorgeous, elongated star cloud/association (LH 64), extending 7'x2.5' NNE-SSW.  Roughly 65 stars, including a number of mag 12-13 stars are resolved in this region over a glowing background.  A mag 10.7 star is at the southwest end and a non-stellar mag 12 knot (KMHK 955) is north of center.  A curving chain of a dozen stars pokes out of the west side and heads south towards S-L 495 (3.4' W of the mag 10.7 star).  S-L 495 is a very bright, very small knot, 20" diameter.  It was difficult to resolve this clump, but a few stars popped.  A mag 12.5 star is just off the west edge.  LH 58, a stunning large star cloud and HII complex including NGCs 1962, 1965, 1966 and 1970, lies roughly 13' WSW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2001 = h2888 on 30 Dec 1836 and recorded "the middle of the most condensed part of a cluster of stars 13th mag which runs off to the south-preceding and joins No. 39 of this sweep."  In a separate entry on the same sweep he also mentioned "Here commences a very starry or resolved region of the greater Nubecula." 

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered this association earlier on 25 Sep 1826, recording D 178 as "a small faint nebula with a ray proceeding from it, about 6' or 7' long; a small star is involved in the preceding extremity of the ray."  Dunlop's position is 11' ENE of the cluster and Herschel noted the possible equivalence of D 178.  Glen Cozens equates NGC 2001 = D 136, which was recorded as "a faint confused pretty large nebula.  There are a multitude of small nebulae in this place."  The position is D 136 is ~12' SSW of the association and actually falls much closer to NGC 1983.  So, I don't see how a specific assignment can be made without additional information, such as similar offsets on the same night.

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NGC 2002 = ESO 086-SC3 = S-L 517

05 30 21.0 -66 53 02

V = 10.1;  Size 1.9'x1.7'

 

24" (4/7/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x this cluster is extremely bright but small.  It is sharply concentrated with a small, brilliant core surrounded by a much fainter 30" halo.  At 346x, the core diameter is ~15" diameter and three interior stars are resolved, the brightest on the southeast side.  Sharing the same field 8' SE is the double cluster NGC 2006 and S-L 538.

 

NGC 2002 is at the west end of a huge, arcing string of associations (bowed to the south) referred to as LH 77 or the "Quadrant", which extends nearly 40' to the east beyond NGC 2041.  The Quadrant, itself, defines the southern rim of the huge LMC-4 Superbubble, a ring of HII regions and clusters spanning 6000 l.y.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 2002 = D 214 on 24 Sep 1826 and recorded a "a round small nebula, 12" or 15" diameter."  He made two observations and his position is 4.7' SW of the cluster.  JH credited Dunlop with the discovery.

 

JH made two observations for h2890.  On 20 Dec 1835 he logged "place of a double star, the chief of a great cluster of small stars loose and filling the field. It is the forerunner of the great cluster-region [OB association LH 77] of the nubecula." On a second sweep he called it "vB, S, R. Here comes on the richest and brightest part of the starry and clustering portion of the nubecula. (Note - From this object being described at one time as a double star, and at another as a nebula, it is probable that it is one of those singular close-knotted groups which especially characterize the nubeculae)."  So, it appears he is describing two objects -- one the cluster (containing the double star) and second, the association that contains the cluster.

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NGC 2003 = ESO 086-SC006 = S-L 526

05 30 54.3 -66 27 59

V = 11.3;  Size 2.1'

 

30" (10/12/15 - OzSky): at 303x; extremely bright, extremely high surface brightness core, fairly small, 30" diameter.  Surrounded by a thin fainter halo. A mag 13-13.5 star or quasi-stellar knot [BSDL 2043] is at the west end and a couple of mag 15 stars are off the east side.  Two mag 9 and 10 stars lie 4.7' SSW and 7' SSW and mag 8.0 HD 36849 is 9' WNW.

 

S-L 553 and the remarkable Eighth-Note Nebula (LHa 120-N55) lies ~8' E.  Even without a filter the Eighth Note Nebula is a gorgeous object, with ~75 stars (S-L 553) in a 7'x3' region elongated NW-SE.  A very large, detailed nebula encompasses these stars.  There are four main sections with the largest and brightest on the southeast end (N55A) extending ~2.5' diameter in an uneven, knotty circular glow.  A couple of dozen stars are involved with N55A including a mag 13 star on the northeast end and a mag 12 star on its northeast side.  A second small, detached 35" glow lies ~2' NW.  Unfiltered, 4 or 5 mag 15-15.5 stars are involved.  A larger roundish glow, extending 1', is 2' further NNW.  A few mag 15 stars are involved and mag 11.5-12 HD 269722 (brightest in the cluster, type OBe) is 1.4' ENE.  Finally the 4th and faintest piece is a 50" detached glow that is close north of the bright star.  Three mag 14-14.5 stars are involved. Using an NPB filter at 152x enhances the nebulosity, presenting a showpiece object similar in detail to the Red DSS2 image!  The three southern nebulous glows all have an irregular surface brightness and are connected by very faint nebulosity but the northernmost section seems detached.

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): this compact cluster in the LMC appeared fairly faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Appears to have a star involved or increases to a sharp stellar nucleus.  S-L 553, a 3' star cloud (association LH 72) lies 9' E.  S-L 553 appeared as a 3' elongated glow, consisting of a half-dozen resolved stars over an unresolved background glow of stars and nebulosity.  The outline is irregular but elongated N-S.  S-L 553 cluster is embedded within the HII complex LMC-N55 ("Eighth-Note Nebula"), though I didn't use a UHC filter to examine its extent.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2003 = h2891 on 23 Nov 1834 and described "a B S stellar neb, or very close cluster 15"."  His position is accurate.  GC and NGC misidentify (typo) this cluster with h2981, instead of h2891.

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NGC 2004 = ESO 086-SC004 = S-L 523

05 30 40 -67 17 12

V = 9.6;  Size 2.7'

 

30" (11/5/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): bright, superb cluster, ~3' diameter.  Contains a small, brilliant core and a highly resolved halo that is packed with 50 stars.  The surrounding field is quite rich in both faint and brighter mag 11-12 stars.  The NGC 1955/1968/1974 complex lies ~20' SW and the NGC 2014/2020 complex lies 27' SSE.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 2004 = D 215 on 24 Sep 1826 and described "a round well-defined nebula, about 20" diameter, bright at the centre."  Dunlop reported 3 observations and his position is 5.5' WSW of center (relatively accurate for him).

 

JH observed this bright cluster (h2893) on 6 sweeps: on 2 Nov 1834 he recorded "B; pretty rich; compressed cluster of stars 12m."  Next he recorded "globular, B; irreg; R; 2'.  The stars are easily distinguishable."  On a third sweep he wrote "globular, B; S; R; comp M to a blaze of stars.  Many stragglers."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2005 = ESO 056-SC138 = S-L 518

05 30 11 -69 45 12

V = 11.6;  Size 1.8'

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): extremely bright, fairly large, round, 45" diameter, very bright core, mottled halo, high surface brightness.  No resolution except for a couple of extremely faint star around the periphery.  Located 2' NE of mag 9.1 HD 37121 along the southeast side of the LMC's central bar.  NGC 2005 is one of 15 bona-fide ancient GC's in the LMC.

 

I noticed two nearby faint clusters.  H-S 332, just 2.3' S and 50" SE of the mag 9 star, is a faint 20" glow with no resolution.  S-L 514 was also picked 3.3' SW.  It appeared  fairly faint, elongated WSW-ENE, 40"x25", grainy but no resolution.  A mag 13 star is off the southwest edge.

 

James Dunlop probably discovered NGC 2005 = D 138? on 24 Sep 1826 and described a "small round faint nebula."  His position is 12.7' ESE of the cluster.  JH independently discovered the cluster with a 5-inch refractor between Nov 1836 and Mar 1837 and listed it as #509 in his preliminary catalogue of "Stars, Nebulae and Clusters in the Nubecula Major."

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NGC 2006 = ESO 086-SC008 = S-L 537

05 31 20.0 -66 58 23

V = 10.9;  Size 1.6'x1.4'

 

24" (4/7/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): forms the southern member of a close pair of small clusters (a double cluster!) with SL-538 less than 1' N.  At 346x it appeared fairly bright, fairly small, ~30" diameter, brighter core, with no evident resolution.  Forms a small triangle with two stars on the east side.  Located 8' SE of NGC 2002.

 

Just 0.9' N is S-L 538, a small, moderately bright glow that is sandwiched between a brighter star at the east edge and a fainter star off the west side.  At 346x the shape appeared irregular and ~25" diameter.  Interestingly, John Herschel's two positions for NGC 2006 on different sweeps correspond closely with each cluster, so he apparently viewed both (quite similar in the eyepiece) and NGC 2006 should apply to the pair.  Herschel didn't note this object as double, though he commented this object was the central part of the "extremely rich assemblage of stars and clustering groups which fill the field."  NGC 2006 is on the western side of the huge OB association LH 77, an arcing group of clusters and stars stretching 40' E-W and including NGC 2002, 2027 and 2041 and collectively dubbed the "Quadrant Arc".

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2006 = h2895 on 23 Dec 1834 and recorded "a very small nucleus knot in an extremely rich assemblage of stars and clustering groups which fill the field."  On his second sweep JH recorded "a small highly condensed knot in an immensely large and very rich cluster, which fills much more than the field, and is like the Milky Way."  His positions differ by ~2' in declination and apply to two different close clusters!  NGC 2006 is generally assigned to the southern object, with the northern cluster is S-L 538.  The "immensely large and very rich cluster, which fills much more than the field, and is like the Milky Way" is known as the "Quadrant Arc".

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NGC 2007 = ESO 204-019 = PGC 17478

05 34 59.3 -50 55 18

V = 13.9;  Size 1.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 83d

 

14" (4/7/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): very faint, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, 45"x15", low even surface brightness.  A mag 11.6 star is 4' ENE.  Forms a close pair with NGC 2008 2.7' S.  Viewed in poor transparency.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2007 = h2892 (along with NGC 2008 = h2894) on 27 Dec 1834 and logged "eeF; pL; R; 40"."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2008 = ESO 204-020 = PGC 17480

05 35 03.7 -50 58 00

V = 13.8;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 93d

 

14" (4/7/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): faint, moderately large, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, ~40"x16", weak concentration, low surface brightness.  A mag 11.2 star is 3' E.  Forms a close pair with NGC 2007 2.7' N.  Coincidentally, both galaxies have mag 11-11.5 stars 3' to 4' following.  Observation in poor transparency.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2008 = h289 (along with NGC 2007 = h2892) on 27 Dec 1834 and logged "eF; pL; R; vlbM; 30"."  His position is fairly accurate.

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NGC 2009 = ESO 056-SC140 = S-L 534

05 30 59 -69 10 54

V = 11.0;  Size 0.9'

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 318x; very bright knot, moderately large, round, 45" diameter, mottled.  A dozen mag 13.5-15.5 stars are resolved.  Sits in a beautifully rich star field (association) with numerous mag 12 and fainter stars including an arc of 4 mag 12-13 stars off the southwest side. The NGC 2015 star cloud and cluster S-L 557 lies to the southeast and NGC 1994 and 1984 lies 14' and 18' WNW.  This cluster is ~40' WSW of the Tarantula Nebula.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2009 = h2897 on 3 Nov 1834 and recorded "pB, R, bM, 40"; in a field rich with clustering stars."  On a second sweep of four he logged "pB, R, glbM, 80", in the N.p. part of a cluster."  His mean position is accurate.

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NGC 2010 = ESO 056-SC139 = S-L 531

05 30 34.6 -70 49 10

V = 11.7;  Size 1.9'x1.7'

 

24" (4/5/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this LMC cluster is located just 1.5' NE of 9th magnitude HD 37181.  This star is part of a large, scattered group of mag 8.5-10.5 stars including a prominent 24' loop with a double star (h3783 = 8.2/10.7 at 15") at the east end of the loop.  This double star is 6' S of NGC 2010.  NGC 2031 lies 18' SE and the bright HII complex/cluster NGC 2018 lies 15' S.

 

S-L 539, situated, 7.7' NNE, appeared as a small, elongated glow, 20"x10", with a mag 12.5 star involved on the east end and three additional very faint stars resolved.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2010 = h2898 on 12 Nov 1836 and logged "F; R; vglbM; 3'."  His position is 1' south of center of this cluster.

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NGC 2011 = ESO 056-SC144 = S-L 559 = LH 75

05 32 19.8 -67 31 17

V = 10.6;  Size 1.0'

 

30" (11/5/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): very bright, tight intense knot of four stars (a couple are quite bright) enveloped in a 1.5' triangular glow with a few additional stars resolved within the boundaries of the emission nebula.  A 3' line of brighter stars (part of the stellar association LH 75) oriented E-W passes through the south end of the glow.  The surrounding fields include a number of fascinating objects with a cluster and star cloud ~6' E (S-L 567), a bright, compact cluster/nebula 8' NE (NGC 2021), a large bright cluster/nebula 10' S (NGC 2014), a large ring-shaped emission nebula (NGC 2020) 12' SSE and the Seagull Nebula complex (NGC 2030/2032/2035) 17' E.  NGC 2011 is embedded in the OB association LH 75.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2011 = h2899 on 31 Jan 1835 and logged "vB; S; R; psmbM; 25"."  His single position is accurate.

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NGC 2012 = ESO 016-005 = PGC 17194

05 22 35.4 -79 51 07

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 117d

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly faint, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, contains a very small brighter core.  A very faint star lies close following and a close double star lies 4' E.  An unequal brighter pair lies 5' NE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2012 = h2907 on 22 Jan 1836 and reported "vF; S; lE; bM; 2 st 9 mag follow toward the north."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2013

05 44 14 +55 46 30

Size 4'

 

18" (11/6/04): This unimpressive asterism consists of two small groups of stars to the NW of mag 8.9 HD 37880.  A group ~3' NW of the brighter star is a quartet containing two mag 10.5 stars, while 6' NW is a evenly distributed quintet of mag 11-12 stars.  Also, a couple of arcminutes further NW are 3 stars including a double.  The three small groupings are extended NW to SE and span 7', although John Herschel's description may just apply to the first two groups which are 4' diameter.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2013 = h364 on 10 Feb 1831 and described as "a poor cl of 8 or 10 stars 11 mag."   The NGC RA is 30 tsec larger than JH's discovery position and corresponds better with the center of this group of stars.  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, adds "10-12 st 11...14; BD+21d907 f 0.6'."  RNGC gives the description "No cluster."

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NGC 2014 = LMC-N57A = ESO 056-SC146 = S-L 560 = LH 76

05 32 20 -67 41 24

V = 9.0;  Size 5'x3.5'

 

30" (11/5/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): very bright, large cluster or star cloud (stellar association LH 76) with nebulosity, ~50 stars resolved in a 5' region (no distinct boundary on the north side), including many in a 2' string, elongated N-S.  A mag 10 star (brightest in the cluster) is at the south end of this string.  A portion of the cluster is immersed in nebulosity (Henize N57A), most prominently on the southeast side of the cluster.  Irregular haze (roughly elongated SW-NE) extends out of the cluster for a couple of arc minutes on the east side, spreading south and north.  Forms an interesting contrast with emission nebula NGC 2020 5' ESE.  The remarkable Seagull Nebula (NGC 2030, 2032, 2035) lies ~20' NE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2014 = h2900 on 23 Dec 1834 and described the "chief *9 of a very irreg cluster, 4' long, 3' broad."  On a second sweep he logged "a pretty L irreg cluster 7th class; chief *9m taken (at leaving the field); the rest are 10...15m."  His position is accurate.

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered this cluster (D 217?) earlier on 3 Aug 1826 with his 9" reflector from Parramatta, NSW, and recorded "a rather well-defined nebula, 40" or 50" diameter.  Dunlop observed this object 3 times and his position is 5' SSW of the cluster.  Despite Dunlop's relatively good position, JH did not credit Dunlop with the discovery and Dunlop's description for D 217 implies a much smaller object, so I'm also hesitant about this identification.

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NGC 2015 = ESO 056-SC147 = S-L 557 = LH 74

05 31 47 -69 14 54

V = 10.4;  Size 5.6'

 

30" (10/12/15 - OzSky): this bright star cloud extends up to 8' diameter, spreading out on the west side and reaching NGC 2009 in the northwest corner.  Near the east end is open cluster S-L 557, which is often taken for NGC 2015.  It appeared fairly bright, fairly small, very irregular outline, 35" diameter.  It contains a brighter mag 13.5 star and at least a half-dozen mag 14.5-16 stars over haze.  Mag 9.7 HD 269720 lies 2.3' NE.  Extending west and spreading north and south is a large star cloud (association LH 74) containing a number of mag 12 stars and at least 70 in total.  The background glow of unresolved stars is bright in this entire region.  NGC 2009 is 7' NW of S-L 557.

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 318x; large star cloud with a few dozen mag 11-15 stars.  Not well detached in this rich region of the LMC as the clouds extends to the west and north.  On the east end is S-L 557, which includes a single brighter mag 13.5 star and ~6 total, over unresolved glow.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2015 = h2901 on 24 Nov 1834 and reported "the general middle of a cluster of loose stars 11...16m.  It is rich and fills the whole field."  The "whole field" contains the smaller cluster S-L 557 on its east side, which Shapley-Lindsay and the Hodge-Wright Atlas took as NGC 2015.  But based on Herschel's description Brent Archinal says "This is not NGC 2015" in "Star Clusters".  Instead he identifies NGC 2015 as the entire association LH 74 at 05 31 48, -69 14.9 with a size of 5.6'.

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NGC 2016 = ESO 056-SC142 = S-L 547

05 31 39 -69 56 48

Size 1.8'

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): fairly bright LMC cluster, large mottled glow, elongated E-W, ~1.5'x0.8'.  Two or three mag 14.5-15 stars are resolved on the west end and perhaps a half-dozen additional mag 15.5-16 stars are resolved at 394x.  NGC 2016 is situated in a gloriously rich region of the LMC with numerous clusters nearby including NGC 2028 11' E, S-L 674 9' E, BSDL 2212 2.4' SSE, S-L 535 3.6' WSW, S-L 519 8.3' W, H-S 327 12' WNW.

 

S-L 535: fairly bright, fairly small, roundish haze, 30" diameter, mottled.  Two faint stars were resolved on the west side.  Located 1.5' NNE of mag 10.2 HD 269663.

 

S-L 519: fairly bright, fairly small, elongated E-W, 30"x20", a single star was resolved.  Picked up less than 2' N of mag 8.2 HD 37122.

 

H-S 327: this is a very close pair of LMC clusters. At 394x the brighter western cluster (H-S 327W) appeared as a fairly faint, hazy 20" knot.  H-S 327E = OGLE-CL LMC 520 is a fainter 20" knot just 40" SE.  A couple of mag 15-15.5 stars near these two clumps may be members.

 

BSDL 2212: moderately bright, small, round, hazy glow, ~20" diameter, just preceding a mag 13 star.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2016 = h2902 on 23 Dec 1834 and recorded "F; vL; and diffused; irreg R; gbM."  His position is ~40" too far south.

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NGC 2017 = h3780 = ESO 554-**22

05 39 16 -17 51 00

V = 6.4/7.9/8.5/9.2/8.4/8.1

 

18" (3/13/04): multiple group of six stars mag 7-10 within 3.5'.  The stars are generally separated by at least 1' with the widest separation at 2'.  The brightest star is mag 6.4 HD 37643.  The brightest "star" to the SE is the C+D component, a close 8.5/9.2 pair separated by 1.4", making 7 stars in total.  Located 1.6¡ east of mag 2.6 Alpha Leporis.

 

8": this is the multiple star h3780.  Six stars are visible including mag 7, 8, 8.5, 9 and 10 stars.  This group does not appear to be a true cluster.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2017 = h2896 on 11 Dec 1835 and recorded a "fine clustering group of large stars."  His position matches the multiple star h3780.  Bica et al, in 2001A&A...366..827B, call this object a "possible Open Cluster remnant".

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NGC 2018 = LMC-N206A = ESO 056-SC141 = S-L 533 = LH 69

05 31 23 -71 04 12

V = 10.2;  Size 25'x18'

 

24" (4/5/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is a fascinating, showpiece HII complex with a cluster (S-L 533) and a large, detailed nebula (N206) appearing like a fainter version of M8 -- of course, in another galaxy!  At 200x the cluster is ~8' in diameter and includes a couple of dozen mag 11-15 stars (part of the stellar association LH 69).  The stars are involved in the glow of a bright HII complex that has an excellent response to a UHC filter.

 

The brightest region of nebulosity (NGC 2018 = LMC-N206A) is a very prominent 1' circular patch on the east end of the cluster.  Fainter wings extend north and south, increasing the size to 3'x1'.  A wide pair of stars including mag 11.5 HDE 269676 [a massive, compact cluster containing several O-type stars]  is at the west edge of this patch.  Three additional elongated patches (each 1' to 1.5' in diameter) along the SW side of the complex are strung out in a 6' line oriented NW to SE line  (BSDL 2005, BSDL 2048 and LMC-N206B = BSDL 2120).  Another glowing patch of nebulosity, ~45" diameter, is to the west of of the brightest region and surrounds a couple of brighter stars.  Finally there is an isolated, elongated patch on the northwest end of the complex (BSDL 1985) that seems detached.  Weaker sections of the nebulosity give the impression of dark lanes.  Surprisingly, Herschel's description applies only to the brightest region at the east end of this entire complex.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2018 = h2904 on 3 Nov 1834 and recorded "pB; R; pglbM; 2'; a star 10m involved, preceding."  His position (single sweep) is on the southeast side of the brightest portion of the nebula.  The ESO position is centered on the entire complex described in my notes and not the bright piece described by Herschel.

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NGC 2019 = ESO 056-SC145 = S-L 554

05 31 57 -70 09 36

V = 10.9;  Size 1.5'

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 394x; extremely bright, large, 50" diameter, sharply concentrated with a large intense core and smooth halo, no resolution.  NGC 2019 is one of 15 bona-fide ancient GC's in the LMC.

 

S-L 542 (brightest of 3 nearby clusters) is 4.6' SW, BSDL 2196 is 2.7' SW and S-L 544 is 5' NNW.  S-L 542 is fairly bright, moderately large, round, 40" diameter, mottled but with no definite resolution.  A mag 12.8 star is 0.9' NW.  BSDL 2196 (noticed between NGC 2019 and S-L 542) is a very faint, small, round, low surface brightness patch, 20" diameter, no resolution.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2019 = h2905 on 11 Nov 1836 and recorded the cluster as "B; R; gbM; 60".  He observed it on two sweeps and his position is just off the east side.  On the first observation, though, his polar distance was 1¡ further north, but he rejected that (correctly) in favor of the polar distance in the second sweep.

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered NGC 2019 = D 96, D 98, D 99 and/or D 94 (one or more of these may apply!) on 24 Sep 1826 with his 9" reflector from Parramatta.  He described D 96 as "a faint round nebula, about 1 1/4' diameter, slightly bright to the centre."  Dunlop made two observations of D 96 and his position is 12' NW of this cluster.  But his position is also 12.6' SE of NGC 1986, so this description could also apply to the later cluster.  D 98, described as "a pretty well-defined round nebula, about 30" diameter" was observed twice and the position is just 1.9' W.  Finally, D 94, described as an "extremely faint small nebula" is also within Dunlop's usual errors (7' S of the cluster).    To further confuse the issue, Glen Cozens identifies NGC 2019 = D 99, which Dunlop described as a "pretty well-defined nebula, 20" diameter."  His position in this case is 16' SE of the cluster!

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NGC 2020 = LMC-N57C = ESO 056-?148

05 33 10 -67 42 54

Size 2.5'

 

30" (11/5/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): fairly bright, roundish annular emission nebula, slightly elongated SW-NE, 3'x2.5'.  The inner edge of the annulus is slightly brighter and sharply defined with a relatively large dark center, ~45" x30".  North of center in the ring is a 13th magnitude star, which appears roughly centered in the emission nebula.  A 12th magnitude star lies 1.3' S of the central star, at the southern edge of the nebula.  Two fainter stars are just north and south of the mag 12 star and the trio is collinear with the central star.  Forms a striking due with NGC 2014 (cluster and emission nebula) 5' WNW.  The remarkable Seagull Nebula (NGC 2030, 2032, 2035) lies 15' NE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2020 = h2903 on 30 Dec 1836 and recorded "pB; vL; vglbM; lE; 4'.  A fine cluster precedes it."  On the very next sweep he wrote "vF; vL; R; vglbM; 4' diameter."  His position is accurate.

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered NGC 2020 = D 218? earlier in 1826 and described "a pretty bright round nebula, 30" diameter, with a minute star slightly involved in the margin."  Dunlop claims two observations and his position is 5' too far NE, well within his usual errors, though Steinicke attributes Herschel with the discovery.  This nebula is probably too faint to have been picked up by Dunlop with his 9" reflector and it could describe NGC 2014 instead, which is 9' west of his position.

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NGC 2021 = ESO 056-SC150 = S-L 570

05 33 30.3 -67 27 11

V = 12.1;  Size 0.9'

 

30" (11/5/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): bright, compact knot surrounding two resolved stars, slightly elongated, ~20"x15".  This knot is in the northern end of a very large, elongated cluster or star cloud.  Extending mostly south of NGC 2021 is a very elongated stream of stars, 5'x1', including a mix of brighter and fainter stars (stellar association LH 78).  The densest concentration is a 2' group (S-L 567) on the south end with a number of mag 12-14 stars.  Roughly a total of 50-60 stars were resolved.  The Seagull Nebula complex (NGC 2030, 2032, 2035) lies 12' SE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2021 = h2906 on 31 Jan 1835 and logged "vS; F; R; 12".  In the northern part of a cluster of stars 14m, 8' long, 3' br."  His position points to the small clluster S-L 567 within the stellar association LH 79.

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NGC 2022 = PK 196-10.1 = PN G196.6-10.9

05 42 06.2 +09 05 10

V = 11.7;  Size 29"x28"

 

48" (2/21/12): at 488x, this bright, double-shell planetary contains a bright oval ring oriented SSW-NNE, ~23"x18".  The annulus is fairly thin with a relatively large, darker central hole, though the contrast is fairly low.  At the exact center is a faint central star (close to 16th mag?).  The ring has an irregular surface brightness; slightly brighter at the ends of the major axis, particularly the SW end (knot or thicker?), and slightly fainter along the minor axis.  Surrounding the ring is a fainter and rounder outer shell, ~30" diameter.  The outer shell was surprisingly prominent and exhibited a pinkish hue.

 

24" (1/25/14): at 500x appeared as a fairly bright knotty annulus, slightly elongated SW-NE with fascinating structure.  The rim was clearly brighter along an ~200¡ arc running from the southwest counterclockwise to the northeast.  Very small brighter knots were definite at the SW and NE ends and perhaps a slight brightening at the NW edge.  In general, though, the rim appeared mottled and sparkling though clearly dimmer along the southeast side, giving a "C" appearance.  At 750x, the darker center was also irregular in surface brightness and occasionally, an extremely faint central star sparkled.

 

18" (2/24/06): at 220x appeared moderately bright, fairly small, round, ~25" diameter, very slightly elongated, irregularly lit and brighter along the western half of the rim giving a "C" appearance.  A faint sparkle is occasionally visible on the WSW edge of the rim and images show this may be a faint superimposed star or knot in the planetary.  320x provides an excellent view with the planetary weakly annular and the rim a bit dimmer on the SE side.  At 435x, the shape is slightly elongated SW to NE, ~27"x22" with a mottled interior and a brighter rim, particularly along the western half.  The appearance is quite patchy at 565x and the sparkle on the SW end is still evident.  The central star was not seen at any power.  Ced 59 (surrounding FU Orionis) lies 48' due east.

 

17.5" (2/2/02): immediately picked up at 100x as a very small, bluish-gray "egg" of fairly high surface brightness.  Good contrast gain with OIII filter.  At 380x (unfiltered), it appeared as fairly bright, clearly elongated SSW-NNE, ~27"x20".  The surface brightness was irregular or mottled with a slightly brighter rim and darker center giving a weakly annular appearance.  The rim seems to have a couple of slightly brighter spots and the ends of the minor axis are slightly dimmer.  No sign of a central star.

 

17.5" (12/8/90): fairly bright, slightly elongated 4:3 ~SSW-NNE, about 30" diameter.  Appears slightly annular at 412x with a brighter rim.  No central star seen at this power.

 

13": moderately bright, high surface brightness.  No internal structure was visible.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2022 = H IV-34 = h365 on 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 496) and described it as "cB, vS, like a star with a large diameter.  With 240 it appeared almost like a planetary nebula, but very ill defined, and little elongated.  Nearly of equal brightness throughout, except at the edges."  JH called it "Planetary neb, a little indistinct at the edges; rather oval and perhaps of a mottled light."

 

NGC 2022 was observed 5 times with Lord Rosse's 72", often in an attempt to resolve it, and the following notes were recorded:

11 Dec 1850: "It is I am nearly sure resolvable, probably it is a glob Cl.  At times I fancied the centre a little darker and a star in the p part."

23 Oct 1851: "I strongly suspect annular, r[esolvable], one star especially seen in the p part.

28 Dec 1853:  "...a B patch or a star?, it is near the edge of the neb.  Some dark spot or spots certainly seen and at times I had the suspicion of a concentric ring or rings."

5 Jan 1877: "Seems a glob Cl, stars seen sparkling in it, oval sp nf.  Edges v diffuse, especially sf, np edge more sharp.  Proportion of diameters about 7:10."

 

William Lassell observed NGC 2022 in Jan. 1853 from Malta with his 24-inch equatorial reflector and commented, "a singular curdled-looking object, slightly and irregularly elliptical, with a sort of cordon [outer shell] running round parallel, but a little outside of its margin."  A sketch was included in his 1854 MRAS paper (figure 2).  Father Secchi sketched a slightly darker center in his 1856 "Osservazioni di Nebulose".

 

Based on a Crossley photograph, Curtis (1918) reported, "Sharp stellar nucleus about mag 13, surrounded by an elliptical ring 22"x17" in outside dimensions in pa 29¡.  Outside this is an oval disk of fainter matter 28"x27".  The brightest parts are the two masses at the ends of the major axis of the inner ring."

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NGC 2023 = LBN 954 = Ced 55o

05 41 38.3 -02 15 33

Size 10'x10'

 

13.1": fairly prominent nebulosity surrounds mag 7.8 SAO 132464.  The Horsehead nebula lies 15' SW.

 

8": moderately bright, surrounds a mag 8 star.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2023 = H IV-24 on 6 Jan 1785 (sweep 352) and described in his 1791 paper "On Nebulous Stars" as "A bright star with a very considerably milky chevelure; a little extended, 4 or 5' in length, and near 4' broad; it loses itself insensibly. I suspected some extensive milky windings in the neighborhood but could not verify them; other stars of equal magnitude are perfectly free from this chevelure."  He later noted "The connection between the star and the chevelure cannot be doubted, from the insensible gradation of its luminous appearance, decreasing as it receded from the centre."

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NGC 2024 = Flame Nebula = Ced 55p = Sh 2-277

05 41 43 -01 51 30

Size 30'x30'

 

17.5" (2/8/86): bright, very large.  Consists of two main parallel sections elongated SSW-NNE separated by prominent detailed dark lanes.  Excellent structure with ragged edges, gaps, streaks, rifts and various brightness levels.  The eastern strip has one or two indentations or a scalloped inner edge.  The inner edge of the connecting strip has a sharply defined edge and the gap at the base connecting the brighter western section is obvious.  Zeta Orionis lies 15' NE detracts and the best view is unfiltered.

 

8": fairly easy in very dark skies, the strip along the east side is longer with a possible gap at the base of "U" in the southwest corner.  The center is definitely darker than the background sky.

 

8" (10/4/80): fairly bright, large.  Consists of two parallel strips separated by a dark lane. Appears possibly broken (gap) at the base of "U".  Best view with a UHC filter.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2024 = H V-28 on 1 Jan 1786 (sweep 506) and recorded "a wonderful milky nebulosity, divided into 3 or 4 large patches including a dark space, the whole cannot take up less than half a degree; but I suppose it to be much more extensive."  A month later (sweep 518) he noted "Wonderful black space inlcuded in nebulosities."

 

The following information is from Wolfgang Steinicke's book "Observing Cataloguing Nebulae and Star Clusters.  NGC 2024 was independently found by Brorsen in 1850 with a small refractor at Senftenberg Observatory and announced in AN that "I have found a very faint, very extended, pretty irregular nebula, located about 15 minutes east of Zeta Orionis, which is listed neither in the catalogue of the younger Herschel nor in Messier's."  Marth noted in 1856 that Brorsen's object is William Herschel's V-28.  This was another case where the observer only checked the Slough catalogue and didn't refer to WH's catalogues, which only had relative offsets and not absolute positions.

 

d'Arrest sketched the nebulosity in 4 sections. The brightest section (labeled A) is just west of the main dust lane.  This object was observed 13 times at Birr Castle from 1873-1878 by Lawrence Parsons (with the 36-inch), Ralph Copeland and Dreyer, and stars "in an about the neb" were sketched and accurately measured.

 

Garrett Serviss (Pleasures of the Telescope, 1901) wrote "Just to the left of Zeta, and in the same field of view with a very low power, is a remarkable nebula bearing the catalogue number GC 1227. We must use our five-inch on this with a low power, but with Zeta out of the field in order to avoid its glare. The nebula is exceedingly faint, and we can be satisfied if we see it simply as a hazy spot, although with much larger telescopes it has appeared at least half a degree broad. Tempel saw several centers of condensation in it, and traced three or four broad nebulous streams, one of which decidedly suggested spiral motion."

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NGC 2025 = ESO 056-SC149 = S-L 571

05 32 33.1 -71 43 00

V = 10.9;  Size 1.9'

 

24" (4/5/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x this LMC cluster appeared bright, slightly elongated, moderately large, ~45"x40", weakly concentrated with a slightly brighter core. Three faint stars are resolved around the edges.  Two 8th magnitude stars lie 11' ESE and 13' ENE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2025 = h2909 on 8 Feb 1836 and recorded "vB; S; lE; gmbM; resolvable.  Almost a globular."  His position is less than 1' too far north.

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NGC 2026

05 43 06 +20 08

 

17.5" (2/14/99): At 220x, ~30 stars in a 6' region including three mag 9-9.5 stars (mag 8.7 SAO 77440 and mag 9.3 SAO 77448).  Most of the stars are mag 11-13.  The group lacks any concentration and appears to be an asterism with the three brighter stars drawing attention to the group.  However, there is a small arc of a half a dozen mag 13 stars that includes SAO 77448 at the SE corner and a nice clump of mag 13 stars is just south of the mag 9.5 star at the north end of the group. Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2026 = H VIII-28 on 5 Dec 1784 (sweep 329) and reported "a cluster of pretty large scattered stars. Not rich."  No observations were made by JH or at Birr Castle.  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, found "no distinct Cl" and RNGC classifies it as nonexistent (Type 7" with the comment "No cluster".

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NGC 2027 = ESO 086-SC13 = S-L 592 = LH 84

05 35 00 -66 54 55

V = 11.0;  Size 1.0'

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): NGC 2027 is at the west end of an interesting, elongated cluster or association (LH 84) extending ~4'x2' E-W in a crescent shape with NGC 2034 at the east end.  At 105x, this condensed portion of the cloud contains a couple of dozen mag 12-13 stars and a wide pair of mag 10 stars on the NW side.  Although NGC 2027 is often applied to the small cluster S-L 592, Herschel described the entire association LH 84.

 

NGC 2027 is situated ~10' NW of the compact cluster NGC 2041 and near the east end of a huge, elongated star cloud known as the "Quadrant" (consisting of OB associations LH 65, LH 77 and LH 84) looping SW and the bending NW, extending 35' to NGC 2006 and 2002.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 2027 = D 241 = h2908 on 6 Nov 1826 and described "a large cluster of small stars of mixt magnitudes in strong nebula; irregular extended figure."  His position falls at the east end of association LH 77 or the west end of LH 84, known as the LMC "Quadrant" (of a circle).

 

JH made three observations of the field.  On the first sweep (2 Nov 1832) he described "a very large, very rich cluster of separate stars 9..11th mag, which fills the whole field." On a second sweep he called it "cluster 7th class. The second of two stars 9th mag, which may be considered the leading stars of the very large and fine cluster of the Nubecula Major, which fills many fields, is of all degrees of condensation, and much broken up into groups and patches." His third observation was recorded as "an ill-defined nebuloid group of stars 15th mag (N.B. Clouds very troublesome.) The field full of grouping stars."

 

Herschel is clearly describing the large OB association LH 77, which stretches west to NGC 2002.  His position from the second sweep ("second of two stars 9th magnitude") and third sweeps is close to S-L 592, and the position given here.  This cluster is also at the west end of a looping association of stars (probably NGC 2027) on the east end of LH 77.

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NGC 2028 = ESO 056-SC152 = S-L 575 = LH 80

05 33 49 -69 57 06

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): fairly bright, moderately large, roundish, high surface brightness, mottled, a couple of stars resolved at the edges.  A small partially resolved clump is just off the northeast side.  In a small trio with similar S-L 574 2.4' W and fainter H-S 353 2.2' NNW.  NGC 2028 is within association LH 80, a stunningly rich region of the LMC with NGC 2016 11' W, S-L 591 6' NE, H-S 362 is 8' NE, NGC 2036 8' SE and more.  A group of 4 mag 14 stars is 2' E.

 

S-L 574 appeared bright, moderately large, slightly elongated E-W, 30" diameter, brighter along the major axis, clumpy.  A mag 14 star is at the west tip and a mag 11.9 star is 0.9' SSW.  H-S 353 is a fairly faint, soft round glow, 30" diameter.  S-L 591 appeared fairly bright, fairly small, roundish, 35", mottled.  Only a couple of mag 16 stars resolved around the edges.  A mag 11.8 star is 1.7' NE.  H-S 362, just 2' ENE of S-L 591 is fairly faint, elongated NW-SE, 25" diameter.  It forms the eastern vertex of a equilateral triangle with S-L 591 and the mag 11.8 star.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2028 = h2912 on 12 Nov 1836 and simply noted as "vF".  His position is an excellent match (he corrected his RA by 10 sec) with cluster S-L 575, so the identification is certain although I'm surprised he apparently missed nearby S-L 574, which is equally as prominent.  JH questioned if his object might be D 100.  Dunlop's description reads "a small round nebula, about 2' north of a small star."  His position is just 2' NW of S-L 575 and 3.4' NE of a mag 11 star (his small star?).  But D 100 is also 10' ENE of NGC 2016, so it could be also be D 100 given his range of positional errors.  Neither Steinicke nor Glen Cozens equates D 100 with NGC 2028.

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NGC 2029 = ESO 086-SC15 = LMC-N63 = DEM L 243 = S-L 595 = LH 83

05 35 40.8 -66 02 06

V = 12.3;  Size 4'

 

30" (10/18/17 - OzSky): at 202x, 264x and 429x; large, fairly bright cluster (S-L 595) with ~30 stars resolved in a 3.5' region and includes at least 4 brighter stars from mag 12.3-13.5 and another mag 12.7 star is at the SW edge.  Moderately faint nebulous haze (LMC-N63) encompasses the cluster.  Adding a NPB filter at 264x increases the contrast with the large nebulous glow, which extended 2.5-3' diameter.  Note: this object is identified as NGC 2030 in most sources!

 

N63A, embedded slightly east of center of N63, is a well-known bright, compact supernova remnant and one of the first 3 extragalactic SNRs to be discovered (1966).  The SNR appeared as a small round knot, only ~12"-15" in diameter, and was faintly visible even at 202x.  It was easy to distinguish at 264x and stood out fairly prominently at 429x.  Surprisingly, I didn't notice any contrast gain adding a NPB filter (similar visibility).

 

14" (4/4/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x): fairly bright, large, over a dozen mag 13 and fainter stars are resolved in a 3.5' region.  A fairly faint, oval emission glow (LMC-N63) is involved with the cluster (S-L 595).  Adding an NPB filter, the nebulosity is bright, large, irregular (roughly round), ~2.5' diameter, with several of the brighter stars still visible.

 

Emission nebula LHa 120-N 62A is 14' SSW.  Using an NPB filter, it appeared very bright, very elongated ~E-W, relatively large, ~1.5'x0.4'.  The shape is a bit irregular, but it has a sharply defined northern edge, with the southern edge weaker and more ill-defined.  Visible unfiltered but excellent response to the NPB.  A couple of very faint stars are visible with averted.  BSDL 2348, an LMC cluster perhaps associated with the nebula, is ~2' W and contains a  half-dozen mag 14-15 stars in a 1.5' knot, along with a mag 12.5 star on the west end.    Emission nebula LHa 120-N 64 is 16' further southeast.

 

Emission nebula LHa 120-N 64 is 20' SSE.  Using an NPB filter, it is a bright, large, irregular nebulous patch, about 3'x2' E-W.  The brightest portion (N64A) is on the west side.  A mag 11 star is ~2' N of the east end.  Another 2' NNW of this star is a detached 40" piece (N64C) that was fairly easy with the filter.  Unfiltered three mag 13 line in a 1.8' string are involved in the central portion, along with a couple of mag 14-15 stars.  Mag 8.8 HD 37853 is 6' NW.

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): fairly bright, fairly large, 3'x1.5', elongated N-S.  This LMC object appears to be a large cluster with nebulosity (stellar association LH 83).  A half-dozen mag 12-13 stars are resolved over an irregular background haze (unresolved stars?).  Located 32' N of mag 6.2 HD 37935.  NGC 2003 lies 38' SW.  The compact SNR N63A is embedded (not noted).

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 2029 = D 240 = h2911 on 27 Sep 1826 and noted a "faint round nebula, 25" or 30" diameter."  His position is just 4' SW of center of the nebula.  JH called this object "a rich, R, pL cluster of stars 12m; little comp; 5' l; one * 11m."  On a second sweep he wrote "pB; R; gbM; 60"; resolved into stars 13...15m."

 

Jenni Kay notes that GC and NGC positions for NGC 2029 and NGC 2030 are reversed from JH's original CGH positions of h2911 and h2910, respectively.  The error must have occurred when JH transfered his positions into the GC.  So, NGC 2030 = h2030 is part of the Seagull Nebula and NGC 2029 = h2911 is an isolated nebula. All modern sources such as SIMBAD, ESO and the KMHK catalogue reverse the original identifications and call NGC 2029 part of the Seagull Nebula.  See WSQJ #108, 4/97.  The identifications given here are based on the CGH positions/identifications.

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NGC 2030 = Seagull Nebula = Dragon's Head Nebula = LMC-N59A = LH 82

05 35 00.5 -67 33 18

Size 1.6'x0.9'

 

30" (10/18/17 - OzSky): at 202x and 264x + NPB filter; this is the first section in the remarkable Seagull or "Dragon's Head" Nebula, though the faintest of three connected patches extending 5.5' from NW to SE with NGC 2032 and 2036.  The brightest portion is an elongated "bar" section ~2'x40", oriented WSW-ENE, just west of mag 12.2 HD 269810.  Fainter nebulosity spreads to the north in roughly an oval outline and includes a mag 14.5 star, so the total extent of NGC 2030 in the N-S direction is over 2.5'.  Very faint nebulosity appears to connect NGC 2030 with brighter NGC 2032 directly SE.

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the NW component of the Seagull Nebula; a bright, highly structured 7'x5' emission nebula.  The brightest portion of NGC 2030 is a bright streak elongated E-W that extends west from mag 12.3 HD 269810.  A large mass of nebulosity spreads to the north from this streak in a more circular 2' patch.  This object is incorrectly identified as NGC 2029 in modern catalogues and atlases.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2030 = h2910 on 23 Dec 1834 and recorded "B; L; gbM.  The first of 3 neb, which run together."  On a second sweep, he logged "vF; pL; irreg R.  The first of 3, which run together.  See Plate III. fig 5."  The modern identities for NGC 2029 and 2030 are reversal.  See historical notes for NGC 2029.

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NGC 2031 = ESO 056-SC153 = S-L 577

05 33 41.9 -70 59 16

V = 10.8;  Size 3.4'

 

24" (4/5/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x this LMC cluster was very bright, fairly large, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, well concentrated with a 1' core and 2' much fainter halo.  The cluster had a mottled texture and was quite lively around the edges, but was not clearly resolved.  Located 12' NW of mag 7.6 HD 37899 and 5.5' SW of a mag 9.1 star.  NGC 2018, a remarkable nebulous cluster, lies 12' WSW and NGC 2051 is a similar distance to the ESE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2031 = h2915 on 3 Nov 1834 and noted "F (?); R; gbM; 3' (Hazy Sky)".  On a later sweep he had a better view and logged "globular, B; R; gbM; 2'.  Resolved into stars."  His position is just off the south side of this large cluster.

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NGC 2032 = Seagull Nebula = Dragon's Head Nebula = LMC-N59A = LH 82

05 35 20.6 -67 34 06

Size 2'x1'

 

30" (10/18/17 - OzSky): at 202x and 264x + NPB filter; NGC 2032 and 2035, separated by a dark lane, form a stunning pair of adjacent emission nebulae of comparable surface brightness, though NGC 2032 is larger.  Using a narrow-band filter, NGC 2032 was extremely bright, elongated SW-NE, ~2'x1', with a scalloped but sharply defined border at the brighter edge along the dust lane. A fairly prominent thin filament extends NE for ~1.5', curling a bit towards the tip.  A thin strip on the SE end (just beyond the lane) connects to NGC 2035.  The ionizing star was visible unfiltered at the eastern border, in an indentation, though it appeared fainter than the listed mag of 13.5.  A second mag 14 star was also involved at 25" to its east.  A mag 11.4 star is off the SW side and a mag 12.2 star (O3-type HD 269810) is at the NE edge.  The latter star (also known as RMC 122) may be the ionizing source for the surrounding nebulosity.

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is possibly the brightest section of the "Seagull Nebula" or "Dragon's Head Nebula" in the LMC (similar to NGC 2035 1.6' SE).  It consists of a very bright, elongated ~SSW-NNE patch, 2'x1', with an unusual kidney-bean shape that is indented or concave on the east side.  NGC 2032 is just separated to 2035 by an elongated dark lane (oriented SSW-NNE) on the east side.  A faint, thin streamer of nebulosity shoots to the north from 2032.  Mag 11.4 HD 269808 is off the SW side.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 2032 = D 219 on 27 Sep 1826 and described a "pretty bright round nebula, about 1 1/4' diameter, bright towards the centre."  He states 2 observations were made and his published position is within the Seagull Nebula complex.  As NGC 2032 is probably the brightest section along with NGC 2035, this identification seems reasonable.  Herschel gave an uncertain equivalence with D 219 in his CGH catalogue.  He first observed the nebula (h2913) on 2 Nov 1834 and recorded "vB; vL.  A singular figure like 3 nebulae lumped together."  On a second sweep he recorded "pB; irreg fig; glbM."  On his next observation he logged "B; L; gbM.  The second of 3 which run together."  A detailed sketch of the complex was published in plate III, figure 5 in the CGH observations.

 

The Seagull Nebula contains four separate NGC designations: NGC 2030 (misidentified as NGC 2029 in GC and NGC), NGC 2032, NGC 2035 and NGC 2040 with NGC 2035 being the brightest and largest of the group.  Collectively the area is known as N59A and is located at the boundary of the supershell LMC4 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. NGC 2032 and 2035, which form the bright core of the H II region N59A (B053530- 6736), belong to a single H II region that appears divided due to the presence of a heavy dust lane.

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NGC 2033 = LMC-N154B = ESO 056-SC157 = S-L 589 = LH 81

05 34 30 -69 46 48

Size 10'

 

14" (4/4/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x and 230x): large bright star cloud (stellar association LH 81), ~10' diameter with ~50 stars (depending on size taken) mag 11-14.  Adding an NPB filter brings out the associated nebulosity (LHA 120-N54), which is fairly bright and very large.  A curving swath of nebulosity, elongated E-W for ~8' on the southwest side of the association.  The cluster itself is also encased in diffuse nebulosity with the filter.  NGC 2037 is generally taken as a small knot (BCDSP 8) within this star cloud.  NGC 2048, a bright emission nebula, is at the northeast end of the association.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2033 between Nov 1836 and Mar 1837 with a 5-inch refractor and recorded it as #579 in his preliminary catalogue of "Stars, Nebulae and Clusters in the Nubecula Major."  Herschel's position falls in the large stellar association LH 81.  But as there is no listing or description in the CGH catalogue, it's possible Herschel was recording a small knot or a very large field of stars + nebulosity.  So, the size and center is unknown.  See NGC 2037 for more.  The large nebulosity on the south side of the association might be NGC 2052.  See that number.

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered NGC 2033 = D 141? earlier on 24 Sep 1826, recording "a faint extended nebula, about 4' long, very faint towards the extremities, brightest and broadest in the middle.  This is in the south following side of a faint cluster of very minute stars."  Dunlop's position (single observation) is 11' SE of this nebulous cluster.

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NGC 2034 = ESO 086-SC14 = S-L 592 = LH 84

05 35 38 -66 54 06

V = 9.3;  Size 8'x4'

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): at 105x this is an interesting, elongated curving cluster or association (LH 84), situated northwest of the compact cluster NGC 2041.  This condensed portion of LH 84 contains a couple of dozen mag 12-13 stars and a wide pair of mag 10 stars (including HD 269855) on the north side.  The resolved stars are embedded in an unresolved glow of fainter stars, ~4'x2', extended E-W in a crescent shape, arching north on both ends.  NGC 2034 is located at the east end of an impressive star cloud (collectively known as the "Quadrant" = LH 77), looping 30' W (bending south in the middle) to NGC 2002. 

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2034 = h2914 on 3 Jan 1837 and described "a more condensed part of the great cluster (sweep 761, 39), of a crescent-like form, occupying one field. Rich and fine."  His position corresponds with association LH 84 at the northeast end of the "Quadrant" feature of the LMC.  NGC 2034 = h2914 and NGC 2027 = h2908 both described the same field, though NGC 2027 is on the west end of the association.   Harold Corwin considers NGC 2027 to refer to the entire region.

 

James Dunlop discovered the association on 6 Nov 1826 and described D 241 as "a large cluster of small stars of mixt magnitudes in strong nebula; irregular extended figure."  His position falls at the east end association LH 77 or the west end of LH 84, known as the LMC "Quadrant" (of a circle).

