IC 2003 = PK 161-14.1 = PN G161.2-14.8

03 56 22.0 +33 52 30

V = 11.6;  Size 7"x6"

 

18" (2/4/08): easily swept up unfiltered at 115x as a vey small, blue-grey disc forming a close "double" with a mag 13.5 star just 18" SW.  At 220x the star is well separated and the planetary appears a bit irregular with an occasional sparkle.  Increasing the magnification to 325x, the appearance is definitely asymmetric with a fainter NW quadrant and an intermittent stellaring (superimposed star, knot, or the central star) to the SE of the geometric center.  At 450x, the dimmer quadrant on the NW side appears to bulge out slightly and the brighter region, centered to the SE, extends in an arc from the NE to the SW.  An occasional stellar sparkle was clearly visible, though it was difficult to pinpoint the location.

 

17.5" (3/1/03): easily picked up at 100x as a fuzzy blue-gray mag 11.5 star.  Excellent view at 380x: bright, small, 10" diameter, irregularly round with an irregular surface brightness.  There appears to be a knot (or offset central star?) on the SE side.  A mag 13.7 star is just off the SW side [18" from center].  Located 3' SW of a wide mag 9.5/11 pair.

 

8" (12/4/80): moderately bright, very small, just non-stellar at 125x and a definite disc is visible at 220x.  A wide double star is 3' NE (9.5/11 at 47" oriented NW-SE).

 

Thomas Espin discovered IC 2003 on 18 Jan 1907 with his 17.3-inch reflector.  He measured a size of 6.9"x6.35".

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IC 2005 = CGCG 526-015 = PGC 14168

03 57 39.5 +36 47 15

Size 0.35'x0.25';  PA = 47d

 

24" (1/1/16): at 260x; faint, very small, round, 10" diameter, faint stellar nucleus.  With averted vision the halo increases slightly to 15".  This galaxy shines through the northwest section of the California Nebula!

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2005 = J. 3-084 on 18 Jan 1898.  His position is accurate.

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IC 2006 = ESO 359-007 = MCG -06-09-037 = PGC 14077

03 54 28.5 -35 58 02

V = 11.3;  Size 2.1'x1.8';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

13.1" (1/18/85): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~N-S, diffuse but contains a very small brighter core, possible stellar nucleus.  Located at the east edge of the Fornax I cluster.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2006 = Sw XI-63 on 3 Oct 1897 and logged "pB; S; R; * near nf; double star sp."   His RA is 24 seconds too small, but the identification is certain.

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IC 2010 = ESO 117-011 = PGC 13995

03 51 58.0 -59 55 46

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 71d

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): picked up while viewing NGC 1463 located 43' WNW.  At 220x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, 0.8'x0.3', weak concentration.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2010 = DS 247 from a plate taken on 8 Dec 1899 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "eF, S, E 70."

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IC 2041 = IC 2048 = ESO 359-028 = LGG 111-008 = PGC 14656

04 12 34.9 -32 49 03

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 136d

 

48" (10/22/11): picked up in the same field with the showpiece pair NGC 1531/1532.  At 375x, IC 2041 appeared fairly bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 NW-SE, ~35"x24", small bright core.  Located 6' WSW of mag 7.1 HD 26799 and ~7' NE of NGC 1532.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2041 = Sw XI-68 on 29 Sep 1897 and recorded "eF; vS; R; 10m * close S."  His position is 3.4' too far S.  He discovered this galaxy earlier on 10 Dec 1895 (or 5 Dec) and called it "eeeF; eS; B * f; [NGC] 1532 p; 3 in field with D neb; ee dif."  His position, though, was very poor, and both Swift and Dreyer assumed Sw XI-69 was a different object.  It's clear from the description, though, that IC 2048 = IC 2041.

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IC 2045 = NGC 1538?? = MCG -02-11-027 = PGC 14722

04 14 36.0 -13 10 30

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 125d

 

24" (12/22/14): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, 20" diameter, very small slightly brighter core.  Brightest in a small group including IC 2047 5' ESE and Holmberg 73 (pair) 8' ESE.

 

17.5" (12/30/99): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, weak concentration.  Situated between a mag 10 star 3' NE and a mag 9 star 5.5' SW.  IC 2047 lies 5' ESE, but was not picked up.

 

Herbert Howe discovered IC 2045 = Ho III-14 on 20 Jan 1900 and recorded "eF, eS, almost stellar; near [NGC] 1538."  His position matches MCG -02-11-027 = PGC 14722.  RNGC and PGC label this galaxy as NGC 1538 (see that number).

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IC 2051 = ESO 004-007 = PGC 13999

03 52 00.8 -83 49 50

V = 11.6;  Size 2.6'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 67d

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x appeared as a bright, large oval 5:3 WSW-ENE, 2.5'x1.4'.  Contains a small, bright, slightly elongated core, ~20"x15".  There was a strong impression of spiral structure at the ends of the halo [confirmed on the DSS].  A mag 10.9 star lies 2' W and 4' W is a striking trio of mag 11.5 to 13.5 stars.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2051 = DS 268 from a plate taken in Dec 1900 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "!!vF, vS, stell N, ellipt ring neb."

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IC 2063 = (R)NGC 1563 = MCG -03-12-005 = PGC 908152

04 22 40.3 -15 39 38

Size 0.8'x0.4';  PA = 174d

 

17.5" (12/30/99): very faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, faint stellar nucleus at moments.  A mag 15 star is just off the ESE edge [35" SE of center].  At moments a faint star seems superimposed, perhaps at the west edge [a mag 15.5 star is at the west edge 8" from center].  This galaxy is misidentified as NGC 1563 in MCG and RNGC.

 

17.5" (2/8/91): extremely faint, small, slightly elongated.  A mag 15 star is off the SE edge.  A wide equal mag 12 double star at 31" separation lies 4' W.  Member of the NGC 1561 group with NGC 1564 8' SE.

 

Herbert Howe discovered IC 2063 = Ho I-5 on 14 Jan 1898 and reported "eF, vS. Near NGC 1561-5."  His position is accurate though RNGC and MCG misidentify this galaxy as NGC 1563.

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IC 2068 = ESO 303-017 = MCG -07-10-004 = PGC 15106

04 26 36.7 -42 05 37

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 153d

 

18" (12/30/08): this galaxy was picked up first while I was sweeping the NGC 1585.  At 175x it appeared faint, small, elongated NNW-SSE, 0.5'x0.3', quasi-stellar nucleus.  It's surprising that John Herschel missed this galaxy as it's only 11' NW of NGC 1585 and only slightly smaller and fainter.  A mag 10 star lies 7.8' SE and along with two stars 1.8' and 3.9' NNW, this trio leads NW to this IC galaxy.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2068 = Sw XI-71 on 9 Dec 1895 and recorded "eF; pL; R; 3 st like belt of Orion point to it; p of 2 [with NGC 1585]."  His position is 5.4' too far northeast, but there are no other nearby candidates and the description fits (the stars are south-southeast).

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IC 2087 = Ced 38 = LBN 813 = Barnard 14

04 40 00.0 +25 44 32

Size 4'

 

17.5" (12/26/00): this unusual yellow reflection nebula (also catalogued as Barnard 14) is embedded in Barnard 22 within the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud, the nearest large stellar nursery at 450 light-years.  At 100x (unfiltered), IC 2087 appears as a fairly faint direct vision object, moderately large, round, 3'-4' diameter.  Fairly well defined although the edges fade into background.  What is the striking is the location - only four brighter stars are visible in the 50' field with a complete lack of fainter stars down to mag 15!  The surrounding field also shows evidence of very high obscuration (extinction about 5 visual magnitudes in the vicinity).  Described by Barnard as a "very small, bright nebula, diameter 3"... "in the dark nebula B 22".