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NGC 2035 = Seagull Nebula = Dragon's Head Nebula = LMC-N59A = LH 82

05 35 33 -67 35 06

Size 1.6'x1.0'

 

30" (10/18/17 - OzSky): at 202x and 264x + NPB filter; NGC 2032 and 2035, separated by a dark lane, form a stunning pair of adjacent emission nebulae of comparable surface brightness, though NGC 2032 is larger.  The two impressive regions are attached or merge at the south end by a thin strip of nebulosity.  NGC 2035 was extremely bright, roughly rectangular but irregular with slightly concave eastern side and lots of complex, internal structure with brighter and darker areas. A fairly thin streamer is attached on the northeast end and extends 2' NNE, similar (though slightly fainter) to a filament attached to NGC 2032!  LMC-N59C is a detached patch ~2' SE.  It appeared moderately large, roundish, at least 1' diameter.  A mag 10.4 star is 2' ESE.

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the southeast section of the bright Seagull Nebula in the LMC.  At 200x using a UHC filter it appeared very bright, moderately large, with a very irregular shape similar to an anvil.  The very knotty, complex structure was elongated N-S, 1.6'x1.0', with the widest part of the anvil on the south end.  NGC 2032, another very bright section, is very close preceding (roughly 1.6' between centers) and the two sections are separated by a dark lane oriented SSW-NNE.  A very faint streamer attached on the NE side flows to the north (NGC 2032 has a similar but brighter streamer).  A fairly small detached patch, ~1.2' in diameter, is close SE (identified as LHA 120-N 59C in SIMBAD).

 

James Dunlop probably discovered NGC 2035 = D 219 on 27 Sep 1826 and described a "pretty bright round nebula, about 1 1/4' diameter, bright towards the centre".  He states 2 observations were made and his published position is within the Seagull Nebula complex.  As NGC 2032/2035 are the brightest sections, this identification seems reasonable.

 

JH first observed this bright nebula on 23 Dec 1834 and called NGC 2035 = h2916, "B, L, bM. The 3rd of three which run together.  (Plate III, fig 5)".  On his next observation he recorded "pB, L, R. The third of 3 which run together." Herschel gave an uncertain equivalence with D 220 in the CGH.

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NGC 2036 = NGC 2043? = ESO 056-SC155 = S-L 587

05 34 32 -70 03 54

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): very bright, fairly large, irregular, mottled, brighter core, 50" diameter.  A bright, tiny knot of mag 15.5 stars is at the southeast end.  A couple of additional mag 16 stars are resolved near the edges.  A mag 10.7 star lies 4' NNE.  NGC 2028 lies 8' NW.

 

BSDL 2464 = OGLE-CL LMC 611 was noticed 2.6' NE as a very faint, small glow, 20" diameter.  A couple of very faint stars were resolved at the east end.  The mag 10.7 star noted above lies 2.7' NW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2036 = h2917 on 11 Nov 1836 and recorded "vF; R; gbM; 90"."  There is nothing at his position, but one degree south is the cluster S-L 587.  Herschel's added a note to his description that there was likely an error of 1¡ in the polar distance and clearly this was the case.  Eric Lindsay, in the 1964 paper "Some NGC objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud" (IAJ, 6, 286-289) comments "The Decl. seems to be in error. The object is probably the small cluster S/L 587 at 1¡ south. Herschel found strong ground to suspect an error of a degree in P.D. which should most likely be 160¡ and not 159¡."  As this cluster is exactly 1¡ S of h's position, the identification is virtually certain.

 

Also, see historical notes for NGC 2043.  This number may be a duplicate observation with the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope.

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NGC 2037 = OGLE-CL LMC 605 = BCDSP 8

05 34 40.4 -69 44 50

V = 11.6;  Size 0.4'

 

14" (4/4/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x and 230x): very small high surface brightness glow, ~12" diameter.  Situated with the large stellar association LH 81 and at the north end of a 2' string to the south-southwest with three mag 12, 11 and 13 stars.  This standard identification is unlikely and both NGC 2033 and 2037 probably refer to sections of the general star cloud.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2037 between Nov 1836 and Mar 1837 with a 5-inch refractor and listed it as #593 in his preliminary catalogue of"Stars, Nebulae and Clusters in the Nubecula Major."  The only information he gives (besides a position) is type "Cl" and Mag 8.  There is no listing or description in the main CGH catalogue, so along with nearby NGC 2033, it is unknown if Herschel was describing a small knot or a very large field of stars + nebulosity in association LH 81, though the magnitude implies a bright object.  NGC 2037 is taken as the small cluster OGLE-CL LMC 605 at 05 34 40 -69 44.8 (2000) by Archinal and Hynes, Mati Morel and Jenni Kay.  Harold Corwin remarks this cluster is too faint to have been picked up by Herschel with his 5-inch refractor and certainly wouldn't be described as 8th magnitude.  So, the standard identification (given here) is almost certainly wrong.

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NGC 2038 = ESO 056-SC158 = S-L 590

05 34 42 -70 33 42

V = 11.9;  Size 1.6'

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): very bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, 40" diameter, clumpy but no individual stars resolved.  First of three nearly on a line with NGC 2056 11' SE and NGC 2075 20' SE.  Located 4' SSE of mag 9.5 HD 37732.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2038 = h2920 on 24 Nov 1834 and logged "B, R, glbM, 25", has a *9 mag 5' north-preceding."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2039

05 44 33 +08 39 42

Size 30'

 

18" (1/26/09): large, scattered field with a number of mag 8 to 10 stars, though too dispersed to resemble a cluster.  the most distinctive part is a nice 8' string of 6 collinear stars oriented E-W with mag 8 HD 38096 at the west end and mag 8.5 HD 38163 at the east end.  A larger elongated group of stars extends to the SE out to the edge of the 35' field.  This group probably contains unrelated field stars and there is no listing in SIMBAD.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2039 = h366 on 19 Jan 1828 and described as "A large tract of stars filling many fields.  It extends much further in RA."  He equated this observation with H VIII-2 = NGC 2063, so he may have confused these two fields at the time.  His father's object is either nonexistent or just an asterism ~40' to the east.  On a second sweep, JH logged "A large ill-defined tract of loose stars, neither rich nor condensed").  JH used two numbers in the GC for h366 and H VIII-2, so both objects received their own NGC designation.  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, states "many st, Cl not well defined."  See Corwin's notes for further discussion.

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NGC 2040 = ESO 56-EN164 = LMC-N59B = LH 88

05 36 05 -67 34 01

V = 11.5;  Size 2'

 

30" (10/18/17 - OzSky): at 202x and 264x + NPB filter; bright, very large, irregular nebula just east of NGC 2030/2032/2035 (Dragon's Head or Seagull Nebula).  The main portion is roughly triangular with one "vertex" on the south side and another on the northeast end.  It has a sharp, contrasty edge on the east side to the south tip and some internal, irregular brightness in the interior.  Unfiltered a dozen stars mag 14-15 are involved (association LH 88), with several more spreading to the south.

 

NGC 2040 is merged with a supernova remnant shell (SNR B0536-67.6) on the south side.  On images the shell is ~2' in diameter, with a complex interlaced web of delicate filaments.  Visually, I could see a very faint, thin curving loop, ~45" in length, which forms the southwest end of the shell (brightest part on images). A mag 13.5 star (O5-type) is in the interior of the shell, with the observed strip centered 40" to its WSW. This star was possibly bound to the precursor star of the SNR remnant.

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is a bright, irregularly round glow, ~2' diameter, located ~4' ENE of the Seagull or Dragon's Head Nebula and part of the same emission complex.  The nebulosity surrounds a cluster of roughly 15 stars (LH 88).  A UHC filter provided an excellent contrast gain at 200x and revealed a very irregular outline.  The POSS image shows delicate filaments to the south forming a large loop (SNR shell SNR 0536-67.6) although I don't believe this extension was recorded.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2040 = h2918 on 2 Nov 1834 and recorded "F; irreg R; glbM; r; 2'. (Pl III, fig 5)."  On a later sweep he reported "vF; R; follows 3 vB L nebulae [NGC 2030, NGC 2032 and NGC 2035] which run together."  His position (from 5 sweeps) is accurate and an excellent sketch of the complex is on plate III, figure 3.

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered this nebula (D 220) earlier on 27 Sep 1826 and logged "a round faint nebula, about 40" diameter."  His position is just 4' NNW of the center of LMC N59B = NGC 2040, but given the range of his positional errors, it's possible this observation either refers to nearby NGC 2032 or 2035 (part of the same complex).

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NGC 2041 = ESO 086-SC16 = S-L 605

05 36 28.0 -66 59 29

V = 10.4;  Size 0.7'

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): at 105x, this LMC cluster appears bright, fairly small, round, 1' diameter, high surface brightness.  Symmetrical appearance and increases to a very small bright core and a stellar nucleus.  This young, massive cluster is located ~7' SE of the elongated cluster NGC 2034 at the east end of the very large, extended collection of associations (the "Quadrant") that includes NGC 2026 and 2002 on the western side.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2041 = h2919 on 2 Nov 1834 and described as "B, S, vgbM, 20"."  On a second sweep he noted  "a rich clustering part precedes."  His position (measured on 4 sweeps) is accurate.  Wolfgang Steinicke and Glen Cozens both credit James Dunlop with the discovery on 6 Nov 1826.  His entry for D 241 describes "a large cluster of small stars of mixt magnitudes in strong nebula; irregular extended figure."  His position is 6.6' NW of the cluster, but his description implies a much larger object - like NGC 2027/2034 and the position is a closer match.

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NGC 2042 = ESO 056-SC163 = S-L 601 = LH 89n

05 36 09.6 -68 55 24

V = 9.6;  Size 6'x3'

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly large patch of stars and haze (association LH 89), ~5' in size.  At least two dozen stars are resolved in an elongated group oriented SW-NE, including a few mag 10 stars over unresolved stars or outer nebulous haze from the Tarantula complex.  Two additional knots are to the northwest and form an obtuse isosceles triangle with NGC 2042.  The first knot is KMHK 1122 situated 5' NW and S-L 585 is 10' NW.  NGC 2042 is located just 17' NW of the center of the Tarantula Nebula.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2042 = h2922 on 30 Dec 1836 and recorded "the chief star (9th mag) of a large, irregular figured, looped or hooked cluster of stars 12..15th mag, rich and various, and filling the field."  His description and position applies to the assocation LH 89.

 

This object may have been discovered earlier by James Dunlop.  His D181, described as a "small faint nebula, 10" or 12" diameter" is 5.5' NW of center of the association.  But the description doesn't match an object of this size.  His D 140, described as "a small faint round nebula" is a similar distance SW of center, but again the description is a very poor match.  Finally D 183, described as "a faint ill-defined nebula, 20" diameter", is ~8' NE but another poor match in description.  So, I'm not confident any of these observations referring to NGC 2042.

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NGC 2043 = NGC 2036? = ESO 056-SC155

05 34 32 -70 03 54

 

=NGC 2036?, Jenni Kay. =NF, Lindsay.  =ESO 56-SC168, ESO and Corwin.

 

Pietro Baracchi discovered NGC 2043 on 18 Dec 1884 with the 48-inch f/41 Great Melbourne Telescope and it was included in R. L. Ellery's "Observations of Southern Nebulae made with the Great Melbourne Telescope 1869 - 1885".  He wrote "preceding H. 1259 [NGC 2058] by 79.5 sec and 4' 30" north is a small elongated group of minute stars in very thin nebula..".  There is nothing at his offset from NGC 2058 except very faint stars.  ESO identifes ESO 056-168, an extremely faint cluster close to Baracchi's position, as NGC 2043.  But this cluster is probably too faint.  Eric Lindsay, in the 1964 paper "Some NGC objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud" (IAJ, 6, 286-289), comments "Not found. Star-rich region but no evidence of clustering.  Not listed by Herschel. In the Melbourne Catalogue."

 

Harold Corwin suggests NGC 2043 is a N-S string of stars (about 1.7' length) situated 2.5' S of Baracchi's position, which is a good match with his description.

 

Jenni Kay suggests NGC 2043 was a duplicate observation of NGC 2036, discovered earlier by John Herschel but with a published error in declination of 1 degree (he actually noted that this was a strong possibility).  Furthermore, the GC (and later the NGC) carry forward this declination error without any reference to the discrepancy.  So, Baracchi would have thought this cluster was a new discovery.  This requires he made a 1 min error in RA (NGC 2036 precedes NGC 2058 by 2 min 23 sec of RA, instead of 1 min 20 sec of RA), though the dec would be fairly close.

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NGC 2044 = 30 Dor C = ESO 056-SC165 = S-L 602 = LH 90

05 36 06.2 -69 11 55

V = 10.6;  Size 4.5'

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): group of about a dozen stars in a 3' diameter at 171x dominated by three brighter stars in a E-W string.  Two of the "stars" in this line are actually compact clusters (BRHT 17a and 17b) with multiple components on a HST image. Also a mag 11.5 "star" on the north side is a compact cluster (KMK 87). NGC 2044 is situated in the outer portion of the 30 Doradus complex 16' SW from the central core.  Like NGC 2060, this stellar association (LH 90) also harbors a young SNR!  Also, the site of SNR 1987A (05 35 28, -69 16.2) lies only 5.5' SW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2044 between Nov 1836 and Mar 1837 with a 5-inch refractor and listed as #608 in his preliminary catalogue of "Stars, Nebulae and Clusters in the Nubecula Major."  His position is ~1' south of the center of this cluster/association (LH 90).

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NGC 2045 = Ced 58 = SAO 94827

05 45 01.3 +12 53 18

V = 6.6

 

=*6.6 = SAO 94827, Gottlieb.  =no nebulosity, Carlson.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2045 = h367 on 23 Jan 1832 and recorded "a star 8-9 mag with faint nebulosity."  His position coincides precisely with mag 6.6 HD 38263.  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, describes NGC 2045 as "BD+12 884, nebulous?"  Although classified as nonexistent in RNGC, the RA is 5.0 minutes too small.

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NGC 2046 = ESO 056-SC162 = S-L 597

05 35 37.6 -70 14 27

V = 12.6;  Size 1.3'

 

24" (4/9/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the first in a rich field of 8 NGC clusters (with the brightest NGC 2058).  At 200x, it appeared bright, fairly small, slightly elongated WSW-ENE in the direction of a mag 13 star just 0.8' SW.  The core seems offset from the center to the NE end or a compact knot of stars is attached at the following end.  NGC 2047 lies 3.2' NNE.  Located 6' SE of mag 8.2 HD 37762.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2046 = h2923 on 11 Nov 1836 and descrbed as "vF; R; gbM; the first of a group of six nebulae.  See Pl IV, fig 9.  His position and sketch is accurate.  Joseph Turner also sketched the entire group of clusters (NGC 2046, 2047, 2057, 2058, 2059, 2065, 2066) on 26 Apr 1876 using the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope.  See http://www.docdb.net/history/texts/1885osngmt________e/lithograph_m_4_33.php

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NGC 2047 = ESO 056-SC167 = S-L 600

05 35 54.4 -70 11 29

V = 13.2;  Size 0.9'

 

24" (4/9/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this LMC cluster is located on the west side of a rich field of 8 NGC clusters in the 13mm Ethos (200x).  It appeared moderately bright, fairly small, round, 45" diameter.  A faint star is at the south edge.  Forms a pair with slightly brighter NGC 2046 3.2' SSW. Located 5.8' ESE of mag 8.2 HD 37762 and 5.4' WSW of NGC 2058.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2047 = h2925 on 11 Nov 1836 and described as "the second of a group.  Pl IV, fig 9."  His position and sketch is accurate.  The entire group of clusters (NGC 2046, 2047, 2057, 2058, 2059, 2065, 2066) was also sketched by Joseph Turner on 26 Apr 1876 using the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope.  See http://www.docdb.net/history/texts/1885osngmt________e/lithograph_m_4_33.php

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NGC 2048 = ESO 056-*N166 = LMC-N154A = LH 87

05 35 56 -69 38 54

V = 12.2;  Size 2'

 

14" (4/4/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x + NPB filter): NGC 2048 is a bright elongated glow, ~1'x0.7' E-W, surrounded by fainter nebulous haze extending 3'-4' in diameter.  The emission component (LHA 120-N 154A) is cradled around the south and east side by a large, semicircular chain with mostly mag 12 stars and a total length of ~15' (association LH 87).  NGC 2048 is situated in a glorious region of the LMC; extending to the southwest is NGC 2033 = LH 81, a large stellar association (the stars on the south side of the semicircular chain are likely members) and further north is NGC 2055 = LH 96, a huge rich cloud just south of the Tarantula Nebula.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2048 = h2926 in 1834-1835 (exact sweep or date unknown as based on a sketch of the Tarantula Nebula (NGC 2070) region made over several nights in Nov 1834 and Dec 1835) and described as "a very faint large oval ill-defined nebula; not taken in sweeping, but laid down from a careful drawing.  See Notes on Catalogue of Nubecula Major".  His position is 3' NE of the center of this nebula.  Hodge and Wright describe it as "possibly only 2-3 stars in nebulosity" in their LMC Atlas.

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NGC 2049 = ESO 424-011 = MCG -05-14-011 = PGC 17657

05 43 15.2 -30 04 42

V = 12.8;  Size 2.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 168d

 

18" (12/22/11): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, 0.6'x0.3', low surface brightness, very weak concentration (possibly viewed through thin clouds).  IC 2147 lies 25' S.

 

17.5" (12/8/90): fairly faint, small, oval 3:2 NNW-SSE, bright core.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2049 = h2921 on 28 Jan 1835 and recorded "vF; S; R; pslbM; 25."  His position (measured on two sweeps) matches ESO 424-011 = PGC 17657.

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NGC 2050 = ESO 056-SC170 = S-L 609 = LH 93

05 36 41.8 -69 22 49

V = 9.3;  Size 3.0'x2.4'

 

14" (4/4/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x): NGC 2050 was taken as a 2'-3' patch of stars on the north side of the large stellar association LH 96, a 15'x10' cloud of roughly 120 stars.  At 142x, ~20 stars were resolved including a mag 10.6 star at the west edge and a mag 10.7 star (11" double) at the southwest edge.  The central part contains several mag 12 stars.  A long stream of mag 10-12 stars begins about 12' SW of the cluster and extends east-northeast for over 20', passing just south of the Tarantula Nebula, and heads towards NGC 2100.  Several of the nearby stars in this stream may also be part of NGC 2050.

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 171x, appears as just a locally brighter spot containing perhaps a dozen stars over a hazy background glow (stellar association LH 93), ~2' in diameter.  Embedded in the edge of an amazing 15'-20' linear stream of stars (association LH 93/94) which runs through the field from east-northeast to west-southwest.  This long chain passes just off the south side of the tendrils of the Tarantula Nebula and heads towards NGC 2050!   NGC 2050 is situated 30' SW of the center of the Tarantula.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2050 = h2928 in 1834-1835 (exact date unknown as based on a sketch of the Tarantula Nebula (NGC 2070) made over several nights in Nov 1834 and Dec 1835).  He described this object "Cl VI; vF st and nebulosity of irregular branching figure, or rather 3 clusters connected.  See Notes on Catalogue of Nubecula Major."  His position falls in the north-central portion of NGC 2055, a very large association and probably included part of the stream of stars mentioned in my description..  See Harold Corwin's notes for more on this object.

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NGC 2051 = ESO 056-SC169 = S-L 608

05 36 07.5 -71 00 43

V = 11.7;  Size 1.7'

 

24" (4/5/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x this LMC cluster appeared bright, fairly small, round, 35" diameter.  Located 12' ESE of brighter NGC 2031.  Two additional S-L clusters (617 and 624) share the field 8.5' SSE.  The cluster is also equidistant from a mag 9 star 8' NW and mag 7.6 HD 37899 a similar distance SW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2051 = h2930 on 23 Dec 1834 and reported "pB; S; R; gbM; 30"; insulated."  His position from a single sweep is accurate.

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NGC 2052 = ESO 056-EN176 = LMC-N155

05 37 11 -69 46 30

Size 1.2'

 

14" (4/4/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x): without a filter this emission nebula (N155) is a very faint, small patch perhaps 35" diameter, only a couple of faint stars are involved.  Situated midway between a mag 12 star 2' W and a mag 12.5 star 2' ENE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2052 = h2929 in 1834-1835 (sweep number and date unknown as based on a sketch of the Tarantula Nebula (NGC 2070) region made over several nights in Nov 1834 and Dec 1835) and described as "vvF, vvL, vglbM."  Herschel changed the description in the GC to read "eF, vvS, vglbM" (probably an error) and this was copied by Dreyer into the NGC.  His position is 2.5' SW of the faint HII region Henize N155, which the Hodge-Wright Atlas and the ESO identify as NGC 2052.   There are no other nearby candidates.  Harold Corwin suggests "NGC 2052 may be the large diffuse nebula 2 minutes of time preceding JH's position.  But it may not be."

 

Eric Lindsay, in the 1964 paper "Some NGC objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud" (IAJ, 6, 286-289), notes "Should be 2.3m E of NGC 2033. It may be a small group slightly NE in which is Henize N155.  Dreyer and Herschel differ as to size [actually Herschel changed the size]. Position measured by Herschel from a drawing and not during a sweep."

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NGC 2053 = ESO 086-SC017 = S-L 623

05 37 40 -67 24 48

V = 12.2;  Size 1.2'

 

14" (4/4/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x and 184x): fairly bright, relatively large, slightly elongated N-S, 1.0' diameter, smooth glow at 142x, slightly mottled at 184x.  A mag 12 star is 1.2' W.  Located 23' W of mag 7.0 HD 38616 and ~15' NE of the showpiece Seagull Nebula complex (NGC 2030, 2032, 2035, 2040).

 

S-L 628 lies 7' NE.  It was immediately seen as an moderately bright, fairly small glow, round, 25" diameter, fairly high surface brightness, no resolution.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2053 = h2927 on 2 Jan 1837 and noted "F; lE; gbM; 2'."  His position from a single sweep is 1' SSE of this cluster.

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NGC 2054

05 45 15.4 -10 04 59

 

=4*, HC and Dreyer.

 

George Bond discovered NGC 2054 = HN 3 on 6 Oct 1850 with a 4-inch comet-seeker at the Harvard College Observatory.  He mentioned that it required confirmation and JH didn't include this object in the GC.  Dreyer observed the cluster using the 72" at Birr Castle on 13 Jan 1877 and reported "vF, pS, iR, at times I thought it was a very small cluster, but it is doubtful".   Nevertheless, he included it in the GC Supplement (GC 5354).  Herbert Howe observed it around 1899 using a 20" refractor and noted "it appears to be simply a small triangle composed of 2 stars of mag 12, and one of mag 13."  Bigourdan's position from 26 Dec 1891 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes) also corresponds with three mag 14.5, 14.7 and 14.9 stars within 30", along with a couple of fainter stars.

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NGC 2055 = ESO 056-SC171 = LH 96

05 36 45 -69 29 54

V = 8.4;  Size 15'x10'

 

14" (4/4/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x): roughly 120 stars are resolved in a gorgeous 15'x10' SW-NE star cloud (association LH 96) situated to the south of the Tarantula Nebula.  The cloud is rich in faint stars but also includes a mag 9.6 star (HD 269820) at the southwest edge, along with a few other mag 10.5 stars.  The background shows unresolved haze and perhaps nebulosity.  Adding an NPB filter, there is definite nebulosity in the northeastern quadrant of the cloud.  It spreads northwest and northeast, merging with the outer tendrils of the Tarantula Nebula!

 

Within this cloud is S-L 610 (often misidentified as NGC 2055), a small knot of four stars in a 1' region.  It includes two bright "stars" (R127, V Å  10.5 and R128, V Å 10.7 ) at 20" separation, along with two 12th mag stars to the northwest.  Both R127 and R128 are very compact clusters with R127 containing the brightest Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) in the LMC!  NGC 2050 is probably a group of stars on the north side of the cloud.  Roughly ~20 stars were resolved including a mag 10.6 star at the west edge and a mag 10.7 star (11" double) at the southwest edge.  The central part contains several mag 12 stars.  A long stream of mag 10-12 stars begins about 12' SW of the cluster and extends east-northeast for over 20', passing just south of the Tarantula Nebula.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2055 = h2931 on 24 Nov 1834 and noted "a vL v rich cluster of sc st 10...15 which more than fills the field."  His position is near the center of this large association or star cloud (LH 96), which includes NGC 2050 and S-L 610.

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NGC 2056 = ESO 056-SC172 = S-L 611

05 36 34 -70 40 17

V = 11.8;  Size 1.5'

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): very bright, fairly large, 1.2' diameter, very high surface brightness core, mottled and clumpy halo with a couple of mag 15.5-16 stars resolved around the edges.  Second of three with NGC 2038 11' NW and NGC 2075 9' ESE.  Mag 9.3 HD 38174 is near the midpoint of NGC 2056 and 2075.  Mag 10.5 HD 269825 lies 3.6' SSW and a mag 11 star is 2.5' N.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2056 = h2932 on 23 Dec 1834 and recorded "pB, R, bM, the preceding of 2 [with NGC 2075] on the same parallel; a star 9 mag between."  His position is ~30" SE of center of this cluster.

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NGC 2057 = ESO 056-SC174 = S-L 616

05 36 56.2 -70 16 10

V = 12.2;  Size 1.8'

 

24" (4/9/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this LMC cluster is on the south side of a field filled with 8 NGC clusters.  At 260x it appeared bright, fairly small, round, ~30" diameter, fairly well concentrated with a small bright core.  Situated on a line between NGC 2065 4' NE and a mag 10.4 HD 269839 3' SW.  NGC 2046 lies 6.8' WNW, 2047 7.0' NW and 2058 6.4' N.

 

James Dunlop probably discovered NGC 2057 = D 104? on 24 Sep 1826 and described "a very small faint nebula, 8" or 10" diameter." He made a single observation and his position is 11' SE of this cluster.  Assuming Dunlop also picked up NGC 2057 = D 104 and NGC 2065 = D 105, this identification is reasonable.  JH independently discovered NGC 2057 = h2935 on 11 Nov 1836 and recorded "pF; S; R; gbM; the 5th (4th properly) of a group of 6, RA only estimated from a rough diagram incorrect (as it would seem) in the order of the objects."

 

The entire group of clusters (NGC 2046, 2047, 2057, 2058, 2059, 2065, 2066) was sketched by Joseph Turner on 26 Apr 1876 using the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope.  See http://www.docdb.net/history/texts/1885osngmt________e/lithograph_m_4_33.php

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NGC 2058 = ESO 056-SC173 = S-L 614

05 36 54.5 -70 09 44

V = 11.9;  Size 2.1'

 

24" (4/9/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the brightest cluster in a 15' field of 8 NGC clusters including NGC 2046, 47, 57, 59, 65, 66 and 72.  All 8 clusters easily fit in the field of 13mm Ethos at 200x within a 20' circle.  Using 260x, NGC 2058 appeared very bright, large, well concentrated.  The outer halo extends up to 2' diameter using averted vision.  At 350x, a few very faint stars are resolved in the halo and around the edges of the core.  Two mag 12.5-13 stars lie 1' WSW and 1.5' WNW.  Other nearby clusters include NGC 2059 2' N, NGC 2066 4.1' E, NGC 2047 5.4' WSW and NGC 2065 5.8' SE.  I also picked up a couple of "anonymous" clusters or HII knots.  OGLE-CL LMC 632 is north of NGC 2059 and LHA 120-N171B is following NGC 2072.  This group of clusters is located just over a degree south of the Tarantula Nebula.

 

James Dunlop probably discovered NGC 2058 = D 103 on 24 Sep 1826 and described "a A round well-defined nebula, 30" diameter, bright at the centre.  The preceding of three nebulae forming a triangle"  He made a single observation and his position is just 3.7' NW of the cluster. On 11 Nov 1836, JH called this cluster (h2933), "B; R; gbM; 90"; the 3rd of a group of 6."  Three sweeps later he observed the cluster again as "vB; R; the 3rd of a group of 7.  Pl IV, fig 9."  His position and sketch is accurate.  JH equated Dunlop 102 with h2933, which Dunlop described as "a faint ill-defined nebula, perhaps 3' diameter".  The large size, though, makes this identification unlikely.

 

The entire group of clusters (NGC 2046, 2047, 2057, 2058, 2059, 2065, 2066) was also sketched by Joseph Turner on 26 Apr 1876 using the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope.  See http://www.docdb.net/history/texts/1885osngmt________e/lithograph_m_4_33.php

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NGC 2059 = ESO 056-SC175 = S-L 613

05 37 01.5 -70 07 37

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'

 

24" (4/9/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this LMC cluster is on the north side of a field of 8 NGC clusters.  At 200x it appeared moderately bright, fairly small, round, 35" diameter.  At 350x it appeared grainy but was still unresolved except for a faint star at the north edge.  Located 2.1' NNE of NGC 2058 and just 40" following a mag 12 star.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2059 = h2936 on 11 Nov 1836 and reported "vF; the 5th (4th in MS) of a group of 6.  Pl IV, fig 9."  His position and sketch is accurate.  This cluster was also sketched using the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope.  See http://www.docdb.net/history/texts/1885osngmt________e/lithograph_m_4_32.php).  The cluster was shown as elongated N-S. The Hodge-Wright Atlas misidentifies OGLE-CL LMC 632 (too far north) as NGC 2059.

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NGC 2060 = 30 Dor B = LMC-N157B = ESO 057-EN1 = LH 99 = SNR 0538-69.1

05 37 46.9 -69 10 18

V = 9.6;  Size 2'

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this fairly small knot of nebulosity is situated just southwest of the main mass of the Tarantula nebula approximately 7' from the center.  About a half-dozen mag 12-14 stars are involved (association LH 99) in the glow with a total diameter of 2'.  A mag 12 "star" on the north edge (Brey 73 = TLD1) was resolved by the HST into a very compact cluster with 11 components, including a Wolf-Rayet star.

 

Studies have shown NGC 2060 harbors a compact x-ray source and a rapidly rotating pulsar, indicating an obscured Crab-like supernova remnant (1998 IAU Circ., 6810, 2).  The cluster also contains VFTS 102, the most rapidly rotating massive O-type star known, which is possibly related to the pulsar.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2060 between Nov 1836 and Mar 1837 with a 5-inch refractor and listed it as #642 in his preliminary catalogue of "Stars, Nebulae and Clusters in the Nubecula Major." (not included in his main CGH catalogue).  His position corresponds with this SNR on the southwest side of the Tarantula nebula.

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NGC 2061 = ESO 363-**16

05 42 53.2 -33 57 29

Size 16'

 

18" (1/15/07): at 115x I was initially attacted by a large, bright trapezoid-shaped asterism of 5 stars with a pair of 9.5-magnitude stars at 35" separation at the NW vertex.  The brightest star in the asterism is a mag 7.2 orange star at the NE vertex with an 11th magnitude companion (h3794).  But John Herschel was likely referring to an 8' scattering of a couple of dozen mag 13 and fainter stars that lie to the north of the bright star.  This group appears to be a random collection at the eyepiece.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2061 = h2924 on 9 Jan 1836 and logged "Cluster, 8th class, course, loose and filling the field; stars 10...13m.  Place that of a double star in a vacant part."  There is no double star at Herschel's position but exactly 1.0 tmin west is h3794 = 7.7/11.6 at 20" separation with a mean position of 05 42 53.2 -33 57 29 (J2000).  There is a scattering of stars extending 8' north and five brighter stars to the south.  The ESO position is 05 42 42 -34 00.6 (2000), and it is classified as a group of stars instead of a cluster.   Dorothy Carlson also classifies this group as "no cl" (from Helwan Observatory) and this is repeated in the RNGC.

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NGC 2062 = ESO 086-SC020 = S-L 640

05 40 03.8 -66 52 36

V = 12.7;  Size 0.9'

 

18" (4/6/16 - Coonabarabran, 236x): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, 30" diameter, mottled. Some extremely faint stars are on the verge of resolution including one at the north or northeast edge.  Two mag 9.8 stars lie 1.6' S and 2.9' SSW.  A small, low surface patch, ~20"x15" NW-SE, was noticed 4.7' W.  On the DSS, it appears to be a possible uncatalogued LMC cluster.  S-L 643 lies 10' SSE.  It appeared fairly faint, fairly small, round, smooth surface brightness.  Located 4.7' E of mag 8.4 HD 38305. A mag 12 star is 2' SE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2062 = h2937 on 3 Jan 1837 and recorded "vF; E; glbM; 40"; north of 2 stars 10m."  His position is 1 tmin too far west, but his declination matches this cluster and two bright stars lie to the south, so the identification is certain.  Eric Lindsay first noted this error in "Some NGC objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud" (IAJ, 6, 286-289), "Position should probably be 1.3m E corresponding to S/L 640."

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NGC 2063

05 46 48 +08 39 12

 

18" (1/26/09): although nothing stands out in the field, near William Herschel's position is a group of 30 stars elongated N-S in a string.  Includes mag 10.1 HD 247555 near the north end, though the richest concentration is at the south end (7' S from the bright star).

 

Other observers have picked brighter groupings in the area as NGC 2063 and WH's description of "a small cluster of very small scattered stars" is not very helpful.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent and in any case this number likely applies to an asterism and not a true cluster.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2063 = H VIII-2 on 26 Dec 1783 (very early sweep 67) and logged "A small Cl of scattered stars."  In a second sweep (28 Dec 1785) he reported "A few pretty closely scattered very small stars." JH equated his h366 = NGC 2039 with his father's H VIII-2, but these are two diferent star fields.  Harold Corwin notes there is only a small grouping of faint stars near WH's position although a larger and brighter patch of stars is ~8' south-southeast.  In any case, this is likely just a random group of stars.  The position given in Archinal and Hynes (Star Clusters) to the west of NGC 2039 is incorrect.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 2064 = LBN 939 = Ced 55s

05 46 18.4 +00 00 21

Size 12'x2'

 

17.5" (12/20/95): very faint reflection nebula in the M78 complex, but clearly visible.  Appears elongated 2:1 SW-NE, at most 2'x1'.  There are no involved stars.  Located 7' SW of M78 and 4' SE of a mag 10.5 star.  The large listed dimensions refer to a very elongated strip extending NNE on the west side of M78.

 

13" (2/25/84): very faint reflection nebula, small.  Located 7' WSW of M78 and 4' SE of a mag 10.5 star.  This difficult object is near the visual threshold.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 2064 near M78 on 11 Jan 1864.  He noted a mag 9-10 star was 4' north-preceding and measured an accurate position (2 nights).  The visual extent is much smaller than the catalogued dimensions.

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NGC 2065 = ESO 057-SC002 = S-L 626

05 37 35.9 -70 14 07

V = 11.2;  Size 2.6'

 

24" (4/9/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x, this LMC cluster appeared very bright, fairly large, round, 1.2' diameter, weak concentration.  With averted vision, the surface is mottled and the outer halo increases to at least 1.5'.  The cluster appeared very lively at 350x with a few stars just on the verge of resolution.  At this power the halo appeared up to 1.8' in diameter.  A mag 12 star is at the NE edge and two mag 13/13.5 stars lie ~1.5' WNW.  Eight NGC clusters reside in this one field with four other clusters within 6': NGC 2057 4' SW, NGC 2066 4.2' N, NGC 2072 4' E and NGC 2058 5.8' NW!

 

James Dunlop probably discovered NGC 2065 = D 105 on 24 Sep 1826 and described "a round well-defined nebula, 25" diameter."  He made two observations and his position is 9' SE of this cluster.  On 11 Oct 1836, JH found the cluster and reported h2938 as "pB; R; last of group of 6.  Pl IV, fig 9."  Three sweeps later he noted "B; the 6th of a group of 7."  His position and sketch is accurate.  He questioned if this object was D 103, though D105 seems a better match.  The entire group of clusters (NGC 2046, 2047, 2057, 2058, 2059, 2065, 2066) was also sketched by Joseph Turner on 26 Apr 1876 using the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope.  See http://www.docdb.net/history/texts/1885osngmt________e/lithograph_m_4_33.php

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NGC 2066 = ESO 057-SC003 = S-L 627

05 37 41.2 -70 09 58

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'

 

24" (4/9/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x appeared moderately bright and large, round, 45" diameter, very weakly concentrated.  Located on the eastern end of a rich field of 9 NGC clusters and forms the vertex of an isosceles right triangle with NGC 2065 4.2' due south and NGC 2058 4.1' due west.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2066 = h2939 on 12 Nov 1836 and noted "vF and S; the last of a group of 7; this nebula escaped notice sweep 748.  Plate IV, fig 9."  The sketch on Plate IV accurately places the 7 clusters (flipped right-left and upside down).  The entire group of clusters (NGC 2046, 2047, 2057, 2058, 2059, 2065, 2066) was also sketched by Joseph Turner on 26 Apr 1876 using the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope.  See http://www.docdb.net/history/texts/1885osngmt________e/lithograph_m_4_33.php

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NGC 2067 = Ced 55t

05 46 29 +00 06 24

Size 8'x3'

 

13.1" (2/25/84): extremely faint, suspected reflection nebula 5' WNW of M78.  Sighting uncertain as only visible fleetingly.  [It's not clear from my description whether I observed the very low surface brightness circular patch NW of M78 or the brightest portion of the streamer pointing towards NGC 2064].

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 2067 = T I-17 in 1876 with the 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory.  His position and rough tranlation of his description (in German) points to the very faint nebulosity to the northwest of M78.  Harold Corwin lists two possible regions as the intended object - "a large patch of pretty low surface brightness nebulosity about 5 arcmin northwest of M78" and "a knot about 3 arcmin southwest, the brightest part of a long faint streamer pointed toward NGC 2064".  It's possible that Tempel's nebula applies to both sections.

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NGC 2068 = M78 = Ced 55u = vdB 59

05 46 45 +00 04 42

V = 8.0;  Size 8'x6'

 

17.5" (12/20/95): very bright reflection nebula surrounding two mag 10.5 stars with a mag 13 star involved at the south end.  Large, irregular shape, 6'x4'.  Brightest along the north side which has a sharply defined slightly bowed-out edge with one of the mag 10.5 stars near the midpoint.  A brighter knot is just following this star.  The nebula irregularly fans out towards the south and fades with no distinct borders but tapers somewhat at the south edge.

 

17.5" (2/1/92):very bright, surprisingly large, 6'x4'.  Surrounds two mag 10 stars although the nebulosity extends further to east of these stars.  Also a mag 13 star is embedded in the SE end.  Brighter and sharper edge gently curves from west to north side.  Appears to fan out to the SE where the nebula gradually fades into background.  Brightest in a group of reflection nebulae including NGC 2064 7' SW and NGC 2067 6' WNW.

 

8" (12/6/80): bright reflection nebula, large, NW edge brighter and sharper, elongated, roughly rectangular, wide pair of mag 10 stars involved, striking.  Brightest in a group of reflection nebulae.

 

Pierre MŽchain discovered M78 = NGC 2068 = h368 in March 1780.  WH described M78 on 19 Dec 1783 as "Two large [bright] stars, well defined, within a nebulous glare of light resembling that in Orion's sword. There are also three very small [faint] stars just visible in the nebulous part which seem to be component particles thereof. I think there is a faint ray near 1/2 deg long towards the east and another towards the south east less extended, but I am not quite so well assured of the reality of these latter phenomena as I could wish, and would rather ascribe them to some deception. At least I shall suspend my judgement till I have seen it again in very fine weather, tho' the night is far from bad."  M78 was the first reflection nebula that was discovered.

 

R.J. Mitchell, using LdR's 72" on 9 Jan 1856, described "in finder eyepiece a B oval neb with n and nf edges brightest and best defined, and sp edge fading away gradually; with higher power there is seen a decided darkness at and between the stars.  I can confirm previous observation as to the curve formed by the brightest part of the neb."

 

Joseph Turner made a sketch in Dec 1876 using the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope - see http://www.docdb.net/history/texts/1885osngmt________e/lithograph_m_3_31.php

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NGC 2069 = Tarantula Nebula = ESO 057-EN007

05 38 37.7 -69 00 49

V = 10.1

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the northern outer loop of the Tarantula Nebula which Dunlop and Herschel catalogued separately.  Several mag 12-13 stars are involved. See observing notes for NGC 2070.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 2069 = D 143 on 3 Aug 1826 with his 9 reflector and noted a "A pretty large, faint, ill-defined nebula, elongated in the direction of the meridian."  His position is 2'-3' too far north (unusually accurate for him).  JH recorded h2940 on 24 Nov 1834 as "the middle of a large extended faint nebulous mass which forms the northern branch of the great looped nebula, and is almost, or entirely, detached from it. See the next object [Tarantula Nebula]."

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NGC 2070 = Tarantula Nebula = 30 Doradus = LMC-N157A = ESO 057-EN6 = S-L 633 = LH 100

05 38 42 -69 06 03

V = 8.3;  Size 40'

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x unfiltered, I examined the 30 Doradus cluster = R136 cluster at the heart of the Tarantula Nebula.  The cluster is dominated by R136a, a 10th magnitude bloated "star" at the center that would not focus sharply.  Surrounding this star was a compact but very rich carpet of dozens of mag 14-15.5 stars packed into a 1' region that were much too numerous to count.

 

24" (4/5/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia):  The Tarantula nebula was simply unreal at 200x in the 13mm Ethos with a UHC filter -- better than any photo I've seen and convincingly 3-dimensional, even though I viewed it late so the elevation was only 20¡.  Although this magnification brought out an unbelievable amount of detail in the loops and ribbons, the main complex fit snugly in the eyepiece field (30').

 

20" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): the Tarantula is the largest known emission region (800-1000 light years) and is easily visible to the naked-eye from Australia.  The view of the Tarantula early in the morning through a 20" f/5 at 127x (20 Nagler) and OIII filter was jaw-dropping!  Near the center are several bright loops and arcs.  Extending out are a number of convoluted loops including one heart-shaped arch which is quite large.  Running out from the central region of the nebula are streaming lanes of nebulosity.  One in particular extends quite a long distance and the outer loops and streamers seem to merge into some of the nearby HII regions forming a mind-boggling complex.  There are perhaps 10 different loops and ribbons in the main body giving a 3-dimensional effect.  Near the center lies an extremely compact cluster of superluminous stars (R136) but only a few were visible including what appears to be a single bright star.  Also a number of additional stars are scattered about the main body.

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): NGC 2060 lies 6.5' SW of the central cluster (R136) of the Tarantula.  It appeared as a fairly small knot of nebulosity, ~2' diameter, with about a half-dozen mag 12-14 stars involved (association LH 99) in the glow.  A mag 12 "star" on the north edge has been resolved into a very compact cluster by the HST. Studies have shown this nebula contains a compact x-ray source and a rapidly rotating pulsar, indicating NGC 2060 is a Crab-like supernova remnant in the LMC (1998 IAU Circ., 6810, 2).

 

Hodge 301 is the oldest cluster in the Tarantula (age 25-30 million years) and is situated just 3' NW of the central cluster (R136).   It appeared as a coompact 30" knot with a half-dozen mag 13-14 stars resolved over haze.

 

12" (6/29/02 - Bargo, Australia): first view of the Tarantula in Les Dalrymple's 12" was early in the evening, very low in the southern sky (20¡ elevation) and without a filter.  Even under these conditions it was a fascinating sight – fairly bright, detailed, 15' convoluted, mottled nebulosity with several striking loops or ribbons which radiate out from the central region.  Sweeping in the nearby fields I ran across numerous small knots of nebulosity and small clusters.

 

10x30 IS binoculars (1/21/12): viewed the Tarantula Nebula in a 19" dobsonian (pointed horizontally) and in my binoculars. At a declination of -69.1¡, the Tarantula just skimmed the horizon from the 9300' Mauna Kea Visitor Center, culminating 1.1¡ above the horizon!  Still with atmospheric refraction, it was obvious in the binoculars. There was too much extinction and seeing effects for much structure in the 19".

 

Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered NGC 2070 = Lac I-2 = D 142 = h2941 in 1751-1752 using a half-inch refractor at 8x during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope.  He included it in his 1755 catalogue as Class I No. 2 and remarked "like the former [NGC 104: "like the nucleus of a fairly bright comet] but faint."  James Dunlop reported D 142 as "a pretty large ill-defined nebula, of an irregular branched figure, with a pretty bright small star in the south side of the centre, which gives it the appearance of a nucleus. This is resolvable into very minute stars - Figure 4. is a very good representation of the nebula resolved. (N.B. The 30 Doradus is surrounded by a number of nebulae of considerable magnitudes, nine or ten in number, with the 30 Doradus in the centre.)"

 

On his first observation from the Cape of Good Hope, JH noted "the great nebula; an assemblage of loops." He later discussed in detail, "This is one of the most singular and extraordinary objects which the heavens present, and derives no small addition to its intrinsic interest from its situation, which is among the thickest of the nebulae and clustering groups of the greater Nubecula, of whose total area it occupies one-five hundredth part. For these reasons, as well as because its real nature has been completely misunderstood, and its magnified appearance so strangely misrepresented in the only figure which I am aware to have been made of it as to convey an entirely erroneous impression both of its form and structure; I have taken great pains to give as nearly as possible a perfect representation of it as it appeared in the twenty-feet reflector on a great many occasions, but more especially on the 29th November, 1834, when a 'very careful drawing' was made of it by the eye alone, unaided by any micrometrical measures; and on the 21st and 22nd December, 1835, when the nebula was worked in from the telescope on a 'skeleton' previously prepared by an approximate reduction of the micrometrical measures of its principle stars, forming a chart, with a system of triangles, for its reception and for that of minute stars not susceptible of micrometric measurement, or not considered as of sufficient importance to be so measured. This is the only mode in which correct monographs can be executed of nebulae of this kind which consist of complicated windings and ill-defined members obliterated by the smallest illumination of the field of view; and in which the small stars, when very numerous, can be mapped down with tolerable precision. The following catalogue contains all the stars which I have been able distinctly to perceive within the area occupied by the nebula and nearly adjacent to it... [The catalogue contains 105 stars.] The stars thus scattered over the area occupied by this nebula may or may not be systematically connected with it, either as an individual object, or as part of the vast and complex system which constitutes the Nubecula. In respect of their arrangement there is nothing to distinguish them from those which occupy the rest of the area covered by the Nubecula, in which every variety of condensation and mode of distribution is to be met with. The nebula itself  (as seen in the 20-feet reflector) is of the milky or irresolvable kind - quite as free from any mottling or incipient stellar appearance as any other nebula which I can remember to have examined with that instrument. Its situation in the Nubecula is immediately adjacent to two large and rich clusters [NGC 2042 and NGC 2055]. Mr Dunlop remarks that 'The 30 Doradus is surrounded by a number of nebulae of considerable magnitudes, nine or ten in number, with the 30 Doradus in the centre.', of which nebulae he gives a figured representation. For what objects these can be intended I am quite at a loss to conjecture, unless they be the brighter portions of the nebulous convolutions seen without their connecting enbranchments. But with this supposition their relative situations, intensities, and magnitudes in the figure alluded to, so far as I am able to judge, appear irreconcilable."

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NGC 2071 = LBN 938 = Ced 55v = vdB 60

05 47 07.2 +00 17 39

Size 4'x3'

 

17.5" (12/20/95): fairly bright reflection nebula surounding a mag 9.5 star, 3.5' diameter.  Shape appears irregular (although no distinct borders) but extends more to the south side of the star, which has a faint companion close south.  A second mag 9.5 star (not involved) lies 3.5' NW.  The field is strangely lacking in stars due to obscuration.

 

17.5" (2/1/92): fairly bright reflection nebula surrounds a mag 10 star although extends farther south.  A second mag 13 star is embedded just south of the bright star.  The round outline gradually fades into the background.  A mag 10 star is 3.5' NW but the field is strangely devoid of stars due to obscuring dust.  Located 15' NNE of M78.

 

8": faint reflection nebula.  Located 15' NNE of M78.  Surround the SE member of a mag 10 double star.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2071 = H IV-36 on 1 Jan 1786 (sweep 506) and recorded "a star affected with vF extensive milky chevelure. The star not quite central." On a second observation on 22 Feb 1786 (sweep 526) he noted again "a star with a milky chevelure. vF and extensive."  In his PT paper of 1791 he mentions "As by the word chevelure I always denoted something relating to a center, the connection cannot be doubted."  His position is fairly accurate.

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NGC 2072 = ESO 057-SC004 = S-L 630

05 38 23.8 -70 14 01

V = 13.2;  Size 1.0'

 

24" (4/10/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x this LMC cluster appeared moderately bright, fairly small, round, 35"-40" diameter, weak concentration.  Located 4' E of NGC 2065 at the east end of a group of 8 NGC clusters (and a couple of fainter ones)

 

Pietro Baracchi discovered NGC 2072 on 20 Dec 1884 with the 48-inch Great Melbourne Telescope while observing near NGC 2065 in the LMC .  He described "following H.1265 [NGC 2065] by 47s and north 40" is a very faint, small, indistinct patch."  Barrachi also found NGC 2043 in the area, though the identification for that number is not clear.  Dreyer credits "Melbourne Obs" in the NGC (R. L. Ellery's "Observations of Southern Nebulae made with the [48"] Great Melbourne Telescope 1869 - 1885").  His position is just 0.6' NE of center of this small cluster.

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NGC 2073 = ESO 554-031 = MCG -04-14-024 = PGC 17772

05 45 53.9 -21 59 58

V = 12.4;  Size 1.5'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (12/3/88): fairly faint, very small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 35' NE of the wide bright double star Alpha Leporis 3.6/6.3 at 90".

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2073 = H III-241 = h2934 on 20 Nov 1784 (sweep 325) and recorded "eF, vS, lE nearly in the parallel."

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NGC 2074 = LMC-N158C = ESO 057-EN8 = S-L 637 = LH 101

05 39 03 -69 29 54

V = 9.3;  Size 3.5'x2.0'

 

24" (4/10/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this prominent HII region (LMC-N158C) and cluster (OB-association LH 101) appeared as a very bright, very large "C" shaped nebula surrounding a semi-circular chain or crown of stars open to the SW.  Two bright mag 10.4 and 11 stars oriented SW-NE (50" separation) lie on the northwest end of this crown. The northeastern luminary consists of a 1.8" pair of OB-stars (TDS 3273 = 11.4/11.8) and a mag 12.5 Wolf-Rayet star just 3" W. The mag 11 star to its southwest (HD 269923) is the brightest single star (A0-class) in the cluster.  Also, a mag 12.5 star (O3-class supergiant) is situated on southeast end of the chain.  A bright knot of diameter ~35" is superimposed on the general glow within the northeast side of the "C".  At 216x at least 20 fainter stars were resolved in the chain besides the brighter stars at the ends.