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 2087 visually on 18 Jan 1892 with the 12-inch Lick refractor while observing a comet.  He noted "the small nebula is excessively difficult".  His photograph in "On a Nebulous Groundwork in the Constellation Taurus" (ApJ, 25, p218, 1907) reveals a long winding dark lane with a small nebulous region surrounding a couple of stars within the dark lane.

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IC 2098 = MCG -01-13-018 = FGC 509 = PGC 16144

04 50 44.3 -05 25 07

Size 2.3'x0.3'

 

18" (12/17/11): very faint, extremely thin edge-on, 1.2'x0.15', oriented WNW-ESE.  Generally only the slightly brighter central region was visible, roughly 0.4'x0.15', but occasionally the very thin extensions popped out and the galaxy appeared as a ghostly slash.  Viewed at 225x. Located 36' E of NGC 1665 and 32' W of mag 4.4 Omega Eridani.

 

Isaac Roberts discovered IC 2098 photographically on 17 Feb 1903 with a 20" reflector at his observatory in Sussex, UK.

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IC 2099 = MCG -01-13-019 = PGC 16146

04 50 52.1 -04 53 34

V = 14.2;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (2/22/03): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.5', broad concentration to slightly brighter core, thin extensions.  Situated between two stars with a mag 12.5 star 1.3' SE and a mag 14.5 star 1.1' NNW.

 

17.5" (12/26/00): faint, small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.4', weak concentration.  Nestled within a small asterism and 1.3' NW of a mag 12.5 star.

 

Isaac Roberts discovered IC 2099 photographically on 17 Feb 1903 with a 20" reflector at his observatory in Sussex, UK.  Lewis Swift's position for NGC 1677 is 0.4 minutes of RA east and 6' north of IC 2099 and RNGC, PGC, HyperLeda and NED identify IC 2099 = NGC 1677.  But Harold Corwin suggests NGC 1677 is a duplicate of NGC 1659, assuming Swift made a 5 min error in RA too far east.  See NGC 1677 for more.

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IC 2104 = MCG -03-13-034 = PGC 16367

04 56 19.7 -15 47 51

Size 1.9'x1.2'

 

17.5" (12/26/00): extremely faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 E-W, 1.0'x0.5', low even surface brightness.  Clouds compromised this observation.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 2104, and found NGC 1730, on 6 Dec 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He described it as "F, moderate size, bM, elongated" and his position (offset from mag 8.4 HD 32077 near NGC 1730) is accurate.  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer.

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IC 2105 = LMC-N77A = ESO 056-EN07

04 49 26.4 -69 12 03

Size 0.4'

 

30" (11/6/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): bright, small, round, compact, high surface brightness, 25" diameter.  A mag 10.3 star lies 0.6' NW of center.  Located 5.5' SSE of NGC 1698.  The NGC 1727 complex lies ~17' SE.  This is the brightest knot in the LHA 120-N77 complex.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 2105 = HN 84 in 1901 on Harvard objective prism plates.

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IC 2106 = ESO SO 422-012 = MCG -05-12-011 = PGC 16373

04 56 33.9 -28 30 14

V = 13.0;  Size 1.7'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 56d

 

18" (1/21/04): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 1.0'x0.7', fairly low surface brightness with a very weak concentration.  Located 12' ENE of mag 8.1 SAO 169892.  A wide pair of mag 12/14 stars at 30" separation is 5' E.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 2106 = Sw (XI)-73 on 25 Jan 1889.  He described in his notebook "probably elongated N & S, not large, pF.  1' +/- N.f. 12m *.  _ field following and 1' +/- N of 8 _ mag star."  Lewis Swift found it again on 26 Dec 1897 and reported the discovery in list (XI)-73 as "eeeF; pL; components of D * 24s f point to it.  His RA is about 35 seconds too small, but the description matches.  Barnard apparently never sent a discovery communication to Dreyer (this happened to several objects in 1889 including IC 454) as Swift is credited with the discovery in the IC.

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IC 2111 = ESO 056-EN013 = LMC-N79A

04 51 52.4 -69 23 34

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this LMC emission nebula/cluster appeared as a very small, high surface brightness knot, ~12" diameter, embedded within NGC 1722.  A mag 12 star lies close SW.

 

18" (7/9/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): embedded within NGC 1722 is a small, fairly bright knot just NE of a mag 11.8 star.  At 128x and UHC filter, it appeared ~15" diameter and was described by Williamina Fleming as a "stellar planetary" based on an objective prism plate.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 2111 = HN 85 in 1901 on Harvard objective prism plates and noted as "Planetary, stellar".  NGC 1722 is plotted as an planetary nebula on the Skalnate Pleso "Atlas of the Heavens" as well as the Sky Atlas 2000.0

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IC 2116 = LMC-N11A

04 57 16.2 -66 23 21

Size 0.6'

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): bright, high surface brightness knot, ~15" diameter.  Located at or just beyond the northeast edge of the showpiece Bean Nebula (NGC 1763), roughly 3' NE of the center, and certainly part of the same complex.  The mag 11 star HD 268726 lies 45" W (sometimes taken as IC 2115).

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 2116 = Fleming 88 on a Harvard objective prism plate taken in 1901 at the Arequipa station.  See Harold Corwin's thorough analysis on this number.

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IC 2117 = LMC-N91A = HD 32364 = LH 12

04 57 14.4 -68 26 29

Size 1'

 

18" (7/9/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the brightest knot of nebulosity involving the LMC cluster NGC 1770.  It is situated about 2' S of HD 268804, the brightest mag 11.2 star in the cluster.  The total size of the nebulosity was ~2' and was mostly south of the group of stars.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 2117 = Fleming 89 on a Harvard objective prism plate taken in 1901 at the Arequipa station.

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IC 2118 = Witch-Head Nebula = NGC 1909?= LBN 959 = Ced 41 = LBN 959

05 04 54 -07 15

Size 180'x60'

 

13x80mm (1/15/07): first visual observation I've made of the Witch-Head nebula.  Using the 80mm finder at 13x (24mm Panoptic) without a filter a very large, ill-defined glow (~30'-40') was visible between 1-1.5 south of Beta Eridani.  This is the NE section of this faint reflection nebula.  With averted vision the glow brightened and stood out fairly well compared to the background sky brightness.  This object is significantly fainter than Barnard's Loop but was surprisingly was not a marginal observation or as difficult as expected.  I couldn't follow the nebula further south with any certainty.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 2118 on a plate taken on 16 Jan 1891 with a 4-inch Millet portrait lens (1 hr exposure).  The discovery was announced in "The Great Nebula of Psi Eridani", MNRAS 65, 528 (1905).  There is no reference to the "Witchhead" shape in the paper.

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IC 2122 = ESO 362-014 = MCG -06-12-017 = AM 0517-370 = PGC 17081

05 19 01.4 -37 05 22

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 67d

 

24" (1/22/15): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, irregularly round, low even surface brightness.  Viewed at 13 elevation.  Forms a pair with ESO 362-015 4.6' SE.  IC 2122 is the brightest member of galaxy cluster ACO S521 (z = .015).

 

At the position of ESO 362-015 was a 14th magnitude stellar object.  At 375x; this "star" appeared to be a bright stellar nucleus (or could be a superimposed star) surrounded by a very faint, very low surface brightness halo

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2122 = Sw XI-76 on 19 Nov 1897 and recorded "pB; eS; R; 3 st in line nf."  His position is 1.5' too far south.