 

NGC 2074 is part of a huge complex (LMC-N158) stretching 11' SW-NE with NGC 2081, a bright HII region that lies just 8' NE.  LMC-N158 is located roughly 20' SSE of the center of the Tarantula Nebula.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2074 = h2942 in 1834-1835 (exact sweep or date unknown as based on a detailed sketch of the Tarantula Nebula (NGC 2070) region made over several nights in Nov 1834 and Dec 1835) and recorded as "pL, pB, mE, of irreg rounded and somewhat serpentine figure, much brighter in its foll part; elongated generally in parallel. Involves 5 stars, 2 of which are 10th mag.  See Notes in 'First Approximation Towards a Catalogue of Objects in the Magellanic Clouds...'."  His position is ~1' W of center.

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NGC 2075 = LMC-N213 = ESO 057-EN5 = S-L 631

05 38 21 -70 41 04

V = 11.5;  Size 2.2'

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): very bright, irregular, triangular-shaped, ~50" diameter.  Near the center is a very bright knot consisting of a few extremely close stars.  A couple of additional stars are resolved within the glow and a number of stars are near the edges.  The cluster is surrounded by faint nebulosity (LMC-N213) which doubles the size of the object.  Forms the vertex of an isosceles right triangle with mag 9.4 HD 38174 4.5' W and a mag 10 star 4.5' S.  Third of three clusters with NGC 2056 9' WNW and NGC 2038 20' NW.  NGC 2107 lies 24' ENE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2075 = h2943 on 23 Dec 1834 and logged "B, R, bM, resolved; the following of two on the same parallel [with NGC 2056], a star 9 mag intervening."  His position is at the east edge of this nebulous cluster.

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NGC 2076 = MCG -03-15-012 = PGC 17804

05 46 47.1 -16 46 54

V = 13.0;  Size 2.2'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): moderately bright, fairly large, oval SW-NE, fairly high surface brightness but no distinctive core.  Several bright stars are nearby including mag 7.8 SAO 150803 8' NNE and mag 9.2 SAO 150795 5' WNW.  This is an early-type galaxy with a broad equatorial dust lane.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2076 = H III-267 on 4 Feb 1785 (sweep 365) and recorded "vF, pS, irr E, bM, requires attention to be seen."

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NGC 2077 = LMC-N160D = ESO 057-EN9 = LH 103

05 39 35.3 -69 39 21

V = 11.7;  Size 1.0'

 

24" (4/9/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the southwest component of a very bright, impressive 2' emission patch with NGC 2080.  At 200x and UHC filter, NGC 2077 appeared bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 E-W, ~1.2'x0.6'.  Without a filter, three fainter stars are involved in the glow (one is a massive Wolf-Rayet star).  Forms a close pair with NGC 2080 (Ghost Head Nebula) 1.1' NE.

 

NGC 2085 and 2086, a smaller pair of bright HII glows, lie 3' and 4' ESE, and the entire collection forms LMC-N160. In addition, a bright complex of HII knots including NGC 2078, 2079, 2083 and 2084 (LMC-N159 and O-association LW 105) lies 5' S.  Together these groups form a stunning field about 35' SSE of the Tarantula Nebula.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2077 = h2947 in Dec 1834 (exact sweep date unknown) and described as "The preceding two forming a double nebula.  The place deduced from that of the following and brighter [NGC 2080 = h2950], by Delta RA = 7.1sec, Delta NPD = 20", as they result from the drawing of Dec 4, 1837.  Pl III, figure 4."

 

James Dunlop discovered the entire complex (D 145) on 24 Sep 1826 and recorded "This is the centre of a large cluster of extremely minute stars, with many very small nebulae in it."  His position is just 4' SE of NGC 2080.  As NGC 2077 has a high surface brightness, it was likely picked up as one of the "very small nebulae in it."

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NGC 2078 = LMC-N159F = ESO 057-EN10

05 39 39.7 -69 44 37

V = 10.9;  Size 0.8'

 

25" (10/21/17 - OzSky): NGC 2078 is the northwest portion of the multi-sectioned NGC 2078-79-83-84 complex (LMC-N159).  At 244x + NPB filter, it appeared as a bright, elongated N-S patch, ~1.3' in length, with a prominent mag 12.1 star (blue supergiant R128) involved on the south side and two mag 14/14.5 stars on the north end.  It appears brightest on the southern end and dims on the northern end.  NGC 2079, the brightest section, lies 1.7' S.

 

24" (4/9/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the northwest component of an impressive 4' emission nebula filled with bright knots (LMC-N159), several of which form a curving "S" shape.  At 200x and UHC filter it appeared as a fairly bright, moderately large glow surrounding a mag 12 star (B5 supergiant R148) and two fainter stars.  This knot is elongated ~E-W, ~1.2'x0.8' and is encased in a fainter outer halo that extends perhaps 1.5', mostly to the north.  NGC 2079, an extremely bright isolated patch, lies 1.7' S, NGC 2083 is a similar distance to the east and NGC 2084 is 2.5' SE.

 

R148 forms a 6" pair - not logged in either of the two observations above - with the optical counterpart (V Å 14.8) of LMC X-1, a 10 solar-mass black hole and variable X-ray source.  Nearby is the impressive LMC-N160 complex with NGC's 2077 and 2080, another very bright patch of nebulosity 6' N, and NGC's 2085 and 2086, a smaller bright pair, a similar distance to the NE.  This complex, along with LMC-N159, is within the O-association LH 105.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2078 = h2948 on 23 Dec 1834 and recorded "the north preceding of the four principal nuclei of the nebula of Plate III, figure 4."  Herschel's sketch shows a complex object with 7 condensations or nuclei, involved in nebulosity. The four NGC objects in this grouping are NGC 2078, 2079, 2083 and NGC 2084.  Glen Cozens and Wolfgang Steinicke assign Dunlop's #149 (discovered in 1826) to NGC 2078.  Dunlop recorded "a faint round nebula, about 1' diameter" and his position is 6' due east of this emission nebula.  But unless there is additional information available, I don't see how a specific object in this complex can be assigned to D 149.

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NGC 2079 = LMC-N159A = ESO 057-EN11

05 39 40 -69 46 20

V = 11.8;  Size 1.0'

 

25" (10/21/17 - OzSky): NGC 2079 = Henize N159A is at the southwest end of the impressive NGC 2078-79-83-84 complex (N159) and has the highest surface brightness.  At 244x + NPB filter it appeared extremely bright, moderately large, with an unusual triangular outline, ~1' diameter, extremely high surface brightness.  A thin fainter strip is on the south end, otherwise, the outline is very sharply defined.  Contains a slightly darker interior region or perhaps a weak dust lane.  Unfiltered a faint star or two is at the center, including the O5-type ionizing source DD 13.  NGC 2079 is just detached from NGC 2084 to the northeast.

 

24" (4/9/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the brightest section of an impressive 4' collection of perhaps 8 different emission knots (collectively LMC-N159) that are encased in a diffuse glow and carry four separate NGC designations. NGC 2079 (LMC-N159A) is situated on the southwest end of the complex and appeared extremely bright, ~1' diameter,with a uniform very high surface brightness.  The outline has an unusual triangular shape (one vertex at the north end) with a well-defined border and appears detached from the main section.  Without a filter, a faint star and ionizing source (DD 13, an unresolved pair of O-stars) is located at the center of the glow.

 

NGC 2079 is collinear with two mag 12 stars 1.7' N (at the center of 2078) and another mag 12 star 3.5' N. The main section of the complex to the northeast forms a large "S" shaped group of multiple knots with NGC 2078 1.7' N, 2084 to the east and 2083 to the NE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2079 = h2949 on 23 Dec 1834 and recorded "The most southern of a group of 4 or 5 nebulae, 5' diameter, mixed with stars.  This is the south preceding of the four chief nuclei [NGC 2078, 2079, 2083 and 2084] of the complex group of Plate III, figure 4". Herschel's sketch shows a complex object with 7 condensations or nuclei involved in nebulosity with the NGC 2079 at the upper right corner in the detailed sketch.

 

James Dunlop discovered the entire complex earlier in 1826 and described D 152 as "a cluster of six or seven small nebulae, forming a square figure 5' or 6' diameter, with several minute stars mixt. This is a very pretty group of nebulae - see Figure 5."  Dunlop's sketch appears to show this complex though his position is 15' SE.  Since NGC 2079 is one of the brightest sections, Dunlop should probably be credited with the discovery.

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NGC 2080 = Ghost Head Nebula = LMC-N160A = ESO 057-EN12 = S-L 641

05 39 44.6 -69 38 45

V = 10.4;  Size 1.5'

 

24" (4/9/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x and UHC filter, this emission nebula is very impressive, appearing as an extremely bright nebulous glow with an irregular shape, ~1.5' diameter, slightly elongated.  The brightest section is encased in a larger, fainter nebulous glow that extends mostly to the south.  NGC 2077, a bright HII glow, is attached on the SW side with their centers just 1' apart.  Located just 30' SSE of the center of the Tarantula Nebula!

 

Along with NGC 2085 and 2086, another pair of knots ~3' SE, the complex forms LMC-N160.  Roughly 6' S is LMC-N159, another stunning group of nebulous glows consisting of NGC 2078, 2079, 2083 and 2084.  NGC 2080 is the brightest region in the LMC-N159/160 complex and is nicknamed the "Ghost-Head Nebula" from a 2000 HST image.

 

At 350x the view was fascinating with 3 or 4 "stars" embedded (the brightest one or two appeared to be quasi-stellar knots) and NGC 2080 had a curdled texture.  A couple of brighter mag 13/14 stars are off the NW side and a number of stars trail off to the east and NE (part of the O-association LH 103).

 

The two "eyes" of the Ghost Head (noted as quasi-stellar above) are rare, compact "high excitation blobs" (HEBs) of diameter ~3".  They were discovered in 1986 and identified as A1 and A2, separated by ~20". 

 

James Dunlop probably discovered NGC 2080 = D 145 or D 150 in 1826 and described D 145 as "the centre of a large cluster of extremely minute stars, with many very small nebulae in it."  Dunlop's position falls just southwest of the NGC 2077/2080/2085/2086 association and just northwest of the NGC 2078/2079/2083 association, so he certainly observed several of these objects and NGC 2080 is perhaps the brightest individual section.  D 150 was recorded as "A well-defined round nebula, small.  This precedes a group of nebulae."  There is nothing at his position but NGC 2080 is 14' NW and it is on the west side of the complex, so fits the description.

 

JH observed NGC 2080 = h2947 in Dec 1834 and logged "B; R; double; the other sp [NGC 2077] is F; R; followed by clustering stars."   An excellent sketch of the entire complex is on plate III, figure 4.

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NGC 2081 = LMC-N158A = ESO 057-SC13 = LH 104

05 40 00 -69 24 24

V = 9.9;  Size 6'x3.5'

 

24" (4/10/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): At 214x, this is a gorgeous star cloud consisting of two dozen stars in a 5' region (stellar association LH 104, which is dominated by B-class supergiants), including many mag 13-14 stars as well as mag 12.2 star HD 38489 (an extreme luminous blue variable!) on the northeast side.  Adding a UHC filter enhances a fairly bright HII glow that nearly surrounds the entire cluster in a triangular wreath (weak in the center)!  The brightest portion is a ribbon with a bright region (identified in SIMBAD as BSDL 2722) at one end just south of the cluster and extending due east.  With closer inspection BSDL 2722 actually consists of a couple of knots and fainter streaks intersecting!  Just beyond the east end of this ribbon is NGC 2091, a slightly elongated cluster that is collinear with the streamer.  HDE 269936, a mag 11 "star" (found to be an extremely compact cluster) is just off the SW side and NGC 2074, a bright HII region and cluster (part of the same complex LMC-N158), lies 8' SW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2081 = h2951 in 1834-1835 (exact sweep or date unknown as based on a detailed sketch of the Tarantula Nebula (NGC 2070) region made over several nights in Nov 1834 and Dec 1835) and simply noted in the CGH catalogue as a "Cluster VI of vF stars and nebula.  See Catalogue of Nubecula Major."  His coordinates and placement on his chart of the LMC matches this association.

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NGC 2082 = ESO 086-021 = PGC 17609

05 41 51.0 -64 18 04

V = 12.1;  Size 1.8'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

14" (4/7/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): fairly bright, moderately large, round, 1.3' diameter, irregular surface brightness, slightly mottled like a face on spiral.  A mag 12 star is 2.5' ESE and two mag 11.5 stars are 8' WNW.  Shines through the north edge of the LMC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2082 = h2945 on 30 Nov 1834 and recorded "pF, L, R, vlbM, 2'."  On a later sweep he added "B, L, R, glbM, 90", has a *10m 2' dist 25¡ south-following."  His position and decsription matches ESO 086-021 = PGC 17609.

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NGC 2083 = LMC-N159D = ESO 057-EN14

05 39 58.8 -69 44 10

V = 10.8;  Size 1.5'

 

25" (10/21/17 - OzSky): NGC 2083 is the main northern section and the largest piece of the NGC 2078/79/83/84 complex (LMC-N159 and OB-association LH 105).  At 244x and NPB filter it appeared bright, large, nearly 2' in diameter, roughly circular.  The surface brightness appeared fairly uniform, though lower at the northeast periphery where is merges with NGC 2078.  Unfiltered, a half-dozen dozen stars mag 13.5 and fainter are involved in the nebula, along with mag 12.5 RMC 149, an O8.5-type supergiant near the center.  At 397x (unfiltered), a mag 14.5 companion is 7" N of RMC 149 and the star seemed slightly "soft".

 

On the southeast side of NGC 2083 [44" SE of the mag 12.5 star] is the 15th magnitude "star" N159-5, known as the LMC "Papillon Nebula".  This very compact object is classified as a Young Stellar Object (YSO) and High Excitation Blob (HEB), a rare class of ionized nebulae associated with massive star formation.  At 397x it appeared faint (15th mag) and quasi-stellar (though difficult to confirm).

 

24" (4/10/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 214x and UHC filter, NGC 2083 appeared as a bright, large, slightly elongated glow ~1.8' diameter, surrounding a mag 12.5 star (O-class supergiant).  A brighter knot is embedded within the glow on the west side (LMC-N159I) on a line with NGC 2078.  Removing the filter, the bright central star has a companion at ~7" and several other mag 14 stars are embedded in the periphery of the glow.

 

NGC 2083 is situated in the northeast section of the curving "S" shaped NGC 2078/79/83/84 complex (LMC-N159 and OB-association LH 105).  This complex shares the same field with two additional bright emission regions - NGC 2085/86 4' N and NGC 2077/80 ~5.5' NNW (LMC-N160), and the combined complex forms a superb field of bright HII regions ~35' SSE of the center of the Tarantula Nebula.  Although Herschel assigned 4 NGC numbers within LMC-N159, I logged at least 7 different brighter knots (see NGC 2084 for more).

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2083 = h2952 (along with numerous other objects in this HII complex) on 23 Dec 1834  and recorded "the north following nucleus of the complex group of Plate III, figure 4, from drawing."  Herschel's excellent sketch shows a complex object with 7 condensations or nuclei, involved in nebulosity. The four NGC objects in this grouping are NGC 2078, 2079, 2083 and NGC 2084.

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NGC 2084 = LMC-N159C = ESO 057-EN15

05 40 06.9 -69 45 34

V = 11.3;  Size 1.2'

 

25" (10/21/17 - OzSky): NGC 2084 is the second brightest section of the striking Henize N159 complex (NGC 2078/70/83/84) on its SE side and the brightest part of N159C.  At 255x + NPB filter, it appeared very bright, fairly large, irregular shape, over 1' diameter (elongated N-S). Unfiltered two stars are involved included a mag 14.0 (O-7 type).  Fainter nebulosity extends west for 1' (also part of N159C) with a mag 14.0 O7-type and 14.5 O8-type stars involved unfiltered. The nebulosity curls north on its west side and brightens in a 40" circular patch (N159C-west) that includes two 15th mag stars (unfiltered), one a young stellar object (YSO).  Overall, N159C displays a highly irregular curving shape with a patchy surface brightness and includes a half-dozen stars.

 

N159E, a detached piece ~1.5' S, is a fairly faint to moderately bright patch, irregularly round, 35" diameter, even surface brightness.  Unfiltered, a star was seen involved with the nebulosity (ionizing source?).   N159G, a slightly brighter detached piece 1.1' ENE of NGC 2084, appeared moderately bright and large, roughly oval, ~45" diameter.  Unfiltered, a faint star is centered in N159G.

 

24" (4/10/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): This emission knot was noted while making a careful observation of NGC 2084, which is located within the southeast region of a very bright nebular complex NGC 2078-79-83-8 (LMC-N159), located ~40' SSE of the Tarantula Nebula.  At the northeast end of the NGC 2084 region I noted a moderately bright, round knot, ~45" diameter.  Without a filter a star is involved with this glow.  Although John Herschel didn't catalogued this knot, it's shown on his sketch (Plate III, figure 4).  NGC 2084, a brighter knot, is close WSW on a direct line with NGC 2079.  NGC 2084 appeared very bright, fairly large, elongated, ~1.2'x1.0'.  Removing the filter a couple of stars are involved (with one brighter star).

 

24" (4/10/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): I returned to this detailed nebula the following night to make a complete observation at 200x using a UHC filter.  NGC 2084 forms the SE region of the complex and it's composed of several nearby components.  At the NE end of this extended region is a moderately bright, round knot, ~45" diameter (N159G).  Without a filter a star is involved with N159G (sketched by John Herschel but not catalogued).  A second, brighter embedded "glow" is close WSW on a direct line with NGC 2079.  This knot corresponds with John Herschel's position for NGC 2084 and is catalogued as N159C-east.  It appeared very bright, fairly large, elongated, ~1.2'x1.0'.  Removing the filter a couple of stars are involved (with one brighter star).  Finally, N159C-west (also sketched by Herschel but not cataloged) lies 1.5' W of N159C-east in the center of the entire complex and is connected to N159C-west by a faint bridge of nebulosity.  N159C-west appeared fairly bright, moderately large, round, 45" diameter.

 

24" (4/9/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the SE component of a fascinating 4' HII complex filled with up to 8 distinguishable knots (4 have NGC numbers) with several of the brighter knots forming an "S" shape (this knot is at SE end of the "S").  At 200x and UHC filter it appeared very bright, round, fairly large glow, 1' diameter and encased within fainter nebulous haze that extends to the west.  NGC 2083 lies 1.5' NNW within the background glow that envelopes the entire complex.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2084 = h2953 in Dec 1834 and described as "The south following nucleus of the complex group of Plate III fig 4, from drawing."  Herschel's sketch shows 7 condensations or nuclei, involved in nebulosity. The four NGC objects in this grouping are NGC 2078, 2079, 2083 and NGC 2084. The complex was discovered earlier by James Dunlop on 24 Sep 1826 and D 149 was recorded as "a faint round nebula, about 1' diameter".   His description could apply to NGC 2084 or one of the others in the nebulous group.  His position is ~5' too far east.

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NGC 2085 = LMC-N160B = ESO 057-EN16

05 40 09.3 -69 40 23

V = 12.1;  Size 0.7'

 

24" (4/9/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this HII knot is part of an amazing field of nebulous glows located ~35' SSE of the Tarantula Nebula.  At 200x using a UHC filter, NGC 2085 appears bright, fairly small, ~25" diameter. A mag 10.0 star (supergiant HDE 269953) is just off the NE end (23" from the center).  NGC 2085 forms a close pair with NGC 2086 = IC 2145, a similar knot just 1.2' E.  Both of these knots are immersed in small, much fainter nebulous halos but the bright star itself does not appear to be involved.  Viewing with the filter, the field is divided up into three main groups with NGC 2085 and 2086 forming a close E-W pair separated by a mag 10 star.  NGC 2080 (brightest section in the LMC-N159/160 complex) and NGC 2077 lies ~2.5' NW and an impressive cluster of nebulous knots (NGC 2078, 2079, 2083 and 84) is roughly 6' SSW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2085 = h2954 on 23 Dec 1834 and reported "a very faint, nearly round nebula close to a star 10th mag, not observed in sweeping, but laid down Dec 4, 1873 in the drawing fig 4, Plate III whence its place is derived."  The identification is certain based on his sketch.

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NGC 2086 = IC 2145 = LMC-N160C = ESO 057-EN18

05 40 24 -69 40 14

V = 12.0;  Size 0.7'

 

24" (4/9/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the eastern component of a close pair of nebulous glows with NGC 2085 just 1.2' W.  This pair is part of a fascinating group of numerous emission nebulae (LMC-N160 and LMC-N159) just 35' S of the Tarantula nebula.  At 200x with a UHC filter, this knot appears very bright (slightly brighter than NGC 2085), fairly small, round, ~30" diameter.  Without a filter, a faint star is near the center.  Mag 10 supergiant HD 269953 (misidentified as NGC 2086 in the ESO catalogue), which is nearly attached to the NE side of NGC 2085, lies 1' W.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2086 = h2956 in Dec 1834 and recorded "B, pS, R, lbM, follows a star 10m with other S stars about it.  Not observed in sweeping, but laid down in the drawing of Dec 4, 1837, whence its place is derived from the drawing fig 4, Pl III .  JH's position and sketch clearly shows that NGC 2086 follows the mag 10 star and corresponds with a nebulous patch 12 seconds of RA following the bright star.

 

Williamina Fleming independently found this nebula again on an objective prism plate taken in 1901 at Arequipa. Dreyer recatalogued Fleming 92 as IC 2145.  ESO, Harold Corwin and Mati Morel misidentified NGC 2086 with the mag 10 star.  After Corwin was notified he corrected his identification of NGC 2086.

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NGC 2087 = ESO 159-026 = PGC 17684

05 44 16.2 -55 31 57

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 136d

 

14" (4/7/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): fairly faint, slightly elongated, 30"x25", weak concentration.  Mag 7.5 HD 38873 is 11' ESE, mag 7.5 HD 38683 is 10' S, and unequal double HJ 3802 (8.4/10.7 at 8") is 14' SE, the trio forming a striking right triangle of stars.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2087 = h2946 on 6 Dec 1834 and noted "eF, R, vlbM, 40"."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2088 = ESO 057-SC020 = S-L 652

05 41 00 -68 27 55

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 394x; bright, fairly small, irregular, ~35" diameter.  Includes a bright quasi-stellar knot of stars near the center along with an individual star close east and a couple of mag 15-16 stars around the edges.  A neat 6' curving stream of stars begins at a mag 11 star 4.5' north and arcs southeast.  NGC 2088 is the first in a group of cluster with NGC 2096 7' E, NGC 2094 8.6' NE, NGC 2098 14' NE and NGC 2109 19' ESE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2088 = h2955 on 9 Feb 1836 and recorded "eF; S; R; insulated."  His mean position (2 sweeps) of 05 40 56.4 -68 27 54 (2000) was used by Dreyer in the NGC.  The declination given in RNGC, NGC 2000 and UGC 2000 (first edition) is exactly 1 degree too far south.  This error originated in Shapley and Lindsay's "A Catalogue of Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud", Irish Astronomical Journal, v. 6, pp. 74-91, 1963.  The declination should have been -68¡ 29' instead of -69¡ 29'.  The error was noted by Hodge and Wright in their LMC Atlas.  The ESO and Kontizas position is correct.

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NGC 2089 = ESO 554-036 = MCG -03-15-016 = PGC 17860

05 47 51.4 -17 36 08

V = 11.9;  Size 1.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 39d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Collinear with a mag 11 star 1.6' SSE and a mag 12 star 2.8' SSE of center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2089 = H III-270 on 6 Feb 1785 (sweep 367) and recorded "a very faint extremely small stellar nebula; 240 verified it with difficulty, and considerable attention, the night being uncommonly clear."  JH did not make an observation but the NGC position matches ESO 554-036  = PGC 17860.  Auwers reduced RA is 1 hr too large.

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NGC 2090 = ESO 363-023 = MCG -06-13-009 = PGC 17819

05 47 01.8 -34 15 02

V = 11.2;  Size 4.9'x2.4';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 13d

 

13.1" (2/25/84): faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 ~N-S, 2.5'x0.8'.  A mag 13.5 star is at the north tip 1.5' from center, a mag 14 star is at the west edge, 40" from center and another 14th mag star is 1.2' SE.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 2090 = D 594 = h2944 on 29 Oct 1826 and described "a small faint nebula, with a ray shooting out on the north side."  Dunlop observed this galaxy once and his position is 3' too far SSW.  The "ray" he mentions probably consists of 3 mag 13-14 stars.  JH recorded the galaxy twice, on 8 Jan 1836 recording a "globular cluster, B; R; with an appendage to northward; 2.5' diameter." The following night he described it as "B, irreg R, gbM; 3' long; 2' broad with stars appended. This RA to be preferred".  Herschel called this galaxy a globular in the GC and Dreyer copied that classification in the NGC description.

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NGC 2091 = ESO 057-SC021 = S-L 653

05 40 57.7 -69 26 11

V = 12.0;  Size 1.0'

 

24" (4/10/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): I accidentally picked up this cluster while examining the beautiful star cloud/nebula NGC 2081 to the NW.  A bright E-W ribbon is on the south side of NGC 2081 with its vertex (brighter and larger end of the streamer) closest to NGC 2074 (to the SW) and extending towards the east.  Just beyond the east end of this ribbon I picked up this elongated glow that appeared collinear with the streamer.  At 214x without a filter, the 35"x25" knot partially resolved into a number of fainter stars.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2091 = h2957 in 1834-1835 (exact sweep or date unknown as based on a detailed sketch of the Tarantula Nebula (NGC 2070) region made over several nights in Nov 1834 and Dec 1835) and recorded as "vF; S; mE; glbM; 1' l; perhaps a vF double neb.  See Catalogue of the Nubecula Major."  Since no sweep is given in his LMC catalogue, the discovery date is unknown.  His position is ~1' SSW of this cluster.

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NGC 2092 = ESO 057-SC022

05 41 22.0 -69 13 27

V = 12.2;  Size 1.2'

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): very faint round knot, ~40" diameter with a brighter core.  Located 4' W of NGC 2100 and 17' SE of the center of the Tarantula.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2092 = h2962 in 1834-1835 (exact sweep or date unknown as based on a detailed sketch of the Tarantula Nebula (NGC 2070) region made over several nights in Nov 1834 and Dec 1835) and recorded a "cluster class 6. vF, R, 60", partially resolved. See Catalogue of the Nubecula Major".  The CGH position (based on the sketch) is 1.3' east of this cluster (and just west of NGC 2100).

 

Eric Lindsay, in the 1964 paper "Some NGC objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud" (IAJ, 6, 286-289), notes "This may be the star-rich region just W of NGC 2100. Position deduced by Herschel from a drawing and not made in a sweep. Listed as N[ebula] in Nubec. Cat and Cl in general Cat.  Description does not agree with anything here."

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NGC 2093 = ESO 057-SC023 = S-L 657 = LH 109

05 41 50 -68 55 18

V = 11.6;  Size 1.5'

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x):  this stellar association (LH 109) is located just 20' NE of the center of the Tarantula Nebula and less than 1' SSE of a mag 7.2 star (HD 38617).  It appeared as a fairly bright, fairly large mottled glow, roughly 1.7' in diameter. A mag 11.7 star is at the west edge.  Several faint stars are resolved around the edges, including ones at the north, northeast and south side.  A mag 9.4 star (HD 38654) is 3' NW and a mag 9.4 star (HD 269975) is 6' WSW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2093 = h2963 on on 30 Dec 1836 and recorded "vF, S, R. This nebula forms an appendage to the skirts of the great looped nebula 30 Doradus, which hang down in visible fringes from the upper (southern) part of the field."  His position is accurate.  Herschel gave a possible equivalence with D 184, which James Dunlop discovered in 1826 and described as "a very small round nebula, about 8" diameter."  Dunlop's position is 9' due west of the cluster.

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NGC 2094 = KMHK 1251

05 42 07.4 -68 21 47

V = 12.8;  Size 0.4'

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 394x; bright, small, high surface brightness, 20" diameter.  Two close stars are resolved at the north edge.  Mag 9.6 HD 270036 is 4.6' SE. Several clusters are nearby including NGC 2098 5.8' NNE, NGC 2096 5.8' S and NGC 2088 8.7' SW

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2094 = h2959 on 31 Jan 1835 and noted "vF; S; R; 12"."  Herschel made a single observation and his position is an excellent match with KMHK 1251.  The Hodge-Wright LMC Atlas misidentifies ESO 57-SC26 as NGC 2094.  This cluster is situated 33' south (and just following NGC 2093).  ESO and NED followed this misidentification.  Archinal and Hynes correctly identify NGC 2094 = KMHK 1251.

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NGC 2095 = ESO 086-SC024 = S-L 669 = LH 112

05 42 51 -67 19 18

V = 13.1;  Size 3.0'x1.5'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): Although Herschel described a large "oblong cluster", the brightest subgroup is at the east end (S-L 669).  It appeared as a bright, moderately large patch, irregular, 1' diameter, with several mag 13.5-14 stars resolved around the edges.  A separate patch lies 1.3' W with a mag 11 star 2.2' W.  A group of stars (KMHK 1253) is 1' NW of the brighter star.  The entire collection forms the stellar association LH 112, a 3'x1.5' group of resolved stars highlighted by S-L 669.  Located 8' NE of mag 7.0 HD 38616.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2095 = h2961 on 20 Dec 1835 and described "a star 9m, chief of a F irreg oblong cluster 3' in extent."  His position, measured on 3 sweeps, is fairly accurate.

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NGC 2096 = ESO 057-SC027 = S-L 664

05 42 18 -68 27 30

V = 11.4;  Size 1.2'

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): bright, compact LMC cluster, ~25".  A close double star is resolved at the center, along with two other bright mag 13 stars and a couple of additional mag 15+ stars.  A mag 11.8 star is off the west side [40" from center].  Mag 9.6 HD 270036 lies 3.5' NE.  Nearby is NGC 2088 7' W, NGC 2094 6' N and NGC 2098 11' NNE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2096 = h(725) between Nov 1836 and Mar 1837 with a 5-inch refractor and listed it as#725 in his preliminary catalogue of "Stars, Nebulae and Clusters in the Nubecula Major."  His position is 1.7' too far south.

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NGC 2097 = ESO 086-SC028 = S-L 682

05 44 16 -62 47 06

V = 13.7;  Size 1.8'

 

30" (10/15/15 - OzSky): at 303x and 394x; fairly faint , moderately large, 45" glow with a mag 14 star involved on the south side.  The slightly brighter core of the cluster is very close northeast of the star, but the cluster was unresolved.  The field includes a mag 13 star 2' SSE, two mag 11/12.5 stars 3.5' ENE and a group of mag 13-15 stars ~3' NW.  Located 17.5' NE of mag 6.9 HD 38511.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2097 = h2960 on 26 Dec 1834 and described as "F, irregularly round, psbM, sf a small group." On a second sweep he called it "eF, S, R; has a star 16th mag in centre." His last observation was recorded as "pF, R, pslbM, 50"."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2098 = ESO 057-SC028 = S-L 667

05 42 30 -68 16 30

V = 10.7;  Size 1.6'

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky):  extremely bright LMC cluster, ~1' diameter.  Contains a very bright, nebulous core.  The halo is largely resolved and includes two or three bright stars; a mag 13 star is at the east edge, a mag 13-13.5 star is at the north edge and a mag 13.5 star is at the south edge.  In addition another 10 stars are resolved in the cluster.  Several clusters are to the south: NGC 2094 5.8' SSW, NGC 2096 11' S, NGC 2088 14' SW as well as S-L 666 6' NNW.  The S-L cluster surrounds a mag 13 star and a half-dozen mag 15/16 stars are resolved in a 40" halo.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2098 = h2965 on 31 Jan 1835 and recorded "B; S clustering group or globular cluster; 30", stars visible."  On a second sweep he logged it as "a small close knot or cluster, 40"."  JH gave a very uncertain (??) equivalence with D 185.  Dunlop's description reads "a small faint round nebula, preceding a minute double star of the 12th magnitude.  Another similar nebula follows, about 20" in RA, and 2' south in a line with the double star."  His position is nearly 13' due E of this cluster, though there is no "similar nebula" that follows, so this identification is very suspect.

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NGC 2099 = M37 = Cr 75

05 52 19 +32 33 12

V = 5.6;  Size 24'

 

8": very large, very rich cluster, over 150 stars, rich in mag 10-13 stars.  A reddish star, HD 39183, is near the center.  Best of the three bright Messier open clusters in Auriga and one of the top open clusters in the sky.

 

Giovanni Hodierna discovered M37 = NGC 2099 = h369 in 1654.  Charles Messier independently discovered the cluster on 2 Sept 1764 and reported a "cluster of small stars, not far from the preceding [M36], on the parallel of Chi Aurigae; the stars are very small, very crowded and containing nebulosity; it is difficult to see the stars with an ordinary telescope of 3 feet and a half."   On 4 Nov 1782, WH recorded "Is an astonishing number of small stars with 227; they are almost all of the 2ndor 3rd class. I see no kind of nebulosity in the spot. With 460 the whole is resolvable into stars without nebulosity."

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NGC 2100 = ESO 057-SC025 = S-L 662 = LH 111

05 42 08.0 -69 12 44

V = 9.6;  Size 2'

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this LMC cluster appears as a small, bright (V = 9.6) clump of stars and unresolved haze with a diameter of ~2'.  Fairly compact and isolated with at least 10 mag 12 and fainter stars resolved.  Located 20' ESE of the core of the Tarantula nebula within the LMC OB-association LH 111.  On the DSS, this appears to be a very rich open cluster or globular within a larger association.  NGC 2092 ies 4' WSW and NGC 2108 is 10' ENE.

 

James Dunlop probably discovered NGC 2100 = D 154? on 25 Sep 1826 and reported "a pretty bright round or rather elliptical nebula, 25" diameter."  His position is 5.6' ESE of the cluster, well within his typical errors.  Glen Cozens assigns D 151 to NGC 2100.  Dunlop described this entry as "a faint ill-defined small nebula" and the position is just 2.5' NW of the cluster.  Finally, JH also suggest that D 147 might be an equivalence.  This entry is 8.4' WSW of the cluster and the description reads "a pretty bright round or rather oval nebula, 30" diameter."  This description is very similar to the one for D 154.

 

On his first sweep of 3 Nov 1834, JH described NGC 2100 = h2966 as "a bright S cluster of distinct stars (thick haze)."  On a second sweep he wrote "the cluster sf the great looped nebula." On a third occasion he called it "globular cluster, irr R, psmbM, 2'."  His 4th sweep reads "globular, B, R, 3', all resolved into stars 13..16th mag."  His final record states "B, S, m compressed, not mbM; irregular oval, 3', stars distinct 13th mag." He noted it might be equivalent to Dunlop 154, 151? or 154??

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NGC 2101 = ESO 205-001 = PGC 17793

05 46 22.6 -52 05 24

V = 13.7;  Size 1.9'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.5;  PA = 85d

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): at 166x, this disturbed, chaotic galaxy appeared extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter. The galaxy is collinear with a string of three mag 10-11 stars to the SW (closest star is 3.6' SW) and mag 14 stars are close south and ESE.  Located 22' SSW of NGC 2104.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2101 = h2958 on 9 Jan 1837 and recorded "eF, R, 40", a line of three stars, 10th mag to south, points nearly to it."  His position and description is accurate.

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NGC 2102 = ESO 057-SC029 = S-L 665

05 42 21 -69 29 12

V = 11.4;  Size 1.0'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; bright, small, mottled glow, 24" diameter. A half-dozen tightly packed stars are resolved including an easy mag 12.9 star at the south edge.  Located 17' E of the excellent NGC 2074 nebulous cluster and 15' SE of showpiece NGC 2081, both of which lie ~20' SSE of the Tarantula Nebula!

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2102 between Nov 1836 and Mar 1837 with a 5-inch refractor and recorded it as#730 in his preliminary catalogue of "Stars, Nebulae and Clusters in the Nubecula Major."  His position is 0.9' SSW of this cluster.

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NGC 2103 = LMC-N214C = ESO 57-EN24 = S-L 660 = LH 110

05 41 40 -71 19 56

V = 10.8;  Size 3'x2'

 

25" (10/17/17 - OzSky): at 244x unfiltered; fairly bright, very large, roundish glow surrounding a central star (12.7-magnitude O2-type Sk -71¡51) with a bright quasi-stellar knot at the north edge (0.9' N of the central star).  Increasing the magnification to 397x, ~8 total stars are involved with the nebula, which was clearly elongated NNW-SSE (tapering on the SSE end) and brighter along a central spine.  The addition of a NPB filter at 244x produced an excellent contrast gain and the nebula appeared very bright with an irregular surface brightness.  The small knot at the north edge (a high excitation HII blob or HEB) was prominently visible.

 

Note: The central "star" was resolved by the HST into a compact cluster of at least 6 components in a 4" region!  HEBs are small dense regions, usually "only" 4 to 9 light-years wide, that sometimes form adjacent to or inside giant H II regions and according to Iranian astronomer Heydari-Malayeri, represent "early stages of massive stars (O-type) emerging from their embryonic molecular clouds."

 

24" (4/5/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this LMC cluster and emission nebula appeared as a bright, very large oval glow, ~3'x2'.  Excellent response to a UHC filter at 200x and with this combination the nebulosity has a very high surface brightness.  Five stars down to 15th magnitude are involved unfiltered with mag 12.7-magnitude Sk -71¡51, an unusually hot and intrinsically bright star (O2-class), at the center.  The cluster is the O-association LH 110.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2103 = h2968 on 23 Dec 1834 and recorded "pB; L; pmE; glbM; has a *13m in the middle."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2104 = ESO 205-002 = PGC 17822

05 47 04.7 -51 33 11

V = 12.7;  Size 2.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 160d

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): at 166x appears very faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, low even surface brightness, 1.3'x0.8'.  A mag 12 star lies 5' SW.  Easy to locate 29' S of mag 3.9 Beta Pictoris.  NGC 2101 lies 22' SSW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2104 = h2964 on 27 Dec 1834 and recorded "pB, R, vlbM, 30"."  His position matches ESO 205-002 = PGC 17822.

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NGC 2105 = ESO 086-SC029 = S-L 687

05 44 19.8 -66 55 02

V = 12.2;  Size 1.7'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; very bright, large, irregular, mottled, partially resolved, 50"x30" E-W.  Slightly brighter stars are at the east and west end, and several additional mag 16 stars are resolved.  A mag 11.5 star is 2' SE and cluster H-S 408 was picked up 5.5' SE.  It appeared as a moderately to fairly bright glow, elongated NW-SE, 0.6'x0.2', mottled but unresolved.  The mag 11.5 star is roughly midway between H-S 408 and NGC 2105.  The HII complex LHa 120-N74 lies 15' SSE (western part) and 20' SE (eastern part).

 

LHa 120-N74 (west): at 152x + NPB filter; excellent HII region!  Bright, very large, elongated E-W, very irregular shape, ~7'x4', the main section tapers on the eastern end and spreads out on the western end.  Numerous mag 14 stars are involved as well as mag 10.2 HD 270111 on the south side.  LHa 120-N74 (East) lies ~9' ESE, with the two regions spanning nearly 15' E-W.

 

LHa 120-N74 (east): at 152x + NPB filter; bright, very large nebulous region.  The main piece is oval 3:2 E-W, ~2'x1.4' and brighter along the rim.  A filament is attached on the south side extending to the southeast!  Unfiltered a number of stars are involved with the nebulosity.  A mag 11.2 star is roughly 3' S.  LHa 120-N74 W is ~9' W.  Although this is very likely part of the same complex, the two sections did not appear connected.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2105 = h2969 on 2 Jan 1837 and logged "vF; R; 30".  The obs in RA is marked as uncertain."  On the very next night he observed the cluster again and reported "F; R; gbM; 80".  His (mean) position matches ESO 86-SC29.  The RNGC and NGC 2000.0 declination is 30' too far north.  This positional error originated from a misprint in the Shapley-Lindsay catalogues for S-L 687 = NGC 2105.

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NGC 2106 = ESO 555-003 = MCG -04-14-040 = PGC 17975

05 50 46.6 -21 34 01

V = 12.1;  Size 2.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): fairly faint, small, oval, bright core.  A mag 13 star is 1.6' N and a mag 13.5 star lies 2.5' ESE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2106 = h2967 on 21 Nov 1835 and recorded "vF; S; R or lE; gbM; 15"."  His position matches ESO 555-003 = PGC 17975.

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NGC 2107 = ESO 057-SC32 = S-L 679

05 43 12.5 -70 38 28

V = 11.5;  Size 2.1'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; very bright, large, round, 1' diameter.  Contains a very large bright core with only a thin fainter halo, slightly mottled appearance but no clear resolution.  Two mag 12 and 13 stars are 3' and 4' WSW and two mag 12.5 and 13 star lie 3.5' and 4' WNW.

 

NGC 2107 is surrounded by several small clusters (these were all picked up just examining the field): S-L 691 and S-L 692, a close pair of open clusters, is 5' ESE, S-L 676 is 4' N, S-L 684 is 5' NNE and H-S 398 is 9' NNW.

S-L 676: moderately bright and large, round, 35" diameter, smooth glow with no resolution.  S-L 684 is 2.4' ENE.

S-L 684: fairly faint to moderately bright, smooth glow, 25" diameter, roundish, no resolution.

S-L 691: faint or fairly faint, small, round, glow, 25" diameter.  S-L 691 is the northern of close pair of LMC clusters with S-L 692 just 48" S.

S-L 692: fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated glow, 35" diameter, no resolution.

H-S 398: moderately bright, fairly small, round, soft glow, no resolution.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2107 = h2971 on 9 Feb 1836 and described as "F; R; gvlbM; 60"."  On a second sweep he recorded "B; R; gmbM; 40"."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2108 = ESO 057-SC033 = S-L 686

05 43 56.8 -69 10 50

V = 12.3;  Size 1.8'

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): picked up while viewing NGC 2100 located 10' WSW.  At 171x it appeared as a fairly faint knot, ~1 diameter with no resolution.  Located 5' NE of a mag 10 star.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2108 = h2970 on 16 Dec 1835 and described as "eF; pL; 1E."  His position is accurate.  Herschel gave an uncertain (??) equivalence with D 153, which James Dunlop described as "a faint small round nebula, 15" diameter."  His position is 7.4' NW of the cluster, so this identification is within his typical errors, though the Glen Cozens doesn't make this equivalence.

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NGC 2109 = ESO 057-SC034 = S-L 688

05 44 23 -68 32 54

V = 12.2;  Size 1.6'

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 394x; very bright, large, high surface brightness glow with a thin halo, mottled but too dense to resolve the main 40" glow.  A couple of mag 16 stars are visible around the edges of the 1' halo.  A mag 9 star is 7' SW.  NGC 2096 lies 13' WNW and NGC 2116 is 16' ENE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2109 = h2972 on 23 Nov 1834 and recorded "pF; pL; R; vglbM; 80"."  On a second sweep he recorded "F; S; R; gbM; 20"."  Finally, on his last observation he noted "pF; pL; R; vgvlbM; 35"."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2110 = MCG -01-15-004 = PGC 18030

05 52 11.4 -07 27 21

V = 12.4;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (1/23/93): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated 4:3 N-S, evenly increases to bright middle and small bright core with a stellar nucleus.  Located in a rich star field 6' SSW of mag 8.9 SAO 132606.  Mag 5.4 55 Orionis lies 12' WSW.  Appears brighter than 14p.  Incorrect declination in the RNGC 10' too far north.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2110 = H III-448 = H III-450 = h370 (equivalence noted by Albert Marth in AN 995) on 5 Oct 1785 (sweep 458) and recorded III-450 as "eF, vS, 240 confirmed it."  His summary description from three observations reads "vF, S, R, resolvable, lbM."  He also found it on 24 Feb 1786 (sweep 529) and logged "eF, E, er.  Is probably a patch."  Because of the differing descriptions, WH assumed it was new, and catalogued it again as III-510.  JH called this galaxy "vF; R; psbM." and combined the two H-designations in the GC.  The declination given in the RNGC is 10' too far north.

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NGC 2111 = ESO 057-SC035 = S-L 699

05 44 33 -70 59 36

V = 12.4;  Size 1.5'

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): moderately bright, fairly large cluster, irregular outline, 45" diameter.  The brighter core is elongated E-W and mottled with a couple of stars occasionally resolved.  A few mag 15+ stars are also visible around the edges.  Mag 9.2 HD 39133 is 5' SW.  Located near the southeast end of the LMC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2111 = h2973 on 9 Feb 1836 and described as "vF; S; R; gbM".  On a second sweep he estimated the size as 40".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2112 = Cr 76 = OCL-509 = Lund 1122

05 53 46 +00 24 36

V = 8.4;  Size 11'

 

17.5" (2/8/91): three dozen stars over unresolved haze, roughly 10' diameter.  The brightest star (mag 10) is at NW edge.  Includes a string of five mag 12-13 stars on the north side but most stars are very faint.  This cluster is fairly rich but not dense.  Barnard's Loop passes just west of the cluster heading south and NE where it is brightest!

 

8" (1/1/84): 12 faint stars mag 12/13 in cluster.  Also includes one bright mag 10 star at NW edge.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2112 = H VII-24 = h371 on 1 Jan 1786 (sweep 506) and recorded "a cluster of pretty compressed pS scattered stars."  The summary description (including a 2nd observation) in his PT catalogue and "with many eS suspected between them. 7' or 8' diameter."  JH recorded "the 2nd and brightest star of a poor straggling cl 10 or 12' long."

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NGC 2113 = LMC-N168 = ESO 057-EN36

05 45 25 -69 46 30

V = 12.3;  Size 2.0'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): bright, fairly large elongated glow, knotty, 1' diameter.  This nebulous cluster has an unusual structure; a small bright elongated knot is on the east end (N168A) and a second small, fairly bright, elongated knot is adjacent on the west side (N168B).  Strong response to an NPB filter and a much larger nebulous hazy glow extends to the west, increasing the size to 1.5'.  The high surface brightness elongated pieces lie on the east end.  Located 30' E of the NGC 2078/79/83/84 complex.

 

Emission nebula LHa 120-N163 lies 12' W and appeared as a bright, large, irregular glow, ~3' diameter.  Several stars are involved with the nebulosity, including a mag 13 star on the north side and a couple of additional mag 13.5 stars (H-S 400).  Excellent response to the NPB filter at 152x and 303x.  The glow is clearly brighter in an arc (opening towards the northwest) on the southeast end.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2113 = h2975 on 3 Nov 1834 and recorded (first of 5 observations) "F (?) L, R; thick haze." The next observation was recorded as "a pB cluster nebula 90"." On a third occasion he noted "F cluster, irreg fig; gbM; 2'; resolved." The fourth observation was recorded as "F, irreg fig; resolvable; one star seen; 90"." The final observation was recorded as "irregular oval cluster; vF; 2' diameter; vl compressed to the middle; almost nebulous. Stars = 16th mag."  JH noted the equivalence with Dunlop 155, although it is not given by Steinicke.

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered NGC 2113 = D 155? in 1826 and described "a very faint elliptical nebula, about 50" diameter, slightly bright to the center."  His position is 6' SW of this cluster and the description is a reasonable match.  But Wolfgang Steinicke and Glen Cozens equate D 156 with NGC 2113.  The position for D 156 is 11' SE of this nebulous cluster.

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NGC 2114 = ESO 057-SC037 = S-L 706

05 46 12 -68 02 54

V = 12.5;  Size 1.0'

 

30" (10/15/15 - OzSky): at 303x and 394x; this fairly faint to moderately bright LMC cluster is elongated SW to NE, ~1' diameter.  A mag 14 star is at the southwest edge and another is near the north edge, 30" from center.  In addition, a couple of individual stars are within the main body of the cluster.  A mag 11.3 is 1.4' ESE of the cluster, mag 10 HD 270109 is 4.5' NW and mag 7.5 HD 38942 is 15' WSW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2114 = h2974 on 30 Jan 1835 and described as "eF; pL; irreg R."  His position (single sweep) is accurate.

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered NGC 2114 = D 186? on 27 Sep 1826 and recorded "a very small faint nebula".  His position is 14' SE of the cluster.  Wolfgang Steinicke equates D 187 with NGC 2114. His position for this entry is 19' SE of the cluster.

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NGC 2115 = ESO 205-G006 = PGC 18001

05 51 19.8 -50 34 58

V = 13.1;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 50d

 

14" (4/7/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): fairly faint, small, round, 20" diameter, occasional faint stellar nucleus.  Located just north of a bright asterism of a half-dozen stars; mag 9.0 HD 39625 is 5' SW, mag 9 HD 39606 8.6' SSW, mag 10 star 3.5' SE, mag 11/12/11 triple at 5"/24" is 3' S.  Located 49' NE of mag 3.8 Beta Pictoris.  A faint companion (NGC 2115A) off the south side was not seen.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2115 = h2976 on 4 Jan 1837. His position and description ("eeF; vS; nf a triangle of stars 10m which form part of a bright group") matches ESO 205-006 (double system).  Classified as an "Unverified southern object" in the RNGC.

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NGC 2116 = ESO 057-SC038 = S-L 715

05 47 15 -68 30 30

V = 12.9;  Size 1.0'

 

30" (10/14/15 - OzSky): at 394x; bright, fairly small, roundish glow, 0.6' diameter, very mottled and lively with a number of extremely faint mag 16+ stars popping in and out of view.  Located 2.2' ESE of a mag 11 star.  NGC 2109 lies 16' WSW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2116 = h2977 on 30 Dec 1836 and reported "F; S; R.  A star 11m precedes."  His position from this single sweep is accurate.

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NGC 2117 = ESO 086-SC033 = S-L 718

05 47 46 -67 27 00

V = 11.6;  Size 1.3'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): bright, moderately large, irregular shape, 1' diameter.  A mag 13.3 star is at the west edge, a mag 14 star is on the northeast side and a mag 14.8 star is at the southeast end.  The central region is very mottled and lively with 8 additional mag 15+ stars resolving.  Mag 9 HD 39371 lies 6' WNW.  LHa 120-N74, a huge HII complex with two sections lies 20'-25' NNW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2117 = h2978 on 23 Nov 1834 and recorded (first of 5 sweeps) "pB, S, resolved."  On a second sweep he recorded "pB, E; resolved. I see the stars in it; 2' long."  On his third sweep he logged "pF, irregularly round, 40 or 50", vlbM."