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IC 2128 = ESO 056-SC113 = S-L 429 = LMC-N44D = LH 49

05 22 44 -68 03 07

V = 11.1;  Size 3'

 

14" (4/7/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x):  Using an NPB filter a bright, compact patch, ~30" diameter, was prominently visible just 1' SW of a mag 10 star.  Much fainter nebulosity spreads out to 1.5'.  Three mag 13-14.5 stars are involved without the filter and a few more are further northwest.  A mag 9.2 star is 4.2' W and a mag 11 star is 2.1' NNE.  The IC 2128 nebula is located at the southeast end of the NGC 1929-1936 complex (LMC N44) and it is part of association LH 49.

 

LHA 120-N 44H is a moderately bright but compact glow (~30" diameter) that is detached 2.3' N (part of the same complex).  A star is involved unfiltered. The mag 10 star mentioned above is 1.1' ESE of this patch.

 

Solon Bailey discovered IC 2128 = D 176 photographically in 1896 using a 1-inch Cooke lens at the Arequipa station in Peru.  The discovery was announced in the 1908 "Catalogue of Bright Clusters and Nebulae", Annals of Harvard Observatory, Vol 60, p199.  Cozins and Steinicke credit James Dunlop with discovery on 27 Oct 1826 with his 9" reflector at his home in Parramatta, New South Wales.  Dunlop noted "a small faint nebula" and his position is close southeast.

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IC 2134 = ESO 033-019 = S-L 437

05 23 06.6 -75 26 49

V = 13.9;  Size 1.0'

 

18" (4/8/16 - Coonabarabran, 139x and 236x): fairly faint, small, round, 24" diameter, weak concentration.  A mag 12 star is 2.8' SE, mag 13.5 and 14 stars are 1.7' ENE and ESE.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2134 = DS 301 from a plate taken on 18 Dec 1900 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "cF, vS."

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IC 2135 = IC 2136 = ESO 363-007 = MCG -06-13-004 = AM 0531-362 = PGC 17433

05 33 13.1 -36 23 59

V = 12.5;  Size 2.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 109d

 

17.5" (2/22/03): large, low surface brightness edge-on, elongated nearly 4:1 WNW-ESE, 1.5'x0.4'.  Viewed at a very low elevation west of the meridian.  A mag 9.7 star is 5.4' SW.  Located 14' E of the scattered group NGC 1963.  This galaxy is incorrectly identified as NGC 1963 in RC3.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 2135 = Sw XI-81 on 22 Feb 1898 and logged "eeeF; eeS; eeeE; eeF.  See note."  His RA is 35 seconds too small but the identification is certain.  The note reads "Nos. 56 [[IC 335 = IC 1963] and 81 [IC 2135].  These in one respect are the most interesting nebulae I have ever seen, especially No. 56, which is a nebulous hair-line of one uniform size from end to end.  No. 81 at first sight seemed identical with it, but on a closer view the center seemed to have a very slight bulging in the middle." 

 

Swift actually discovered the galaxy on 9 Dec 1895, calling it "eF; pS; eE; almost a ray; 1963 p."  But his position was 10 too far north, so it was assumed Sw XI-82 = IC 2136 were different objects.  IC 2136 is another observation, though placed 10 degrees too far north!  According to Corwin, PGC and RC3 misidentify this galaxy as NGC 1963.

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IC 2138 = ESO 487-027 = IC 2137 = PGC 17463

05 34 21.7 -23 32 00

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 88d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): faint, small, oval 3:2 E-W, even surface brightness.  Located 2' W of mag 8.5 SAO 170570.  NGC 1979 lies 14' NW.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 2138 = Big. 384 = Sw XI-83 on 16 Dec 1887.  Lewis Swift independently found it again on 1 Dec 1897 and reported it as "eeF; S; R: 7m * close p; sf of 1980."  The bright star is following, though, and the galaxy should read NGC 1979.  Swift found it again on 14 Feb 1898, gave an accurate description for Sw XI-84 = IC 2137, but his position is 10' too far north.  So, IC 2138 = IC 2137.