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NGC 2118 = ESO 057-SC039 = S-L 717

05 47 40 -69 07 54

V = 12.0;  Size 1.3'

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 318x; very bright, moderately large, round, 40" diameter, sharply concentrated with a very bright core, unresolved.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2118 = h2979 on 16 Dec 1835 and described a "globular; vsmbM; 15"."  On a second sweep he recorded "a vS, B knot, probably 6 or 8 vS stars wedged into a close group."  His position matches this cluster.

 

James Dunlop perhaps discovered NGC 2118 = D 157? earlier on 25 Sep 1826 and recorded "a small round nebula, 8" or 10" diameter.  This is the preceding of three nebulae forming a triangle."  His position from a single observation is 8' NE, well within his typical errors, though there is no sign of his other two nebulae anywhere nearby.

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NGC 2119 = UGC 3380 = PGC 18136

05 57 26.9 +11 56 56

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (12/19/87): faint, very small, bright core, elongated 3:2 NW-SE in a rich star field.  A mag 11 star is 2' NE.  Located just 6 degrees from the galactic equator.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 2119 = St X-19 on 9 Jan 1880.  His position matches UGC 3380 = PGC 18136, though the UGC does not identify this number as N2119.

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NGC 2120 = ESO 086-SC034 = S-L 742

05 50 35 -63 40 30

V = 12.7;  Size 2.0'

 

30" (10/15/15 - OzSky): at 303x and 394x; moderately bright and large, round, contains a large slightly brighter core, fairly smooth, ~50" diameter. A mag 15 star is off the southwest side, 0.9' from center, and a few extremely faint stars sparkle around the edges.  Located 5.7' S of mag 8.8 HD 39842.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2120 = h2980 on 30 Nov 1834 and described as "vF; pL; R; glbM; 80"."  His position (measured on 2 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 2121 = ESO 057-SC040 = S-L 725

05 48 12 -71 28 54

V = 12.4;  Size 2.3'x1.5'

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): at 318x; bright, very large, slightly elongated ~N-S, 2.0'x1.6', only a broad weak concentration.  Fairly smooth appearance with only a slight granularity.  A couple of mag 15.5-16 are resolved around the edges.  Mag 9.9 HD 39626 is 6' WSW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2121 = h2982 on 9 Feb 1836 and described as "vF; vglbM; 3'."  His position from one sweep is accurate.

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NGC 2122 = LMC-N180B = ESO 057-EN41 = S-L 731 = LH 117

05 48 53 -70 04 12

V = 10.4;  Size 4.5'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): Superb HII region and cluster!  Unfiltered, at least 3 dozen stars are resolved in a 4' region including several fairly bright mag 12 stars.  The brightest mag 12.2 star HD 270145 at the center is a supermassive O6-class (binary).  The NPB filter provided an excellent contrast gain at 152x!  With the filter, the nebulosity (N180B) was very bright and large, round, ~4.5' diameter, brighter on the southwest end and overall displayed an irregular surface brightness with some darker areas.  A bright, small detached knot (N180A), just south of 3 stars, is just off the southwest side [~2.5' from center].  NGC 2122 is part of association LH 117 and contains several early O-type stars..

 

Open cluster S-L 740 is 10' SSE and S-L 769 is 23' due east.  At 394x; S-L 769 appeared large, round, smooth moderate surface brightness, nearly 1' diameter.  A mag 13 star is attached at the east end.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 2122 = D 106 on 3 Aug 1826 with his 9" reflector and recorded "A faint elliptical nebula, about 2' diameter; slightly condensed to the centre."  He made 2 observations and his position is just 3' NE of center.

 

JH observed this cluster/nebula on 5 sweeps (h1319).  On his first observation from 24 Nov 1834 he logged "B, L nebula, 6' l, 5' br; resolved, in part; chief star 11th mag taken."  On a second sweep he called it "pB, L, irregularly round, glbM, 3', resolved into stars 15th mag."  On his 4th sweep he noted "cluster, irregular figure, consists of 3 or 4 disjoined clusters, the middle one the largest and brightest; of 3 or 4 large stars and nebulosity; chief star taken."

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NGC 2123 = ESO 086-SC036 = S-L 755

05 51 43.5 -65 19 18

V = 12.6;  Size 1.2'

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): very faint, small, round, 30" diameter.  This LMC cluster is located 50' NE of mag 4.3 Delta Doradus.  In the 105x field it is 8' SE of mag 8.0 SAO 249373 and is collinear with two mag 10.5-11.5 stars 5' and 10' NE, respectively.  DSFG notes this is a "relatively bright and compact group".

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2123 = h2983 on 30 Nov 1834 and described as "pB; vS; R; vglbM; 12"."  His position (measured on 3 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 2124 = ESO 555-016 = MCG -03-16-003 = PGC 18147

05 57 52.2 -20 05 05

V = 12.6;  Size 2.7'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 2d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, broadly concentrated halo.  A mag 15 star is at the south edge.  Located in a rich star field.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2124 = H III-225 on 20 Oct 1784 (sweep 304) and noted "eF, E, resolvable, near 1' long.  Verified 240 power."  Auwer's reduction places his position is 2.4' NW of ESO 555-016 = PGC 18147.  Herbert Howe, observing with the 20" refractor at the Chamberlain Observatory, commented "F,S; not eeF as in WH's description".

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NGC 2125 = ESO 057-SC044 = S-L 750

05 50 54 -69 28 48

Size 1.0'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; fairly faint to moderately bright glow, elongated NW-SE, 35" diameter.  A mag 14.7 star (~5" double with a mag 16 star) is at the northeast end, a mag 15.7 star is at the southwest tip and a mag 16 star is at the northwest edge.  NGC 2127 lies 7.5' NNE and the double cluster NGC 2136/2137 is 11' E.

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): fairly faint, fairly small, 30" diameter, unconcentrated.  A couple of very faint stars are resolved as well as a mag 14.5-15 star on the northeast edge.  Faintest of 3 clusters with NGC 2127 7.5' NE and NGC 2136/2137 11' ESE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2125 = h2985 on 23 Dec 1834 and recorded "vF; R; 50"; gbM."  His position (single sweep) is 1' too far south.

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NGC 2126 = Cr 78 = Mel 39 = OCL-418

06 02 31 +49 52 00

Size 6'

 

13.1" (2/25/84): 25-30 stars mag 12-14.5, fairly dense, small, pretty cluster.  The cluster is dominated by mag 6.1 SAO 40801 which lies on the NE side of the cluster.

 

8" (1/1/84): 20 stars mag 12-13.5.  Located close SW of a mag 6 star, appears rich with averted vision.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2126 = H VIII-68 on 12 Nov 1787 (sweep 781) and recorded "a small cluster of scattered stars, not rich, one 7th mag towards the northern side, but it does not seem to be connected with the cluster."  His position is very close to mag 6 HD 40626, although this is at the northeast side of the cluster and is probably not related.

 

Ling notes that position of this cluster should be 06h 02.6m +49d 52' according to Megastar position.

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NGC 2127 = ESO 057-SC045 = S-L 751

05 51 22 -69 21 39

V = 11.6;  Size 1.2'

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): very bright, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 30" diameter, high surface brightness, stellar nucleus. No resolution except for mag 14.5 star at the south tip and a mag 15.5 star at the west edge.  NGC 2125 is 7.5' SSW and NGC 2136 is 12' SE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2127 = h2986 on 23 Dec 1834 and recorded "B, S, R, 15"." His position (measured on 3 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 2128 = UGC 3392 = MCG +10-09-010 = CGCG 284-006 = PGC 18374

06 04 34.2 +57 37 40

V = 12.6;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 60d

 

17.5" (1/19/91): fairly faint, small, oval 3:2 SW-NE, bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 15 year-old son, discovered NGC 2128 = Sw VI-25 on 27 Dec 1886.  There is nothing near the published position but exactly 30' south is UGC 3392.  The description "vF; vS; vlE" is appropriate (though not adding anything) and it seems very possible that Lewis made a 30' error in reading the dec circle.  Due to the difference in dec, Bigourdan was unable to find NGC 2128.  Harold Corwin concurs with this conclusion.

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NGC 2129 = Cr 77 = OCL-467 = Lund 293

06 01 07 +23 19 24

V = 6.7;  Size 7'

 

17.5" (12/20/95): bright, fairly rich group surrounding two mag 7.5 and 8 stars (SAO 77842 and 77839) oriented N-S.  There are about three dozen stars mag 10-14 in an 5' well-detached circular group with several double stars including a faint pair preceding the northern mag 8 star.  The southern mag 8 star has a couple of very faint companions.

 

This group is apparently an asterism based on a 1994 study.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2129 = H VIII-26 = h372 on 16 Nov 1784 (sweep 317) and described "A Cl of st of various magnitudes, not very rich, 6 or 7' diam."  JH recorded "about 40 or 50 st.  The brightest 8m taken.  The rest are 10...15m."  The center (as defined as the midpoint of the two mag 7.5-8 stars) is 06 01 07 +23 19.4 (J2000).

 

By analyzing William Herschel's early "reviews" of bright stars (before his systematic sweeps), which resulted in the discovery of many double stars, Wolfgang Steinicke recently found (email Oct '16) that Herschel first discovered the cluster on 6 Feb 1782 using his 6.2" reflector.

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NGC 2130 = ESO 086-SC037 = S-L 758

05 52 24 -67 20 06

V = 12.1;  Size 1.2'

 

30" (10/15/15 - OzSky): at 303x and 394x; bright, small, round, high surface brightness, 35" diameter.  Four or five mag 14.5-15 stars are resolved in the halo on the NW, SW and E sides.  NGC 2135 lies 9' SE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2130 = h2987 on 2 Nov 1834 and the cluster was observed on 7 sweeps!  His descriptions for this cluster range from "faint" to "pretty bright" with sizes ranging from 18" to 45".

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NGC 2131 = ESO 488-050 = PGC 18172

05 58 47.4 -26 39 10

V = 14.1;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 118d

 

17.5" (12/8/90): very faint, very small, round, low even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is in contact on the north end.  A possible companion is about 4' NW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2131 = h2984 on 20 Jan 1835 and recorded "eF; S; R; has a *13 m in centre."  His position matches ESO 488-050 = PGC 18172.

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NGC 2132 = ESO 120-?022

05 55 58 -59 55 42

Size 17'x11'

 

14" (4/7/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): 20 stars (half-dozen bright ones) in a 10'x3' region, roughly arranged in two east-west strings.  This group (asterism or cluster) includes mag 7.9 HD 40484 at the northwest end and four additional mag 10 stars.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2132 = h2988 on 11 Jan 1836 and described the "chief * of a cluster 8th class of about a dozen bright and some smaller stars." His position corresponds with mag 8 SAO 234207 at 05 55 09.0 -59 54 37 (J2000) and his description probably applies to the scattered group following.

 

Eric Lindsay, in his 1964 paper "Some NGC objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud" (IAJ, 6, 286-289) notes "Not found. Centered on CPD 59¡542. This is supposedly the chief star of a cluster of about a dozen stars. Dreyer has a marginal note "1/2 doz. only". Not in the Nubec. Major Catalogue. No sign here of a cluster."  RNGC follows Lindsay as classifies as nonexistent and the number is missing from the ESO catalogue, although it stands out on the DSS.

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NGC 2133 = ESO 057-SC046 = S-L 751

05 51 29 -71 10 30

V = 12.4;  Size 1.7'

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): moderately bright and large, round, 45" diameter, relatively large brighter core, unresolved.  This cluster is a smaller and paler version of NGC 2134, which lies 5.2' NNE.  S-L 747 is 6.5' WNW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2133 = h2989 (along with NGC 2134 = h2991) on 24 Nov 1834 and recorded "pB; pL; R; gbM; 60"."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2134 = ESO 057-SC047 = S-L 760

05 51 57.2 -71 05 52

V = 11.1;  Size 2.5'

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): bright, fairly large, round, 1.1' diameter, sharply concentrated with a relatively large bright core.  No resolution in the halo except for a mag 14.5 star just off the northeast edge and a mag 15.5 star at the south-southwest edge.  NGC 2133 lies 5' SSW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2134 = h2991 (along with NGC 2133 = h2989) on 24 Nov 1834 and recorded it in four sweeps.  His first observation reads "B; L; R; gbM; 90"."  His mean position is 05 51 57.2 -71 06 27 (2000) which is close to the ESO position of 05 51 56.7 -71 05 50 (2000) but RNGC has an incorrect RA of 05 50.1, which is repeated in NGC 2000.0.

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NGC 2135 = ESO 086-SC039 = S-L 765

05 53 35 -67 25 36

V = 12.1;  Size 1.0'

 

30" (10/15/15 - OzSky): at 303x and 394x; bright, small, roundish, mottled, high surface brightness, 30" diameter.  Unresolved (too compact) except for a mag 14.5 star at the west edge.  A mag 11 star is 1.9' WSW.  NGC 2130 lies 9' NW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2135 = h2990 on 23 Nov 1834 and recorded it on 5 sweeps.  His first observation reads "vF, R, glbM, 1'. Among stars."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2136 = ESO 057-SC048 = S-L 762

05 52 59 -69 29 36

V = 10.5;  Size 1.9'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; extremely bright LMC cluster, large, very mottled and lively, relatively large bright core.  A mag 13-13.5 star is at the northwest edge and a mag 14 star is at the south edge.  Roughly a dozen stars are resolved in total.  A mag 10.8 star is 1.5' NNW and a mag 12 star is 1' SSW. Forms a striking double cluster with NGC 2137 1.4' NE (the two clusters form a gravitationally bound binary system).  NGC 2125 lies 11' W and NGC 2150 (a galaxy) is 15' ESE.

 

James Dunlop probably NGC 2136 = D 160 on 24 Sep 1826 and described "a small round pretty well defined nebula."  He made 2 observations and his position is 8.6' too far SW (typical error).

 

JH attributed Dunlop with the discovery and recorded the cluster on 4 sweeps.  His first observation of h2992 reads "pB, R, bM, 1'; has a star 10.11th mag N.p. (thick haze)."   On his last sweep he noted "Globular cluster, pB, R, gmbM, resolved, stars 14..16 mag; has a vvF neb N.f [NGC 2137]."

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NGC 2137 = ESO 057-SC049 = S-L 764

05 53 13 -69 28 54

V = 12.7;  Size 0.8'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; moderately bright, small, round, 20" diameter, lively, several extremely faint mag 16+ stars resolved.  A mag 13 star is 50" NE.  NGC 2137 is the fainter and smaller of a striking double cluster with much brighter NGC 2136 just 1.4' SW!

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2137 = h2994 on 23 Dec 1834 and recorded "vF; R; 30"; the following of 2 [with NGC 2136]."  His position (2 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 2138 = ESO 086-SC040 = S-L 777

05 54 49 -65 50 06

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): relatively faint, small, round, 25"-30" diameter, slightly brighter core, low surface brightness, no resolution.  Four bright field stars lie directly south including mag 7.9  HD 40624 2.9' SSE and  mag 8.5 HD 40625 7.5' S, along with a mag 10 companion at ~45".

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2138 = h2993 on 30 Nov 1834 and recorded "eF; S; R; has 3 B st pretty distinct towards the south."  His position from a single sweep is accurate.

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NGC 2139 = IC 2154 = ESO 488-054 = MCG -04-15-005 = PGC 18258

06 01 07.9 -23 40 25

V = 11.6;  Size 2.6'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (12/8/90): moderately bright, moderately large, slightly elongated, broad concentration, core appears offset to the northwest of center.  A mag 14 star is at the north edge 1.3' from center and a mag 11 star lies 3.5' SSE.

 

8" (1/1/84): faint, fairly small, round, broad concentration.  A mag 11 star is 4' SSE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2139 = H II-264 on 17 Nov 1784 (sweep 322) and called it "F, S."  He added "The RA cannot be above 10 or 15 sec out; the roller went off the apparantus which occasions the uncertainty."  This was the only nebula found in the sweep.

 

Lewis Swift independently discovered this galaxy from Southern California on 1 Dec 1897 and reported it in discovery list XI-90 (later IC 2154). Swift's position was off by 14 sec in RA and Herbert Howe measured an accurate position (used in the IC).  In the 1912 revision of WH's catalogues Dreyer comments that once a correction is made to WH's position (based on another star in the sweep), NGC 2139 matches IC 2154. MCG labels this galaxy as IC 2154 and ignores the NGC designation.  See Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 2140 = ESO 057-SC051 = S-L 773

05 54 16.5 -68 36 05

V = 12.4;  Size 1.7'

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright LMC cluster, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 40"x25".  A star is located at the WNW tip.  Situated between a mag 10.2 star 3.2' NW and a mag 10.1 star (HD 40750) 5.3' SE.  NGC 2159 lies 20' E, in a group of 4 NGC clusters with NGC 2155, 2164 and 2172.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2140 = h2995 on 23 Dec 1834 and recorded "pF; irreg R; psbM."  His next observation reads "pF; R; bM; 30"."  On his last sweep he wrote "F; lE; gbM."

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NGC 2141 = Cr 79 = OCL-487 = Lund 203

06 02 56 +10 26 48

V = 9.4;  Size 10'

 

17.5" (12/8/90): 20-25 faint stars mag 13-15 at 220x over extensive haze.  Located within an incomplete circle of several brighter mag 11-12 stars about 8' diameter.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered NGC 2141 in Jan 1883 with his 5-inch refractor.  His announcement note in Sidereal Messenger, Vol 3, p9 titled "A New and Faint Nebulosity" gives an accurate position and describes a "very faint nebulosity. It lies a little over 3/4¡ north of Mu Orionis, and requires a low power to be seen at all. With my 5-inch refractor and a power of 30, it is quite distinct; but high powers diffuse it greatly. There is a faint star in its center, and several others on its border, about 2' diameter. I have repeatedly seen this nebula since January 1883."

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NGC 2142 = 3 Mon = SAO 151037

06 01 50.4 -10 35 53

V = 5.0

 

=* 5.0 = 3 Mon, Corwin.  =NF, RNGC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2142 = h373 on 6 Jan 1831 and recorded "3 Monocerotis.  I am sure this star has a F neb atm 2'-3' diam."  This is a mag 5 star free from nebulosity.  There are other similar cases from Herschel including NGC 771 = 50 Cas, NGC 4530 = Beta CVn and NGC 2542 = h3115 (see comments on NGC 4530).  Lord Rosse also recorded on Nov 30 1850: "Same appearance as epsilon Orionis [N1990], but v[ery] m[uch] fainter".  In 1868, his son Lawrence also recorded, "appears nebulous..."  Corwin notes, however, that on the red POSS1 there is a very faint extended nebulosity surrounding 3 Mon, so perhaps Herschel did pick something up.

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NGC 2143

06 03 07.5 +05 43 42

Size 15'

 

18" (11/6/04): at 73x this asterism is a large, scattered rectangular group, roughly 10'x6', and elongated N-S. On the west side is a N-S string of stars while the east side is dominated by three brighter mag 9.5-10.5 stars including mag 9.6 HD 41080.  Off the two northern vertices of the main rectangle, strings of stars head NW and NE extending the diameter to at least 15'.  This scattered group just stands out with 31 Nagler in a fairly rich field and appears to be an asterism.  Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2143 = h374 on 2 Feb 1831 and recorded "L, p rich, very scattered; place of *10m in M."  His position corresponds with mag 9 SAO 113401 at 06 03 07.5 +05 43 42 (J2000).  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, gives the dimensions as 20'x20' and described "Cl, L, iR, P, sc, st 9.5...".  But this group does not appear to be a cluster on the DSS and RNGC classifies it as nonexistent.

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NGC 2144 = ESO 016-010 = PGC 17592

05 40 57.2 -82 07 10

V = 13.0;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 93d

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright and large, slightly elongated ~E-W, 1.4'x1.1'.  Contains a bright core that increases to the center.  Located between a mag 10 star 6' E and a mag 11 star 6' WNW.  This is the third closest NGC galaxy to the south celestial pole.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2144 = h3009 on 17 Jan 1836 and reported "F; irreg R; pslbM; 40 arcsec."  His position (measured on 2 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 2145 = ESO 057-SC052 = S-L 780

05 54 23 -70 54 06

V = 12.1;  Size 1.7'

 

25" (10/10/15 - OzSky): bright, fairly small, roundish, 40" diameter, well-defined slightly brighter core.  A mag 14 star is at the southeast edge and two mag 15.5-16 stars are just off the north and east side.  A bright mag 11.7 star is 50" SSW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2145 = h2998 on 12 Nov 1836 and described as "F; lE; resolvable."  His position from a single sweep is off by 1.7' in dec (too far south).

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NGC 2146 = "Dusty Hand" Galaxy = UGC 3429 = MCG +13-05-022 = CGCG 348-017 = PGC 18797

06 18 39.0 +78 21 28

V = 10.6;  Size 6.0'x3.4';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 123d

 

48" (10/29/16): at 488x, the "Dusty Hand" galaxy has an unusual, highly disrupted appearance.   The very bright core is large and elongated NW-SE with a small, intense nucleus.  A prominent, fairly wide dust lane slices through the center with the brightest part of the core roughly parallel on the north side. A small portion of the core is on the south side of the lane.    On the southeast side a fairly prominent "arm" or plume (part of a merged companion?) extends generally east beyond a mag 14.5 star 2' ESE of center.  The halo is very diffuse to the north of this arm.  At the northwest end of the a galaxy a very faint "arm" curls sharply clockwise and with careful viewing a very low surface brightness plume (detached from the central portion) extends south on the west side.  On deep images these arms and plumes seem to be a single tidal structure or stream that wraps around the galaxy.

 

24" (12/28/13): this highly distorted galaxy was observed at 260x.  The galaxy appeared very bright, very large, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, ~5'x2', with a very asymmetric structure.  It contains a very bright, elongated core, ~1.2'x0.5' NW-SE, but with no distinct nucleus.  A low contrast dust lane cuts through the core unevenly, with the main section on the north side, so the lane initially appears to run parallel to the core on the southwest side.  But a fainter, elongated section of the core extending NW-SE is just beyond the dust lane on the southwest side.  To the southeast of the core, the outer halo is diffuse, with a low surface brightness and is not aligned with the major axis of the core, extending more towards the east.  On the NW side of the core, the halo has a higher and irregular surface brightness with a slightly brighter curving arc (arm) along its eastern side.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): fairly bright, fairly large, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, bright core.  A mag 11 double at 30" separation is just off the SE end.  A few brighter mag 10-11 stars are 6' E.  NGC 2146A lies 19' ENE.

 

Friedrich August Winnecke discovered NGC 2146 = T 1-18 in 1876 using a 6.5-inch comet seeker at the Strasbourg Observatory. It was independently discovered by Wilhelm Tempel the same year and by Johann Palisa (AN 2732).  This is one of 3 galaxies discovered by Winnecke, along with NGC 2276 and NGC 4760.

 

As there is no candidate for a previous interaction (creating the disrupted appearance and nuclear starburst), it has been proposed that NGC 2146 is a far-evolved merger.

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NGC 2147 = LMC-N75B = ESO 057-SC54 = S-L 784

05 55 46 -68 12 06

V = 12.9;  Size 1.0'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; very bright, small, roundish cluster, 25" diameter.  Contains a very small, extremely bright core.  Three or four stars are resolved in the small halo on the west side and south side.  Located 3.6' NNW of mag 9.9 HD 270358 and 9.5' S of mag 7.6 HD 40810.  A shallow arc of 3 mag 13/13.9/14.2 stars lies 2' SE.  Just north of these is a small group of resolved mag 15-15.5 stars.  The collection is catalogued as S-L 785 and is part of association LH 122.  The red DSS shows a thick wreath of faint nebulosity nearly enclosing S-L 785, but I didn't notice it, at least without a filter.  NGC 2160 lird 15' ESE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2147 = h2997 on 30 Jan 1835 and logged "vF; R; bM; 30"."  On a second sweep he also noted "connected with stars, etc."  The "stars" probably refers to S-L 785.

 

NGC 2147 was possibly discovered by James Dunlop on 27 Sep 1826 with his 9" reflector.  He described D 191 as "a pretty bright round nebula, 40" diameter".  His position is 12' west of the cluster, a typical error.  Also D 190, described as "two very small faint nebulae" is roughly at the same position, so could also apply to this object.  Herschel didn't reference these possible earlier discoveries by Dunlop and neither does Glen Cozens.

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NGC 2148 = ESO 120-024 = PGC 18171

05 58 45.8 -59 07 34

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 150d

 

14" (4/7/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x and 184x): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, required averted vision.  A mag 12.5 star is 33" E of center and two mag 13 star are within 2' to the south.  Observation made in quite hazy conditions through thin clouds or smoke.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2148 = h2996 on 4 Dec 1834 and recorded "eF; S; R; 20"; has a *12m, sf very near."  The star is 33" E of center.

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NGC 2149

06 03 30.8 -09 43 50

Size 3'x2'

 

17.5" (1/19/91): this moderately bright reflection nebula is fairly small and has a 12th magnitude (illuminating) star on the west side.  Appears prominent with an OIII filter(?) at 140x.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 2149 = St VIIIb-18 on 17 Jan 1877 with the 31" refractor at Marseille Observatory.  His position is accurate.  NGC 2149 was misclassified as a galaxy in the Shapley-Ames list and misplotted as a galaxy on the Skalnate Pleso Atlas of the Heavens.

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NGC 2150 = ESO 057-055 = PGC 18097

05 55 46.4 -69 33 40

V = 13.0;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 143d

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, oval 4:3 or 5:4 NW-SE, 0.7'x0.5', smooth halo then suddenly increases to a bright, very small core.  A mag 16.5 star is at the southeast edge.  Located 9' SW of mag 8.0 HD 41158 and 15' ESE of the LMC cluster NGC 2136.  So, this galaxy easily shines through the thin outer halo of the LMC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2150 = h3000 on 9 Feb 1836 and recorded "F; vS; R; vsbM; stellar."  His position is ~35" south of ESO 057-055 = PGC 18097.

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NGC 2151 = ESO 057-SC057 = S-L 786

05 56 21 -69 01 06

Size 1.0'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; moderately bright, small, roundish, 35" diameter.  A mag 15.2 star is resolved on the southwest edge and a mag 14 star is at the northeast end.  The bright nucleus is nearly stellar, so on first glance it looked like three collinear stars.  A 13" pair of similar mag 12.6/12.8 stars lies 4.5' ENE and a mag 10.6 star is 3.7' SSW. Located 12.6' NW of NGC 2157.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2151 = h3001 on 31 Jan 1835 and logged "F; R; bM; 45"."  His position is accurate.  The Hodge-Wright Atlas completely misplaces NGC 2151 onto chart 66, near 05 57 50 -63 53 38 (2000), about 20' SW of NGC 2162.  NGC 2151 is labeled SL 786.

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NGC 2152 = ESO 205-015 = PGC 18249

06 00 55.2 -50 44 27

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 69d

 

14" (4/7/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): very faint, small, slightly elongated, 25"x20", low surface brightness, no noticeable concentration.  A mag 14 star is just off the northeast edge.  A mag 10 star is 4.4' E.  Located 29' N of mag 5.7 HD 41214.  Observation through thin clouds or smoke.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2152 = h2999 on 28 Dec 1834 and noted, "eeF; R; attached to a vS star."  His position is fairly accurate and the star is off the northeast edge.

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NGC 2153 = ESO 086-SC043 = S-L 792

05 57 52 -66 24 06

V = 13.1;  Size 1.3'

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 35"-40" diameter, smooth glow.   A mag 14 star is easily resolved at the southwest edge.  Located 8' SE of mag 8.2 HD 40924.  A mag 10 star is 4' NNE.  NGC 2153 happens to be situated just 16' NW of the south ecliptic pole!

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2153 = h3002 on 3 Jan 1837 and recoded "eeF; R or lE; attached to a * 16m."  His position, from a single sweep, is accurate and the faint star appears to be at the south end.

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NGC 2154 = ESO 086-SC042 = S-L 793

05 57 38 -67 15 42

V = 11.8;  Size 2.3'

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): this LMC globular is located 50' SE of mag 5.1 Epsilon Doradus.  It appeared bright, large, round, 1.5' diameter, broad concentration, mottled with a couple of mag 15-16 stars resolving.  A mag 14 star is close off the north side.  S-L 800 lies 10' NNE and NGC 2135 is 25' SW.

 

S-L 800 was fairly faint, round, 0.6' diameter, low surface brightness.  A mag 12.5 star is at the west end and a mag 14.5 star is just off the east side.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2154 = h3003 on 2 Nov 1834 and observed on 4 sweeps.  His first description reads "F; L; R; glbM; 100".

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NGC 2155 = ESO 086-SC045 = S-L 803

05 58 32.3 -65 28 40

V = 12.6;  Size 2.1'

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): faint, fairly small, round, 1.1' diameter, weak concentration.  Near a scattered group of bright (mag 9-10) Milky Way stars and nearly collinear with two mag 9/9.5 stars 7' NW and 13' NW.  This is a well-studied older intermediate-age LMC cluster with an age of 2.5 - 3.5 billion years.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2155 = h3004 on 30 Nov 1834 and recorded "vF; pL; R; vlbM; 80"; in a rich field."  His position (from 3 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 2156 = ESO 057-SC059 = S-L 796

05 57 50 -68 27 36

V = 11.4;  Size 1.1'

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the first of four bright clusters in a 16' field!  At 200x it appeared bright, fairly large, elongated N-S, ~1.2'x0.8', sharply concentrated.  At 350x a couple of stars are resolved in the halo and the central core is just broken up into several clumps or knots with a couple of very faint stars resolved.  Located 6.9' NW of the impressive cluster globular NGC 2164.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2156 = h3005 on 23 Nov 1834 and recorded "pF; S; irreg R; psbM; 25".  He observed this cluster on 5 sweeps and other than brightness, the descriptions are similar.

 

James Dunlop possibly made the first observation (D 197) on 27 Sep 1826 and noted a "small faint round nebula".  His position, though, while correct in declination is nearly 19' too far east and might also apply to NGC 2172, which is 12' SW of his position.  Another possibility, given by Herschel, is that D 196 = h 3005 = NGC 2156.  Dunlop's position is 8' ESE of this object.

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NGC 2157 = ESO 057-SC058 = S-L 794

05 57 35 -69 11 48

V = 10.2;  Size 2.7'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): extremely bright, very large, 1.3' diameter, strong concentration with a very bright, large core, very mottled appearance, showpiece (globular?) cluster.  At 394x, several obviously mag 14.8-15.5 stars are resolved in the halo and around the edges.  With careful viewing the core broke up into a few dozen extremely packed stars (too tight and faint to count).  A mag 11.4 star is 1.4' WNW of center. NGC 2151 lies 13' NNW.  These clusters are on the east end of the LMC.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 2157 = D 161 on 6 Nov 1826 with his 9" speculum reflector and described "a small faint nebula, 15" diameter; a small star near the north preceding edge."  Dunlop made a single observation and his position is 6.8' too far SW.  Despite the small size estimate, there is a mag 11 star off the NW edge.

 

JH recorded this cluster (h3006) on 4 sweeps, first recording  "vB, R, gbM, 30"."  On a second sweep he logged "globular cluster, vB, R, vgvmbM, resolvable." JH noted a very uncertain (??) identification with D 161.

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NGC 2158 = Mel 40 = Cr 81

06 07 26 +24 05 48

V = 8.6;  Size 5'

 

18" (2/24/06): at 323x, this rich, irregularly shaped cluster is beautifully resolved into 45-50 stars that are peppered over a 5' background glow.  Appears like a resolved globular of low concentration class. Includes a couple of dozen mag 13.5-14.5 stars along with a rich carpet of fainter mag 15 stars.  There are several close pairs (1"-2" and possibly closer) and the number of stars keep increasing in moments of rock steady seeing as they seem to emerge from the background.  A single brighter star is at the east edge.

 

17.5" (2/8/86): 30-35 stars resolved, unusually rich, compact, about 5' diameter.  The appearance is similar to a resolved globular cluster.  Located 30' SW of M35.

 

13.1" (2/16/85): at least 20-25 stars resolved at 415x.

 

13.1" (11/5/83): ~15-20 stars, mottled clump near SE edge.

 

8": few stars resolved over haze.

 

13x80mm (1/20/07): visible in the finder as a very faint, small glow about a half-degree SW of M35.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2158 = H VI-17 = h375 on 16 Nov 1784 (sweep 317) and logged "a very compressed cluster of vS stars, very rich."   JH described the cluster as "rich; much compressed almost to nebulosity; stars very small; irregular triangular figure."

 

NGC 2158 has been classified as a globular by Rosino in 1954 (Contr. Padova in Asagio No. 52), Helen Sawyer Hogg, 1959 (Star Clusters) and more recently in the RNGC due to its richness.  Nevertheless, it is considered an intermediate age open cluster (~ 1 billion years old).  NGC 2158 is also five or six times as distant as M35, as far as 16,000 light years away (5071 parsecs).

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NGC 2159 = ESO 057-SC060 = S-L 799

05 58 03 -68 37 30

V = 11.4;  Size 0.9'

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x this cluster appeared bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.9'x0.7'.  A brighter star is at the north edge.  At 350x, at least three additional faint stars are resolved on the north side and the appearance is asymmetric as the cluster is brighter on the north side.  Located 8' SW of NGC 2164 and 10' S of NGC 2156.  NGC 2172 lies 11' ESE, NGC 2140 is 20' WNW and S-L 791 is 6' W.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 2159 = D 193 on 6 Nov 1826 and recorded "pB; R; well-defined, 12"."  He made a single obervation and his position is just 3' S of this cluster.

 

JH observed the cluster (h3007) on 4 sweeps, first reportin on 23 Nov 1834, "pF; S; irreg R; psbM; 25"."  Next he logged it as "pF; S; R; the second of three [with NGC 2156 and 2164]."  On the third sweep he logged "pB; S; R; has a *15m close to the edge, nf".  Herschel attributed Dunlop with the discovery.

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NGC 2160 = ESO 057-SC061 = S-L 801

05 58 13 -68 17 24

V = 12.2;  Size 1.2'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; bright, small cluster, 25"-30" diameter.  Three stars are resolved in the small central clump including a mag 13.5 star on the northwest edge.  Two fainter stars are on the east side and just south of center.  NGC 2156 lies 10' SSW, NGC 2164 is 14' SSE, NGC 2147/S-L 785 is 15' WNW and S-L 822 is 22' ESE.  The last cluster appeared as a moderately bright, small round glow.  A mag 13.5 star is involved at the north edge.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2160 = h3008 on 30 Dec 1836 and recorded as "pF; R; gbM; 30"."  His position from a single observation is accurate.  James Dunlop's D 195 possibly refers to this cluster, but it seems too faint to have been described as "a small pretty bright round nebula, 10" or 12" diameter."  His position is 10.6' NE of the cluster.

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NGC 2161 = ESO 033-SC031 = S-L 789

05 55 43 -74 21 12

V = 12.9;  Size 2.3'

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): this outlying LMC globular appeared moderately bright, fairly large, slightly elongated, nearly 1' diameter, weak concentration, no resolution. It seemed the cluster was slightly brighter along a central spine oriented WSW-ENE (probably due to slightly brighter unresolved stars).

 

S-L 804 was picked up 13' NE as a faint, relatively large glow, round, ~50" diameter, low even surface brightness.  A mag 10.6 star is 6' SW.

S-L 828, located 28' ENE, is fairly faint, fairly small, round, ~35" diameter, smooth surface brightness, no resolution.  Two mag 13-14 stars lie 2' SW.

S-L 783, located 16' SSW, is very faint, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, smooth glow, fairly low surface brightness, no resolution.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2161 = h3013 on 8 Feb 1836 and described as "F; pL; R; gpmbM; 2'."  His position from a single sweep is about 30" NW of center.  Located outside the boundaries of the Hodge-Wright LMC Atlas.

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NGC 2162 = ESO 086-SC047 = S-L 814

06 00 30 -63 43 18

V = 12.7;  Size 2.1'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; fairly bright, very large, round, contains a relatively large brighter core, mottled.  A couple of very faint stars are fairly easily resolved and several more pop in and out with averted vision.  Located 4' W of mag 8.5 HD 41515.  Three additional mag 11.5-12 stars, forming a distinctive group, extend south-southwest from the bright star.  This LMC globular is located in the northeast outer halo of the LMC, well outside the main outline.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2162 = h3010 on 30 Nov 1834 and recorded "vF; pL; R; vglbM; 80"."  On a second sweep he noted "F; R; glbM; 40"; a *9 mag follows in parallel, and 3 more 11 mag near."  His position (recorded on 3 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 2163 = Ced 62 = DG 87 = GN 06.04.9

06 07 49.5 +18 39 27

Size 3'x2'

 

17.5" (1/9/98): moderately bright reflection nebula surrounding a young mag 11 star (HBC 193).  The brightest portion of the nebula is noticeably elongated N-S from the central star and 2'-3' in length tapering towards the star.  The northern extension has a slightly higher surface brightness. Located 3' W of a mag 9 star.  Observed at 220x without filtration.

 

17.5" (12/23/92): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 N-S, ~2.5'x1.0', fairly high surface brightness.  A mag 11 star is at the south tip of the bright portion and a small very faint extension appears south of this star.  Located 3' W of mag 9 HD 41787.  Two mag 13 stars are 1' NE and 1' N and a mag 10 star is 5' S.  An evenly matched mag 10.5/10.5 double at 12" separation lies 8' WSW.  This reflection nebula doesn't respond to a Daystar 300 or OIII filter.  Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC due to an error in declination in the NGC.  Plotted as Ced 62 in U2000.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 2163 = St IX-6 on 6 Feb 1874 with the 31-inch reflector at the Marseille Observatory and recorded "eF, E, dif, *11 attached south."  He observed it again on 6 Jan 1878.  In compiling the NGC, Dreyer accidentally copied the declination of NGC 1741 (Stephan's previous entry, IX-5).  Dreyer later caught and corrected his error in the IC 2 Notes/Corrections section (Dreyer added the comment "my mistake").  The correction was missed by most later cataloguers though Esmiol's 1916 re-reduction of Stephan's positions also gives the accurate position. As an example, in 1922 Edwin Hubble called it "A bright, uncatalogued nebula similar to NGC 2245" and Sven Cederblad listed it as "anonymous" object (#62).  So, both were obviously thrown off by Dreyer's mistake.  I uncovered that E.E. Barnard independently discovered it on 2 Sep 1888, though initially mistook it for Faye's Comet, which he was searching for.

 

Skiff recomputed Stephan's original position using precise coordinates for his offset star HD 41787 as 06 04 53.62 +18 40 08.7 (1950).  At this exact location is the reflection nebula Cederblad 62 at 06 04 53.17 +18 39 55.0 just 0.45 tsec of RA and 13".7 in declination from Stephan's original coordinates.  Besides the excellent positional match, Stephan described NGC 2163 as "elongated with *11 attached south" and visually this nebula appears to extend more prominently north of the mag 11.5 (central) star.  On the POSS, Ced 62 is an interesting bipolar nebula with two symmetrical funnel-shaped jets extending north-south from the central star.

 

More recently, Cederblad 62 wasn't referenced as a NGC object in the first edition of the Uranometria 2000.0, Sky Atlas 2000.0 or the Sky Catalogue 2000.  The RNGC identifies this object as nonexistent and furthermore reverses the sign of the declination.  In addition, a poor RA was given for Ced 62 in Sky Catalogue 2000 and it was misplotted on the Uranometria 2000 (first edition) too far east, though the position was corrected in the second edition.  The Millenium Star Atlas labels this object Ced 62 at the wrong position.

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NGC 2164 = ESO 057-SC062 = S-L 808

05 58 56.0 -68 30 57

V = 10.3;  Size 2.5'

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the brightest of four clusters in a 10' field.  At 260x it appeared very bright, large, round, sharply concentrated with an extremely bright core (appears to be a globular), the large outer halo extends to 2' diameter.  Roughly 15 stars are resolved in the halo - some of these are easily resolved 14th mag stars, while others are quite faint.  At 350x, two dozen stars are resolved and the core is very grainy. Overall, this is a very impressive cluster.  NGC 2156 lies 6.8' NW, NGC 2159 is 8' SW and NGC 2172 is 9.7' SE..

 

James Dunlop probably NGC 2164 = D 194 on 27 Sep 1826 and described a "A pretty large faint ill-defined nebula."  His position is just 3' SW of this cluster.  There are 3 other clusters within 9' (NGC 2156, 2159, 2172), but this is the largest and brightest.  D 193, decribed by Dunlop as "pretty bright" is south of NGC 2159, but could also apply to NGC 2164.

 

JH observed this cluster (h3011) on 5 sweeps beginning on 23 Nov 1834, when he recorded "vB, R, gmbM;  90", resolvable."  Herschel attributed Dunlop with the discovery.

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NGC 2165

06 11 05 +51 40 36

 

17.5" (3/1/03): Roughly a dozen stars in a 6'x4' group at 100x.  Extended E-W except for a few stars which tail off towards the north on the following end.  Nine of the stars in the group are fairly evenly distributed and similar in magnitude (10.5-11).  No concentration or dense spots and appears to be an asterism.  Listed as a nonexistent cluster in the RNGC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2165 = h376 on 12 Feb 1831 and noted "a ppor cl 7' length, 3' broad; about a dozen stars 11m."   There is a very scattered group of brighter stars on the DSS at Herschel's position with the fields to the west lacking in stars.  Karl Reinmuth, using a Heidelberg plate, described a "Cl, P, 20-25 st 11...".   RNGC classifies this object as nonexistent (Type 7).

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NGC 2166 = ESO 057-SC064 = S-L 811

05 59 34 -67 56 30

V = 12.9;  Size 1.2'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; very bright, fairly small, round, 24" diameter, high surface brightness.  Contains a relatively large bright core and smooth halo.  A mag 12.5 star is off the northeast side [42" from center].  Located 6' S of mag 9.3 HD 41443.  NGC 2177 lies 16' NE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2166 = h3012 on 2 Jan 1837 and recorded "F, S, R, gbM, 15"."  His position is accurate. JH credits D 223 as the possible earlier discovery.  James Dunlop found D 223 and/or D 222 on 27 Sep 1826.  His description for D 222 reads "small round nebula preceding a small star."  There is a "small star" just following the cluster, though his position is 9' too far west.  D 223 has a relatively accurate position (1.6' N) with description "pretty bright and well-defined small round nebula."  Both objects were recorded as observed once, though I don't know if they were on the same night.

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NGC 2167 = SAO 132848

06 06 58.5 -06 12 08

V = 6.6

 

=*6.6 SAO 132848, Gottlieb and Corwin.  = no neb, Carlson.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2167 = h378 on 8 Jan 1831 and described "a star 7m with a p strong neb atmosphere."  His position matches mag 6.6 HD 41794 at 06 06 58.7 -06 12 25, but there is no surrounding nebulosity.  He incorrectly assumed this was his father's IV-44, which was described on 28 Nov 1786 (sweep 640) as a "star involved in milky chevelure, situated between two stars, with a 3rd star at rectangles to the former two."  There is nothing at WH's position for IV-44, though a couple of reflection nebulae are nearby, including NGC 2170 8' south and vdB 68 about 30 sec of RA following and 2' north.

 

Several unsuccessful attempts were made to see h378 at Birr Castle.  The GC and NGC used JH's position and description for h378, so NGC 2167 = h378 = HD 41694, and not H IV-44.

 

Dreyer commented that IV-44 ­ h378 in the notes to his 1912 Scientific Papers of WH: "Occurs only in Sw. 640, 2m 0s p, 4' n of IV 38 [NGC 2182]. 'Situated between two stars with a third star at rectangles to the former.'  This cannot be h378 (as hitherto assumed), nor does the description quite fit IV 19 [NGC 2170], which does not occur in this sweep, though this star has a star 11m ssp and a vF star north and third farther off npp.  But 70s f h378 on the same parallel there is a star 11m between two others sp and nf with a third star p, forming a striking rectangular triangle [vdB 68].  If this is H's object, his RA is 33s too small." 

 

Dreyer is proposing IV-44 = vdB 68 = Ced 65 (and Wolfgang Steinicke concurs), though Corwin feels H IV-44 is more likely a duplicate observation of NGC 2170 = H IV-19, which is brighter and 8' due south of WH's position.

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NGC 2168 = M35 = Cr 82

06 08 54 +24 20

V = 5.1;  Size 28'

 

18" (11/14/09): gorgeous view at 75x, which beautifully frames the cluster as well as NGC 2158.  The densest portion is the central 25' where roughly 250-300 stars are resolved.  The cluster is noticeably lopsided due to a loop of stars that juts out on the SE side of the cluster. This loop includes mag 7.5 HD 42086 near its SE end.  The brightest cluster star is a double on the north side (O· 134 = 7.5/9.1 at 31") with a bright orange-colored primary.  A prominent loop of stars heads south and curves to the west beginning at O· 134.  This same chain nearly merges with another prominent chain of fainter stars that begins on the west side of the cluster and forms a string that heads east through the cluster.  Other loops and chains caught my eye as star chains seem to outline regions where there are star voids.  The cluster itself resides in a rich star field though is fairly well-detached by a region of lower star density surrounding the cluster, particularly around the south side.

 

8": very bright string cluster, very large, excellent field but not rich in faint stars.  Many of the stars are arrange in rows and loops.

 

Naked-eye: Visible as a fairly small naked-eye glow in a dark sky.

 

Phillippe De ChŽseaux discovered M35 = NGC 2168 = h377 in 1745-46.  John Bevis independently found the cluster before 1750 (possibly earlier than De ChŽseaux).  JH described "a L, coarse, p rich cl of st 9...16m, which fills 2 or 3 fields, but cheifly one in which are about 100 stars."

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NGC 2169 = "37" Cluster = Cr 83 = OCL-481 = Lund 206

06 08 25 +13 57 54

V = 5.9;  Size 7'

 

17.5" (1/19/91): 20 stars mag 7.5-13 in bright, distinctive group.  Fairly small, about 6' diameter, not rich.  The stars are divided into two main subgroups - along the west side is a string of six stars aligned N-S in a very shallow "V" asterism.  The northern two stars in this string form the wide double ·844 = 8.8/9.9 at 24" and less than 2' S is mag 8.7 SAO 95271.  The eastern subgroup consists of 9 stars forming a distinctive triangle outline and includes the close double star ·848 = 7.5/8.0 at 2.5".  The brighter stars form a fairly distinctive "37" pattern!  Located 0.9 degrees WSW of Xi Orionis.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2169 = H VIII-24 = h379 on 15 Oct 1784 (sweep 293) and recorded as "a small cluster of pretty large white stars, prettily arranged, not many of them."  On 24 Dec 1786 (sweep 662) he note "a cl of brilliant stars, not many in number, but pretty much compressed; with a vacancy in the middle."

 

By analyzing William Herschel's early "reviews" of bright stars (before his systematic sweeps), which resulted in the discovery of many double stars, Wolfgang Steinicke found (email Oct '16) that Herschel first discovered the cluster on 12 Oct 1782 using his 6.2" reflector.

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NGC 2170 = LBN 994 = vdB 67 = Ced 63 = RAFGL 877

06 07 31.8 -06 23 57

Size 2'x2'

 

18" (1/13/07): fairly bright, moderately large reflection nebula surrounding a mag 9.5 star, ~2.5' diameter.  There are two stars bracketing the nebula at the north and south ends with the brighter southern star of 10th magnitude.

 

Reflection nebula vdB 69 lies 8.5' ENE and surrounds a mag 9.5-10 star.  It appeared moderately bright, ~4'x2', extends mostly SE of the star.  vdB 68 lies 13' NE and surrounds mag 9.6 HD 42004.  It appeared moderately bright, large, encompassing two mag 11 stars 1.5' NE and 3' NE.  The shape appears irregular and ~5' in size.

 

13.1" (1/28/84): fairly bright nebulosity surrounds mag 9.5 SAO 132861.  Also a star 8' ENE is slightly nebulous (vdB 69).  This is the brightest and westermost in a group of reflection nebulae.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2170 = H IV-19 on 16 Oct 1784 (sweep 296) and recorded "a pretty large star, about the 9th magnitude, surrounded by milky nebulosity, not circular; but an irregular ellipsis."  He recorded it again on 23 Feb 1786 (sweep 528) and logged "a considerable star with milky nebulosity E in meridian or a little from np to sf.  It involves a smaller star which is about 1.5' north of it.  Other stars of equal magnitude are perfectly clear from it."  It was possibly recorded again on 28 Nov 1786 as IV-44 (sweep 640) as a "star involved in milky chevelure, situated between two stars, with a 3rd star at rectangles to the former two."  His position is 8' north of NGC 2170.

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NGC 2171 = S-L 691 and S-L 692

05 58 59 -70 43 09

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): there are no good candidates matching Herschel's description for this number, but Mati Morel suggested NGC 2171 was possibly S-L 691 and 692 with a large error in RA (15 min of RA).  Although Corwin has since rejected this possibility as it is out of RA order in the sweep, here are the descriptions of these clusters.

 

S-L 691: faint or fairly faint, small, round, glow, 25" diameter.  S-L 691 is the northern of close pair of LMC clusters with S-L 692 just 48" S.  Located 5' ESE of NGC 2107.

S-L 692: fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated glow, 35" diameter, no resolution.  Visually, there is no noticeable star cloud surrounding these two clusters.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2171 = h3016 on 16 Dec 1835 and recorded "eeF; vL; R; glbM; 4'."  There is nothing at this position though ~5' NW is S-L 809 = KMHK 1571.  Eric Lindsay, in his 1964 paper "Some NGC objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud" (IAJ, 6, 286-289), notes "This may be the small object S/L 809, 0.5 min W, 2' N which may be an unresolved cluster or possibly a galaxy. The size does not agree."  SIMBAD also identifies S-L 809 as NGC 2171.  But this tiny cluster is roughly 30", so it's not a reasonable match with a 4' object.  The Hodge-Wright Atlas misidentifies a faint star as NGC 2171.

 

Mati Morel has proposed that h3016 is a star cloud at 05 44 14 -70 40 09, which includes S-L 691 and S-L 692.  This requires a very large error in RA (over 15 min of RA).  Harold Corwin notes that the sweep order argues against such an error (see his identification notes) and this object appears to be lost.

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NGC 2172 = ESO 057-SC065 = S-L 812

06 00 05.6 -68 38 14

V = 11.8;  Size 1.7'

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): At 200x this LMC cluster appeared moderately bright, fairly small, ~0.8' diameter, irregular, a couple of stars are resolved within the glow.  At 350x, the glow is clumpy with four stars resolved with the brightest star at the SE edge.  Located 10' SE of NGC 2164 and 11' ESE of NGC 2159.  Fourth of four (including NGC 2156)  in a 16' circle.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2172 = h3015 on 31 Jan 1835 and recorded "vF; L; R; gbM; 2'."  On a second sweep he recorded "pF; R; lbM; 50"."  His mean position (two sweeps) is at the south edge of the cluster.

 

James Dunlop's D 197, found on 27 Sep 1826 possibly is an earlier discovery, though this cluster may be too faint to have seen by Dunlop.  He described a "small faint round nebula" that was placed 12' NE of this cluster.

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NGC 2173 = ESO 033-SC034 = S-L 807

05 57 58.9 -72 58 46

V = 11.9;  Size 2.3'

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x this outlying LMC cluster (classified as a GC in SIMBAD with an age of ~2 billion years) appears as a fairly bright, round glow, ~2' in diameter, weak concentration, no resolution.  A wide pair of 12th magnitude stars lies 2.4' ENE and 3.5' ESE.  NGC 2199 (a galaxy) lies 38' SE, and NGC 2209, another LMC cluster, lies 68' SE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2173 = h3018 on 8 Feb 1836 and described as "pF; R; gmbM; 90"."  His single position is accurate.

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NGC 2174 = "Monkey Head" Nebula = LBN 854 = Sh 2-252 = Ced 67a

06 09 23.6 +20 39 34

Size 40'x30'

 

17.5" (1/16/02): at 64x and OIII filter, this is a beautiful, detailed nebulosity surrounding a mag 8 star (SAO 78049), extending at least 20' diameter.  The OIII filter gives a dramatic contrast gain.  With averted vision and careful viewing, the outer borders extend to ~25'.  Structure includes interior streaky dark lanes visible to the west of the star.  The rim is slightly brighter or has a higher contrast on the western edge but slightly more nebulosity is visible on the following side of the star.

 

Without a filter at 64x, I was surprised to immediately notice a moderately bright 3' round glow, situated ~11' NNW of SAO 78049 near the NW edge of the main glow.  Interestingly, this patch of nebulosity is more prominent than the main body without a filter and is probably the section of the HII complex visually discovered by Stephan!  It seemed quite strange that this patch had such a different filter response and dimmed significantly with the OIII (mainly reflection component?).  A curving arc of stars is situated along the north side of the glow.  The entire nebula is situated among a scattered group of stars, which is often mistaken for NGC 2175.  Located 1.4 degrees ENE of Chi(2) Orionis.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): very large, irregular nebulosity surrounding mag 8.0 SAO 78049.  Dark lanes are evident west of the star, appears very streaky.  A bright small unresolved knot is 3.2' ENE of the bright star using an OIII filter [this is NGC 2175].

 

13" (1/18/85): very bright with filter, very large, surrounds a mag 8 star, sky very dark off west side.  West of the star the nebula is mottled and streaky with a bright region near the north edge.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 2174 = St IX-7 on 6 Feb 1877.  His description does not describe the entire nebulosity or a scattered cluster but rather a small patch of nebulosity (without the accents): "excessive., excess., faible (a peine observable); a l'interieur d'un triangle forme par trois petites etoiles."

 

He gives a 1878 position of 06 02 07.47 +20 40 54.4 which precesses to 06 09 24.0 +20 39 53 (2000), and falls on the northwest side of the nebula.  This probably needs a small correction in declination based on his reference star, but is still accurate enough to clearly identify a small brighter patch of nebulosity.  His three stars are mag 13-14 and the knot of nebulosity is quite prominent on the DSS just following the middle of these three stars.  This star has a position of 06 09 21.9 +20 39 30 (2000) and Stephan's knot appears only 30-40" in diameter.

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NGC 2175 = "Monkey Head" Nebula = Ced 67a = LBN 854 = Sh 2-252E = Cr 84

06 09 39.5 +20 29 15

Size 40'x30'

 

17.5": See description for NGC 2174.  Although the scattered group of stars involved with the HII region is identified as NGC 2175, the NGC description (from Auwers and Bruhns) does not refer to a cluster but rather a "*8m in neb (Auw No 21)".  The position given is 10' S of NGC 2174 and 16 tsec east.  But in the IC 2 notes and correction, Dreyer gives a correction in RA from Bigourdan to 06 01 32.  This places NGC 2175 at 06 09 52 +20 29.1 (2000) and is just 1' S of the brightest section of the nebula (about 3' ENE of mag 8 SAO 78049).  The scattered group is catalogued as Cr 84.

 

Carl Christian Bruhns discovered NGC 2175 = Au 21 in 1857 using a comet-seeker at the Berlin Observatory.  His position corresponds with mag 7.6 HD 42088.  Arthur Auwers described this nebula on 24 Feb 1861 with the 6" Heliometer at Konigsberg Observatory as "a considerable area of milky, faint light, extended about 8' north-south and 25' east-west.  In the brightest part is the 8m star."  Heinrich d'Arrest made 3 observations using the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen in Jan 1865 and wrote "the extraordinarily large, faint nebula is one of the objects which are difficult to see with higher magnification.  It took a long time to find it." (translations from Wolfgang Steincke).  See notes on NGC 2174.

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NGC 2176 = ESO 086-SC050 = S-L 815

06 01 19 -66 51 12

Size 1.3'

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): fairly faint, roundish, 30" diameter, low surface brightness, no resolution although a mag 14 star is just off the east side.  The compact cluster S-L 824 is 8' SE and large S-L 800 is 23' SW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2176 = h3017 on 3 Jan 1837 and recorded as "eeF; R; pL; gbM; 2'."  His position from a single sweep matches this cluster.

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NGC 2177 = ESO 057-SC066 = S-L 816

06 01 17 -67 44 00

V = 12.8;  Size 1.2'

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, fairly even surface brightness, no resolution.  Located 8' NNW of mag 9.3 HD 41802 and 11' NE of mag 9.4 HD 41443.  Three additional mag 10 stars are in the field to the north and east.  NGC 2166 lies 16' SW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2177 = h3020 on 13 Dec 1835 and recorded "F; R; lbM; 15"."  On a second sweep he noted "pF; irreg R; resolvable."  His mean position matches this cluster.

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NGC 2178 = ESO 086-053 = PGC 18322

06 02 47.6 -63 45 50

V = 12.6;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated WSW-ENE, 50"x40", contains a very small bright core and stellar nucleus.  A mag 15.3 star is close west-northwest [33" from center].  Located 2.7' WSW of mag 8.5 HD 41904.  The LMC open cluster NGC 2162 lies 15' WNW.

 

ESO 086-056 lies 8.8' NE and appeared moderately bright and large, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, 1.0'x0.4', broad concentration, the brighter core bulges slightly at the center.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2178 = h3019 on 31 Jan 1835 and logged "eF, vS, r, 10"."  His position is 35" south of ESO 086-053 = PGC 18322.

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NGC 2179 = ESO 555-038 = MCG -04-15-011 = PGC 18453

06 08 02.2 -21 44 48

V = 12.3;  Size 1.7'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 170d

 

13.1" (1/28/84): fairly faint, fairly small, almost round, broad concentration.  Located 15' ENE of mag 6.0 SAO 171251.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2179 = h3014 on 21 Nov 1835 and noted "F, pmE, glbM, 40"."  His position matches ESO 555-038 = PGC 18453.

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NGC 2180

06 09 37.6 +04 43 03

Size 15'

 

18" (3/5/05): large, scattered group viewed at 115x with the 31 Nagler.  Most distinctive is a "candy-cane" loop of a dozen mag 10-11 stars which closely wrap around to the east of mag 7.9 HD 29212 and then extends in a string to the NW ending in two mag 10 stars.  A scattering of brighter stars in the vicinity increase the apparent diameter to perhaps 20'x15', though besides the half-dozen or so brighter stars this appears to be an asterism.  A half-dozen mag 8.5-10 stars 10' to 12' E and north from the mag 7.1 star roughly define an eastern border to the group.  Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC. though this may be an evolved, open cluster remnant that is partially stripped of former members.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2180 = H VIII-6 = h380 on 24 Jan 1784 (sweep 114) and reported "A Cl of scattered stars, about 30 large and many small ones."  A later sweep provided an accurate position.  JH felt this was a "a fine cluster, coarse, p rich, place of a *9m."  His position corresponds with mag 8.4 SAO 113523 at 06 09 37.6 +04 43 03 (2000).

 

Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 photographic survey, lists dimensions of 20'x20' with the description "Cl, L, pR, P, sc, st 8.7..., B* BD+4d1141 nr M."  RNGC classifies this object as nonexistent (Type 7), though a recent journal article suggests this is an evolved, disrupted cluster (A&A 427, 485-494 (2004).

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NGC 2181 = ESO 086-SC054 = S-L 825

06 02 43.2 -65 15 52

V = 13.6;  Size 1.6'

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): extremely faint, fairly small, irregular, ~1' diameter, very low surface brightness.  This LMC cluster is located 2.8' WSW of a mag 10 star.  NGC 2193 lies 21' NE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2181 = h3021 on 30 Nov 1834 and recorded "vF; S; R."  His position from this single sweep is 1' too far east.

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NGC 2182 = LBN 998 = vdB 72 = Ced 68

06 09 30.9 -06 19 35

Size 3'x3'

 

18" (1/13/07): bright reflection nebula, round, ~2' diameter, surrounding 9.3 HD 42261.  In a group of reflection nebula with NGC 2170 28' WSW and NGC 2183 20' ENE.

 

13.1" (1/28/84): faint, small, nebulosity surrounding mag 9.0 SAO 132895 using averted vision.  Located 28' ENE of NGC 2170.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2182 = H IV-38 = h381 on 24 Feb 1786 (sweep 529) and described "a considerable star very faintly affected with milky chevelure, the milkiness not far from the parallel."  A second observation (also with an accurate position), was made on 28 Nov 1786 (sweep 640), although Sherburne Burnham (Publ of Lick Observatory, II) incorrectly stated the RA should be 1 min larger.

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NGC 2183 = LBN 996 = Ced 69

06 10 46.9 -06 12 43

Size 1'x1'

 

18" (1/13/07): fairly faint reflection in a group.  Appears ~1' diameter and notably was *not* surrounding a bright star as are the other nebulae in the group.  There appears to be a faint star, though, at the south edge which may be the illuminating star.  A much larger complex of of nebulosity including NGC 2185 is less than 5' E and SE.

 

13.1" (1/28/84): very faint reflection nebula near four faint stars just SE.  Forms a pair with NGC 2185 4.8' E.  Located 25' ENE of NGC 2182.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 2183 on 11 Dec 1850 using Lord Rosse's 72" and noted "about 65' following h378 [NGC 2167} is a small nebula with nucleus or stellar point."  On the sketch of 24 Jan 1851, it's labeled as Epsilon and NGC 2185 is labeled Alpha.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest independently found this reflection nebula on 11 Jan 1864 and measured an accurate position (as well as NGC 2185).  He noted a mag 11-12 star 2.5' south and 1.4 sec of time preceding.  Stoney's observation was not included in the GC (because of his rough location) and Dreyer only credited d'Arrest with the discovery in the GC Supplement and NGC.

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NGC 2184

06 11 04 -03 31 12

Size 20'

 

17.5" (12/23/92): scattered group of 75 stars mag 7.8 to 13 in a 30' diameter.  Bright, very large, includes a mag 7.8 star (HD 42761) on the SE, 10 mag 9 stars and two mag 8 stars off the SE end (one a nice double ·874 = 9.5/10.3 at 21").  There is no concentration towards the center and no dense regions.  Fills most of the 100x field.  Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2184 = h382 on 19 Feb 1830 and recorded "A large loose straggling cl of 8th class.  The place is that of a double star [HJ 2299]."  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 photographic survey "Die Herschel-Nebel", gives dimensions 30'x30' and a description "Cl, vL, P, v sc, iR, st 9..."

 

RNGC classifies this number as a nonexistent cluster (Type 7) and it is not included in the Lynga catalogue.

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NGC 2185 = LBN 997 = vdB 73 = Ced 70 = GN 06.08.7

06 11 06.1 -06 12 38

Size 3'x3'

 

18" (1/13/07): faint, fairly small, 1' reflection nebula surrounding a mag 12-12.5 star.  A few arc minutes southwest is a group of 4 mag 12 stars which are also encased in a larger 3' haze of weak nebulosity.  Both of these pieces are part of NGC 2185. Located  5' E of NGC 2183.

 

13.1" (1/28/84): this faint reflection nebula surrounds a mag 12 star.  A group of four mag 11.5-12.5 stars is 2' to 3' SW.  Forms a close pair with NGC 2183 in the NGC 2182 group.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2185 = H IV-20 = h383 on 16 Oct 1784 (sweep 296) and recorded as "a small star of the 11 or 12 mag, affected in the same manner [as NGC 2170], but very faint.  240 also showed it, other stars of the same magnitude are perfectly free from these appearances."  He observed this reflection neb again on 23 Feb 1786 (sweep 528) and logged "5 or 6 pS stars within a space of 3 or 4'; all affected with vF milky nebulosity.  It is remarkable that the general milkiness which involves them, seems to be a little stronger about each star; but this last circumstance may be a deception arising from the light of the star."

 

JH recorded on sweep 235, "A *10m with a vF atmosphere.  Two others sp are free from such atmosphere.  A very F neb suspected south preceding this object [this may refer to NGC 2183, which is due west].

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NGC 2186 = Cr 85 = OCL-498 = Lund 209

06 12 08 +05 27 30

V = 8.7;  Size 4'

 

17.5" (1/19/91): at 140x about 30 stars in a 4' diameter including three mag 10 stars.  Includes a prominent subgroup with a mag 10 star on the north side and a double star 11/12 at 10".  A clump of mag 13/14 stars is just west of this subgroup.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2186 = H VII-25 = h384 on NGC 2186 (sweep 512) and logged "a cluster of pretty compressed stars of several sizes, 4' or 5' diameter wth extensively straggling ones."  JH described "a pretty rich, comp cl, one st = 9, 3 or 4 = 11, and many 12...15.  Place that of double star h2288."  JH's position is accurate.

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NGC 2187 = ESO 057-068A = AM 0604-693 = PGC 18354

06 03 48.3 -69 34 59

V = 12.1;  Size 2.5'x1.1';  PA = 79d

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): although described as a "double nebula" by John Herschel, this close pair of galaxies received a single NGC entry.  At 260x the double system is oriented SW-NE with their outer halos overlapping.  The brighter northeast component is fairly bright, fairly small, round, 35" diameter, strong concentration.  The southwest member is fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, 40"x35", weak concentration, with a lower surface brightness than the NE member of the pair.  The pair shines through the eastern portion of the LMC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2187 = h3025 on 23 Dec 1834 and recorded a "Double nebula, position 12.5 degrees; larger pB, R, gbM, 40"; smaller vF, R, glbM." His position (measured on 3 sweeps) corresponds with the double system ESO 57-68A. On the other two sweeps he only described a single object and he only gave a single entry in the GC.

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NGC 2188 = ESO 364-037 = MCG -06-14-008 = AM 0608-340 = PGC 18536

06 10 09.5 -34 06 22

V = 11.7;  Size 4.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 175d

 

24" (1/25/14): at 200x-260x appeared fairly bright, large, very elongated 5:1 N-S, 4.0'x0.8', broad concentration with a large, slightly brighter elongated core.  Mag 8.5 HD 42519 lies 8' SW.  ESO 364-039 lies 16' NE and ESO 364-035/036, in the core of AGC 3391, lie 28' N.  This edge-on Magellanic dwarf irregular has several giant HII regions on the south side and appears to be disrupted, although there is no nearby interacting companion.

 

13.1" (2/23/85): faint, moderately large, edge-on streak 6:1 NNW-SSE.  A mag 13.5 star is at the NNW end.  Located 7.8' NE of mag 8.6 SAO 196541.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2188 = h3022 on 9 Jan 1836 and described as "pF, vmE, gvlbM, 2' long."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2189

06 12 18 +01 08

 

=Not found, Carlson.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 2189 = HN 25/26 on Mar 19 1863 using the 15-inch Merz refractor at Harvard College Observatory.  In AN #1453, George Bond (then director of the observatory) noted "two clusters, seen 1863 Mar 19, near two stars of the 10th, 11th magnitude by J.H. Safford, with the Great Refractor."  The positions for the two stars are roughly 15' apart E-W although Dreyer used a mean position and only a single entry in the NGC. In any case, there are no obvious clusters on the DSS at his positions, just scattered stars.  The same night he also found NGC 2198, which appears to be nonexistent or a weak scattering of stars.

 

Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 photographic survey using Heidelberg places, was unable to identify NGC 2189.  Corwin very tentatively identifies a group of stars at 06 14 29 +01 02.2.

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NGC 2190 = ESO 033-SC036 = S-L 819

06 01 04 -74 43 30

V = 12.9;  Size 2.0'

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): fairly faint, relatively large, ~1' diameter, fairly low smooth surface brightness. No resolution, though viewed through thin clouds.  NGC 2161 lies 30' NW.  Located 36' W of mag 5.1 Alpha Men.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2190 = h3027 on 8 Feb 1836 and described as "vF; R; gbM; 2'."  His position from single sweep is accurate (45" NW of center).  NGC 2190 is located outside the boundaries of the Hodge-Wright LMC Atlas.

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NGC 2191 = ESO 160-014 = PGC 18464

06 08 23.8 -52 30 44

V = 12.3;  Size 1.7'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 118d

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): at 166x, this Carina galaxy (on border with Pictor) appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 0.7'x0.5'.  Sharply concentrated with a very small brighter core.  Surrounded by several brighter stars including mag 9 HD 42537 1.9' SW and mag 9 HD 42545 5' ESE.  Located 2.4 degrees west of Canopus on the Pictor border.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2191 = h3023 on 9 Jan 1837 and reported "pB, vS, E, vsbM; a ruddy star 9th mag precedes about 5 seconds in R.A."  His position is accurate.  The ruddy star is mag 9 HD 42537.

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NGC 2192 = Cr 86 = Mel 42 = OCL-437

06 15 18 +39 51 18

Size 6'

 

13.1" (12/22/84): two dozen very faint stars in a 4' diameter over unresolved haze.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2192 = H VII-57 on 31 Dec 1788 (sweep 901) and recorded "a compressed cluster of vS stars, irregular figure, 6' diameter, considerably rich."  His position (Auwer's reduction) is accurate.  This older cluster has an age of roughly 2 billion years

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NGC 2193 = ESO 086-SC057 = S-L 839

06 06 17.5 -65 05 54

V = 13.4;  Size 1.9'

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): very faint, fairly small, round, ~1' diameter, low surface brightness.  NGC 2181 lies 24' SW.  This LMC globular is the most elliptical of any known globular cluster with eccentricity = 0.33 (see http://aa.springer.de/papers/9348002/2300418/sc2.htm).  NGC 2193 is located 8' SE of HJ 3838, a mag 10.5/10.5 pair at 10".

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2193 = h3026 on 3 Dec 1834 and recorded "F; irreg fig; glbM; has 2 or 3 stars in it."  His position from this single sweep is just 30" NNW of center.

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NGC 2194 = Cr 87 = Mel 43 = OCL-485

06 13 46 +12 48 24

V = 8.5;  Size 10'

 

13.1" (1/18/85): at least 50 stars in a 5' region including many mag 14/15 stars, very rich with averted.  Includes a few brighter stars on the east edge.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2194 = H VI-5 on 11 Feb 1784 and described a "a cluster of very close stars.  Rich and of large extent, i.e. about 7 or 8' or more."  On 24 Dec 1786 (sweep 662) he recorded "a beautiful cluster of very compressed small stars of several sizes, gradually most compressed in the middle, irr R, 12 or 15' in diameter."  In his 1814 PT paper he considered this as an example of a cluster in an advanced state of insulation, "not much differing from a globular figure."

 

Adolph Petersen independently found the cluster in 1849 but with a poor position.  The position was accuratelly measured by d'Arrest on 18 Sep 1862 and by Vogel on 7 Dec 1869.  Dreyer missed the equivalence with H. VI 5 and entered d'Arrest's observation as GC 5380 in his Supplement.

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NGC 2195

06 14 33.8 +17 38 22

V = 13/14

 

17.5" (12/23/97): this close pair of mag 13/14 stars was picked up at 100x just south of a mag 10 star.  At 220x and 280x this double star was cleanly resolved [10" separation] although the region between the pair and the bright star (just 30" from the southern star) appeared slightly hazy, probably due to two additional very close faint stars just below resolvability. At 410x, at least one very faint sparkle was occasionally glimpsed close to the mag 10 star.  It is not difficult to see why Lohse may have suspected this object to be nebulous.  Coincidentally, a very faint reflection nebula (GN 06.11.5) is located 6.7' NNW and it is misidentified as NGC 2195 in RNGC.

 

Gerhard Lohse discovered NGC 2195 around 1886 with the 15.5-inch refractor at the private Wigglesworth Observatory in England.  His position is 17 tsec west of a double star (with two additional very faint stars in a chain).  His description of a mag 10 star 30" north pins down this identification.  Interestingly, on my first observation of this object, I also thought it was nebulous - either due to glare from the mag 10 star or the closeness of the chain of the stars.  Coincidentally, there is a very faint reflection nebula (GM 1-45 = P-P 58) 6.7' NNE in the same field which was also visible in my 17.5" and this object has the same RA as Lohse's original position.  The RNGC has misidentified this reflection nebula as NGC 2195.  See Corwin's notes.

 

Wolfgang Steinicke commented "The discoverer was Gerhard Lohse, a German working at Scarborough using a 15.5 inch refractor. The object is one of 18 nebulae (from a total of 20) Dreyer put into the NGC. Lohse is among the observers with the poorest statistics:  Only 3 objects are real nebulae (the galaxies NGC 2518, 2565, 6792)! 12 are stars (or asterisms), 3 are "not found".  From the existing, NGC 2518 is the faintest, but an easy object with V around 13 mag a and compact core.  Due to this, it is questionable, if he really saw GM 1-45. The description of a 10 mag star 31" N matches the small group. In general Lohse's positions are not bad, there are "objects" at the places, but in most cases no nebulae."

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NGC 2196 = ESO 556-004 = MCG -04-15-014 = UGCA 121 = PGC 18602

06 12 09.5 -21 48 27

V = 11.0;  Size 2.8'x2.2';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 45d

 

13.1" (1/28/84): fairly bright, fairly small, almost round, increases to a small bright core.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2196 = H II-265 = h3024 on 20 Nov 1784 (sweep 325) and logged "pF, pS, iF, bM of an irregular shape, somewhat elongated."  His position is 30 sec of RA too large and 3' too far south. JH observed this galaxy from the Cape on 4 sweeps, first recording it as "B, pL, R, pspmbM. Many stars near it."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2197 = ESO 086-SC058 = S-L 838

06 06 09 -67 05 54

V = 13.4;  Size 1.7'

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): fairly faint, round, 35" diameter, even surface brightness, a mag 15 star is resolved at the north edge and one or two others occasionally pop.  The galaxy ESO 86-59 is 3.8' SE (= HS 452 in Hodge-Wright Atlas), but was not noticed.  NGC 2197 is situated 12' NNW of mag 6.7 HD 42701

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2197 = h3028 on 31 Jan 1835 and noted "vF; R; 40"."  His mean position from two sweeps matches this LMC cluster.

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NGC 2198

06 13 54 +01 00

 

24" (1/22/15): at the position given here is a 10' to 12' field with perhaps a half-dozen mag 10-11 stars and a number of fainter stars.  The group, though, is totally unimpressive and does not stand out in the general field.  On the southwest side is a 20" pair (one of Safford's 10th magnitude reference stars).   About 25' south is a scattered group of mag 9-10.5 stars (along with some fainter stars) that is much more distinctive, though doesn't match Safford's position.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 2198 = HN 27 on 19 March 1863, along with the nonexistent cluster NGC 2189, using the 15-inch Merz refractor at the Harvard College Observatory.  In AN #1453, George Bond (director of the observatory) reported "A cluster, seen 1863 March 19, by J.H. [sic] Safford, between two stars in the following position.  With the Great Refractor."  The positions for the two stars are fine (separated by ~8' east-west) but there is no obvious clustering nearby.

 

Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 photographic survey "Die Herschel-Nebel", reported "no CL, many pB st sf Dreyer's place."  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent (Type 7).  Harold Corwin suggests Safford's object might be "a scattered group of 20-30 stars, probably no more than a random field, centered at 06 11 56, +01 03.2 (B1950.0) that covers an area about 12 x 11 arcmin in size.  The stars range between 9th magnitude (the eastern-most of Safford's two stars) to about 13.

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NGC 2199 = ESO 034-003 = PGC 18379

06 04 45.0 -73 24 00

V = 12.8;  Size 1.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 37d

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright and large, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 1.2'x0.6', small bright core, occasional sharp stellar nucleus.  NGC 2173 and NGC 2209, both likely LMC clusters, lie 38' NW and 30' SE, respectively.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2199 = h3031 on 8 Feb 1836 and recorded "F, vS, R, bM."  His position matches ESO 034-003 = PGC 18379, a galaxy shining through the southeast side of the LMC.

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NGC 2200 = ESO 254-039 = MCG -07-13-006 = AM 0611-433 NED2 = PGC 18652

06 13 17.4 -43 39 48

V = 14.2;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 170d

 

25" (10/16/17 - OzSky): at 244x; faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter, low surface brightness.  A mag 15.5 star is at the southwest edge.  Located 5' SE of mag 9.2 HD 432421 and 7' ESE of mag 8.3 HD 43180.  Larger of a pair (similar redshift) with NGC 2201 3.5' SE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2200 = h3029, along with NGC 2201, on 1 Jan 1835 and recorded "eF; R; vlbM; 40"."  He observed the pair again in Dec 1837, but his NPD was 1¡ further south.  His first position was accurate and matches ESO 254-039 = PGC 18652.

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NGC 2201 = ESO 254-040 = MCG -07-13-007 = PGC 18658

06 13 31.4 -43 42 18

V = 13.4;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 113d

 

25" (10/16/17 - OzSky): at 244x; fairly faint, small, elongated 5:3 WNW-ESE, 25"x15".  Slightly brighter of a pair with NGC 2200 3.5' NW.  The two galaxies are nearly collinear with a mag 9.2 star 5' further northwest.

 

24" (2/22/14): at 260x; very faint, small, 18" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Viewed at 9¡ elevation.  Forms a pair with NGC 2200 3.5' NW, but the companion was not seen at this low elevation.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2201 = h3030 (along with NGC 2200 = h3029) on 1 Jan 1835 and recorded "eF; vS; pslbM; rather a doubtful object."  He observed the pair again in Dec 1837, but his NPD was 1¡ further south.  His first position was accurate and matches ESO 254-040 = PGC 18658.

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NGC 2202

06 16 51 +05 59 48

 

17.5" (2/2/02): fairly distinctive asterism at 100x (20 Nagler), consisting of a bulbous mushroom-shaped ring of about a dozen fairly bright stars with a few others nearby.  Within this irregular ring is a nice, mag 9.1/10.8 double (SAO 113671) at 10" separation.  Adding to the effect is a straight trail of stars from the double forming a 10' "stem" heading to the NNE and containing a mag 8.7 star (SAO 113677).  Listed as a nonexistent cluster in the RNGC.

 

Wilhelm Struve discovered NGC 2202 = · 885 in 1825 with the 9.6" refractor at the Dorpat Observatory and he listed it in his main catalogue of double stars.  JH observed this cluster (or asterism) on Feb 2 1831 and recorded h385 as "The chief of a tolerably neat cluster of large stars."  The double star is a 9.1/10.8 pair at 10" separation located at 06 16 51.5 +05 59 47. Karl Reinmuth described the photographic appearance as "Cl, S, R, vP, st 8.5..." with dimensions 6.5'x6.5'.  RNGC classifies NGC 2202 as a nonexistent cluster.

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NGC 2203 = ESO 034-SC004 = S-L 836

06 04 43 -75 26 18

V = 11.3;  Size 3.2'

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): this LMC cluster (outside the Hodge-Wright Atlas) appeared fairly bright and large, round, ~1.4' diameter, unresolved but slightly patchy or mottled with a weak concentration.  A mag 12.4 star is off the NW side [1.6' from center] and a mag 14.5 star is off the south side [1.6' from center].  Located 46' SSW of mag 5.1 Alpha Mensae.

 

The galaxy IC 2164 lies 9' NE and was logged as "faint, small, round, 30" diameter, fairly low surface brightness, no concentration.  A mag 14 star is 1' SE."

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2203 = h3035 on 23 Jan 1836 and recorded "pB; irreg R; vgpmbM; 2'; resolvable.  His position from this single sweep is accurate.  DeLisle Stewart called this object a "faint cluster, not a nebula" (given in the IC Notes).

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NGC 2204 = Cr 88 = Mel 44 = ESO 556-SC007

06 15 33 -18 40 00

V = 8.6;  Size 13'

 

13.1" (1/28/84): two dozen stars mag 12-14 in a 10' diameter.  Two mag 9 stars are on the SW and NW edge and many stars are aligned in strings.  Mag 6.0 SAO 151274 in field to NNW about 11'.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2204 = H VII-13 on 6 Feb 1785 (sweep 367) and recorded "a cluster of scattered stars, not very rich, above 15' diameter, south following a star 6-7 mag."  Jane Houston Jones credited Caroline Herschel credit for the discovery in her Sky & Tel article on CH, but she is not referenced in the NGC nor in WH's catalogues.  The error was caused by a transcription error when William's handwritten catalogue went to the printer (she discovered H VII-12 = NGC 2360).

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NGC 2205 = ESO 086-063 = PGC 18551

06 10 33.0 -62 32 19

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 80d

 

14" (4/7/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, 25"x20".  A mag 11.7 star is 3.3' NNE and a similar star is 5' SSE.  A group of stars (mag 10.6 and fainter) is ~10' W.  Located 33' SE of a mag 5.0 HD 42540.  Observation made in hazy conditions (thin clouds and/or smoke).

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2205 = h3034 on 9 Dec 1836 and noted "pF, R, bM, 20"."  There is nothing at Herschel's position, but Eric Lindsay comments in his 1964 paper "Some NGC objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud" (IAJ, 6, 286-289), this is "Probably the galaxy 3/4m West."

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NGC 2206 = ESO 489-026 = MCG -04-15-019 = UGCA 123 = PGC 18736

06 15 59.9 -26 45 57

V = 12.2;  Size 2.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 138d

 

17.5" (2/8/86): moderately bright, small, almost round, small bright core.  A star is superimposed very close east of the core.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2206 = h3033 on 20 Jan 1835 and remarked "vF; R; vlbM; 50"."  His position (measured on 3 sweeps) matches ESO 489-026 = UGCA 123.  Herbert Howe noted that the superimposed star is actually a 10" double.

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NGC 2207 = ESO 556-008 = MCG -04-15-020 = UGCA 124 = Holm 85a/b = PGC 18749

06 16 22.0 -21 22 21

V = 10.8;  Size 4.3'x2.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 112d

 

48" (2/20/12): this beautiful spiral galaxy forms a stunning pair with IC 2163 attached to its east side.  The center is sharply concentrated with a brilliant nucleus embedded in a very bright core.  A mag 13.5 star is superimposed on the west-southwest edge of the core.  A couple of beautiful, winding spiral arms are visible in the halo.  An outer arm is on the southern end of the galaxy stretching to the west and curving counterclockwise north towards a mag 12.5-13 star situated 1.7' NW of center.  A second more inner arm vaguely emerges on the west side of the core and wraps counterclockwise to the north, where it is parallel to the outer arm described above.  This arms then curve back east of along the north side of the halo, stretching to the NE side of the halo, but not reaching IC 2163.

 

IC 2163 is attached at the east side of NGC 2207.  The central region is very bright, round, ~1' diameter, small bright core.  Attached on the southwest side is a spiral arm that gracefully sweeps to the east while curving gently clockwise.  The arm is ~1.5' long and significantly increases the overall size to roughly 2'x1'.  Just northeast of the tip of the arm is 2MASX J06163579-2122032, which appears as a faint, very small knot.  This galaxy is probably a dwarf elliptical at the same distance as the pair.

 

18" (2/5/11): fairly bright, fairly large, sharply concentrated with a bright, elongated core (WSW-ENE) ~1' diameter and a large, much lower surface brightness halo ~2.5'x2.0'.  A faint star is close WSW of the nucleus.  A mag 13.5 star is at the NW edge of the halo.

 

Forms an interacting pair with IC 2163, which is embedded on the east side of the halo.  The fainter companion appears fairly faint, moderately large, oval E-W, 1.0'x0.7', weakly concentrated

 

13.1" (1/28/84): moderately bright, moderately large, bright core, double nuclei.  A faint extension is visible to the east.  This is an unusual interacting pair and the extension to the east is IC 2163.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2207 = h3032 on 24 Jan 1835 and recorded "pB, pL, mE in pos = +/- 87¡, pslbM, 2.5' long, 40" broad, to a tolerably well defined round nucleus."  His position and Engelhardt's micrometric measurement are accurate, though I'm surprised that Herschel wasn't able to resolve the IC component of the system.  The IC Notes mentions "binuclear, surrounded by faint trace of ring" from Herbert Howe (based on a visual observation with a 20" refractor) and DeLisle Stewart (based on plates taken at Harvard's Arequipa station).  Holmberg 85b refers to the inner spiral arm (ring) to the west of the core.

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NGC 2208 = UGC 3452 = MCG +09-11-010 = CGCG 260-007 = PGC 18911

06 22 34.7 +51 54 34

V = 12.8;  Size 1.7'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (1/19/91): fairly faint, small, elongated 2:1 E-W, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is 1.1' W of center.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 2208 = Sw VI-26 on 24 Nov 1886 and noted "pF, pS, lE."  His position is 6 tsec of RA west and 1.6' north of UGC 3452 = PGC 18911.

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NGC 2209 = ESO 034-SC006 = S-L 849

06 08 35 -73 50 18

V = 13.2;  Size 2.8'

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this fairly bright outlying LMC cluster (probable globular cluster) appears as a 2.5'-3' glow with only a weak concentration and no resolution.  Surrounded by a number of stars including a mag 11.5 star 3.4' W.  NGC 2199 (a galaxy) lies 30' NW and continuing in this direction another 38' is NGC 2173, a slightly smaller LMC cluster.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2209 = h3037 on 8 Feb 1836 and remarked "vF; L; R; gvlbM; 3'."  His position from this single sweep is accurate.

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NGC 2210 = ESO 057-SC071 = S-L 858

06 11 32 -69 07 18

V = 10.9;  Size 1.7'

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): bright, relatively large, round, at least 1' diameter, contains a very bright grainy core and a relatively thin halo, no definite resolution.  A mag 14 star is off the southeast side [1.3' from center].  Located 9.3' NW of a mag 8.2 star and 22' SE of mag 5.1 Nu Doradus.  NGC 2210 is one of 15 bona-fide ancient GC's in the LMC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2210 = h3036 on 31 Jan 1835 and logged "vB; S; R; pgvmbM; 35"; not resolvable."  He noted the observation probably had a one degree error in the polar distance as the next two sweeps agreed in position.

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NGC 2211 = ESO 556-013 = MCG -03-16-021 = PGC 18794

06 18 30.3 -18 32 14

V = 12.7;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 22d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): fairly faint, very small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, small bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 2212 1.5' NE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 2211 = LM I-150, along with NGC 2212, on 11 Dec 1885.  His rough position is accurate to the nearest min of RA, though Bigourdan (on 9 Mar 1890), Herbert Howe and Ormond Stone measured an accurate RA (given in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 2212 = ESO 556-014 = MCG -03-16-022 = PGC 18796

06 18 35.7 -18 31 10

V = 13.5;  Size 1.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 136d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): extremely faint, very small, round, very low surface brightness.  A line of three equally spaced mag 14 stars begins 1.5' E and ends 1.3' N.  Forms a pair with NGC 2211 1.5' SW.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 2212 = LM I-151 (along with NGC 2211 = LM I-150) on 11 Dec 1885.  His rough position is accurate to the nearest min of RA, though Bigourdan, Herbert Howe and Ormond Stone measured an accurate RA for nearby NGC 2211 (given in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 2213 = ESO 057-SC070 = S-L 857

06 10 42 -71 31 42

V = 12.4;  Size 2.1'

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): moderately bright and large, round, 45" diameter, slightly brighter core, no resolution.  A distinctive 1' trio in a slight curve, consisting of a mag 11 star and two mag 12 stars, lies 3' W.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2213 = h3038 on 9 Feb 1836 and recorded "vF; R; glbM; 30".  A triple star precedes."  His position from this single sweep is 30" SW of center.

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NGC 2214 = ESO 057-SC074 = S-L 860

06 12 57 -68 15 36

V = 10.9;  Size 3.6'

 

18" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 236x): this young massive LMC cluster appeared very bright, fairly large, noticeably elongated E-W, ~1.6'x1.1'.  About a half-dozen stars are resolved around the edges and within the main glow.  Well concentrated with a bright central region and a slightly mottled halo.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 2214 = D 201 on 27 Sep 1826 and described "a round well-defined small nebula, 20" diameter, bright at the centre."  Dunlop made 3 observations and his position is about 2' SW of center (unusually accurate).

 

JH made two observations, first on the sweep of 30 Jan 1835 when he recorded h3039 as "B; S; R; or lE; resolved into stars 14...16m; 50"."  On a second sweep he logged it as "B; irreg R; or lE; gbM; 80"; resolvable."

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NGC 2215 = Cr 90 = Mel 45 = OCL-550

06 20 50 -07 17 00

V = 8.4;  Size 11'

 

17.5" (12/28/94): about 50 stars mag 11-14 in a 12' region, pretty evenly distributed and stands out well in the field at 100x.  At the west edge is a faint detached group of 8 stars.  Near the center are several wide pairs and one close evenly matched fainter pair.  The cluster is not well defined on the east side and merges into the general field.

 

17.5" (2/1/92): 30 stars mag 11-14 in 10' diameter, fairly bright, elongated ~E-W, pretty evenly distributed, fairly rich although there no dense areas.  Includes about 10 mag 11 stars but there is no single dominant star.  The remainder are mag 12-14.  Set over background haze.  Stands out well in low power field.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2215 = H VII-20 = h386 on 1 Nov 1785 (sweep 468) and recorded "a cl of coarsely but pretty evenly scattered pS stars, of nearly the same magnitude, coarsely round and about 15' diam."  His summary description (based on 3 sweeps) reads "a beautiful cluster of pretty compressed and equally scattered stars, 10' or 12' diameter."

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NGC 2216 = ESO 556-017 = MCG -04-15-027 = PGC 18877

06 21 30.7 -22 05 14

V = 12.8;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 20d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): faint, fairly small, oval SW-NE, even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is off the SE end 1.7' from center and a mag 14.5 star is superimposed at the SE end.  A group of 20 stars are in the field to the west.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2216 = h3040 on 23 Jan 1835 and noted it as "vF, pL, R, vglbM, 40"." His position (single sweep) matches ESO 556-017 = PGC 18877.

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NGC 2217 = ESO 489-042 = MCG -05-15-010 = LGG 136-001 = PGC 18883

06 21 39.8 -27 14 04

V = 10.7;  Size 4.5'x4.2';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

24" (2/5/13): very bright, very large, contains a brighter 1.3' core that is sharply concentrated with an intense nucleus!  The round halo extends 3' and has a fairly smooth surface brightness.  The outer halo passes through a wide pair of mag 12/13 stars on the west side.  UGCA 126, a thin edge-on, lies 60' WSW.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): fairly bright, small, elongated ~E-W, well concentrated with a bright core surrounded by small faint halo, stellar nucleus at moments.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2217 = h3041 on 20 Jan 1835 and recorded "vB; R; psmbM; 30", r."  His position (measured on two sweeps) matches ESO 489-042 = PGC 18883.

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NGC 2218

06 24 41.5 +19 20 29

 

=4*, Reinmuth  =no cluster, RNGC.

 

Edward Cooper discovered NGC 2218 on 13 Jan 1853 at the Markree Observatory in Ireland while compiling the Markree Ecliptic Catalogue.  Arthur Auwers couldn't find it using the 6" Heliometer at Konigsberg, though included it as #22 in his 1862 list of new nebulae.  Karl Reinmuth, using Heidelberg plates, reported "only 4 st 14...15".  There is only a small group of 3-5 stars on the DSS at Cooper's position.  The RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent (Type 7). 

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NGC 2219

06 23 45 -04 40 36

 

17.5" (2/2/02): at 100x, 15-20 fairly faint mag 13-14 stars and a few brighter stars are visible just following mag 6.7 SAO 133199.  The group is elongated ~WNW-ESE and the stars are fairly evenly distributed.  The SE corner is marked by a mag 7.5 star.  Visually, this group appears to be a cluster as the star density is reasonably rich and the group is isolated in the field.  Listed as a nonexistent cluster in the RNGC and not in the Lynga catalogue.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2219 = h387 on 19 Feb 1830 and noted "The first *6 of a course poor cl; *11...12."  His position corresponds with mag 6.7 SAO 133199 at 06 23 22.8 -04 41 15 (J2000).  Karl Reinmuthm, based on his 1926 photographic survey, gives a size of 10' and describes "Cl, pL, P, st 10...; B* BD -4 1484 p."  RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent (Type 7).

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NGC 2220 = ESO 255-**4

06 21 11.0 -44 45 32

Size 22'

 

24" (2/22/14): at 125x, this asterism is a scattered 20' field containing several bright stars.  There are two groupings with the more prominent southeast group containing 8 brighter stars including mag 7.7 HD 44737, mag 8.4 HD 44665, mag 8.8 HD 44764, along with 4 mag 10-11 stars.  These are scattered within an 8' region.  A separate group is to the northwest, separated by a 7'-8' gap, which contains 4 mag 9.5-10 stars.  Visually this appears to be a random grouping, though the number of bright stars is striking.  ESO 255-005 off the east side of the asterism was not seen.  Viewed at an elevation of only 8¡.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2220 = h3042 on 29 Dec 1834 and recorded a "A poor, very coarsely scattered, but brilliant cluster of 8th class.  Place of a star 8m = B 1222, the chief of cl."  His position corresponds with mag 7.7 HD 44737 at 06 21 11.3 -44 45 31 (2000).  The asterism also includes HD 44665 = HJ 3852 (8.4/10.7 at 7") and mag 8.8 HD 44764.  WEBDA has no listing, and this grouping is probably an asterism.  RNGC calls NGC 2220 nonexistent (Type 7). 

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NGC 2221 = ESO 121-024 = KTS 33A = PGC 18833

06 20 15.7 -57 34 42

V = 12.9;  Size 1.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 0d

 

24" (4/10/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the brightest member of a trio of elongated galaxies (KTS 33).  At 260x it appeared fairly bright, large, edge-on 4:1 N-S, ~1.5'x0.35', broad concentration, dims at the tips.  Just at the north tip is an extremely faint star or a knot (appears to be an HII knot on the Vickers CCD image).  Forms a striking pair with NGC 2222 2.7' N.  The third member, ESO 161-001 is much fainter and lies 5.3' NNE.  A 26" pair of mag 11.5/12 stars 4.5' NW is collinear with this galaxy and a mag 10.9 star lies to the NW of the trio.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2221 = h3044 (along with NGC 2222 = h3045) on 4 Dec 1834 and recorded "vF; lE; vgbM; the preceding of 2."  His position is 1' too far north.

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NGC 2222 = ESO 121-025 = KTS 33B = PGC 18835

06 20 17.0 -57 32 04

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 150d

 

24" (4/10/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x, this edge-on galaxy appeared moderately bright and large, elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 0.9'x0.3', gradually increases to a small bright core.  This is the second brightest in a trio of elongated systems with NGC 2221 2.6' S and ESO 161-001 2.9' NE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2222 = h3045 (along with NGC 2221 = h3044) on 23 Jan 1835 and recorded "vF; lE; vgvlbM; the following of 2."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2223 = ESO 489-049 = MCG -04-16-002 = UGCA 129 = PGC 18978

06 24 36.0 -22 50 18

V = 11.6;  Size 3.2'x2.8';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is on the north end 24" from center.  Apparently I missed the outer 3' low surface brightness outer halo as the superimposed star is just outside the core.

 

8" (1/1/84): very faint, fairly small, elongated ~N-S.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2223 = h3043 on 23 Jan 1835 and logged "F; R glbM; has 1 or 2 stars on it and a small close double star (dist 3", 12 and 12 mag) north."  His mean position (measured on 3 sweeps) matches ESO 489-049 = UGCA 129.

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NGC 2224

06 27 28 +12 35 36

 

= no cluster, RNGC.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2224 = H VII-35 on 24 Dec 1786 (sweep 662) and described "A cluster of small pretty much compressed stars with suspected  nebulosity, but the latter may be a deception."  His position is close to a mag 9.6 star in a rich field containing some extremely faint nebulosity.   Robert Ball, observing with the 72" on 9 Dec 1866, noted "some stars scattered about, but no neby see.  Sky not good."

 

Karl Reinmuth reported "no pC Cl seen", based on Heidelberg plates. The RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent and it is not listed in any open cluster catalogue.  Harold Corwin there is an elongated group of very faint stars close to Herschel's position and these are embedded in very faint nebulosity, though I haven't checked this field.

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NGC 2225

06 26 37 -09 38 30

 

17.5" (1/23/93): NGC 2226 is the core of NGC 2225 and consists of a 2' faint group of six mag 14 stars, over unresolved haze.  A mag 10 star is 1' S and a mag 12 star is 4' N.  NGC 2225 probably also consists of several nearby mag 13.5-14 stars forming a 5' group elongated N-S.  Herschel described the cluster as "hook" shaped.

 

Listed as nonexistent in RNGC though shows up well on the DSS.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2225 = H VII-26 = h388 on 30 Jan 1786 (sweep 516) and described "a cluster of extremely small and pretty much compressed stars, with a few larger ones, but not very rich; in the shape of a hook."  His position is off the southeast side of the cluster (or asterism) and the "large ones in the shape of a hook" probably refer to a group of stars off the northeast side of the core of the group.  JH measured a more accurate position.

 

This cluster, though, is not listed in the Lynga catalogue and RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent with the comment "NOCL".  NGC 2226 is the small core of NGC 2225.

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NGC 2226

06 26 37.6 -09 38 34

Size 2'

 

17.5" (1/23/93): faint group of six mag 14 stars over unresolved haze giving a fairly rich appearance.  Forms an irregular arc 2' length N-S bending west on the south end.  Located 1' N of a mag 10 star and a mag 12 star is 4' N.  Several more mag 13.5-14 stars are nearby, which together as a 5' group elongated N-S may form NGC 2225.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered NGC 2226 (discovery date unknown). Harold Corwin notes Barnard was probably using a 5- or 6-inch refractor at Nashville and the discovery was directly communicated to Dreyer.  His rough position is nearly identical to this cluster, but the NGC description "small,very difficult,*10 close S" suggests he only noted the core of the larger group (NGC 2225) discovered by WH.  RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent (Type 7).

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NGC 2227 = ESO 556-023 = MCG -04-16-004 = PGC 19030

06 25 57.9 -22 00 18

V = 12.5;  Size 2.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 19d

 

17.5" (2/8/86): faint, fairly large, fairly diffuse, elongated ~N-S, almost even surface brightness.  A mag 10 star is 8' NE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2227 = h3046 on 27 Jan 1835 and remarked "eF; R; has coarse double star preceding on same parallel 90" dist."  His description and position (NPD corrected by two degrees in his addendum) matches ESO 556-023 = PGC 19030.

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NGC 2228 = ESO 087-007 = PGC 18862

06 21 15.6 -64 27 33

V = 13.6;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

25" (10/16/17 - OzSky): at 244x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 30"-36" diameter, very small bright core.  At 397x the core seemed elongated ~E-W, but this was due to a mag 15.6 star that occasionally resolved at its east edge.  Located 11.6' NW of mag 8.2 HD 45462 (a wide 1.5' pair with a mag 9.9 star).

 

NGC 2228 is a member of ACO S585 = AGC 3389, which includes NGC 2229, 2230 and 2235, but is situated ~30' N of the core of the cluster.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2228 = h3047 on 31 Jan 1835 and noted "F; R; glbM; 20"."  His position (single sweep) matches ESO 087-007 = PGC 18862.

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NGC 2229 = ESO 087-008 = PGC 18867

06 21 23.7 -64 57 24

V = 13.4;  Size 1.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 133d

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly faint, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 0.75'x0.25', a mag 14 star is 45" S of center.  In the core of the rich cluster AGC 3389 = ACO S585 with NGC 2230 2' S, NGC 2235 6.4' ENE, NGC 2233 5' SSE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2229 = h3048 (along with NGC 2230, 2233 and 2235) on 30 Nov 1834 and logged as "eF; vS; R; the preceding of 3."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2230 = ESO 087-009 = PGC 18873

06 21 27.5 -64 59 35

V = 13.1;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 81d

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright, round, 0.9' diameter, moderately concentrated with a bright 20" core.  Situated in the core of the rich cluster AGC 3389 = ACO S585 with NGC 2229 2.2' N, NGC 2233 2.9' SE, NGC 2235 6.8' NE, 2MASX J06215975-6459181 3.4' E.  A total of 7 galaxies were picked up within an 11' circle.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2230 = h3049 (along with NGC 2229, 2233 and 2235) on 30 Nov 1834 and logged "eF, S, lE, the middle of 3."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2231 = ESO 087-S00C6 = S-L 884

06 20 43 -67 31 06

V = 13.2;  Size 2.0'

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): this LMC globular appeared fairly faint, moderately large, round, ~45" diameter, fairly low but irregular surface brightness, increases in size with averted, no resolution.  A number of brighter stars in the field including HJ 3862, a mag 9.5/11.5 pair at 8", which lies 5' SE.  In addition, a mag 10 star is 6' NNE and two other mag 11 stars are within 4' N.  Several more mag 12 stars (some closer) are in the field. S-L 885 lies 3.7' NE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2231 = h3050 on 23 Dec 1834 and recorded "F, pL, R, gvlbM, precedes a double star [h3862]." On a second sweep he called it "F, L, R, 50", among 10 or 12 stars 10th and 11th mag."  His position (measured on 3 sweeps) is good.

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NGC 2232 = Cr 93 = OCL-545 = Lund 220

06 28 02 -04 50 48

V = 3.9;  Size 30'

 

17.5" (12/28/94): at 100x appears as a scattered group of bright stars surrounding 10 Monocerotis (V = 5.1) with the remaining stars forming a wedge tapering to the SW.  Includes 7 brighter mag 8-10 stars and another two dozen fainter stars.  Richest surrounding 10 Mon and five brighter stars form a distinctive box around the bright star.  Too large and scattered for higher power.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2232 = H VIII-25 on 16 Oct 1784 (sweep 296) and recorded "The 10 Monocerotis surrounded by many bright stars."  His position matches the bright star.  The position in Lynga #5, RNGC, NGC 2000.0 and Sky Catalogue 2000 is about 20' too far west!  Brian Skiff suggests a centroid position of 06 28 02 -04 50.8 based on the star GSC 4793-2505.  See my RNGC Corrections #7.