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IC 2140 = ESO 033-SC24 = S-L 581

05 33 23 -75 22 35

V = 13.5;  Size 2.3'

 

18" (4/8/16 - Coonabarabran, 139x and 236x): fairly faint, large soft glow, 1.5' diameter, sllight brighter core.  The cluster exhibits some mottling and a few stars are resolved around the edges.   A mag 14.3 star is just off the ENE edge, and fainter stars are glimpse at the south and west edges.  Located 8.6' SSE of a mag 8.1 star.  IC 2140, another LMC cluster, is 39' NNE.  NED classifies this object as a globular cluster.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2140 = DS 302 on a plate taken 18 Dec 1900 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "eF, vS, ? eS Cl."

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IC 2145 = ESO 057-EN018

05 40 23 -69 40 15

 

See observing notes for NGC 2086.

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 2145 = HN 92 in 1901 on Harvard objective prism plate.

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IC 2146 = ESO 033-SC026 = S-L 632

05 37 47 -74 47 00

V = 12.4;  Size 2.6'

 

18" (4/8/16 - Coonabarabran, 139x and 236x): at 139x this outlying LMC cluster appeared as a large, fairly faint to moderately bright glow, 1.3' diameter, round, mottled.  The surface brightness is relatively low and there is only a slightly brighter core.  One or two mag 15 stars are resolved at the southeast edge.  A mag 13-13.5 field star is at the NNW edge.  At 236x, the surface is very mottled with a few interior stars popping in and out of view, suggesting it was on the verge of more resolution.  Located 6' SE of mag 8.0 HD 38331.  IC 2140, another LMC cluster, is 39' SSW.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2146 = DS 304 from a plate taken 18 Dec 1900 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "Cl, vF, bet 2 st."

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IC 2147 = ESO 424-013 = MCG-05-14-013 = PGC 17662

05 43 28.1 -30 29 42

V = 12.7;  Size 1.8'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 90d

 

18" (12/22/11): very faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, low even surface brightness, no details.  I starhopped to this galaxy from NGC 2049, located 25' N.  Mag 6.2 HD 38138 lies 16' WSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2147 = Sw XI-86 on 3 Nov 1897 and reported "eeeF; pS; R; F * np; several B st sf; 3 st curved."  There is nothing at his position or nearby that matches his description.  But Harold Corwin found that ESO 424-013, located 4 min 20 seconds of RA west matches the description close enough to make this identification very likely.  The bright stars south following are there, though his comment about a "F * np" is incorrect or he confused the orientation. No other modern sources label this galaxy as IC 2147.  See Corwin's identification notes for more.

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IC 2148 = ESO 033-SC028 = S-L 642

05 39 12.2 -75 33 48

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'

 

18" (4/8/16 - Coonabarabran, 139x and 236x): very faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, low even surface brightness.  This outlying LMC cluster is located 25' SE of IC 2140 and 9.5' SE of mag 8.2 HD 38473.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2148 = DS 305 on a plate taken on 18 Dec 1900 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "vF, vS, bM."  NED classifies this cluster as a globular.

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IC 2149 = PK 166+10.1 = PN G166.1+10.4

05 56 23.9 +46 06 17

V = 10.6;  Size 15"x10"

 

18" (2/14/10): easily picked up at 175x as a fuzzy bluish "star, typical of high surface brightness compact planetaries.  At 450x, the bright mag 11.6 central star is encased in a high surface brightness, elongated halo, extending ~14"x8" E-W.  The following end is a bit tapered and the halo on this side appeared brighter with the impression of a very tiny embedded knot.  At 568x (8mm Ethos + 2x Powermate), a virtually stellar knot was definitely visible just a few arc seconds following the central star within the halo.  Images confirm this ionized knot or flier.