 

By analyzing William Herschel's early "reviews" of bright stars (before his systematic sweeps), which resulted in the discovery of many double stars, Wolfgang Steinicke found (email Oct '16) that Herschel first discovered the cluster on 5 Dec 1779 using his 6.2" reflector.  This is apparently his earliest non-stellar discovery!

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NGC 2233 = ESO 087-011 = PGC 18882

06 21 40.1 -65 02 00

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.0;  PA = 45d

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly faint, fairly small, edge-on 4:1 SW-NE, 36"x9", fairly low surface brightness with little or no concentration.  Located 2.8' SE of NGC 2230 in the core of the rich cluster AGC 3389 = ACO S585.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2233 = h3051 (along with NGC 2229, 2230 and 2235) on 30 Nov 1834 and logged "eF; S; the last of 3."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2234

06 29 22 +16 43 24

Size 25'

 

18" (1/26/09): at 175x only a scattered group of ~75 stars in a non-descript 10' region.  Includes a number of mag 12 stars forming the outline of two rough loops or a butterfly shape.  This poor grouping is immediately SE of the listed position.  The Milky Way is patchy here and the stars are set over unresolved haze.  This grouping appears a very weak field enhancement at best and not a cluster.

 

William Herschel described a larger grouping (nearly 30'), though the entire field is not really distinguishable from the surrouding area.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2234 = H VIII-9 = h389 on 19 Feb 1784 (sweep 148) and reported as "A cluster of stars very much scattered; takes up near 1/2 degree.  It is not very rich; the stars are of various magnitudes."  JH described "a p rich v loose cl, fills 2 or 3 fields, not bM, st 10...13m."

 

Karl Reinmuth noted "no distinct Cl" on Heidelberg plates and the RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent (Type 7).  There is a fairly even scattering of mag 10-13 stars in the vicinity on on the POSS.

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NGC 2235 = ESO 087-013 = PGC 18906

06 22 22.0 -64 56 03

V = 13.0;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 68d

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 0.9'x0.6', broad concentration with a slightly elongated 25" core.  A mag 10.8 star is right at the northeast edge of the halo.  This is the brightest of 7 galaxies, including NGCs 2229, 2230 and 2233, viewed in the core of ACO S585 = AGC 3389 and the furthest northeast.

 

PGC 75662: at 260x; very faint, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 0.4'x0.2'.  Picked up 1.1' NW of a mag 10.5 star and 3.8' SW of NGC 2230.

PGC 75671: very faint edge-on streak 3:1 SSW-NNE, 0.4'x0.15'.  A mag 15-16 star is very close following.  Picked up just 2.3' N of NGC 2229 on a line with NGC 2230 4.5' S.

PGC 75689: very faint, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 0.4'x0.2'.  Picked up 3.4' E of NGC 2229 and 4' SW of NGC 2235.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2235 = h3052 (along with NGC 2229, 2230 and 2233) on 30 Nov 1834 and logged "vF; S; R; 30"."  His position (single sweep) is accurate.

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NGC 2236 = Cr 94 = OCL-501 = Lund 221

06 29 40 +06 49 48

V = 8.5;  Size 7'

 

13.1" (1/18/85): two dozen faint stars in a 5' region over background haze.  The brighter stars are in a rich 1' triangular outline with the brightest mag 11 star in the cluster.  A long curving arc of fainter stars emanates from the group.  Fairly striking cluster.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2236 = H VII-5 = h390 on 23 Feb 1784 (sweep 156) and described "a cluster of compressed stars of various magnitudes, pretty rich in small stars; the preceding part contains chiefly large onces, not round."  JH described an "Irreg fig cl like a hollow triangle in a crowded part of the Milky Way; stars vS; 12...15m; one star 10m.  The surrounding loose stars are all large."

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NGC 2237 = Rosette Nebula = Sh 2-275 = LBN 948

06 30 18 +05 03

Size 80'x60'

 

13.1" (11/5/83 and 1/23/82): the complete annulus of the Rosette Nebula was clearly visible surrounding the naked-eye cluster NGC 2244.  Appears brightest and broadest in the NW region with a bright knot in the NE quadrant (NGC 2246).  The SE portion is split into two shells.  The western section has sharp corner on the inner edge.  NGC 2237 refers to a brighter section in the western section of the Rosette.  The brighter embedded cluster, NGC 2244, is offset within the 20', darker central region, and the SE end of the cluster (including the brightest member 12 Mon) spills over into the nebula.

 

8" (1/1/84): complete annulus easy visible in field at 42x or in 8x50 finder with filter as a large, soft ring surrounding the cluster.

 

Naked-eye (1/8/00): using an OIII filter, the apparent diameter of the cluster (NGC 2244) noticeably increases in size due to the surrounding nebulosity becoming visible.  The overall brightness, though, is slightly decreased with the filter as the cluster is significantly dimmed.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 2237 = Sw II-31 around 1865 while comet hunting with his 4.5-inch refractor, though the discovery wasn't published until 1884 (Sidereal Messenger, 3, 57-58).  Swift reported "Some ten years ago, while searching for comets, I ran across an exceedingly large and fairly bright nebula near 12 Mon which I of course supposed was familiar to every astronomer."  It was described as "quite sharply defined and in a shape of a perfect ellipse, having at each focus either a round and much brighter nebula, or it has two centres of condensation, probably the latter."  This was the first observation of the main part of the Rosette Nebula, though Swift mentioned he saw nebulosity on one side of the cluster only.  E.E. Barnard independently discovered the Rosette on 29 Jan 1883 with his 5-inch refractor while searching for comets (Sidereal Messenger 4, 313) and was the first to see the entire annulus. He commented in his logbook "Found a large nebulous object, [near] a scattering cluster of bright stars; it is elongated southwest and northeast.  Larger than the field of view."  His notification prompted Swift to claim an earlier discovery.

 

Barnard referred to the nebula as "Swift's Nebula", though it was often called "Barnard's Ring" before the "Rosette Nebula" nickname was introduced. The oldest confirmed usage was in JRASC from 1949 (vol 43, 122): "Often referred to as the Rosette Nebula, it is known to astronomers as NGC 2237."

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NGC 2238 = Rosette Nebula = LBN 948 = Ced 76a = Sh 2-275

06 30 40.4 +05 00 47

 

13.1": small knot on the west side of the Rosette Nebula.  See NGC 2237 for description.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 2238 = m 99 on 28 Feb 1864 with Lassell's 48" reflector on Malta.  This is a small, nebulous area around a star in the western half of the Rosette Nebula but there was no mention of the entire nebula, which was first recognized by Lewis Swift and E.E. Barnard.

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NGC 2239 = NGC 2244 = Cr 99 = Mel 47 = OCL-515 = Ced 76b

06 31 55 +04 56 36

V = 4.8;  Size 24'

 

See observing notes for NGC 2244.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2239 = h392 in March 1830 and noted "the place of a *8m in most compressed part of a large, poor, but brilliant cluster."  His position is 1 min of RA west of mag 6.8 HD 46150, at the northwest corner of the cluster (NGC 2244) in the center of the Rosette Nebula.  Although he noted the equivalence with H VII-2 = NGC 2244, he listed h392 separately in the GC (1420) probably because of the 1 min difference in RA and Dreyer catalogued the object as NGC 2239.  Karl Reinmuth put both numbers together and described (based on Heidelberg plates) "NGC 2239 and 2244 B Cl, pL, P, sc, B st in eeL dif neb."

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NGC 2240

06 33 11 +35 15 00

 

18" (1/26/09): at 175x this is a fairly course, scattered group of three dozen mag 10-13 stars in a 10' region.  Located just following mag 6.8 HD 46050.  Many of the stars are in pairs and in conjunction with the nearby bright star probably caught William Herschel's attention.  Also in the field is mag 7.0 HD 46072 about 12' SSW of the center of the star group.

 

Described by WH (VIII 49) as "A cluster of coursely scattered large stars, not rich" and by JH (h391) as "a v coarse straggling cl 10' diam; 30 or 40 stars 10...15m.  A *10m taken, but one of 7m precedes to the north."  Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2240 = H VIII-49 = h391 on 3 Jan 1786 (sweep 509) and reported "A cluster of coursely scattered large stars, not rich."  JH described "a v coarse straggling cl 10' diam; 30 or 40 stars 10...15m.  A *10m taken, but one of 7m precedes to the N."  Karl Reinmuth gives a diameter of 10' and description "Cl, pL, iR, pP, sc, st 10...; bet BD +35 1436 and BD +35 1444.", based on its photographic appearance.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent as this object may be an asterism.

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NGC 2241 = ESO 057-SC079 = S-L 888

06 22 53 -68 55 30

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): fairly faint or moderately bright LMC cluster, round, 30"-40" diameter, smooth surface brightness, no resolution.  A mag 11.9 star is 2.4' SW and a mag 11 star is 2' S. The cluster forms the northern vertex of a rough right triangle with the two bright field stars.  NGC 2249, a brighter cluster, lies 16' E.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2241 = h3054 on 31 Jan 1835 and recorded "F; pL; R; 30"."  His position (measured on 3 sweeps) matches this LMC cluster.

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NGC 2242 = PK 170+15.1 = CGCG 204-005 = PN G170.3+15.8

06 34 07.4 +44 46 38

V = 15.2;  Size 20"

 

17.5" (1/31/87): faint, small, almost round.  Unusually weak filtration response as appears similar brightness or slightly fainter using filters!  Estimate V = 14.5.  This object was recently discovered to be a planetary in 1985 (Shaw and Bidelman) and is listed in the CGCG.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 2242 = Sw VI-27 on 24 Nov 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  This is the last planetary nebula, by discovery date, to be included in the NGC.  RNGC and CGCG (204-005) misclassify NGC 2242 as a galaxy although the RNGC new description reads "R, HISB, STEL, PLN??", so it questioned if it was perhaps a PN instead.

 

In 1985, spectroscopic investigations by Richard Shaw and William Bidelman revealed that NGC 2242 is a previously uncatalogued planetary nebula (independently shown to be a planetary by Machara in A&A 178, 221).  It was included as a new planetary nebula in Kohoutek's 4th update list (AN 315, 1994).  See my RNGC Corrections #2.

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NGC 2243 = Cr 98 = Mel 46 = ESO 426-SC016

06 29 35 -31 16 54

V = 9.4;  Size 5'

 

13.1" (1/18/85): fairly small faint cluster located just 8' SW of mag 7.4 SAO 196879.  Consists of unresolved haze except for four stars on the west edge and a few stars on the east edge.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2243 = h3053 on 19 Oct 1835 and recorded "pB, R, vglbM, all evidently resolved into stars, not very rich. Something between a cluster and a globular cluster. [This ob makes the RA 24m 8.9s, but it is pretty clear that this is a misreading of the chronometer.]"  On a second sweep he logged "pB, R, gbM, 4' diameter, mottled or resolved, amongst bright stars."  His mean position (two sweeps) matches this cluster.

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered the cluster earlier on 24 May 1826.  His entry for D 616 reads "an ill-defined faint nebulosity of some considerable extent, with several small stars scattered in it."  Although this description fits, his position is 33' further east-southeast and JH gave an uncertain equivalence.

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NGC 2244 = NGC 2239 = Cr 99 = Mel 47 = OCL-515 = Ced 76b

06 31 55 +04 56 36

V = 4.8;  Size 24'

 

17.5" (2/11/96): unusually bright, large cluster of ~15'x5' elongated NW-SE in a rectangular outline and situated in the heart of the Rosette Nebula!  The brightest 8 mag 6/7 stars lie along the sides and vertices of the rectangle with the brightest member, yellowish 12 Mon (V = 5.9), residing at the SE vertex.  There are ~40 stars within the cluster although the only concentration is 15 mag 11/12 stars surrounding mag 6.8 SAO 114010 (W of center) and trailing to the east towards the wide bright pair of mag 8 stars east of center (one of these stars is a close double).

 

8": bright, large cluster in the center of the Rosette Nebula.  The six brightest stars form a rectangular outline with the brightest star 12 Monocerotis (V = 5.9) at the SE corner.  At the north and NW corners of the rectangle are two bright wide pairs with mag 7/8 stars.  Many faint stars are near the center surrounding the wide pairs.  Faint naked-eye cluster in dark sky.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2244 = H VII-2 on 24 Jan 1784 (sweep 114) and described "the 12th Monocerotis is a beautiful scattered cluster of stars.  They are chiefly of two sorts; the first very brilliant, and the 2nd sort arranged in beautiful winding lines; of these there are about 30 or more.  There are besides many very small stars."

 

Wolfgang Steinicke credits John Flamsteed with the discovery on 17 Feb 1690 as he recorded the 6th magnitude star 12 Monocerotis on his Atlas Coelestis.  But Stephen O'Meara notes that Flamsteed didn't note any of the fainter cluster stars (or general fuzziness), so doesn't deserve credit for the discovery.

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NGC 2245 = LBN 904 = Ced 80 = PP 62 = P 13

06 32 41.2 +10 09 24

Size 5'x3'

 

17.5" (1/19/91): bright, fairly large, about 3' diameter, elongated SW-NE.  Fans out to the southwest from a fairly bright mag 11 star at the northeast end.  Fades smoothly into background. Located 2' WSW of mag 8.0 SAO 95816.  Reflection nebula NGC 2247 lies 12' NNE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2245 = H IV-3 = h393 on 16 Jan 1784 (sweep 81) and reported "A nebula.  It is fan shaped, and appears like a star with a faint, electric brush at one side of it."  JH called it "a *11 with a milky neb surrounding it, but chiefly on the sp side.  The star is not sharp - not stellar, and the neb fades gradually away from the star; 70" or 80" diam; has a * 7m 30¡ nf."

 

The account by LdR (or assistant George Stoney) on Feb 28 1850 is remarkable: "...this neb is part of an enormous neby, which I traced following and north to a great distance, some degrees.  It narrows at times to a band across the finding eyepiece of about 6' or 8'.  I fancied the number of bright stars was greater in it than in the neighborhood; I am certain the number of small stars is much less..."  A sketch made was included in Lord Rosse's 1861 publication (plate XXVII, fig 11).

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NGC 2246 = Rosette Nebula = Sh 2-275

06 32 33.8 +05 07 42

 

13.1" (1/23/82): this is a brighter patch on the inner northeast side of the Rosette Nebula.  A slightly darker gap in the annulus is located at the west end of this portion.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 2246 = Sw III-36 on 27 Feb 1886 and described as "eeF; L; iR; e diff.  Probably an offshoot of [NGC 2237]  Two or three others suspected."  The position is on a brighter patch of the Rosette Nebula on the inner portion of the annulus on the northeast side.  Wolfgang Steinicke notes this is the last discovered emission nebula included in the NGC (published in 1888).

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NGC 2247 = LBN 901 = Ced 81

06 33 05.1 +10 19 17

Size 4'x3'

 

17.5" (1/19/91): fairly faint, fairly small, oval shape.  Surrounds a bright mag 8.5 star (Herbig Be star V700 Mon) although extends further to the east side of the star.  Reflection nebula NGC 2245 lies 12' SSW. 

 

13" (1/18/85): fairly faint nebulosity surrounds mag 8 star, round, fans out to south in direction of three faint stars.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 2247 = Sw 1-7 on 24 Nov 1883 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and noted a "nebulous star; v diff; B* exactly in center of L, eF nebulosity; follows 1425 [NGC 2245] 28 sec and is 10' N."  His position is 2' SE of this reflection nebula.

 

Dreyer also credited LdR with the co-discovery of NGC 2247.  It's possible that Dreyer was referring to Johnstone Stoney's comment on 28 Feb 1850, "...This nebula [NGC 2245] is part of an enormous neby, which I traced f and n to a great dist. some degrees."

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NGC 2248

06 34 35.7 +26 18 16

Size 45"

 

18" (2/14/10): at 175x a small clump of 4 stars was resolved.  The brightest two are a 16" pair of mag 12/13 stars, while the fainter two are probably mag 14.5/15.5.

 

Edward Cooper discovered NGC 2248 on 23 Dec 1853 while compiling the Markree ecliptic Catalogue.  Auwers included it as #23 in his 1862 table of new nebulae and mentioned in the 6" Heliometer at Konigsberg it appeared "extremely faint, just resolvable spot of 2-3' dia. The brightest star 12m."  At Cooper's position is a small clump of stars (45" diameter), including a mag 12/13 pair at 16" separation with several fainter stars in a chain to the east.  Harold Corwin calls this an "asterism of nine stars".  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.

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NGC 2249 = ESO 057-SC082 = S-L 893

06 25 50 -68 55 12

V = 12.2;  Size 1.7'

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): fairly bright, intermediate age LMC cluster, relatively large, 1.0' diameter, round, gradually increases to the center, no resolution.  An unequal mag 11/13 pair at ~10" separation lies 3.7' WNW and mag 8.9 HD 45987 is 9' NW.  NGC 2241, a fainter and smaller cluster, lies 16' W.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2249 = h3055 on 23 Dec 1834 and recorded "F; R; vglbM."  On a later sweep he logged "pB; R; gbM; 50"; has a double star preceding."  His position is accurate.  This object is classified as a globular cluster in SIMBAD

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NGC 2250 = OCL-540 = Lund 230 = Cr 100

06 33 49 -05 05 12

Size 7'

 

18" (1/26/09): at 175x about two dozen stars mag 12-14 stars are resolved in an 8'x4' irregular group, elongated E-W.  The brightest star is mag 8.7 HD 46576 on the NE end.  Includes several pairs, although none are impressive.  Set over a glowing Milky Way background.  Appears to be just a weak field enhancement not a true cluster.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2250 = h394 on 20 Feb 1830 and noted as "place of a *8-9 m in following part of a large pretty rich loose cluster; irreg oblong fig; stars 12...14m."  His position matches mag 8.7 HD 46576.  The Lynga and RNGC position is 1 tmin too far west.

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NGC 2251 = Cr 101 = OCL-499 = Lund 232

06 34 39 +08 22 00

V = 7.3;  Size 10'

 

18" (3/4/08): at 175x, this is a fairly striking cluster that includes a fairly rich 6' string oriented N-S.  The string contains ~20 stars including a mag 10.5/11.5 double at 5" (Barton 2120).  The  brightest star in near the geometric center and is part of second group of ~20 stars with several in a 2' loop.  The bright star is a mag 9.5/11.5 pair at 9".  Finally, on the north side is a small string of a half-dozen stars oriented E-W.

 

17.5" (3/12/94): about 40 stars mag 10.5-14 in an 11'x4' fairly rich string NW-SE.  Includes about 10 brighter mag 11 stars.  The brightest mag 9.5 star is part of a small, roundish subgroup on the west side and is a pleasing double with components mag 9.5/12 at 10".  This subgroup has three brighter stars and 15 faint stars mostly west of the double.  The main string is fairly uniform except for an empty 3' gap SE of the mag 9.5 star.  Located 5' NW of the cluster is an isolated mag 10 star which appears to be a field star.

 

17.5" (2/1/92): 35 stars mag 10-14 in 12'x6' string NNW-SSE, bright, moderately large, fairly rich but not dense.  Consists of 3 main subgroups.  The western group is 2' diameter and includes a close double star 10/12 at 10".  The NW group is 3' diameter and includes two mag 11 stars with three mag 13 stars between.  The SE group is largest and includes 15 stars in a 6' string very elongated N-S with a close double star.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2251 = H VIII-3 = h395 on 26 Dec 1783 (very early sweep 67) and noted "a small cluster of very close stars, not very remarkable."  His summary description (2 observatins) reads "an extended cluster of large scattered stars."  His position falls just west of center of this cluster.  JH called it "a large tract full of stars; v rich; place from working list."

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NGC 2252 = Cr 102 = OCL-514 = Lund 233

06 34 19.8 +05 19 22

V = 7.7;  Size 18'

 

18" (3/13/04): at 115x, this fairly rich field is located just 50' NE of the center of the Rosette Nebula!  Most distinctive in the field is a very elongated N-S group of roughly 50 stars in a 12'-15' string just 2' wide.  The group has a distinctive hook on the north end as it curves sharply towards the SW.  A near perfect triangle of mag 9 stars at 30", 34" and 40" separation lies 23' E.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2252 = H VIII-50 = h396 on 27 Jan 1786 (sweep 512) and reported "a cluster of stars arranged in a broad row, 25' long and 6 or 8' broad, not very compressed but pretty rich."  His position is on the east side of the cluster.  JH called it "L, pretty rich; stars small; place by working list."

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NGC 2253

06 42 31 +66 24

 

24" (3/22/14): this number might apply to a fairly rich string of stars about 30' north of William Herschel's position.  The surrounding field was examined at 125x (49' field of view) and the only object that caught my attention was a 4' string containing a dozen mag 13-14 stars oriented SW-NE.  In addition, a larger group of mag 14 stars is just south (though detached), with the total size of both groups roughly 10'.  This asterism is penned in by some brighter stars: mag 9.6 star (SAO 13933) is just north of the group, mag 7.7 HD 47522 is southeast and mag 7.2 HD 47215 is roughly 10' S.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2253 = H VII-54 on 1 Nov 1788 (sweep 879) and recorded "A vF patch of eS stars."  There is nothing at Harold Corwin's re-reduced position of 06 41 52 +65 50.3 (J2000) -- similar to Auwers -- and Bigourdan failed to recover this object.  Corwin suggests NGC 2253 might be "a small group of about 10-15 stars" at 06 42 32 +66 24.3 (2000).  This clump is roughly 30' north of WH's position (possibly a digit error) and described above.

 

RNGC, CGCG and SIMBAD misidentify CGCG 308-037 as NGC 2253.  This galaxy is located at 06 43 14.7 +65 40 39 (2000).  NED and HyperLeda equate UGC 3511 with NGC 2253 (originally proposed by Sue French?), though NED notes the identification is very uncertain.  UGC 3511 is located ~40' SSE of WH's position so is a very poor positional match.  See Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 2254 = Cr 103 = OCL-500 = Lund 234

06 35 50 +07 40 24

V = 9.7;  Size 4'

 

18" (3/4/08): small, dense group of ~25 stars in 3' at 225x and 300x.  About a dozen of the stars are arranged in a semi-circular chain or "C" that is open on the east side.  Several mag 14+ stars are near this loop, segregated into small clumps.

 

17.5" (2/8/91): at 220x, about two dozen stars over haze in a 3'-4' diameter.  About 6 stars of mag 13 form a "C" shaped asterism open on the east side.  The brightest mag 13 star is on the NW side of this arc.  The rest of cluster members are 14-15th magnitude.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2254 = H VII-22 = h397 on 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 496) and noted "a small cluster of pretty compressed vS stars."  His position is just west of center. JH called this "a pretty rich, small cluster; irreg fig; st 11...15m."

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NGC 2255 = ESO 365-031 = MCG -06-15-010 = PGC 19260

06 33 58.6 -34 48 45

V = 13.4;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 152d

 

18" (3/11/07): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 1.0'x0.5', weakly concentrated.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2255 = h3056 on 2 Feb 1835 and described as "eF; R; vlbM; 25-30"."  His position (measured on two sweeps) matches ESO 365-031 = PGC 19260. With a redshift of z = .023 (roughly 340 million light years), this galaxy may be an outlying member of Abell S591.

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NGC 2256 = UGC 3519 = MCG +12-07-015 = CGCG 330-114 = PGC 19602

06 47 13.9 +74 14 11

V = 12.5;  Size 2.3'x2.0';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

17.5" (1/19/91): fairly faint, moderately large, oval 4:3 E-W, broad but only weak concentration.  Located 3.5' NNW of a mag 10 star.  NGC 2258 lies 15' NNE.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 2256 = T IX-3 (along with NGC 2258) on 1 Aug 1883 with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory.  His position and description matches UGC 3519 = PGC 19602.

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NGC 2257 = ESO 087-SC024 = S-L 895

06 30 12.4 -64 19 40

V = 12.6;  Size 2.2'

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): fairly faint, fairly large, round, 1.5'-2' diameter, broad weak concentration, no resolution.  An elongated group of a half-dozen mag 10-11 stars oriented NW-SE passes just north of the cluster.  NGC 2257 is one of 15 bona-fide ancient GC's (over 10 billion years old) in the LMC and is situated at the northeast periphery of the cloud.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2257 = h3057 on 30 Nov 1834 and recorded as "F; vL; R; gvlbM; 3'."  On his third sweep he logged "pB; L; R; vgbM;  resolvable; diam in RA = 17s of time."  His position is accurate.  NGC 2257 was identified by Gascoigne and Lynga as the "easternmost object to which membership of the Clouds may certainly be assigned".

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NGC 2258 = UGC 3523 = MCG +12-07-016 = CGCG 330-115 = PGC 19622

06 47 46.1 +74 28 54

V = 11.9;  Size 2.3'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 150d

 

17.5" (1/19/91): moderately bright, small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is just 0.8' NE of center and a mag 12 star is 1.2' SSE.  NGC 2256 lies 15' SSW and IC 451 is 20' E.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 2258 = T IX-4, along with NGC 2256, with the 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory.  Tempel just gives a rough RA, but his position is about 6' south of UGC 3523 = PGC 19622 and his description "together with two nearby stars mag 10-11 forms a triangle" clinches the identification.  Bigourdan measured an accurate RA on 22 Dec 1891 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).  MCG lists the NGC designation as uncertain.

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NGC 2259 = Cr 108 = Mel 48

06 38 33.3 +10 52 57

Size 5'

 

18" (3/4/08): at 175x, appears as a 4' rich group of faint stars over haze.  At 300x, about two dozen stars in total are resolved, mostly in a 2' circular clump.  About 1' N of this dense patch of stars is the brightest mag 11.5 star which has a 13th magnitude companion.  This cluster is located 5' E of mag 8.8 HD 47271.

 

17.5" (2/1/92): fairly faint, small, 3'-4' diameter, rich, irregularly round.  Consists of about 15 faint stars mag 13.5-14.5 sparkling over a layer of background haze.  A double star mag 12/13 at 7" separation is at the north edge.  Mag 8.7 SAO 95930 is 5' W and is surrounded by a less compressed group of 15-20 stars mag 12/13 in a 6' triangular shape.  This mag 8.7 star has two faint companions on the south side and another close faint double star is 3' NE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2259 = H VI-28 on 11 Jan 1787 (sweep 682) and called "a cluster of extremely compressed and exceedintly S stars, considerably rich, irr F, the following and most compressed part of it round."  His position (Auwer's reduction) is on the south side of the cluster.

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NGC 2260

06 38 03 -01 28 24

 

17.5" (2/1/03): roughly 50 stars are visible at 100x spread out over 15'.  The stars are in two main subgroups, oriented SW and NE.  The SW group includes mag 8.0 SAO 133489 with a rich arc of stars trailing to the north.  The NE group is highlighted by mag 7.1 SAO 133505 with a nice 20" mag 11/12 double 1.5' SSE.  Also an isolated mag 8.3 star is at the southern vertex of an obtuse triangle with these two groups.  Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2260 = H VIII-48 = h398 on 1 Jan 1786 (sweep 506) and noted "A Cl of very scattered stars of various sizes, of more than 1/2 degree of extent." JH called it "very course, v poor, v straggling, the chief *8 taken."  His position corresponds with mag 8.2 SAO 133505 at 06 38 05.8 -01 26 40. Karl Reinmuth gave an approximate size of 15' with description "Cl, pL, P, st 8..." based on its photographic appearance on Heidelberg plates.  The group is not included in the Lynga cluster catalogue and RNGC classifies it as nonexistent (Type 7).

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NGC 2261 = Hubble's Variable Nebula = LBN 920 = Ced 83 = R Mon = HH 39 = PP 64

06 39 10 +08 44 42

Size 2'x1'

 

18" (3/4/08): Hubble's variable nebula is a striking fan-shaped object, with a mag 12 star at its south tip with the nebula extending to the north.  The fan displays a great deal of variation in brightness and structure at 300x.  The brightest portion is on the northwest side of the fan, though it dims a little near the tip on the west side.  The eastern rim is bright and sharply defined N-S like a thin finger. The nebulosity dims along northern end of the fan and a small, wedge-shaped darker area extends into the fan from the north.

 

13.1" (1/28/84): Hubble's Variable Nebula is bright, small, fan-shaped 2:1 N-S and widest at the north boundary.  The nebulosity tapers down towards 12th magnitude R Monocerotis at the south tip which appears to have a very small high surface brightness halo.  The western edge (oriented NW-SE) is slightly weaker and more curved than the eastern edge which is sharper and straighter N-S.  This is an impressive nebula with high surface brightness and interesting structure.

 

8": comet-like nebula extends from R Mon.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2261 = H IV-2 = h399 on 26 Oct 1783 (very early sweep 67) and recorded "a curious nebula of a fan shape."  His summary description (based on 4 observations) reads "cB, fan-shaped, about 2' long from the centre."  His placed it in class IV, which includes planetary nebulae.  JH called it a "*12m with bright cometic branch 60" l whose axis is 60¡ np.  The star is a little ill-defined.  The apex of the neb comex exactly up to star, but does not pass it."

 

George Stoney sketched the nebula using the 72" on 16 Jan 1850 (plate XXXVII, figure 10).  He noted "two comparitively dark spaces, one near the vertex and other near the base of the cone."  William Lassell observed and sketched NGC 2261 in March 1853 with his 24-inch equatorial reflector from Malta. He noted, "the nucleus not stellar, but like the nucleus of the nebula in Andromeda [M31]." Father Angelo Secchi published a detailed sketch and description in 1856 using the 9.6" refractor in Rome.

 

In 1916 Hubble discovered the nebula was variable, hence the popular nickname.  This is an unusual bipolar nebula with the second southern jet hidden from view.  According to the California Institute of Technology, Hubble's Variable Nebula was the first object photographed through the 200-inch Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. Hubble sat in the prime focus cage of that instrument and recorded an image of it on 26 Jan 1949.

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NGC 2262 = Cr 109 = OCL-531 = Lund 242

06 39 38.7 +01 08 30

Size 4'

 

13.1" (1/18/85): about 10 very faint stars in cluster over unresolved background glow.  Incorrect position given in modern catalogues.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2262 = H VII-37 = h400 on 27 Dec 1786 (sweep 668) and described "A Cl of v. com eS st, considerably rich, 3 or 4' dia., most condensed around the middle."   His position matches this small cluster.  JH recorded "A great many sc st; and a strong suspicion of a more comp part (thick haze)" and measured an accurate position.

 

The wrong position (06 38.4 +01 11 (2000)) is given in modern sources such as Sky Catalogue 2000, Lynga, NGC 2000.0, RNGC and SIMBAD (now corrected).  Brent Archinal notes (e-mail from 3/11/98) the error originated with Per Collinder's list of clusters (1931) and copied into the modern catalogues.

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NGC 2263 = ESO 490-019 = MCG -04-16-014 = PGC 19355

06 38 28.9 -24 50 55

V = 12.1;  Size 2.6'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 143d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): fairly faint, fairly small, oval NW-SE, even surface brightness.  Situated between two mag 13.5 stars 1' N and 1' S with a similar star 1.7' ENE.  Located 4.2' N of mag 8.5 SAO 172076 and 7.2' NNW of mag 9.0 SAO 172078" (nearly collinear with the galaxy).

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2263 = h3058 on 20 Jan 1835 and recorded "Not vF, R, or lE, pslbM, E between two vS stars, and has two stars about 8th mag S.p. pointing to it." His description and coordinates matches ESO 490-019 = PGC 19355, though the two bright stars are south following.

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NGC 2264 = "Christmas Tree" cluster = Cr 112 = "Fox Fur" Nebula = Ced 84b = Sh 2-273 = LBN 911 = Cone Nebula

06 40 58 +09 53 42

V = 3.9;  Size 60'x30'

 

17.5" (12/28/00): besides the bright nebulosity extending southwest of mag 4.7 S Monocerotis (15), most of the central region of the cluster was set against a weakly glowing background (part of Sh 2-273).  At the southern end of the cluster (tip of the "Christmas Tree"), this low surface brightness glow was more evident and clearly extended beyond the 7th magnitude star at the tip towards the SE.  The west edge of this weakly glowing extension forms the eastern border of the dark Cone Nebula (LDN 1613).  There is a lack of faint stars within the region of the Cone Nebula but the inclusion itself was not darker than the general background.

 

17.5" (12/30/99): nebulosity was quite prominent to the SW of south Mon as well as a weaker glow in the vicinity around ·954 at the south end of the cluster.  At 100x (unfiltered) there appeared to be a slightly darker vacuity to the south of this star in the position of the Cone nebula but there is no sharp "edge" with the nearby nebulosity.

 

13" (11/5/83): very bright, very large scattered group, elongated N-S, striking Christmas tree shape.  A bright multiple star 15 Monocerotis = south Mon (4.7-7.5 at 2.8" and companions) is at the base of the tree at the north end of the cluster and is surrounded by several stars.  Easy nebulosity is visible which extends 10' SW of south Mon and includes a group of three brighter stars.  At the south end of the cluster is the double star ·954 = 7.1/9.6 at 13".  The Cone nebula (not seen) extends south of ·954 and "points" towards ·954.

 

8": bright, very large, scattered, Christmas tree outline, fairly rich, includes multiple star south Mon.

 

Naked-eye (1/8/00): vislble as a 4th magnitude nebulous glow including the mag 5 star (S Mon), but appears much smaller naked-eye than the listed dimensions.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2264 = H V-27 = H VIII-5 = h401 on 18 Jan 1784 (sweep 81) and recorded VIII-5 as "The 15th Mon is attended by above 30 considerable stars, and is itself a double star of the 3rd class.  The star extremely unequal and probably not visible in smaller instruments. There is also another double star of the 3rd class not far from it consisting of equal stars."  On 26 Dec 1785 (sweep 494) he logged V-27 as "I observed about 7' or 8' sp 15 Mon, some of the pB stars to be contained within vF milky nebulosity which loses itself imperceptibly; but there remains a doubt of the reality."  On the 28 Dec 1785 (sweep 496) he mentions "I examined the stars south preceding 15 Mon and believe they contain Milky nebulosity.  It is very difficult to ascertain it on account of the glare of the 15th, but I have hardly any doubt.  Again on 11 Jan 1787 (sweep 682) he noted "I suspect the sp 2 stars (of which one is Double [15 Mon] to be affected with vF milky nebulosity but may be a deception."  WH's descriptions and position apply to the cluster and to the brightest part of the nebulosity southwest of mag 4.7 S Monocerotis.  JH also reported "a *5.6 enveloped in a nebulous haze.", although this may be a result of scattered light.

 

The region around 15 Mon was examined a number of times at Birr Castle, searching for nebulosity.  There was several negative results in the 1850's and Lord Rosse wrote "No neby. Found, and only a few stars arranged in pairs; no cl.  Has there been a change here?  But a couple of later observations (including by Dreyer) were successful.  E.E. Barnard and Roberts reported extensive nebulosity in the region based on photographs.

 

On 10 May 1895 Isaac Roberts showed a three-hour exposure of the NGC 2264 complex taken with his 20-inch reflector on 13 Feb to a meeting of the Royal Astronomical Society. It clearly showed the nebulosity southwest of S Mon (first photographed by Barnard in 1894) but also revealed a Òconical dark space bounded by a rim of nebulosityÓ — this is the famous ÔCone NebulaÕ.

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NGC 2265

06 41 42 +11 54 18

 

17.5" (2/1/03): this is a Milky Way cloud of ~50 faint stars mag 12-14.  There is central "hole" lacking any stars, and there are no rich subgroups.  Does not look to be a reasonable cluster and candidate and in fact, doesn't stand out in the field at 100x. There does seem to be some unresolved background or Milky Way glow.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2265 = h402 on 23 Jan 1832 and described "A poor cluster 30 or 40 small stars 12-13m."  Karl Reinmuth called this "a rich region, >1 degree, no distinct Cl.", based on its photographic appearance. There is a scattering of mag 10-13 stars near Herschel's position on the POSS, but nothing that looks like a cluster. RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent.

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NGC 2266 = Cr 113 = Mel 50 = OCL-471

06 43 20 +26 58 12

Size 7'

 

13.1" (12/22/84): three dozen stars mag 9-15 in a 4' diameter.  Most members are very faint and the cluster appears quite rich with averted over unresolved background haze.  The brightest star, mag 8.6 SAO 78670, is at the southwest edge of cluster and a string of five brighter stars mag 10-12 trail to the ENE.  An isolated mag 10 star is off the northwest corner.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2266 = H VI-21 = h403 on 7 Dec 1785 (sweep 486) and recorded "a very rich and very compressed cluster of stars of about 4 1/2 or 5' diameter, 5 or 6 of the largest stars are in a row."  His position is on the southeast side of the cluster.  JH noted his position is "the most condensed part of a p rich, p comp cl of stars 11...15m; irreg figure; diam of most compressed part = 3...4'' triangular."

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NGC 2267 = ESO 426-029 = MCG -05-16-015 = PGC 19417

06 40 51.8 -32 28 57

V = 12.2;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 36d

 

17.5" (1/19/91): fairly faint, very small, oval 3:2 NW-SE, bright core.  Two nearby stars confuse the observation: a mag 13 star just 36" W of center (at the NW edge) and a mag 14 star 0.9' SW of center.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2267 = h3059 on 16 Feb 1836 and described as "pB, S, R, 20"; has 2 or 3 small stars close to it."   DeLisle Stewart, using photographic plates from Peru, described this object as "two nebulae close together."

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NGC 2268 = UGC 3653 = MCG +14-04-022 = CGCG 362-036 = CGCG 363-020 = LGG 145-001 = PGC 20458

07 14 17.6 +84 22 57

V = 11.5;  Size 3.2'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 63d

 

17.5" (8/27/87): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated SW-NE, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star is at the SW edge 1.1' from center.

 

17.5" (2/22/87): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, faint halo gradually increases to a large brighter core, small bright nucleus, faint stellar nucleus.

 

Alphonse Borrelly discovered NGC 2268 = T I-19 around 1871 with a 7.2-inch comet-seeker at the Marseille Observatory. He noted "pretty faint, extended, elliptic, no bright point" and his micrometric position (MNRAS, 32, 248) matches UGC 3653. Wilhem Tempel independently discovered the galaxy in 1877 .  The RNGC RA is 8.0 tmin too far east.

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NGC 2269 = Cr 114 = OCL-524 = Lund 252

06 43 16.8 +04 37 04

V = 10.0;  Size 4'

 

17.5" (1/1/92): two dozen stars mag 11.5-15 in a 4' diameter.  The main portion is a rich, thin 3' string oriented NW-SE with about 15 stars including a mag 11.5 and 12 star over unresolved haze.  The scattered outliers to 4' radius increase the total to two dozen stars.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2269 = H VI-3 = h404 on 24 Jan 1784 (sweep 114) and described "a cluster of very compressed; they are eF and I suppose cannot be visible with my 7 ft reflector.  It contains a few L ones.  It is of an extended figure, and as it were, divided."  His position is poor - 37 sec of RA too far east and 4' too far south, but not unusual for his early sweeps.  JH described a "close cl of v small st; poor; twilight; preceded by a coarse cl of large ones."  Both Herschels' positions are too far east and so the NGC position is ~9' ESE of center.

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NGC 2270

06 43 58 +03 27 12

 

17.5" (2/1/03): this is a large, scattered field, ~10' diameter surrounding a kite-shaped asterism of mag 8.5-10 stars.  There is no concentration but there are a couple of denser clumps of faint stars on the east side.  A curving string of stars heads NE and ends at a group of stars surrounding mag 7.6 SAO 114355.  Located 30' S of a mag 5.9 star.  Does not appear to be a cluster but just a Milky Way field.  Listed as a nonexistent cluster in the RNGC.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2270 = H VII-36 = h405 on 26 Dec 1786 (sweep 667) and noted "A Cl of very scattered stars, considerably rich, and of great extent."  JH logged a "coarse scattered cluster; not very rich; place of *9m."  His position is just 5 tsec east of mag 8.8 SAO 114331 at 06 43 51.7 +03 27 12. Based on its photographic appeared, Reinmuth calls this a "rich region, no distinct Cl."   RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 2271 = ESO 490-034 = MCG -04-16-017 = PGC 19476

06 42 52.9 -23 28 33

V = 12.2;  Size 2.1'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 71d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): fairly faint, small, oval E-W, weak concentration.  There is a string of five stars mag 9-11 on line to north including mag 9.4 SAO 172213 5' NNE and mag 8.7 SAO 12200 9' NW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2271 = h3060 on 23 Jan 1835 and recorded as "pB, S, R, lbM, 20"."  His position (measured on 3 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 2272 = ESO 490-033 = MCG -05-16-017 = PGC 19466

06 42 41.3 -27 27 34

V = 11.7;  Size 2.5'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 123d

 

13.1" (12/22/84): fairly faint, small, round, small faint core.  NGC 2280 lies 30' ESE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2272 = h3061 on 20 Jan 1835 and called "F, E, bM, 20"."  His position (measured on 3 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 2273 = UGC 3546 = MCG +10-10-015 = CGCG 285-006 = Mrk 620 = PGC 19688

06 50 08.6 +60 50 45

V = 11.7;  Size 3.2'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 50d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): fairly bright, moderately large, oval SW-NE, very bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 5.2' SSW of mag 8.5 SAO 13976 and 6.7' WSW of mag 8.3 SAO 13979.  NGC 2273B lies 40' SW.

 

Swedish astronomer Nils DunŽr discovered NGC 2273 on 15 Sep 1867 using the 9.6-inch Merz refractor of the Lund Observatory.  In AN 78, 251 (1871) he described it as "fairly bright and at least 2' in diameter, with a strong concentration in the middle." and measured an accurate position (using mag 8.6 HD 49039).  This was his only NGC discovery.  NGC 2273 was also observed by Herman Schultz on 3 and 8 Sep 1872 with the 9.6" refractor at Uppsala and listed as "DunŽr's Nova" in his 1874 publication.

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NGC 2274 = UGC 3541 = MCG +06-15-008 = CGCG 175-015 = WBL 121-003 = LGG 139-001 = PGC 19603

06 47 17.3 +33 34 02

V = 12.1;  Size 1.7'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 169d

 

24" (1/4/14): moderately bright to fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated N-S, sharply concentrated with a round high surface brightness core of 0.4' diameter that gradually increases to the center.  Halo increases with averted to 0.9'x0.7'.  Brighter of a close pair with NGC 2275 1.9' N.  The pair resides in a rich star field with UGC 3537 7.4' NW.  This low even surface brightness galaxy appeared very faint, fairly small, round, 24", no concentratin.

 

18" (3/4/08): moderately bright and large, slightly elongated N-S, 0.9'x0.8', contains a sharply concentrated, bright 25" core and a much fainter halo.  Forms a close pair with NGC 2275 1.9' N.

 

18" (10/21/06): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 0.8'-1' diameter, bright core.  This galaxy is slightly brighter than its companion, NGC 2275, located 2' N.  The NGC 2288-2294 group lies 45' E.

 

17.5" (1/19/91): fairly faint, fairly small, round, small bright core.  Forms the brighter of a pair with NGC 2275 2' N.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2274 = H II-614 = h406, along with NGC 2275, on 26 Oct 1786 (sweep 628) and described both as "Two, both F, S, R, bM.  The southern one [NGC 2274] is the largest."  The pair was observed a total of 14 times at Birr Castle!  Harold Corwin notes the identifications of NGC 2274 and NGC 2275 are reversed in the MCG.

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NGC 2275 = UGC 3542 = MCG +06-15-007 = CGCG 175-016 = WBL 121-002 = LGG 139-002 = PGC 19605

06 47 17.9 +33 35 57

V = 13.1;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 20d

 

24" (1/4/14): fairly faint to moderately bright, elongated 5:3 N-S, 50"x30".  Sharply concentrated with a small, much brighter core that gradually increases to the center. UGC 3537 lies 6.8' WNW.

 

18" (3/4/08): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated N-S, 0.9'x0.6', contains a small bright core ~15" in diameter and a much fainter halo.  Slightly fainter of a close pair with NGC 2274 1.9' S.

 

18" (10/21/06): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.8'x0.6', brighter core.  Located 2' N of slightly brighter NGC 2274.

 

17.5" (1/19/91): faint, small, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, even surface brightness.  Forms the fainter of a pair with NGC 2274 2' S.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2275 = H II-615 = h407, along with NGC 2274, on 26 Oct 1786 (sweep 626) and described both as "Two, both F, S, R, bM.  The southern one [NGC 2274] is the largest." His single position is 9 tsec of RA too far west, but JH measured a more accurate RA.  Harold Corwin notes the identifications of NGC 2274 and NGC 2275 are reversed in the MCG.

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NGC 2276 = Arp 25 = Arp 114 = UGC 3740 = MCG +14-04-028 = CGCG 362-042 = CGCG 363-027 = VII Zw 134 = LGG 145-008 = PGC 21039

07 27 14.4 +85 45 16

V = 11.4;  Size 2.8'x2.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 20d

 

48" (4/4/13): at 488x, NGC 2276 appeared fairly bright, fairly large, irregularly round, 2' diameter.  Contains a very small, very bright nucleus, surrounded by a patchy halo with weak spiral structure.  The most prominent arm winds along the western edge of the galaxy, curving from west to northwest and creating a very asymmetric appearance.  Along this arm segment is a prominent knotty section with two or three clumps, including [HK83] 69, a bright 6" knot.  On the southwest side of the halo is [HK83] 63, a faint 6" knot on a line between the nucleus and the 8th-magnitude star (HD 51141) 2.3' SW. In the brighter central region surrounding the nucleus are several brighter, small patches that define the inner arms.  A slightly brighter region close southwest of the nucleus includes the multiple designations [HK83] 17/42/46/51.  Finally, [H83] 24/27 are weak enhancements on the southeast side of the nucleus.  HII region #24 was the site of SN 2005dl.

 

24" (9/15/12): moderately bright, fairly large, round, 2' diameter.  Although spiral arms were not visible, the galaxy has an odd appearance with brighter knots and regions resolved.  A non-stellar knot, identified in NED as NGC 2276:[HK83] 69 is visible at the NW edge.  The central region contains a faint quasi-stellar nucleus, along with one or two other stellar knots including NGC 2276:[HK83] 24, close east of the nucleus. Another knot (nonstellar) is southwest of the nucleus (perhaps NGC 2276:[HK83] 63).  The halo appears weaker on the east side and brighter on the west side.  Located 2.3' ENE of a mag 8 star and it helps to move the star just outside the field.

 

18" (8/2/11): moderately bright, large, round, ~2.0' diameter, weak concentration, slightly brighter core.  The halo has an irregular surface brightness giving a strong impression of spiral structure with slightly brighter knots on the west side.  Located 2.3' ENE of mag 8.1 HD 51141, which hinders viewing and a mag 11.7 star is squeezed between the bright star and the galaxy.  Brighter NGC 2300 lies 6' SE.  These are the 3rd and 4th closest NGC galaxies to the North Celestial Pole.

 

18" (3/13/04): fairly faint, large, slightly elongated,~2.0'x1.6', low surface brightness.  The halo fades gradually into the background, particularly on the eastern side, so it was difficult to determine a definite edge.  Located 2.2' E of mag 8.4 SAO 1148 which detracts from viewing.  Forms a trio with NGC 2300 6' SE and IC 455.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): diffuse, slightly elongated.  Located 2.2' ENE of mag 8.4 SAO 1148 which interferes with viewing.  Three mag 11 stars also in line with the 8.4 star to the south including a mag 11.5 star just 1.4' SW.  Forms a pair with NGC 2300 6.4' ESE.

 

8" (1/1/84): faint, moderately large, low surface brightness, slightly elongated.  A mag 9 star is near.

 

August Winnecke discovered NGC 2276 on 26 Jun 1876 with the 6.5" refractor at the Strausberg Observatory.  Wilhelm Tempel independently discovered the galaxy the same year with the 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory and included it in list I-20.  Winnecke also thought he discovered NGC 2300 but Borrelly found that galaxy earlier (either 1871 or 1872) at Marseille .  NGC 2276 is the 3rd closest to the pole in the NGC or IC.

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NGC 2277

06 47 47 +33 27 18

 

24" (1/4/14): a 7" pair of mag 13.4/14.1 stars were fairly easy to resolve at 375x even in soft seeing.  Located 9' SE of NGC 2274 (2' pair with NGC 2275).

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 2277 on 20 Apr 1865, while reobserving the nearby galaxies in the NGC 2290 group, along with NGC 2274/2275.  At his position is a 30" pair of stars with the northern component a 7" pair of mag 13.4/14.1 stars.  Corwin includes 5 stars in this asterism. Nearby NGC 2278 from d'Arrest is also a double star.

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NGC 2278

06 48 16.4 +33 23 39

 

24" (1/4/14): this 10" pair of fairly evenly matched mag 14.0/14.4 stars (oriented N-S) was easily split at 375x.  This pair was easier to resolve than nearby NGC 2277 7' NW and NGC 2279 2' NE.  Located 16' SE of NGC 2274 (2' pair with NGC 2275).

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 2278 on 1 Jan 1865.  At his exact position is a 10" double star (mag 14/14.5).  Nearby NGC 2277 from d'Arrest also refers to some faint stars.  RNGC misidentifies NGC 2278 = NGC 2275.

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NGC 2279

06 48 24.8 +33 24 55

 

24" (1/4/14): this is an unequal pair of mag 14.1/15.7 stars at 14" separation.  The faint companion was just visible in soft seeing at 375x.  Situated just 2' NE of NGC 2278, an easier 10" pair of mag 14.0/14.4 stars.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 2279 = Big. 24 on 8 Jan 1885 and noted 10" diameter with a "stellar aspect".  Bigourdan's position is less than 1' S of a triple star (two were resolved in my scope) at 06 48 24.8 +33 24 55.  It was found while he was measuring previously discovered nebulae (and asterisms) in the area.  RNGC misidentifies NGC 2279 = NGC 2275.

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NGC 2280 = UGCA 131 = ESO 427-002 = MCG -05-16-020 = LGG 138-001 = PGC 19531

06 44 48.9 -27 38 20

V = 10.3;  Size 6.3'x3.1';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 163d

 

13.1" (12/22/84): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, bright core.  Located 3.9' SE of a mag 10 star.  Almost collinear with a second mag 10 star 5.4' NW.  NGC 2272 lies 30' WNW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2280 = h3062 on 1 Feb 1837 and noted "pF; L; irreg R; or lE; gbM; 2'."  His position (single sweep) matches ESO 427-002 = PGC 19531.

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NGC 2281 = Cr 116 = Mel 51 = OCL-446

06 48 18 +41 04 42

V = 5.4;  Size 15'

 

18" (3/13/04): ~75 stars in a 30' region to the south of mag 7.3 HD 49009.  A number of stars are arranged in a looping chain.  There is a neat kite-shaped group of 6 stars (including two pairs at 10" and 15") in the middle of the chain with a faint star in the center.  Scattered stars extend to the south, beyond the kite.  The group is fairly bright and distinctive and includes a number of mag 9-10 stars, although there are no dense subgroups.

 

13.1": ~40 stars mag 7-13 in cluster, bright, loose.  Five double stars are visible including a mag 9.5-11.0 pair at 11" and a mag 11.0-11.5 pair at 15".

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2281 = H VIII-71 on 4 Mar 1788 (sweep 813) and recorded "a cluster of coarsely scattered pretty large stars, pretty rich, the place is that of a double star of the third class."  His RA is 1.0 minute too large.  The position carried forward to the GC and NGC and modern catalogues including the Lynga Open Clusters Catalog (5th edition) and the RNGC.

 

By analyzing William Herschel's early "reviews" of bright stars that resulted in the discovery of many double stars, Wolfgang Steinicke recently found (email Oct '16) that Herschel first discovered the cluster on 6 Nov 1782 using his 6.2" reflector.

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NGC 2282 = IC 2172 = vdB 85 = OCL 535.1 = C0644+013 = Ced 87

06 46 51 +01 18 54

Size 3'x3'

 

13.1" (1/18/85): very faint reflection nebula with a mag 10 star involved, fairly small, round.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered NGC 2282 on 3 Mar 1886 with the 6-inch refractor at Vanderbilt University (announced in AN 2756 and Sidereal Messenger, vol. 5, p154).  He reported finding "a star of 9.5 or 10 magnitiude, with a faint nebulosity surrounding it. I strongly suspect that is not a stellar point but an extremely small nebula with faint nebulosity surrounding.  At best with the 6-inch it did not appear like any of the neighboring stars.  A short distance (4' or 5') preceding this and very slightly north is a faint double star that I suspect is enveloped in nebulosity."  His position matches the central star HD 289120 of this reflection nebula.

 

Barnard found this reflection nebula again on 30 Oct 1888 using the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted a "9 1/2 mag star with faint nebulosity about it.  1' in diameter, a little heavier nf.  Examined several other stars near, and no nebulosity seen."  Apparently Barnard didn't connect this with his earlier observation and notified Dreyer who catalogued it again as IC 2172, at nearly the identical position.  So, NGC 2282 = IC 2172.

 

This RN is involved with a sparse open cluster OCL 535.1 = C0644+013, listed in Lynga 5 as vdB 85, although Barnard made no reference to an associated cluster.  Brian Skiff noticed the equivalence.

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NGC 2283 = ESO 557-013 = MCG -03-18-002 = Ced 86 = PGC 19562

06 45 52.7 -18 12 37

V = 12.2;  Size 3.6'x2.8';  Surf Br = 14.6;  PA = 2d

 

13.1" (11/5/83): very faint, small, diffuse, even surface brightness.  Three faint stars are involved including two mag 13 stars at the NE edge and the north edge.  Located in a rich star field 90' S of Sirius and just 9¡ from the galactic equator!

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2283 = H III-271 on 6 Feb 1785 (sweep 367) and reported "3 or 4 small stars with vF nebulosity between them forming an irregular triangle.  240 power showed the same very plainly."  Auwers made an error reducing WH's position, but JH corrected the error in the GC and his position matches ESO 557-013  = PGC 19562.  Herbert Howe, observing in 1898-1899 with the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver, described "a small quadrilateral of stars of mag 11, 12, 11, and 13, the interior of which in nearly filled by an eF nebulosity."

 

Harold Corwin comments that E.E. Barnard's IC 2171 may be a duplicate observation (see his identification notes on that number).  Dave Riddle notes Sven Cederblad catalogued this galaxy as a reflection nebula (Ced 86) and it was later included in the Dorschner and Gurtler reflection nebula catalogue as DG 111.

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NGC 2284

06 49 16.2 +33 09 59

 

24" (1/22/15): this number applies to one of two possible triples.  At 200x, I found a mag 13.8 star with a mag 14.5 star 19" SW and a mag 15-15.5 star 19" N.  The stars were widely split with no hint of appearing nebulous.  A fourth mag 16-16.5 star listed in Corwin's table was not seen viewing through thin clouds.

 

Just 2' SE of these stars is a very nice equilateral triple!  The three stars range from mag 12.3-13.5 with sides of 10", 12" and 13".  These were also easily resolved.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 2284, along with NGC 2285, on 20 Apr 1865 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen Observatory.  Near his position is is a pair of mag 13.8/14.5 stars stars at 19" separation with a mag 15-15.5 star a similar distance from the brighter star.  Alister Ling found "a triple star (using 255x) amidst a chain of singles and doublets."  This trio is 2.4' SSE of d'Arrest's position, but more eye-catching visually.  Harold Corwin lists both candidates.  The RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent (Type 7).

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NGC 2285

06 49 35.9 +33 21 53

 

24" (1/22/15): at 200x; a 12" pair of mag 14.6 and 15.8 stars was resolved.  The fainter star was difficult in hazy conditions.  Just 1.6' southeast is a relatively bright double, consisting of mag 10.8/12 stars at 11" separation.  d'Arrest didn't mention this pair, which should have been easily resolved, though it is certainly much more eye-catching.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 2285, along with NGC 2284, on 20 Apr 1865 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen Observatory.   About 1' northeast of his single position is a mag 14.6/15.8 pair of stars at 12" separation and he was uncertain if it was nebulous or stellar.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.

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NGC 2286 = Cr 117 = OCL-548 = Lund 257

06 47 40 -03 08 54

V = 7.5;  Size 15'

 

17.5" (12/20/95): at 100x, ~40 stars within an arbitrary 10' region, elongated N-S.  This is a fairly rich group of mostly mag 12 and 13 stars bordered by brighter stars grouped in pairs and trios.  There is some concentration with a richer 4' core.  A wide pair of mag 9 stars is off the SE side.

 

17.5" (2/1/92): ~60 stars mag 11-14 in the central 10' diameter.  Bright, large, fairly rich though not dense.  Richest in a lane running NNW-SSE over haze although the brightest mag 10 stars are outliers to the W, north and SE.  There is also a bright lane 15' length oriented N-S located to the east of the main group which includes several wide double stars.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2286 = H VIII-31 = h408 on 6 Jan 1785 (sweep 352) and noted "A larger cluster of scattered stars, not v rich."  JH made two observations and noted a "Loose L irreg scattered cl of about 100 st 9...15m."  His first position is accurate.

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NGC 2287 = M41 = ESO 557-SC14 = Cr 118

06 46 00 -20 45 18

V = 4.5;  Size 38'

 

18" (2/14/10): this naked-eye cluster was perfectly framed at 73x with the 31mm Nagler (67' field).  M41 extends roughly 35' in diameter though many of the brighter mag 7 and 8 stars are in a smaller central region.  The cluster includes roughly a dozen brighter stars, many forming a large central oval ~15'-20' diameter and elongated E-W or SW-NE.  Near the center is a richer grouping with a number of fainter stars and two bright stars including orange (K3-class) mag 6.9 HD 49091 (brightest member).

 

A number of loops and chains appear to spin out from the central grouping.  One long chain extends NNW to the edge of the cluster and a shorter nearby chain heads WNW and includes a pretty equal mag pair before bending abruptly SW.  Two other chains extend from the center to the SW and ENE.  About 20' SE of the center of the cluster is mag 6.1 HD 49333, the brightest star in the field though not a member.

 

8" (10/4/80): ~60 stars mag 7-11.5, very bright, very large, very rich, includes 10 bright stars mag 7 and 8.  Many of the stars are arranged in curving rows and groups, includes several double stars.  Located about 20' NW of mag 6.0 12 Canis Majoris.  Naked-eye object in dark sky.

 

Naked-eye (numerous times): fairly easy naked-eye glow in a dark sky.

 

Giovanni Hodierna discovered M41 = NGC 2287 = h411 in 1654 (using a small refractor at 20x).  It was independently discovered by John Flamsteed on 16 Feb 1702: "Near this star (12 CMa), there is a cluster."  Le Gentil also found it in 1749.  Wolfgang Steinicke credits Aristotle with the visual discoverer based on comments by J.E. Gore in his 1902 review of the Messier objects.  But the source material is not very reliable.  See http://seds.org/messier/more/m041_ari.html for this possibility.

 

William Herschel recorded M41 in 1784 as "A large cluster of very coarsely scattered large [bright] stars." and JH called it "Coarse; fills field.  The chief, 8m, is red; a poor cluster."  The position in the NGC, RNGC and NGC 2000 is 1 tmin of RA too far east.

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NGC 2288 = MCG +06-15-011 = CGCG 175-017 = WBL 126-001 = PGC 19714

06 50 52.0 +33 27 45

V = 14.4;  Size 0.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 10.3

 

18" (3/4/08): very faint, extremely small, round, no more than 10" diameter.  Located just 1' SSW of NGC 2289 and faintest of 5 in the group.

 

18" (10/21/06): faint, extremely small, elongated 5:3 E-W, 20"x12".  In a close trio with NGC 2289 1' NNE and NGC 2288 2' SE.

 

17.5" (12/19/87): very faint, extremely small, elongated WNW-ESE.  First of five in a group and forms a close trio with NGC 2289 1.1' NNE and NGC 2290 1.8' SSE.

 

George Johnstone Stoney discovered NGC 2288 on 22 Feb 1849 using Lord Rosse's 72", noting "5 neb. in one field [with NGC 2289, 2290, 2291 and 2294]. It was labeled Beta on an accurate sketch of the quintet.  The positions of all 5 galaxies (computed by Dreyer and repeated in the GC and NGC) are offset 4' too far south and ~9 seconds too far west, though the relative positions are correct.  The RNGC reverses the identifications of NGC 2288 and 2289.

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NGC 2289 = UGC 3560 = MCG +06-15-010 = CGCG 175-018 = WBL 126-002 = PGC 19716

06 50 53.6 +33 28 43

V = 13.2;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 92d

 

18" (3/4/08): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated E-W, ~25"x20".  A mag 13.5 star is close off the north side.  One of the brightest two galaxies in a compact galaxy group (all within 6') of 5 NGCs including NGC 2290 2.5' SSE and NGC 2288 1' S.

 

18" (10/21/06): fairly faint, very small, round, 25" diameter.  A mag 13.5 star is just off the north side [38" from the center].  In a compact quintet with NGC 2288 1' S and NGC 2290 2.5' S.

 

17.5" (12/19/87): faint, fairly small, diffuse, slightly elongated, almost even surface brightness.  A mag 13.5 star is just 0.7' N.  Second of five in the NGC 2289/NGC 2290 group with NGC 2288 1.1' SSW and NGC 2290 2.6' SSE.

 

13" (12/22/84): faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE.  Forms a pair with NGC 2290 2.6' SSE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2289 = H III-897 = h409, along with NGC 2290, on 4 Feb 1793 (sweep 1031) and recorded "Two, eF and vS.  The place is taken between them.  They are about 4' asunder and northern one which is the largest precedes the other about 2 sec.  300x shows the same."  Assuming Herschel observed the brightest two galaxies with the orientation NNW-SE, then H III-897 = NGC 2289 and H III-898 = NGC 2290 (Dreyer was confused on the WH and JH identifications in the GC and NGC).  His RA is 15 sec too large, but the NPD is in between the pair. These two galaxies were also observed by JH (same orientation and 3 or 4' apart). In the NGC, Dreyer incorrectly assigned III-898 to NGC 2289.

 

The RNGC reverses the identifications of NGC 2288 and NGC 2289.  MCG also misidentifies this galaxy as NGC 2288.  See my RNGC Corrections #1 and Malcolm Thomson's article in the Webb Society Quarterly Journal in 1/84.

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NGC 2290 = UGC 3562 = MCG +06-15-012 = CGCG 175-019 = LGG 139-003 = WBL 126-003 = PGC 19718

06 50 56.9 +33 26 15

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 50d

 

18" (3/4/08): brightest and furthest south in a compact group of 5 NGC's, along with NGC 2289.  Appears moderately bright and large, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, ~45"x22", the halo is weakly concentrated with a sharply concentrated 10" core.  NGC 2289 and NGC 2288 lie 2' N.  The cluster is 0.6¡ SW of mag 3.6 Theta Gem.

 

18" (10/21/06): furthest south in a curving chain of 5 galaxies including NGC 2288, NGC 2289, NGC 2291 and NGC 2294.  Appears fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 40"x30", increases to a very small bright core.  The cluster is located 35' SW of 3.6-magnitude Theta Geminorum.

 

17.5" (12/19/87): third of five and brightest in the NGC 2289/NGC 2290 group.  Fairly faint, fairly small, oval SW-NE, bright core.  NGC 2289 lies 2.6' NNW and NGC 2288 1.8' NNW.

 

13" (12/22/84): faint, small, elongated SW-NE, similar to NGC 2289 2.6' NNW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2290 = H III-898 = h410, along with NGC 2289, on 4 Feb 1793 (sweep 1031) and noted "Two, eF and vS.  The place is taken between them.  They are about 4' asunder and northern one which is the largest precedes the other about 2 sec.  300x shows the same."  His RA is 15 sec too large, but the NPD is in between the pair.  JH also observed the pair on sweep 51 (22 Jan 1827) and measured reasonably accurate positions.

 

George Stoney independently found the entire quintet (NGC 2288, 2289, 2290, 2291, 2294) on 19 Apr 1849 and the group was accurately sketched.  Dreyer credited LdR and d'Arrest (his single position is 10 sec of time too large) with the discovery in the GC supplement (GCS 5369) as he was probably unsure of the identities of H III-897 and III-898.  All positions in the GC and NGC are offset roughly 4' too far south and 8 tsec too far west.  In the NGC, Dreyer incorrectly assigned III-897 to NGC 2290 or NGC 2291.

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NGC 2291 = MCG +06-15-013 = CGCG 175-020 = WBL 126-004 = PGC 19719

06 50 58.6 +33 31 30

V = 13.2;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

18" (3/4/08): faint, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, weak concentration to a very small slightly brighter core.  Collinear with a mag 10 star 2.7' NNW and a mag 12 star 0.9' NNW.

 

18" (10/21/06): faint, small, round, 30" diameter, low surface brightness.  Located 2.8' SSE of a mag 10 star.  In a chain of 5 galaxies with NGC 2294 2.6' E and NGC 2289 3' SSW.

 

17.5" (12/19/87): very faint, small, slightly elongated, even surface brightness.  Fourth of five in a group.  On a line with NGC 2288 4.0' SSW and NGC 2289 3.0' SSW.  NGC 2294 lies 2.6' ENE.

 

George Johnstone Stoney discovered NGC 2291 on 22 Feb 1849 using Lord Rosse's 72", noting "5 neb. in one field [with NGC 2288, 2289, 2290 and 2294]. It was labeled Delta on the field sketch.  Dreyer assumed this nebula was JH's h409 (described as "eF; the northern of two, 3 or 4' apart") and possibly WH's III-897, but the Herschel designations more likely apply to NGC 2289. The positions of all 5 galaxies (computed by Dreyer and repeated in the GC and NGC) are offset 4' too far south and 8-9 sec of RA too far west.

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NGC 2292 = VV 178b = ESO 490-048 = MCG -04-16-022 = LGG 138-005 = PGC 19617

06 47 40 -26 44 48

V = 10.8;  Size 4.1'x3.6';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 1d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): very faint, very small, round, low even surface brightness.  Forms a close pair with NGC 2293 1' SE and a trio with NGC 2295 just 4' W.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2292 = h3063 on 2 Feb 1835 and described "a double nebula [with NGC 2293], the preceding eF; the following (whose place is here set down) pB; both R gbM; in a field full of stars, among which is also a third nebula."   His description clearly refers to the double system VV 178 = ESO 490-048/049, although he reversed the orientation and position with NGC 2295!  Herbert Howe was the first to note this error in 1898 and corrected the orientation and positions based on observations with the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver.

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NGC 2293 = VV 178a = ESO 490-049 = MCG -04-16-023 = LGG 138-002 = PGC 19619

06 47 43 -26 45 12

V = 11.2;  Size 4.2'x3.3';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 125d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): fairly faint, small, round, very bright core, stellar nucleus.  In a tight group with NGC 2292 1' WNW (double system in a common halo) and NGC 2295 4' W.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2293 = h3063 on 2 Feb 1835 and described "a double nebula [with NGC 2292], the preceding eF; the following (whose place is here set down) pB; both R gbM; in a field full of stars, among which is also a third nebula."   His description clearly refers to the double system VV 178 = ESO 490-048/049, although he reversed the orientation and position with NGC 2295!  JH listed a single entry for both galaxies, although Dreyer gave separate designations for NGC2292 and 2293.  Herbert Howe was the first to note this error in 1898 and corrected the orientation and positions based on observations with the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver.

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NGC 2294 = MCG +06-15-014 = CGCG 175-021 = WBL 126-005 = PGC 19729

06 51 11.3 +33 31 38

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 6d

 

18" (3/4/08): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 ~N-S, 0.6'x0.35', weak concentration.  Furthest NE in a group of 5 NGCs.  A wide double of mag 10.5-11 stars lies 2' SE.

 

18" (10/21/06): fairly faint, small, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, 0.6'x0.3', very weak concentration.  NGC 2291 lies  2.6' W and NGC 2288, NGC 2289 and NGC 2290 are all nearby to the SW.  A 40" pair of mag 10.5-11.5 stars lies 2' SE.

 

17.5" (12/19/87): fairly faint, small, oval ~N-S.  Follows four stars on a line.  Last of five in the NGC 2289/NGC 2290 group with NGC 2291 2.6' W.

 

13" (12/22/84): very faint, extremely small, almost round, no details.

 

George Johnstone Stoney discovered NGC 2294 on 22 Feb 1849, noting "5 neb. in one field [with NGC 2288, 2289, 2290 and 2291]. It was labeled Epsilon on the field sketch.  The positions of all 5 galaxies (computed by Dreyer and repeated in the GC and NGC) are offset 4' too far south and 9 tsec too far west.

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NGC 2295 = ESO 490-047 = MCG -04-16-021 = PGC 19607

06 47 23.5 -26 44 09

V = 12.7;  Size 2.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 46d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, even surface brightness.  Located between two mag 13 stars 30" SSW of center and 20" NNE or center.  A similar star is also 1.5' N.  First of three with the NGC 2292/2293 duo 4' E.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2295 = h3064 on 2 Feb 1835 and described as "eF; S; R; between stars.  A double nebula precedes."   His description clearly refers to ESO 490-047 = PGC 19607, although the "double nebula" (NGC 2292/2293 = h3063) follows and his positions are reversed!  Herbert Howe was the first to note this error in 1898 and correct the orientation and positions based on observations with the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver.

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NGC 2296 = IC 452 = MCG -03-18-003 = PGC 19643

06 48 39.1 -16 54 06

Size 1.9'x1.4';  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (1/19/91): moderately bright but very small, round, very small bright core.  Sirius is 50' WNW and creates a reflection in the field!  This object is probably a galactic diffuse nebula located within an absorption patch.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 2296 = Sw VI-28 on 11 Mar 1887 and recorded "vF; vS; R; in finder field with Dog star."  His position is 0.7 min of RA too far east and 1' south.  Bigourdan found this reflection nebula again on 9 Mar 1890 while searching for NGC 2296, measured an accurate position and Dreyer recatalogued Big. 147 as IC 452.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate RA for NGC 2296 in 1898 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes) using the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory.  So, NGC 2296 = IC 452.

 

MCG -03-18-003 misclassified this object as a galaxy, though V-V commented "this is almost a diffused nebulosity, but it is not in any catalogue", and it was later catalogued as PGC 19643. According to Wolfgang Steinicke, this was the last reflection nebula, by discovery date, to be included in the NGC.

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NGC 2297 = ESO 087-040 = PGC 19524

06 44 24.6 -63 43 03

V = 12.7;  Size 1.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

18" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 236x): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, 45"x30", contains a faint quasi-stellar nucleus.  A mag 9.7 star (SAO 249635) is 4.7' S.  NGC 2305 and 2307 pair lies 43' SE (over the border into Volans).

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2297 = h3066 on 31 Jan 1835 and called "vF, R, vglbM, 30"."  His position (single sweep) is accurate.

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NGC 2298 = ESO 366-SC22 = Mel 53

06 48 59.2 -36 00 19

V = 9.2;  Size 5';  Surf Br = 0.4

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): at 200x, this is a compact, fairly bright globular that is well-concentrated with a bright 1.5' core and a fainter halo of ~3' diameter.  Roughly two dozen stars are resolved (brightest cluster members are mag 13.4) including several across the core and a number of stragglers, which are easier to resolve in the outer halo.

 

17.5" (1/31/87): moderately large globular with no sharp core.  A dozen stars are resolved over the mottled disc.

 

8" (1/1/84): no resolution, fairly small, smooth.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 2298  = D 578 on 8 May 1826 and described "a pretty bright round nebula, 3' or 4' diameter, moderately condensed to the centre. This is resolvable into stars."   He made 6 observations and his published position is 6' W of center of the globular.

 

JH observed the globular (h3065) on four sweeps from the Cape of Good Hope, first recording it on 2 Feb 1835 as "B, R, gpmbM, 3', all resolved into stars 14th mag. In the centre is a star 13th mag."

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NGC 2299 = NGC 2302 = OCL-554 = Lund 264

06 51 54 -07 05 00

 

See observing notes for NGC 2302

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2299 = h412 on 19 Jan 1828 and described "A coarse cl, not v rich, 30 or 40 st, probably only an outlying portion of VIII 39 [NGC 2302]".  There is nothing at his position (about 7' W of mag 6.6 HD 50138), though it is marked as uncertain. Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 photographic survey "Die Herschel-Neblel", comments "many st, but nothing like a cluster."

 

Harold Corwin notes that JH's positional offset from NGC 2302 (discovered earlier by WH) is "nearly the same as NGC 2338 (which see), found in the same sweep on 19 January 1828."  So, he concludes NGC 2299 = NGC 2302, despite that JH apparently thought he was observing a different cluster.

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NGC 2300 = Arp 114 = UGC 3798 = MCG +14-04-031 = CGCG 362-043 = CGCG 363-029 = LGG 145-003 = PGC 21231

07 32 20.0 +85 42 32

V = 11.1;  Size 2.8'x2.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 80d

 

18" (8/2/11): bright, moderately large, slightly elongated, ~1.5'x1.3' diameter.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright core that increases steadily to the center.  The halo fades out and increases with averted vision.  Forms a striking pair with NGC 2276 just 6' NW.  Brightest in a group of galaxies near +85¡ declination.

 

18" (3/13/04): fairly bright, fairly small, irregularly round, 1.2' diameter.  Well concentrated with a bright 25" core and a much fainter irregular halo. Forms a trio with NGC 2276 6' W and IC 455 11' SSE.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): fairly bright, bright core, small fainter halo.  Forms a pair with NGC 2276 7' W.  IC 455 is 11' SSE.

 

8" (1/1/84): moderately bright, small, bright core, slightly elongated.

 

Alphonse Borrelly discovered NGC 2300 in 1871 or 1872 with a 7.2-inch comet-seeker at the Marseille Observatory.  He noted "Nebula pretty bright, moderately extended, round; nucleus of 12-13 magnitude." and his micrometric position (MNRAS, 32, 248) is accurate.  August Winnecke independently found the galaxy on 26 Jun 1876 as well as Wilhelm Tempel (list V-21) in 1877.   This galaxy is the 4th closest to the pole in the NGC or IC.

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NGC 2301 = Cr 119 = Mel 54 = OCL-540

06 51 45 +00 27 36

V = 6.0;  Size 12'

 

17.5" (2/28/87): ~60-70 stars in cluster.  A bright blue/yellow double star (h740 = 8.6/9.3 at 21") is near the center.  Many of the stars are arranged in two strings oriented SW-NE which pass through the center.

 

13.1" (1/1/84): striking, ~60 stars in cluster, dozens more nearby.  A very elongated string passes through the center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2301 = H VI-27 = h413 on 27 Dec 1786 (sweep 668) and described "a very beautiful cluster of much compressed small and large stars of many sizes, above 20' diameter."  His position is accurate.  JH noted a "double star in the chief group of a prety rich coarse cl, not very compressed.  Broken into 3 groups.  The sp group is the richest."

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NGC 2302 = NGC 2299?? = OCL-554 = Lund 264

06 51 54 -07 05 00

V = 8.9;  Size 3'

 

17.5" (2/1/03): at 140x, this a fairly small group (~4' diameter) of roughly two dozen stars embedded in a large, scattered field of stars.  On the west side is a nice quadruple including three mag 10 stars.  On the east side is a double and a triple star forming a "V" asterism.  Located 7' SE of mag 6.6 SAO 133781.  This bright star has perhaps a dozen fainter stars within 3' but this subgroup does not look to be a plausible candidate for NGC 2299 which is more likely a duplicate of NGC 2302.

 

17.5": 20 stars resolved at 140X, in fairly small group.  Not rich but includes some close doubles.  The three brightest mag 10 stars form a shallow arc on the west side with fourth fainter star nearby.  On the east side is a V-shaped group of six stars with the vertex at the east side.  The central portion includes a few scattered stars with a line of three stars on the south side.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2302 = H VIII-39 = h414 on 4 Mar 1785 (sweep 377) and recorded "a cluster of scattered large stars, of various sizes, not very rich; but taking up above 20 minutes."  His position is ~20 seconds of RA too large, though his description includes the surrounding field.  JH measured an accurate position (measured on 3 sweeps).  NGC 2299 = NGC 2302 is a duplicate observation (see notes).

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NGC 2303 = UGC 3603 = MCG +08-13-031 = CGCG 234-030 = PGC 19891

06 56 17.5 +45 29 34

V = 12.6;  Size 1.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (2/8/91): fairly faint, very small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 2303 = Sw VI-29 on 24 Nov 1886 with a 16" refractor at Warner Observatory. His position is 11 tsec west and 23" north of UGC 3603 = PGC 19891.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 9 Jan 1891 (repeated in the IC 2 notes).  UGC does not label the galaxy as NGC 2302 and MCG gives an uncertain NGC identification.

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NGC 2304 = Cr 120 = Mel 55 = OCL-484

06 55 12 +17 59 18

Size 5'

 

13.1" (12/22/84): ~20 faint stars, unresolved haze, rich, elongated WSW-ENE in a thin wedge.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2304 = H VI-2 = h415 on 30 Dec 1783 (early sweep 68) and recorded "a cluster of extremely small stars, very much compressed, 5 or 6' diameter.  The stars of the cluster are of unequal sizes but chiefly of two sorts, vS and eS.  I viewed them with a power of 500 and found them very numerous and compressed.  The cluster is of an irregular oval or almost round form."  Auwer's reduction is 40 sec of RA east of the cluster.  JH measured an accurate position on sweep 313 and noted a "pretty rich cl; acutangular, the acute angle precedes; the p side is bounded by a remarkably definite line..."

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NGC 2305 = ESO 087-044 = PGC 19641

06 48 37.8 -64 16 24

V = 11.7;  Size 2.0'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 140d

 

18" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 236x): moderately to fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 50"x40", sharply concentrated with a very bright small core.  Bracketed by two close stars; a mag 12.5 star is 35" S of center and a mag 11.6 star is less than 30" E of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 2307 4' SSE.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2305 = h3067, along with NGC 2307 = h3068, on 30 Nov 1834 and recorded, "F; vS; R; makes a small triangle with 2 stars."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2306

06 54 30 -07 12 18

Size 20'x10'

 

18" (1/26/09): at 175x, ~75 stars are resolved in an 18'x10' Milky Way group or cloud that streams WSW to ENE.  The richest portion is on the west side just south of mag 8.6 HD 50734 (not part of the group).  This subgroup includes a fairly close double star and a very small clump that resolves into at least 4 tightly packed stars.  Appears to be an unimpressive Milky Way field, though the cloud is somewhat detached so is distinguishable.

 

WH (VIII 51) noted this object as "a cluster of very scattered stars"  and JH, who observed it three times (h416) described as an outlying portion of VIII 39 = NGC 2302 and "has no title to be called a cluster."

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2306 = H VIII-51 = h416 on 23 Feb 1786 (sweep 528) and noted "a very much scattered cluster." JH made 3 observation and described an outlying portion of NGC 2302 = H VIII-39 that "has no title to be called a cluster." Karl Reimuth also comments "many st, but nothing like a cluster.", based on its photographic appearance.  RNGC classifies the number nonexistent (Type 7).  See Corwin'sidentification notes.

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NGC 2307 = ESO 087-045 = PGC 19648

06 48 50.8 -64 20 07

V = 12.0;  Size 1.7'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 142d

 

18" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 236x): slightly larger and fainter of a pair with NGC 2305 4' NNW.  Appeared moderately bright and large, roundish, contains a bright elongated core or "bar" oriented NW-SE [~40" in length] with a diffuse halo ~1.3' diameter.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2307 = h3068 (along with NGC 2305 = h3067) on 30 Nov 1834 and noted "vF; pL; lE; in the parallel."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 2308 = UGC 3618 = MCG +08-13-037 = CGCG 234-037 = PGC 19949

06 58 37.6 +45 12 38

V = 13.2;  Size 1.8'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 2:1 N-S.  Overpowered by 16 Lyncis (V = 4.9) located 9' SW in the field.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 2308 = St VI-5 on 13 Jan 1872 with the 31" silvered-glass reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches UGC 3618 = PGC 19949.

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NGC 2309 = Cr 122 = Mel 56 = OCL-557

06 56 04 -07 10 30

Size 3'

 

17.5" (1/1/92): three dozen stars mag 11-15, fairly rich, compact, 4' diameter.  Most stars are located within two streams.  The brighter stars in the southern stream are oriented E-W.  A fainter star lane to north is oriented NW-SE.  At the NW end it hooks NE to mag 9 SAO 133914 about 4' N of the cluster's center.  Includes several close pairs with two pairs near the center and a double star 11/14 at 7" separation at the west end.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2309 = H VI-18 = h417 on 4 Mar 1785 (sweep 377) and logged "a cluster of considerably compressed small stars, pretty rich, 8 or 9' diameter, irr figure.  With a smaller aperture it would probably appear nebulous."  JH called it "a cluster, not v rich; 4' diam' irreg fig' st 12...13m."  He observed it on 3 sweeps.

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NGC 2310 = ESO 309-007 = MCG -07-15-001 = PGC 19811

06 53 54.0 -40 51 45

V = 11.8;  Size 4.4'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 47d

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): at 166x appears as a fairly faint, very thin edge-on splinter oriented SW-NE, 1.0'x0.15'.  Contains a stellar nuclues.  Situated in a fairly rich Puppis starfield.  This edge-on galaxy has a "box-peanut" central bulge (similar to NGC 128), which is probably a thick bar viewed edge-on.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2310 = h3069 on 2 Jan 1835 and described "pB; vmE; pos 46.6¡; psbM; 90" l; 10" br; in a field very full of small stars.  His position and description is accurate.

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NGC 2311 = Cr 123 = OCL-553 = Lund 276

06 57 48 -04 36 42

Size 7'

 

18" (3/4/08): at 225x, ~40 stars are resolved in a fairly rich 5'x3' group, elongated NW-SE.  The cluster includes a few pairs with a nice equal mag pair on the south side.  A weak stream of stars trails off to the east from the SE end of the cluster towards a mag 9.8/10.4/13 triple at 3" and 9" (ADS 5636).

 

17.5" (1/1/92): three dozen stars mag 11-15 in 5'x2' region elongated ~N-S.  Fairly rich though no dense spots.  Most stars form a thin isosceles triangle with the vertex star mag 13 at the north end, although the brightest star is a wide double 2' ESE of the vertex.  From the base of the triangle a stream heads SE and then east from the cluster mixing with some brighter field stars.  The cluster includes a few close faint double stars.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2311 = H VIII-60 = h418 on 26 Nov 1786 (sweep 639) and described "a cluster of pL scattered stars, not very rich.  The place taken is the most compressed part, but not the middle.  May be a projecting point of the milky way."  His position is is just northeast of center of this cluster.

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NGC 2312

06 58 48 +10 17 42

 

17.5" (2/1/03): stands out reasonably well in the field at 140x with ~16 stars, highlighted by a mag 10 star at the south end.  The group is ~4'x1.5' in size, elongated N-S and includes a close, faint double on the NE end, which was noticed at 220x.  Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2312 = h419 on 30 Nov 1834 and recorded a "A poor cluster.  The largest *10 taken."  His position corresponds with a mag 10 star at 06 58 50.0 +10 15 38 (J2000) with a scattering of mag 12 stars to the north . Karl Reimuth called this group a "loose clustering of pF st.", based on Heidelberg plates. The RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent (Type 7).

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NGC 2313 = Parsamyan 17 = PP 18 = V565 Mon

06 58 02.8 -07 56 42

Size 1.6'

 

18" (2/3/05): at 225x this reflection nebula appears as a very faint, very small, low surface brightness glow surrounding a mag 14 illuminating star, ~15"-20" diameter.  Situated within a rich Milky Way field which has a mottled appearance at low power.  Located 20' NE of mag 6.3 HD 51424. Incorrectly listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 2313 on 4 Jan 1862.  His position (measured on 3 nights) matches this small reflection nebula.  He also measured a mag 15 star that follows by 6 seconds of time and a mag 11 star that follows by 14 seconds.  Dreyer, observing with the 72" on 15 Feb 1877, recorded "pF, pS, iR, fades away nf, 2 F st f about 1'."  The RNGC misclassifies this object as nonexistent and it is not plotted on the Uranometria 2000.0 Atlas.

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NGC 2314 = UGC 3677 = MCG +13-06-003 = CGCG 348-032 = PGC 20305

07 10 32.6 +75 19 37

V = 12.2;  Size 1.7'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (8/27/87): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, bright core, stellar nucleus.  IC 2174 ("fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, weak concentration") lies 5.8' WNW

 

17.5" (2/27/87): moderately bright, fairly small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  25' to the west is a nice double ·973 = 7.1/8.1 at 12".  Forms a pair with IC 2174 6' WNW.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 2314 = T IX-5 on 1 Aug 1883 with the 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory.  His description says "follows close on the same parallel against the mag 7 star DM +75 ¡ 281, the latter is a double star".  Although his rough RA is good (nearest min), the galaxy lies 6' N of the double star.

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NGC 2315 = UGC 3633 = MCG +08-13-045 = CGCG 234-041 = PGC 20045

07 02 33.0 +50 35 27

V = 13.6;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 116d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): faint, small, edge-on WNW-ESE, bright core.  Located 4' S of mag 8.4 SAO 26113.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2315 = h420 on 16 Feb 1831 and simply noted "eF; doubtful."  His RA was roughly 10 tsec too large.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 15 Nov 1885 (repeated in the IC2 Notes).

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NGC 2316 = Parsamyan 18 = PP 68

06 59 40.8 -07 46 40

Size 4'x3'

 

13.1" (2/25/84): moderately bright nebulosity, small, possibly surrounds two stars.  Located just 1' S is an obtuse triangle of mag 12 stars.  Enhanced with a Deep Sky filter.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2316 = H II-304 = h421 on 4 Mar 1785 (sweep 377) and noted "3 or 4 stars, containing vF nebulosity.  240 would not resolve it; but showed the same nebulosity."  Bindon Stoney observed it on 20 Feb 1851 using Lord Rosse's 72" and called it a "S close D neb, below 3 st, 2 stellar points (or nuclei)."  The 3 stars are just south.  The second nuclei received the designations GC 1478 = NGC 2317. Heinrich d'Arrest measured an accurate position (#76 in AN 1500).

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NGC 2317

06 59 41.5 -07 46 29

 

13.1" (2/25/84): part of NGC 2316.  See NGC 2316 for description.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 2317 on Feb 20 1851 using Lord Rosse's 72" and recorded NGC 2316 = H II-304 as a  "S close D neb, below 3 st, 2 stellar points (or nuclei)."  The nebula was sketched on Nov 23 1851 and included in LdR's 1861 publication. The RA is is only roughly given in the GC and the NGC (nearest min of RA).  The RNGC misclassifies this number as nonexistent although NGC 2317 is part of NGC 2316.

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NGC 2318

06 59 27 -13 41 54

 

17.5" (2/1/03): this is just a weak enhancement of mag 11-13 stars in a Milky Way field, perhaps only noticed by Herschel because of the mag 8.2 SAO 152208 on the NW side (which he used as a position).  Seems roughly 10' in size and circular, although there are no real borders.  Does not stand out in the field, even at 64x with a 31 Nagler, although the background Milky Way glow does seem a bit enhanced over the surrounding field.  Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2318 = H VII-14 = h422 = h3070 on 8 Feb 1785 (sweep 370) and logged "a cluster of stars above 20' in dia, the stars much scattered."  JH observed the group both at Slough, England and at the Cape of Good Hope.  At the Cape he described "A large region full of scattered stars forming a cluster of which the chief (=8 m) taken.  It seems, however to be only a clustering part of the milky way which here comes on rather suddenly."  His position corresponds with mag 8.6 SAO 152208 at 06 59 28.4 -13 41 49 (J2000).  RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent (Type 7).

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NGC 2319

07 00 32 +03 02 48

 

17.5" (2/1/03): very nice 15' string of a couple dozen stars heading west of a mag 8.9 SAO 114784 on the east end, which is a close unequal double.  The tail of stars is slightly concave to the south and is marked by a mag 10.5 star at the west end.  Although the star chain is quite noticeable, it could well be an asterism as there are other similar strings of stars in the same or adjacent fields.  Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

William Herschel possibly discovered NGC 2319 on 18 Dec 1783 (early sweep 48) and noted "a cluster of vS stars not very rich."  He states this cluster follows 18 Mon by 11 minutes, but only gave a rough polar distance (75' range).  It was assigned the internal discovery #12, but not an H-designation.

 

JH rediscovered NGC 2319 = h423 in March 1830 (unknown if he was searching for his father's #12) and recorded a "Linear cluster of stars 11..13m forming a bent line nearly 15' long, terminating on the following side by a *8 whose place is that here taken."  His position corresponds with mag 8.8 SAO 114784 at 07 01 06.5 +03 03 11.  The "bent line" of stars preceding is oriented WNW-ESE and is fairly striking.  JH equated h423 with his father's #12, but identified it as VIII-1 (the previous class VIII object discovered by his father).  In the GC, he referred to it as VIII-1B.  In the 1912 revision of WH's catalogues, Dreyer gives the details of the sweep.  Steinicke equates VIII-1B = h423, though this identification is likely uncertain. The RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent (probably an asterism).

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NGC 2320 = UGC 3659 = MCG +08-13-051 = CGCG 234-047 = PGC 20136

07 05 42.0 +50 34 51

V = 11.9;  Size 1.4'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): fairly faint, small, spindle NW-SE, weak concentration.  Located 1.7' WSW of mag 9.0 SAO 26147.  Brightest of three with NGC 2322 5' SE and NGC 2321 11' NNE.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2320 = H II-861 = h424, along with NGC 2322, on 28 Dec 1790 (sweep 990) and noted "pB, pL, irr figure, gbM."  His position is 3 - 4' northwest of UGC 3659 (same offset as NGC 2322).  JH described this galaxy as "pB; R; pgbM; 15"; np a * 8m whose place is that here taken."  The star is 1.6' NE of the galaxy.

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NGC 2321 = UGC 3663 = MCG +08-13-053 = CGCG 234-051 = PGC 20141

07 05 59.0 +50 45 22

V = 13.6;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): very faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, low even surface brightness.  NGC 2320 lies 11' SSW.

 

George Johnstone Stoney discovered NGC 2321 on 18 Dec 1849 using LdR's 72" and labeled Beta in the sketch of the field (includes NGC 2320, 2322 and 2326).  Although this was an early discovery, it was not included in the 1861 publication so did not receive a GC designation. Dreyer added it in the GC Supplement (GCS 6248).  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 15 Nov 1885 (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 2322 = UGC 3662 = MCG +08-13-054 = CGCG 234-050 = PGC 20142

07 06 00.3 +50 30 37

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 136d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): faint, small, elongated NW-SE, even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with NGC 2320 5' NW.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2322 = H III-874, along with NGC 2320 = H II-861, on 28 Dec 1790 (sweep 990) and noted "vF, vS, lE."  His position (Auwer's reduction) is 2.5' too far northwest, the same offset as NGC 2320.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 15 Nov 1885 (repeated in the IC2 Notes).

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NGC 2323 = M50 = Cr 124

07 02 48 -08 22 36

V = 5.9;  Size 16'

 

18" (3/15/10): very bright, fairly scattered cluster, though contains a richer subgroup.  About 125-150 stars were resolved at 175x in the central 10'-12'.  The cluster has roughly a triangular or wedge-shaped outline, highlighted by an 8' string of stars oriented ~E-W on the north side (including mag 9.0 HD 52965) and a longer 10' string oriented NW-SE on the SW side that includes the brightest cluster star - distinctly orange mag 7.8 HD 52938 near the SE end of the string.  Along this string are also four easy pairs of stars.  There is a rich circular group of stars, ~5' diameter, a little north of center.  On the east side of the cluster is an unequal double, h748 = 8.5/11 at 15".  A faint, unequal pair of stars, BRT 392 = 11.5/11.6 at 4", is due west of the unequal pair by 3.5' at the edge of the rich group of stars.  A number of stragglers extend out the cluster increasing the size significantly and a scattered group with some brighter stars including mag 9.0 HD 52720 appears detached to the NW.

 

13.1" (3/24/84): ~75 stars including some brighter stars at the south and northeast borders.  There are a few dense spots and many stragglers.  An orange/red mag 8 star is at the south edge and a nice 16" pair of mag 9/11 stars (h748) is 1' NW.  There is an elongated 4'x3' region that is devoid of stars just north of the colored mag 8 star.  Located 42' E of mag 6.0 HD 52312.

 

Giovanni Domenico Cassini possibly discovered M50 = NGC 2323 = h425 around 1711.  Charles Messier independently discovered the cluster on 5 Apr 1772.  WH described the cluster (unpublished) on 4 Mar 1785 (sweep 377) as "a very brilliant cluster of large stars, considerably compressed and rich, above 20' in diameter, the stars of various sizes, visible in the finder."

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NGC 2324 = Cr 125 = Mel 59 = OCL-542

07 04 08 +01 02 42

V = 8.4;  Size 8'

 

17.5" (3/20/93: 65 stars mag 10-14 in very irregular 8' diameter.  Includes two mag 10 stars at the NE corner and NW side.  Includes several mag 12 stars but rich in mag 13-14 stars.  Somewhat uneven distribution of very faint stars due to a couple of 2' diameter dark voids; one near the center.  The cluster includes several very close, faint double stars.

 

8": rich in faint stars 12-13, includes two mag 9 stars.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2324 = H VII-38 = h427 on 27 Dec 1786 (sweep 668) and noted "a beautiful cluster of small stars of several sizes, considerably compressed and rich in the middle, 10 or 12' diameter."  JH observed the cluster on 3 sweeps, first logging it as a "rich L cl; fills field; st 14...16m; not comp towards a centre."

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NGC 2325 = ESO 427-028 = MCG -05-17-005 = PGC 20047

07 02 40.3 -28 41 50

V = 11.4;  Size 3.3'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 6d

 

13.1" (3/3/84): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated N-S.  A mag 12 star is off the SE edge 1.6' from center.  Located in a rich star field.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2325 = h3071 on 1 Feb 1837 and recorded "pB; pL; lE; gbM; r; 2' long."  His position (single sweep) matches ESO 427-028 = PGC 20047.

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NGC 2326 = UGC 3681 = MCG +08-13-062 = CGCG 234-060 = PGC 20218

07 08 11.0 +50 40 55

V = 13.1;  Size 1.9'x1.8';  Surf Br = 14.3

 

17.5" (1/20/90): faint, fairly small, irregularly round, bright core.  Four mag 12-12.5 stars in a group lie 3' W.  Forms a pair with NGC 2326A 5' SE.  Poor position given in the RNGC.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2326 = H II-734 = h426 on 9 Mar 1788 (sweep 815) and recorded "F, pL, iF, mbM, S.f. a triangle of small stars."  His position is 2' north of UGC 3681 = PGC 20218 and the description applies.  JH called it "eF; R; pslbM; has a small group of stars immediately preceding like the letter Y."

 

The RNGC has a poor position 0.3 tmin of RA too far east and 3' north.  NGC 2326A, located just 4.8' SE, is correctly placed in RNGC. Listed in RNGC Corrections #5.

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NGC 2327 = Ced 89b = PP 72

07 04 07.2 -11 18 51

 

18" (2/23/06): moderately bright, 1' reflection nebula surrounding a mag 9.5 star with a mag 12 companion at 7".  Viewed unfiltered at 225x.

 

17.5" (3/8/02): small but high surface brightness reflection nebula surrounding an unequal pair of mag 9.5/12.5 stars at 7" separation.  At 280x, the nebulosity is round and approximately 50" in size although it fades smoothly into the background and may be a bit larger.  This small knot of nebulosity is at the western end of a striking arc of 6 stars which trail off to the NE.  The next star in the arc, 1.5' E, also seems to be encased in a very small halo.  A similar mag 9.5 comparison star (with no halo) lies 4' ESE and several other mag 9.5-10.5 stars are scattered across the field.  The background sky in this vicinity is weakly luminous, as NGC 2327 is situated midway along the western side of IC 2177, a huge IC strip of nebulosity straddling Canis Major and Monoceros.  This object did not respond to OIII, UHC or H-beta filters so appears to be predominantly a reflection nebula.

 

This bright nebula was discovered by William Herschel (IV 25) in 1785 and reobserved by his son, John.  Although their positions and descriptions match this object  there is a great deal of confusion in the literature as to its identification and position and some sources misidentify NGC 2327 with the much larger Sh 2-292 = Gum 1 located 50' to the north (also associated with IC 2177).

 

13" (12/22/84): fairly faint reflection nebula, fairly small, surrounds a mag 8 star (close unequal double).  Located along the faint, extremely large, curving strip of nebulosity = IC 2177.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2327 = H IV-25 = h428 on 31 Jan 1785 (sweep 363) and described "A pretty considerable star with vF and vS milky chevelure of an irregular chevelure, other stars of the same size are perfectly free from that appearance."  JH reported "a double star whose large star is in the center of a very faint nebula which involves the small star also."  His position of 07 04 07.6 -11 19.0 pins down the identification as a compact HII/Reflection nebula on the west side of the Seagull Nebula. In 1886, Engelhardt also published an accurate micrometric position of  07 04 07.77 -11 18 56.6 (J2000).  Herbert Howe noted the central star is double with separation 7".

 

Despite JH's accurate position and description, there has been a great deal of confusion in the literature as to the identification and position.

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NGC 2328 = ESO 309-016 = MCG -07-15-002 = PGC 20046

07 02 36.1 -42 04 06

V = 12.8;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 115d

 

18" (2/19/09): at 175x appeared very faint, small, round, 20" diameter (probably viewed brighter core region only).  Steadily visible with direct vision though viewed at a very low elevation, so the surface brightness of the core is moderately high.  Starhopped from mag 5.2 HD 53704 located 23' SE.  Steadily visible with direct vision though viewed at a very low elevation, so the surface brightness of the core is moderately high.  Located in a fairly rich star field.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2328 = h3072 on 1 Jan 1835 and recorded "F; vS; R; pslbM; 15"; like a blotted star; in field with many small stars."  His position (measured on two sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 2329 = UGC 3695 = MCG +08-13-073 = CGCG 234-070 = PGC 20254

07 09 08.0 +48 36 55

V = 12.5;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 175d

 

18" (1/13/07): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 0.8'x0.5', small bright core.  Brightest in the core of AGC 569 including UGC 3696, MCG +08-13-072 and +08-13-082.

 

18" (11/18/06): moderately bright, moderately large, oval 4:3 N-S, 1.2'x0.9', contains a large, brighter core.  This galaxy and UGC 3696, located 2.8' NE, are the brightest member of AGC 569.  I observed 7 members of the cluster at 280x.

 

17.5" (1/19/91): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, bright core.  A mag 15 star is 0.7' W of center.  Three mag 14 stars lie 1.7' W, 1.3' NE and 2.0' NE.  Forms a pair with UGC 3696 3' ENE.  Brightest member of AGC 569.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2329 = H II-735 = h429 on 9 Mar 1788 (sweep 815) and called "F, stellar." His position is 3' east of UGC 3695, the brightest galaxy in AGC 569.  He observed the field again on 28 Dec 1790 (sweep 990) and picked up two galaxies -- NGC 2329 and UGC 3696, oriented southwest-northeast (12 sec of time and 2' north).  CH assumed the southwest object was new and assigned it III-875.  She thought the northeast object was II-735, so it didn't receive a new designation.  JH only observed a single galaxy and in the GC equated II-735 = III-875 and Dreyer assigned both designations to NGC 2329.  Since WH clearly observed both galaxies on 28 Dec 1790, Wolfgang Steinicke concludes III-875 should refer to UGC 3696, a galaxy that should have received a NGC designation.

 

Although usually classified as a Lenticular Galaxy, recent studies have concluded NGC 2329 is a 'cluster dominant' Elliptical Galaxy (cD). It is an x-ray source with a radio jet streaming from its core, like many other cD's. In addition that is also a 'radio tail' extending from this galaxy.

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NGC 2330 = IC 457? = MCG +08-13-078 = CGCG 234-074 = WBL 133-001 = PGC 20272

07 09 28.4 +50 09 08

V = 14.7;  Size 0.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.2

 

17.5" (1/20/90): extremely faint and small, round.  A mag 15 star is 1' NE.  Located 2' SW of NGC 2332.  This galaxy is identified as IC 457 in the CGCG and UGC.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 2330 on 2 Jan 1851as the observing assistant on Lord Rosse's 72".  He noted a small nebula, labeled "b" on the published diagram, and placed it SSW of NGC 2332 (the direction of drift is reversed on the sketch).  At this position is CGCG 234-074 = PGC 20272.  This galaxy was also labeled Delta on the final constructed sketch.

 

Although 9 nebulae were found at Birr Castle over 3 nights, the 1861 publication only included the comment "several knots around" NGC 2332.  JH added just one new entry in the GC (1492), which Dreyer assigned to either NGC 2330 and NGC 2334 (with question marks).

 

Since absolute positions were not computed at Birr Castle, Dreyer relied on Bigourdan's erroneous position (he measured a faint star) for NGC 2330.  As a result NGC 2330 was misplaced 2.4' north of NGC 2332 instead of south-southwest (as on the 1851 sketch).  In 1893, Hermann Kobold measured an accurate position and Dreyer catalogued it as IC 457.  Assuming this is the nebula Dreyer had in mind as NGC 2330 (Malcolm Thomson disagrees), then NGC 2330 = IC 457 = CGCG 234-074.  Ironically, Bigourdan measured accurate positions for the other Rosse nebulae in 1885, but these were not published until 1919, so Kobold (and LdR) were given credit for these in the IC.

 

The RNGC reverses the identifications of NGC 2330 and NGC 2332, making NGC 2330 the brighter northern member of the pair and incorrectly describes NGC 2332 as "almstel" (same error in MCG).  UGC and CGCG label NGC 2330 as IC 457.  See RNGC Corrections #5 and Corwin's notes for much more on this complicated story!

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NGC 2331 = Cr 126 = OCL-475 = Lund 295

07 07 00 +27 15 42

Size 18'

 

17.5" (1/20/90): at 82x, very large scattered group of about 40 stars mag 10-14, 15' diameter.  There is a small circle of 6 stars at the east end. The classification of this group as a true cluster is doubtful.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2331 = H VIII-40 = h432 on 11 Mar 1785 (sweep 384) and recorded "some clustering, large scattered stars; many of an equal size."  JH noted this as "a small cluster of 10 or a doze st 11...13m in an ellipse."

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NGC 2332 = (R)NGC 2330 = UGC 3699 = MCG +08-13-079 = CGCG 234-075 = WBL 133-002 = PGC 20276

07 09 34.2 +50 10 56

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 60d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 15 star is 1' SW.  Forms a pair with NGC 2330 = IC 457 2' SW.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2332 = h430 on 8 Mar 1831 and recorded "F; S; R psbM; 12"."  His position matches UGC 3699 = PGC 20276.  JH and Dreyer equated this number with H II-862, found on 28 Dec 1790 and noted as "F, pL."  In the 1912 republication of WH's catalogues, Dreyer added the note "Identification difficult, as it is one of a group. In Sweep 990, 57 Aurigae is the only comparison star and the neb. is 2 seconds preceding, 2' north of II.736.  Auwers gives for 1860 7h 0m 8s, 39¡ 37' (NPD).  It is probably one of Kobold's nebulae in the I.C."  Auwers' reduced position is 3' SW of NGC 2340 and Harold Corwin suggests that both H II-862 and H II-736 apply to NGC 2340.  Nearby NGC 2332 was discovered at Birr Castle in 1851.

 

The identications of NGC 2330 and NGC 2332 are reversed in the RNGC and MCG.

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NGC 2333 = UGC 3689 = MCG +06-16-020 = CGCG 176-018 = PGC 20223

07 08 21.3 +35 10 12

V = 13.3;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): faint, very small, sharp stellar nucleus surrounded by faint oval halo 3:2 ~N-S.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2333 = H III-899 = h431 on 4 Feb 1793 (sweep 1031) and noted "vF, S, nearly R, bM."

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NGC 2334 = IC 465 = MCG +08-13-098 = CGCG 234-095 = WBL 133-012 = PGC 20357

07 11 33.6 +50 14 53

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 70d

 

18" (12/18/06): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.5'x0.4', gradually increases to a very small, brighter core.  Furthest NE in a group of 7 galaxies in the field and 5.8' NE of the brightest member, NGC 2340.  This galaxy is generally identified as IC 465 as the NGC identification is questionable.

 

17.5" (1/20/90): faint, small, round, bright core.  Last of four galaxies in a 20' field and located 5.8' NE of NGC 2340.  Identification as NGC 2334 is uncertain.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 2334 on 2 Jan 1851 as the observing assistant on LdR's 72".  He noted a small nebula (unlabeled on a sketch of h433 = NGC 2340), which was noted as 6' south-following NGC 2340.  Unfortunately the direction of drift was confused as CGCG 234-095 = PGC 20357 is 6' north-following NGC 2340.  This galaxy was also labeled Theta on the final constructed sketch.

 

Although 9 nebulae were found at Birr Castle on 3 nights, the 1861 publication only included the comment "several knots around" NGC 2332.  JH added just one new entry in the GC (GC 1492), which Dreyer assigned to either NGC 2330 and NGC 2334 (with question marks) and the additional Rosse nebulae were not included in the NGC.

 

Since absolute positions weren't computed at Birr Castle, Dreyer relied on Bigourdan's erroneous position for NGC 2334 (he measured a faint star 3' ENE of NGC 2332).  In 1893, Hermann Kobold measured an accurate position for Stoney's nebula and Dreyer recatalogued it as IC 465.  So, NGC 2334 = IC 465.  Ironically, Bigourdan measured accurate positions for the other Rosse nebulae in 1885, but these were not published until 1919, so Kobold (and LdR) were given credit in the IC.  Karl Reinmuth couldn't find NGC 2334 (at Bigourdan's position) and noted "in Dreyer's place not found, = IC 464?"

 

The question remains if IC 465 is the galaxy Dreyer meant as NGC 2334.  Dreyer credits both Rosse and Kobold in the IC, so this seems probable, although Malcolm Thomson disagrees.  MCG, CGCG, PGC, SIMBAD all label this galaxy as IC 465 and not NGC 2334.  NED and HyperLeda give the equivalence. See Corwin's identification notes for more on this complicated situation.

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NGC 2335 = Cr 127 = Mel 60 = OCL-562

07 06 49 -10 01 42

V = 7.2;  Size 12'

 

18" (2/23/06): at 225x, ~75 stars are resolved in a 10'x5' region elongated N-S.  The cluster is broken up by a circular void on the south side that extends to the west in a dark (dust) lane.  Also an elongated rectangular-shaped void of stars is on the north side of the cluster.  The brightest cluster star is on the northeast side and is part of a "keystone" asterism that mimics the shape of the main body of Hercules.  A mag 7 star lies 10' ENE outside the borders of the cluster.  The Milky Way background is very patchy in this vicinity and appears significantly affected by dust in the region and possible nebulosity. This affect is best seen at 115x (20 Nagler).  Located just north of IC 2177 = Seagull Nebul, an extremely long N-S string of nebulosity.

 

17.5" (3/20/93): 50-60 stars mag 10.5-14 in a 10' diameter.  Mag 6.9 SAO 134220 is 10' NE of the core.  In the center is a 1' parallelogram formed by four mag 10.5-12 stars with parallel sides oriented E-W and NW-SE.  There are no dense areas (overall has a fairly scattered appearance) although the cluster includes several subgroups.  A wide mag 12 double is on the north side.  Located at the north tip of the huge emission nebula IC 2177.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2335 = H VIII-32 on 10 Jan 1785 (sweep 356) and reported "a cluster of coarsely scattered stars of many sizes, pretty rich, more than 15' diameter."  His position is on the west side of this open cluster.

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NGC 2336 = UGC 3809 = MCG +13-06-006 = CGCG 348-034 = CGCG 349-004 = PGC 21033

07 27 03.8 +80 10 43

V = 10.4;  Size 7.1'x3.9';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 178d

 

17.5" (8/27/87): fairly bright, fairly large, bright core, faint halo elongated N-S.  A mag 15 star is superimposed just east of the core.  Located 3.6' SSE of a mag 10 star.  IC 467 lies 20' SSE.  A mag 14.7 supernova discovered in 1987 by Dana Patchick was observed (1987L).

 

17.5" (2/22/87): fairly bright, small bright core surrounded by a large, diffuse halo elongated 2:1 N-S.  Located 26' S of a mag 7.3 star.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 2336 = T I-22 in 1876 with the 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory and described a "beautiful II class nebula, R, lbM, 2' diameter, forms a triangle with two mag 10-11 stars."  Tempel's very rough position (only the hour of RA is given!) is off by 2.5 tmin of RA (west) and 3' dec (north) and the two stars in the description are just north.

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NGC 2337 = UGC 3711 = MCG +07-15-010 = CGCG 205-023 = PGC 20298

07 10 13.6 +44 27 26

V = 12.5;  Size 2.2'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 120d

 

17.5" (1/19/91): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WNW-ENE, even surface brightness.  Bracketed by a mag 14 star 1.1' SW and a mag 13.5 star 1.3' ENE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 2337 = St VIIIb-19 on 17 Jan 1877 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches UGC 3711 = PGC 20298.

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NGC 2338

07 07 47 -05 43 12

 

17.5" (2/3/03): roughly 3 dozen stars in an elongated N-S group, ~8'x3'.  Includes a few mag 11 stars, with the rest of stars mag 12-14.  Just stands out at 100x as a weak field enhancement and detached enough in the field that a definite border can be traced out.  Still this is probably just an unrelated group of stars and NGC 2338 is listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2338 = h435 on 19 Jan 1828 and noted a "Very loose and straggling cluster."  There is nothing noticeable at JH's (uncertain) position.  In 1926, Karl Reinmuth noted (based on Heidelberg plates) "many st, but nothing like a cluster." and RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent (Type 7).  Harold Corwin suggests that NGC 2338 is a group of stars ~50 tsec of RA east and 5' south of his position.  If a similar offset is applied to NGC 2299 (found by JH on the same sweep), it matches NGC 2302, so this error is quite plausible.

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NGC 2339 = UGC 3693 = MCG +03-19-002 = CGCG 085-040 = CGCG 086-005 = PGC 20222

07 08 20.5 +18 46 49

V = 11.8;  Size 2.7'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 175d

 

13.1" (1/18/85): fairly faint, nearly round, very weak concentration, low surface brightness.  A mag 13.5 star is superimposed at the east edge 30" from center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2339 = H II-769 = h434 on 22 Feb 1789 (sweep 906) and recorded it as "pB, pL, iR, easily resolvable, bM.".  His position is 16 sec of RA east of UGC 3693.  JH called it "pB, pL, R, glbM, 40".  In a rich part of the heavens." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 2340 = UGC 3720 = MCG +08-13-096 = CGCG 234-091 = WBL 133-010 = PGC 20338

07 11 10.8 +50 10 28

V = 11.7;  Size 1.8'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 80d

 

18" (12/18/06): moderately bright, moderately large, oval 3:2 WSW-ENE, 1.5'x1.0', large bright core increases gradually to the center.  A mag 12 star lies 1.7' NW.  Brightest in a group of 12 galaxies (WBL 133) incuding IC 464 2.5' SSW.  Beyond IC 464 a string of stars continues to the SSW.

 

17.5" (1/20/90): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated E-W, bright core.  Brightest of four in the field with IC 458, IC 464 and IC 465 = NGC 2334?  Two mag 12 stars lie 1.7' NW and 2.4' WNW of center.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2340 = H II-736 = h433 on 9 Mar 1788 (sweep 815) and called "pF, vS, lbM, resolvable."  His position (CH's reduction) is just off the east edge of the galaxy.  Harold Corwin concludes that H II-862 (found on sweep 990, 28 Dec 1890), although equated with NGC 2332 = h430, is actually a duplicate observation of this galaxy.  JH described this object as "pB; pL; R; gbM; 25"; two small stars preceding." and measured a more accurate position.

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NGC 2341 = UGC 3708 = MCG +03-19-003 = CGCG 086-006 = Holm 86b = PGC 20259

07 09 12.1 +20 36 10

V = 13.2;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

17.5" (1/20/90): faint, very small, slightly elongated E-W.  A mag 13.5 star is 0.7' N.  Forms a pair with NGC 2342 2.5' NNE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 2341 = m 100 (along with NGC 2342 = m 101) on 10 Nov 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta.  His position matches UGC 3708 = PGC 20259.

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NGC 2342 = UGC 3709 = MCG +03-19-004 = CGCG 086-007 = Holm 86a = PGC 20265

07 09 18.1 +20 38 11

V = 12.6;  Size 1.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 126d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): moderately bright, moderately large, irregularly round, slightly elongated SW-NE, slightly brighter along major axis but no core.  Forms a pair with NGC 2341 2.5' WSW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 2342 = m 101 (along with NGC 2341 = m 100) on 10 Nov 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta.  His position matches UGC 3709 = PGC 20265.

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NGC 2343 = Cr 128 = OCL-565

07 08 07 -10 37 00

V = 6.7;  Size 7'

 

18" (2/23/06): at 225x, three dozen stars are resolved in a fairly scattered, but well-detached 5' group.  The brightest star at the southeast end is a wide double (·1028) with a mag 8.8 yellow primary and a mag 11 bluish secondary at 11".  The stars are arranged in long winding strings with a couple of offshoots.  There are no dense areas and the strings appear to wrap around regions devoid of stars.  Located off the northeast end of IC 2177.  Two ill-defined groups, Cr 465 and Cr 466, lie ~20' to the west (see notes).

 

17.5" (3/20/93): two dozen stars mag 8-13 in compact 5' diameter.  The cluster has a distinctive boxy shape but is not rich.  Includes an unequal double star ·1028 = 8.8/11.1 at 11" at the east side.  Stars are arranged in small subgroups with no central concentration, well detached in field.  Located off the NE end of the huge, strip of nebulosity IC 2177.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2343 = H VIII-33 on 10 Jan 1785 (sweep 356) and called it "a cluster of scattered large stars, not so extensive as the last [NGC 2335], nor so rich."  His position is just off the southeast side of the cluster.

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NGC 2344 = UGC 3734 = MCG +08-13-103 = CGCG 234-100 = PGC 20395

07 12 28.7 +47 10 00

V = 12.0;  Size 1.7'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (1/19/91): fairly faint, fairly small, round, broad mild concentration, faint stellar nucleus, edges fade smoothly into background.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 2344 = Sw VI-30 on 24 Nov 1886.  His position is 16 sec of RA west and 81" north of UGC 3734 = PGC 20395 and his description "pB, pS, R" applies.  Hermann Kobold measured an accurate position at the Strassburg Observatory in 1893.

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NGC 2345 = Cr 129 = Mel 61 = OCL-575

07 08 19 -13 11 36

V = 7.7;  Size 12'

 

17.5" (3/20/93): 50 stars mag 9-14 in 10'x8' region elongated SW-NE.  Fairly rich in faint stars.  Includes the pretty double h3930 = 9.7/10.6 at 15" on the north side.  Near the center is a small clump of about 8 stars including an unequal triple star.  Located midway between mag 8 SAO 152444 6' NNE and a mag 9.5 star 6' S.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2345 = h3073 on 14 Feb 1836 and recorded "a pretty rich cluster; irregular fig; 7' diam; gbM; stars 10..14 m; place that of a double star, the chief *."  His position corresponds with HJ 3930 = 9.7/10.6 at 15".

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NGC 2346 = PK 215+3.1 = PN G215.6+03.6

07 09 22.5 -00 48 23

V = 11.9;  Size 60"x50"

 

17.5" (2/2/02): easily picked up at 100x as a fairly small, round halo surrounding a bright mag 11.5 star.  Nice view at 280x and 380x.  The halo is irregularly round, ~50"x45" with a slightly uneven surface brightness and it appears a bit thinner or pinched on the NW side.  Modest contrast gain with a UHC filter at 100x-280x, although this object does not require a filter.

 

13" (1/11/86): bright mag 11.5 central star surrounded by fairly small, round disc.  Located between two mag 13 stars 0.8' E and 1.2' W.  View enhanced with Daystar 300 filter.  Central star is the variable V651 Mon (mag 11.3-13.5).

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2346 = H IV-65 on 5 Mar 1790 (sweep 935) and recorded "a pretty considerable star, 9 or 10m, visibly affected with vF nebulosity, of very little extent all around. A power of 300 shewed the same, but gave a little more extent to the nebulosity. The 22d Monocerotis was quite free from nebulosity."  CH's reduced position is 1¡ too far south, but a note was added on the sweep there may be an error of 1¡, due to a confusion on the polar distance.

 

Dreyer observed the PN on 14 Feb 1877 with the 72" at Birr Castle and reported "*9 mag seems nebulous, especially on the n or np side.  At last we agreed that it was nebulous all round.  About 4' sp is a reddish *10 with a white-bluish *11 1' south.  The nebulous star has a bluish tint."

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NGC 2347 = IC 2179? = UGC 3759 = MCG +11-09-039 = CGCG 309-026 = PGC 20539

07 16 04.0 +64 42 41

V = 12.5;  Size 1.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 175d

 

13.1" (1/11/86): fairly faint, fairly small, bright core, slightly elongated N-S, diffuse.  Located 4' S of mag 7.3 SAO 14129.  A mag 10 star lies 5.2' NE.  Forms a wide pair with IC 2179 = UGC 3750 13' N.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2347 = H III-746 on 1 Nov 1788 (sweep 879) and recorded, "vF, S, R lbM."  His position, based on Auwers' reduction, is 3.3' N of UGC 3759.  The GC/NGC position (from John Herschel) is 5.7' NNE of UGC 3759.  Finally, Harold Corwin reduced the offsets given in Dreyer's 1912 revision of Herschel's catalogues and that position is 18' NNE of UGC 3759 -- and 9' NE of UGC 3750, the galaxy generally identified as IC 2179.

 

Bigourdan later observed this field in 1894 and 1900. His position for B. 267 = IC 2179 in Comptes Rendus is 07 15 33 +64 57 (2000), which is an excellent match for UGC 3750.  CGCG, UGC, MOL, DSFG, RC3, PGC and U2000 all label this galaxy as IC 2179.  But, Bigourdan's listing in his complete Observations, etc. for B. 267 corresponds with UGC 3759, the galaxy identified as NGC 2347 in modern catalogues and his listing for NGC 2347 matches UGC 3750 (Corwin notes an error in his identification of the reference star). So, Bigourdan reverses the modern identifications.

 

The question still remains - which of these two galaxies is WH's III-746?  See Corwin's identification notes for more on this story (also analyzed by Malcolm Thomson).

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NGC 2348 = ESO 088-SC1

07 03 03 -67 23 36

Size 11'

 

25" (10/16/17 - OzSky): at 244x; bright, distinctive group of stars appears fully resolved, ~10' diameter, ~35 stars mag 10-14.  A bright mag 9.9 star (HD 54266) near the center is surrounded by some starless areas.  Includes some wide pairs, including a ~36" pair of 12th mag stars on the east side, but no dense regions. The group (or cluster) is fairly well defined and detached in the wider field and the outline is roughly circular.  A 4' string of stars ~E-W appears detached off the southeast side.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2348 = h3074 on 31 Jan 1835 and recorded as a "Coarse loose cluster of about 30 stars, many 11m, one 10m taken."  His position corresponds with a mag 10 star in the center of an 8' circular cluster or group.

 

RNGC calls this "an unverified southern cluster" and  neither Lynga, ESO or WEBDA has a listing for this object.  Bica et al includes NGC 2348 in a 2001 paper on "Dissolving star cluster candidates"

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NGC 2349

07 10 48 -08 36

 

17.5" (2/3/03): group of ~30 stars, elongated SW-NE, ~8'x3'.  Stands out reasonably well in the field an over background haze but is probably just an asterism.  Most stars are 12-14th magnitude.  This group is ~11' following John Herschel's position, but the star density is richer on this group. Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

Caroline Herschel discovered NGC 2349 = H VII-27 = h436 on 4 Mar 1783.  Three years later on 24 Feb 1786 (sweep 529), WH recorded "An irregular cluster of extremely small stars, considerably compressed, 9 or 10' l, 4 or 5' b with an extending branch towards sp."  Close to his position (Auwers' reduction) is the group of stars described in my observation.  JH recorded "a poor straggling cl, place of a D*", but his position is 1 min of RA too far west and corresponds with a mag 10/11.5 at 30" separation that is not involved in any clustering.  Unfortunately JH used his own position in the GC and it was repeated by Dreyer in the NGC.

 

Based on Heidelberg plates, Karl Reinmuth noted "many st in a dense region, very little clustering."  RNGC classifies the number nonexistent (Type 7).  See Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 2350 = UGC 3747 = MCG +02-19-001 = CGCG 057-005 = PGC 20416

07 13 12.2 +12 15 58

V = 12.3;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (1/19/91): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, bright core.  Several mag 14 stars are near including one 1' SE of core.  A nice double star (mag 10/10 at 20" separation) lies 10' NNE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 2350 = St VI-6 on 18 Sep 1871 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches UGC 3747 = PGC 20416.

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NGC 2351

07 13 29 -11 29 12

 

=Not found, Gottlieb.  Possibly a scattered group around two stars, wrong dec in NGC, Corwin.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2351 = h437 on 9 Mar 1828 and noted as "A loose straggling cluster, place of double star." There is nothing at his position and even the double star doesn't seem to be there. Exactly 1 degree north is a mag 9.4/12 double star at 12" separation with two mag 9/10.9 stars 1' NW and 1' SW.  But there is no obvious clustering here on the POSS.  Alister Ling questions if this object is a duplicate of NGC 2353 (20' further NE) which was not recorded separately by JH.  But this cluster includes a prominent mag 6.0 star that would probably be chosen as the position.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.  See Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 2352 = ESO 492-**5

07 13 05 -24 02 48

 

17.5" (3/8/97): at 82x there is no obvious cluster at this position, although there are about a dozen mag 12/13 stars in a 7' string ~N-S, roughly centered on a mag 11.5 star at 07 13.1 -24 03.  At 220x, several fainter stars are visible increasing the total to ~20 stars and it stands out a little better.  The stars in the N-S string are arranged in "seagull wings" concave to the west.  Listed as nonexistent in RNGC.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2352 = H VII-15 on 6 Mar 1785 (sweep 381) and called "A small cluster of pretty compressed stars, not very rich."  There is nothing at his position, but 40 sec of RA west is string of stars oriented N-S.  Howe also "saw nothing noteworthy in the place given for this cluster, except that the whole background contains myriads of minute stars, on the limit of vision."  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent (Type 7).

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NGC 2353 = Cr 130 = Mel 62 = OCL-567

07 14 30 -10 16 00

V = 7.1;  Size 20'

 

17.5" (3/20/93): over 100 stars mag 6-13 in a 20' diameter, requires 100x (20mm Nagler) for best view.  Richest around mag 6 SAO 152598 on the south side where 50 stars are in a 8' rectangular outline.  A bright double star ·1052 = 9.1/9.3 at 20" is located just 2' NE of the mag 6 star and two mag 9 stars are at the NW and NE corners of this subgroup.  Surrounding this group is a dark ring devoid of stars and then beyond is a fairly rich outer annulus including several mag 9-10 stars.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2353 = H VIII-34 on 10 Jan 1785 (sweep 356) and noted "an extensive scattered cluster contains a very bright star."

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NGC 2354 = Cr 131 = ESO 492-SC006

07 14 15 -25 41 36

V = 6.5;  Size 20'

 

17.5" (3/12/94): ~100 stars in a 20' diameter, circular outline, fairly uniform in magnitudes.  There are no prominent subgroups or individual stars but the cluster is fairly detached in the field at 100x.  Unconcentrated with a 9'x3' void or dark lane in the center elongated N-S.  A double star with components 11.5/12.5 at 14" separation is just following the dark lane towards the south end.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2354 = H VII-16 = h438 on 6 Mar 1785 (sweep 381) and called it "a large cluster of scattered stars, considerably rich, about 20' in diameter or more."  His position matches this cluster.  JH recorded a "loose straggling cl; the preceding part is rather separated from the following, and more comp.  Place that of 3 stars in the following part."

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NGC 2355 = NGC 2356? = Cr 133 = Mel 63 = OCL-496

07 16 59 +13 45 00

Size 9'

 

18" (3/15/10): fairly rich group with ~70 stars in an 8'-9' diameter group, with the richest portion in the central 4'.  On the north side of the central region is a 13" pair of mag 11/12 stars with a mag 13 star 16" S forming an easy triple.  The stars are pretty evenly distributed and many are similar magnitudes, though a number appear to be arranged in strings that extend out radially from the center.  The brightest member is a mag 10 star on the SE side.  The cluster shares the field with mag 8.3 HD 56329 located 7' NNE.

 

18" (2/23/06): rich cluster at 257x with ~75 stars in an 8' irregular group.  Very rich in a 2.5' central "core" with the brightest mag 10 star just SE of this core.  The outline is marked by rows of stars giving a triangular outline.  Mag 8 HD 56329 lies 7' NE of the cluster.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): about 50 stars down to mag 14 in a 8'x5' group elongated N-S including a mag 10 star at the SE edge.  Rich, fairly compact, a number of stars are arranged in lanes.  Located about 7' SW of mag 8.0 SAO 95722.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2355 = H VI-6 = h439 on 8 Mar 1784 (sweep 161) and reported "a cluster of stars of various magnitudes, pretty much compressed in the middle, and the cluster is pretty rich.  Of an iR form; most of the stars are S and I suppose if it is at all visible in my 7 ft reflector it must assume a nebulous appearance.  To the north of it is a pretty considerable star which my field will take in with the cl."  There is nothing at his position, but 1 min 40 sec of east of his position is this cluster and it fits his description.  Karl Harding independently found the cluster around 1823 and reported it as a new discovery (7 of the 8 objects in his list were previously discovered).  JH measured an accurate position and questioned whether his h439 was identical to H VI-6.  JH recorded "a p rich cl of very small stars; irreg; R; 5' diameter; not bM; st 11...16m."

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NGC 2356 = NGC 2355? = Cr 133 = Mel 63 = OCL-496

07 16 59 +13 45 00

 

18" (2/23/06): there is no cluster at William Herschel's position or nearby group of stars that match his description "A pretty rich and compressed cluster of stars" other than NGC 2355 10' S of his position.  Corwin equates NGC 2356 = NGC 2355 (see description for NGC 2355).  Also about 20' W of Herschel's position are 15 stars in a 3' arrowhead outline.  This asterism is well detached in the field and though not impressive is also a possible candidate.  A nice equilateral triangle of mag 11.5-12.5 stars with sides of 1' form the eastern corner of the group.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2356 = H VII-6 on 16 Mar 1784 (sweep 176) and described "A pretty rich and compressed cluster of stars."  There is nothing at his position (reduced using the offsets given in Dreyer's 1912 "Scientific Papers of WH) but ~15' S is NGC 2355 and Harold Corwin concludes this number is probably a duplicate observation of NGC 2355.  His position for NGC 2355 is not good either -- it's 100 tsec of RA too far west!

 

Based on photographic plates taken at the Heidelberg Obseratory, Reinmuth adds "no Cl north of NGC 2355, in 7h 8m.0 +14d 13' (1860) a loose clustering of st 11... in triangle." At Reinmuth's position (about 1 tmin preceding the NGC position) is a triangular group which stands out pretty well.  But NGC 2355 is the best fit for NGC 2356.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.

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NGC 2357 = UGC 3782 = MCG +04-17-014 = CGCG 116-046 = FGC 619 = PGC 20592

07 17 40.9 +23 21 23

V = 13.3;  Size 3.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 122d

 

17.5" (1/19/91): faint, large, edge-on 6:1 NW-SE.  Appears as a very low surface brightness ghostly streak with no central condensation!  A mag 13 star is off the NW end 1.3' from center.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 2357 = St XIII-27 on 6 Feb 1885 with the 31.5" silver-on-glass reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches UGC 3782 = PGC 20592.

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NGC 2358

07 16 56 -17 07

Size 20'x15'

 

18" (3/13/10): gorgeous low power Milky Way field at 72x (63'), though nothing stands out distinctly as cluster-like.  At the given position (07 16.9 -17 07 (2000), is a weak enhancement, roughly 20' diameter, with a nice quardruple group of mag 10-11 stars on the south side.  This field enhancement is only noticeable as the Milky Way is weaker or dusty to the north and south of the group and the background glow brightens near the position of NGC 2358.

 

Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC and William Herschel's description ""A course scattered cluster of stars, not rich." is not specific enough to pin down his intended "cluster".

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2358 = H VIII-45 on 31 Dec 1785 (sweep 503) and noted "A course scattered cluster of stars, not rich., not compressed"  JH did not record an observation of this "cluster" and it was not observed at Birr Castle.  There is a large (~20') Milky Way field (described in my observation) including a number of mag 10 stars close to WH's position.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent (Type 7).

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NGC 2359 = Thor's Helmet = LBN 1041 = Sh 2-298 = Ced 94b = Gum 4 = RCW 5

07 18 31 -13 13 30

Size 8'x6'

 

48" (4/13/10): the 5' central region of Thor's Helmet was mesmerizing at 267x and 330x (unfiltered).  A large, bright knot is at the south end of the rim where the inner portion of the bright wing that heads southwest connects with the central bubble.  Along the northern edge of the rim are three collinear mag 11 stars (2.2' length) oriented E-W. The rim of the bubble is noticeably brighter in a thin arc beginning due north of center (between the two western stars) and extending about 90¡ clockwise to the west (this portion of Thor's Helmet was catalogued separately as NGC 2361).  The rim is also brighter along a 45¡ thicker arc on the southeast side.  The rim has a lower surface brightness on the east and NE side and varies in thickness and brightness around the entire bubble, enclosing a darker central region.

 

Three brighter stars (nearly collinear) and several fainter stars are superimposed within the main bubble.  A second, smaller, incomplete bubble just north of center outlines an inner dark "hole", which includes one of the brighter stars.  The 11.4-magnitude ionizing Wolf-Rayet star HD 56925 is at the southwest edge of this inner bubble.  Additional thin wisps of nebulosity crisscross the central region.

 

17.5" (12/28/00): "Thor's Helmet" is a remarkably bright, detailed nebulosity at 100x using an OIII filter.  The central region is a 5' bubble (illuminated by a Wolf-Rayet star) with a brighter rim along the west side giving a "C" appearance with irregular knots, filamentary wisps of nebulosity and areas of thinner nebulosity in the interior.  A number of fainter stars are superimposed in the central region along with some brighter mag 11 stars on the north portion of the rim.  Attached at the south end is a brighter 4' extension elongated towards the west with a mag 9 star at its SE side.  This section then thins out into a long 10' streamer that precedes the main section and forms the southern "horn" of the helmet.  A second long, thicker streamer is attached at the north end of the central mass and extends out to the NW (this piece has been misidentified as IC 468). A fainter strip of nebulosity also begins on the north end and extends 10' due east while weak nebulosity is also east of the central helmet off the south side.  Illuminated by the Wolf-Rayet star HD 56925 = WR 7.

 

13" (1/28/84): unusual emission nebula, fairly bright, fairly large, about 7'x5'.  A thinner section elongated at a right angle (E-W) extends west of a mag 10 star on the south end.  A few fainter stars are superimposed on the north side.  A very faint section is attached at the NW end extending towards the NW.

 

13x80mm (1/13/07): the circular central region of Thor's Helmet was easily visible at 13x in my 80mm finder using an OIII filter (24mm Panoptic), though the "horns" of the helmet were not seen.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2359 = H V-21 = h3075 on 31 Jan 1785 (sweep 363) and recorded "A broad elongated nebulosity, in the form of a parallelogram with a short ray southwards from the south preceding corner.  The nebulosity between the milky and resolvable, almost of an equal brightness; but very faint.  The parallelogram about 8' long and 5 or 6' broad, but ill-defined."  He published a sketch in his 1811 paper (Fig. 3) as an illustration "of detached Nebulosity".

 

JH observed this nebula from the Cape and recorded "a very singular nebula, much like the profile of a bust, (head, neck and shoulders,) or a silhouette portrait, very large, pretty well defined, light nearly uniform, about 12' diameter. In a crowded field of milky way stars, many of which are projected on it."  His RA is exactly 1 min too small (but accurate in NPD) and this position was copied into the GC and later the NGC.  Howe noted this error when he observed the nebula.  His sketch (Plate IV, figure 4) shows the silhouette shape well with the shoulders/bust region the brighter "wing". See notes for NGC 2361.

 

I'm surprised this nebula is mentioned in Garrett Serviss' 1901 "Pleasures of the Telescope" written for at most 5-inch telescopes: "In [GC] 1511 we have a faint nebula remarkable for the rows of minute stars in an near it."  And in the 1909 book "In Starland with a 3-inch Telescope", William Olcott repeats "Note the nebula [GC] 1511 and the curving row of faint stars near it."

 

Based on plate taken with the 60-inch at Mt Wilson in 1917, Pease reported: Sir John Herschel pictured it as resembling a bust, while Lassell drew it like balloon, with a long neck twisted in the Sp direction.  The balloon or head is approximately 5' in diameter; the neck is to the south, with nebulosity about 1' wide extending 8' west, concave on the north and gradually narrowing and fading out.  From the top (N) of the head a symmetrical streamer concave to the south extends in the western direction...A second streamer about 1' wide extends east from the top of the head to a distance of 9'."

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NGC 2360 = Cr 134 = Mel 64 = OCL-589

07 17 43 -15 38 30

V = 7.2;  Size 13'

 

13.1" (1/28/84): includes about 40 fainter stars in an elongated, arrowhead shape with mag 9 SAO 152691 at the east edge (probably a foreground star).  Appears rich with fairly uniform magnitudes.

 

Caroline Herschel discovered NGC 2360 = H VII-12 = h440 = h3076 on 26 Feb 1783.  This was her first deep sky discovery.  On 4 Feb 1785 (sweep 366) William recorded "a large cluster of pretty compressed scattered stars, near 1/2¡ in diam, considerably rich, most of the stars of the same size."  Another observation on 31 Dec 1785 (sweep 503) describes "A beautiful cluster of pretty compressed stars, very large."  JH recorded it from the Cape of Good Hope as "Middle of a fine large, rich cluster, not compressed to the middle. Stars 9..12th mag; fills field."

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NGC 2361 = Part of NGC 2359 = Thor's Helmet = LBN 1041 = Sh 2-298

07 18 23.4 -13 12 40

 

48" (4/15/10): Along the northern edge of the rim of Thor's Helmet are three collinear mag 11 stars (2.2' length) oriented E-W. The rim of the bubble is noticeably brighter in a thin arc beginning due north of center (between the two western stars) and extending about 90¡ clockwise to the west.  Bigourdan's NGC 2359 refers to this brighter portion of the Wolf-Rayet nebula.  See observing notes for NGC 2359  for a complete description of the nebula.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 2361 = Big. 27 on 25 Feb 1887.  Harold Corwin identifies NGC 2361 with a bright knot along the west side of the main bubble of NGC 2359.  Wolfgang Steinicke also lists Wilhelm Tempel as a co-discoverer (in 1887), though he is not credited in the NGC.

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NGC 2362 = ESO 492-SC9 = Cr 136

07 18 42 -24 57 18

V = 4.1;  Size 8'

 

13.1" (1/30/06 - Costa Rica): gorgeous low power field surrounding Tau CMa using the 20 Nagler (75x).  Tau was easily resolved into a triple with two mag 10 and 11.2 companions at 8.5" and 14" to the east.  At 170x, 75-80 stars are visible and the cluster appears fully resolved.  A string of stars passes to the north of Tau oriented NW to SE.  Several faint stars and a detached clump lie to the north of Tau beyond the string.  A mag 8.5 star marks the south border of the cluster.

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): stunning open cluster at 105x surrounding Tau Canis Majoris which is a very close triple star.  Perhaps 75 stars are resolved in a well-detached 6' region.

 

17.5" (3/2/02): at 100x, this is a gorgeous, uniformly rich cluster surrounding Tau CMa, which is offset north of center. A WNW-ESE string of stars north of Tau gives a flattened border and the rich southern portion tapers to the south giving a triangular appearance.  At 220x, ~60 stars are visible in a 6' diameter, many of 10.5-11.  Just following the central star to the ESE are two mag 11 companions.  Several other fainter stars are in the central core including one fairly close preceding.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): about 75 stars in 6' diameter surrounding Tau Canis Majoris (V = 4.4) in an unusually rich, impressive cluster!  Tau is resolved into several components.

 

13.1": 50 stars in a triangular-shape surrounding Tau Canis Majoris, very rich, impressive.

 

Giovanni Hodierna probably discovered NGC 2362 = H VII-17 = h441 = h3077 around 1654 (marked on a map of Canis Major).  It was discovered again by WH on 6 Mar 1783 (sweep 381) and called "a most beautiful cluster of pretty large stars with one of the 7th magnitude in the center, which however I suppose does not belong to it."  The cluster was observed by JH at both Slough and the Cape of Good Hope, where he recorded "a fine cluster of discrete stars, 60 or 70 in number. R, gbM, 8' diameter." It's surprising this bright cluster wasn't found by one of Messier contemporaries.

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NGC 2363 = UGC 3847 = MCG +12-07-039  = Mrk 71 = PGC 21078 = PGC 93088 = NGC 2366:[HK83] 108

07 28 29.6 +69 11 34

Size 1.7'x1.1';  PA = 20d

 

48" (4/15/10): NGC 2363 is either a small satellite galaxy of NGC 2366 or possibly a detached star cloud or galaxy west of the southwest end of NGC 2366.  At 330x, NGC 2363 appeared fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 or 5:2 SW-NE, with a low but irregular surface brightness.  Located ~2.2' SW of the center of NGC 2366 and 1.2' W of the bright knot.  The bright HII knot/starburst region in NGC 2366 is often misidentified as NGC 2363.

 

A 2010 study suggests NGC 2363 was very close to the southern tip of NGC 2366 less than 10 Myr ago, and could have triggered the interaction which has led to the strong episodes of star formation in the southern half of NGC 2366 as well as this galaxy.

 

 

 

 

Ralph Copeland discovered NGC 2363 on 9 Mar 1874 with the 72" while observing NGC 2366 = H III-748.  He noted a "diffused nebulosity preceding, pos. 265.9¡, dist 71.4"."  Copeland's offsets were measured with respect to the unusually bright HII knot at the southwest end of the galaxy, which has always been assumed to be NGC 2363.  But Copeland's "diffused nebulosity preceding" refers to UGC 3847, a separate galaxy ( or isolated star cloud) just west of the southwest end of NGC 2366.

 

CGCG misidentifies NGC 2363 as the "bright emission patch at the SW end of NGC 2366" and RNGC misclassifies NGC 2363 as nonexistent with the comment "Patch in NGC 2366, Zwicky".  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for the complete story.

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NGC 2364

07 20 47 -07 33 00

 

18" (3/13/04): pretty neat group of 50-60 stars at 115x arranged in two rows of stars converging towards the north.  The eastern group of stars hooks on the SE end, bending back towards the north.  Both groups have strings of faint stars extending to the north beyond a mag 9.5 star located ~5' N of the main groups.  Listed as a nonexistent cluster in the RNGC, although the group is fairly distinctive.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2364 = h442 on 8 Jan 1831 and noted "Two small pretty close groups of pL stars in the milky way, rather a remarkable cl."  There are two strings of stars at JH's position, matching his description.  RNGC classifies this object as nonexistent (Type 7).

 

WH apparently made the original discovery on 24 Feb 1786 (sweep 529) and noted "Clustering stars, in three short parallel lines, the two last whereof are joined to the sp; the placed taken is that of the middle lane."  He didn't assign it an internal discovery number, so this observation went uncatalogued.

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NGC 2365 = UGC 3821 = MCG +04-18-008 = CGCG 117-020 = PGC 20838

07 22 22.5 +22 05 00

V = 12.4;  Size 2.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 170d

 

24" (2/14/15): at 260x; moderately bright and large, elongated 2:1 N-S, ~1.2'x0.6', well concentrated with a bright oval core.  A mag 14 star is at the southwest edge [48" from center].  Located 32' ENE of mag 3.5 Delta Geminorum.

 

Forms a close pair with CGCG 117-019 2.6' SSW.  The companion is faint, small, round, 18" diameter.  Occasionally contains a faint stellar nucleus.  A wide 15" double star is 1' SSE.   UGC 3827 lies 13' NE and appears faint, small, oval 4:3, 20"x15" [core only seen].  A mag 13.3 star is at the south east edge of the galaxy.

 

17.5" (1/19/91): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 NNW-SSE, bright core.  A mag 14 star is just off the SW side 0.7' from center and a mag 12.5 star is 1.3' SW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 2365 = m 102 on 10 Nov 1864 with Lassell's 48" and recorded "vF, pS, R, psbM."  ƒdouard Stephan independently discovered this galaxy on 13 Jan 1874 and reported it in list VI-7.

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NGC 2366 = UGC 3851 = MCG +12-07-040 = CGCG 330-038 = Mrk 71 = PGC 21102

07 28 55.0 +69 12 57

V = 11.1;  Size 8.1'x3.3';  Surf Br = 14.6;  PA = 25d

 

48" (4/15/10): The most striking feature of NGC 2366 is a prominent double knot (giant HII/starburst complex) at the SW end (also known as Mrk 71 amd NGC 2366-I).  At 330x, the knot appeared very bright, elongated 3:2 E-W, ~18"x12", with two overlapping components (super star clusters A and B).  A fainter and smaller knot (NGC 2366-II) was easily visible 15" E, for a total of 3 HII knots.

 

NGC 2363, a low surface brightness companion or detached OB association/HII region, lies 1.2' W of the bright double knot.  At 330x it appeared fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 or 5:2 SW-NE, with a low but irregular surface brightness.

 

18" (3/19/04): at the SW end of the galaxy is a very bright knot (HII region), roughly mag 12.5 and perhaps 15" in size which responds to a UHC filter at 160x!  At 323x this knot is irregular in shape (~20"x15", SW-NE) and brightness and at moments resolves into two or three components.  The galaxy itself is fairly faint, large, and very elongated SSW-NNE, 3.5'x1.0', with a low surface brightness.

 

13.1" (1/11/86): fairly faint, very large, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, low almost even surface brightness.  An unusually bright HII region is at the SW end of the galaxy (2' from the center) and appears as a "fuzzy" 12th magnitude star.  Although very small, it appeared elongated SW-NE and similar to a poorly resolved double star.  Definite contrast gain with OIII filter.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2366 = H III-748 on 3 Dec 1788 (sweep 889) and called it "vF, vS, stellar.  300 confirmed it and showed a vF branch to the nf."  His description and position matches the prominent HII region at the southwest end of the galaxy.  The "vf branch nf" refers to the actual galaxy.  So, NGC 2366 applies to the HII region (also known as Mrk 71) as well as the galaxy.  Modern sources misidentify the large HII knot as NGC 2363.  See historical comments for NGC 2363.

 

Ralph Copeland described it on 9 Mar 1874 with the 72" as a "diffused neby preceding, pos 265.9¡, dist 71.4"  Neb * or neb knot post 318¡, dist 77.6".  The object has a curved tail, pos 30.9¡, convex on the following side, traced 9' or 10'.  The neb knot preceding is connected with the principal enbulosity.  Line of stars spp, curved towards preceding side, nebulous?  At least the enbula appears to extend so far on spp side.  [See Pl I.]."

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NGC 2367 = Cr 137 = ESO 559-SC005

07 20 05 -21 53 06

V = 7.9;  Size 4'

 

17.5": 25 stars in a distinctive, fairly rich 6' group which is elongated N-S.  The brightest star HD 57370 is a close double (HLD 87 = 9.4/9.7 at 5").  A nice elongated group at the south end includes the bright double, three other mag 11/12 stars and several fainter stars.  A compact group of four stars is in the field to the north.  Located in a rich low power field at 100x.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2367 = H VIII-27 on 20 Nov 1784 (sweep 326) and recorded "a small cluster of scattered stars, not rich, nor very compressed."  His position is ~3' south of the center of this compact cluster.

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NGC 2368 = Cr 138 = OCL-571 = Lund 320

07 20 59 -10 22 48

Size 5'

 

17.5" (3/20/93): two dozen stars mag 12-14 in 4' diameter, unimpressive although unusual form, no dense spots.  Divided into two distinct groupings; a dozen stars in the SW triangular group with a double star 12/13 at 18" separation at the west end; also a dozen stars in the NE group consists of two strings of stars oriented ~N-S forming a thin triangle.  The two groups are separated by a dark lane oriented NW-SE. The classification of this group as a true cluster is doubtful.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2368 = h443 on 9 Mar 1828 and described "the preceding star (which is red) of a pretty rich small cluster; fig irreg triangular; stars 15m - in Milky Way."  His position is on the southwest side of the group.

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NGC 2369 = ESO 122-018 = AM 0716-621 = LGG 144-001 = PGC 20556

07 16 37.7 -62 20 37

V = 12.3;  Size 3.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 177d

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x appeared bright, large, very elongated 5:2 N-S, 2.4'x0.9', broad concentration with a slightly bulging middle.  A 16th magnitude star is at the north end and a mag 15 star is just following the core.  Nearly collinear with two mag 12/13 stars 2.5' and 3' NE.  Brightest in a group with NGC 2381 48' SE, NGC 2369A 38' SE (on a line with NGC 2381), NGC 2369B 32' NE, NGC 2417 1.6¡ east and IC 2200/2200A 1.3¡ east.

 

13.1" (2/20/04 - Costa Rica): at 166x this Carina galaxy is fairly faint, fairly large, elongated 5:2 N-S, 1.7'x0.6', broad weak concentration but overall has a fairly low surface brightness (viewed at 16¡ elevation).  In a group with NGC 2381 and NGC 2417.

 

John Herschel discovered NGC 2369 = h3078 on 26 Dec 1834 and recorded "pB, E or irregular figure, glbM."  His position (2 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 2370 = UGC 3835 = MCG +04-18-015 = CGCG 117-036 = PGC 20955

07 25 01.7 +23 47 01

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 43d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): fairly faint, small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 0.8'x0.4', even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is attached at the NE end 0.4' from center.  The galaxy appears to extend from the star like a comet tail!

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 2370 = m 103 on 10 Nov 1864 with Lassell's 48" and recorded "eF, vS, E."  His position is 1' south of UGC 3835 = PGC 20955.  RNGC refers to the mag 14 star attached at north end as a "* or knot".

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NGC 2371 = Peanut Nebula = Double Bubble Nebula = PK 189+19.1 = PN G189.1+19.8

07 25 33.8 +29 29 18

V = 11.2;  Size 74"x54"

 

48" (4/1/11): I was stunned by the view of this bipolar nebula. There was so much intricate detail in NGC 2371/72 it had little resemblance to previous views through my 17.5" and 18" scopes.  The most prominent feature was two, irregularly round, very bright nodules on the southwest and northeast side of the boxy, elongated central region.  Each nodule was distinctive and varied in surface brightness and shape with the southwest lobe brighter.  Filamentary streamers or a "hairy tail" extended from the northeast node towards the northwest and similar wisps extended mainly southeast from the southwest node, creating a sense of rotation around the fairly bright central star. The interior and sides were filled with much fainter nebulosity.  A very faint filament connected the main lobes on the northwest edge.  Detached from the main 1' structure were two amazing outer wings, symmetrically hanging 1' NW and 1' SE from the central star.  These wings or "polar caps" were easily visible without a filter at 488x and both extended ~40"x10" in a SW-NE orientation, increasing the total diameter of the planetary to 2'.  A mag 13.5 star lies 1.5' NW and a mag 16 star is 50" NE of center.

 

17.5" (2/14/99): very unusual appearance at 380x with two bright knots oriented SW-NE about 30" between centers and 0.9' in total length.  The southwest knot is 15"-20" in size, slightly elongated and the brighter of the two.  The northeast condensation has a slightly lower surface brightness and appears ~20" in diameter.  The faint mag 14.9 central star is symmetrically placed between the knots.  Weaker nebulosity connects the two knots giving a "dogbone" appearance with a very faint rounder halo encasing the structure!

 

17.5" (2/13/88): unusual planetary, bright, moderately large, elongated SW-NE.  Two bright knots are at both ends (with two NGC designations) although the SW end is brighter and concentrated.

 

13" (2/25/84): two condensations in halo.  The WSW side is brighter and sharper.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2371 = H II-316 = h444, along with NGC 2372, on 12 Mar 1785 (sweep 385) and reported, "Two. F, of an equal size.  Both small within a minute of each other; each has a seeiming nucleus, and their apparent atmospheres run into each other.  240 showed the same position from sp to nf."  He published a sketch in his 1811 paper (Fig. 6) as an illustration of "double Nebulae with joined Nebulosity."

 

John Herschel called NGC 2371 "the south-preceding of a curious bright double neb or an elongated bicentral neb; nuclei approaching to stars 45¡ nf or sp - distance of centre 60".  See fig 72."  Lord Rosse sketched this bipolar PN with his 72" and reported (19 Dec 1848) a "bright star between, tails and curved filaments, perhaps an annulus round the two nebulae."  William Lassell made an observation in March 1853 with his 24-inch equatorial reflector from Malta.  He noted the "preceding one [nebula] is the brightest" and made a sketch (figure IX in his 1854 MRAS paper).

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NGC 2372 = Peanut Nebula = Double Bubble Nebula = PK 189+19.1 = PN G189.1+19.8

07 25 35.8 +29 29 30

V = 11.2;  Size 74"x54"

 

48" (4/1/11): see description for NGC 2371.

 

17.5": see description for NGC 2371.

 

13": this is the fainter NE component of NGC 2371/NGC 2372.  Slightly fainter and more diffuse than NGC 2371.

 

William Herschel discovered NGC 2372 = H II-317 = h445, along with NGC 2371, on 12 Mar 1785 (sweep 385).  See NGC 2371 for his description.

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NGC 2373 = UGC 3848 = MCG +06-17-004 = CGCG 177-014 = PGC 21016

07 26 36.9 +33 49 25

V = 13.8;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 0d

 

18" (1/13/07): faint, very small, round, 20".  A mag 12.7 star is just off the NE side 24" from the center.  Located 6.8' W of NGC 2375 in the NGC 2389 cluster.

 

13.1" (2/23/85): faint, elongated, small.  A mag 13 star is at the NE edge.  Forms a trio with NGC 2375 6.7' E and NGC 2379 10' E.  First of seven in the NGC 2389 group.

 

George Johnstone Stoney discovered NGC 2373 = St IX-8 on 20 Feb 1849 (along with NGC 2375) using Lord Rosse's 72" and recorded "6 nebulae of which epsilon [NGC 2375] is perhaps a double star."  This galaxy was labeled Zeta on the sketch in the 1861 publication and accurately measured from NGC 2375, JH didn't assign it a GC designation.  Dreyer first catalogued NGC 2373 as GCS 5380.  ƒdouard Stephan independently discovered the galaxy on 8 Feb 1878 and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 2374 = Cr 139 = OCL-585 = Lund 328

07 23 56 -13 15 48

V = 8.0;  Size 19'