 

17.5" (9/14/85): at 250x the bright central star is easily visible within a bright, small, high surface brightness oval elongated 3:2 ~E-W.  Located 38' NW of mag 4.2 Aur.

 

17.5" (1/31/87): similar view as last observation but I noticed a slight bluish color.

 

8" (12/79): appears as a fuzzy blue "star at 100x.  Very small and slightly elongated SW-NE at 222x.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 2149 = HN 105 in 1906 on a Harvard objective prism plate.

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IC 2151 = ESO 555-008 = MCG -03-15-024 = PGC 18040

05 52 36.4 -17 47 14

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 99d

 

17.5" (3/8/97): faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, low even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with brighter IC 438 7.7' SE. Located just west of a line drawn through a 1' pair of mag 10-11 stars 5'-6' SSE.

 

Herbert Howe discovered IC 2151 = Ho III-17 on 22 Jan 1900 and logged "eF, pS; near [IC] 438."  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 2152 = ESO 488-047 = AM 0555-231 = MCG -04-15-001 = PGC 18148

05 57 53.4 -23 10 51

V = 12.6;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 54d

 

24" (1/1/16): at 225x; moderately bright and large, round, 0.7' diameter, well concentrated with a small bright core.  A group of 4 brighter star lies 6'-7' E, including mag 9.3 HD 40517 7.5' SE.  Located 18' ENE of mag 6.4 HD 40235.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2152 = Sw XI-89 on 1 Dec 1897 and recorded "pB; pS; R; in vacancy; several B * f."  There is nothing at his position but 43 seconds of RA due east is ESO 488-047 and his description matches.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position that was used in the IC2.

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IC 2153 = ESO 364-IG22 = AM 0558-335 = PGC 18212 + PGC 18213

06 00 04.8 -33 55 09

V = 13.3;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 69d

 

18" (2/5/11): very faint, very small, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, 20"x14".  A wide pair of mag 13/14 stars lie 1.5' SSE.  Located 15' W of mag 5.5 HD 41047 and 13' SE of mag 8 HD 40719.  This is a very close interacting, double system but it appeared unresolved.  IC 2153 is located near the solar antapex point in the sky (directly opposite the apparent direction that the solar system is moving towards in the sky). 

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2153 = DS 306 on a plate taken on 18 Dec 1900 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "eF, vS, susp."

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IC 2156

06 04 51 +24 09 36

 

17.5" (3/8/97): unimpressive scattered group of ~12-15 stars in a 6' diameter.  Eight of these stars are arranged in a 6' arc open to the west and NW including a nice double and a small group of stars lies inside the SW side of this arc. This grouping does not stand out as a cluster and is located just 7' N of IC 2157.  Visually it appears to be a random grouping though it may be a detached part of IC 2157.

 

Thomas Espin discovered IC 2156, along with IC 2157, visually on 11 Jan 1899 with a 17.3-inch reflector.

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IC 2157 = Cr 80 = Tr 4 = OCL-465

06 04 50 +24 03 24

V = 8.4;  Size 7'

 

17.5" (3/8/97): at 220x, ~30 stars are visible in a 6' group, including a half-dozen brighter mag 10.5-12 stars.  The densest portion is ~4' diameter tapering to the NW and appears fairly rich with averted (over resolved haze).  The east end of group is formed by a 5' arc of mag 10-12 stars concave to the NW. Forms a pair with the IC 2156 group 6' N (possibly part of IC 2157).  Located ~35' W of NGC 2158 (off the SE side of M35).

 

Thomas Espin discovered IC 2157, along with IC 2156, visually on 11 Jan 1899 with a 17.3-inch reflector at his private observatory in Durham, England.

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IC 2158 = ESO 425-007 = MCG -05-15-004 = PGC 18388

06 05 17.9 -27 51 24

V = 12.0;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (12/23/97): fairly faint, fairly small, 1.0'x0.7', elongated NW-SE, very weak concentration.  Unusual appearance as a mag 11.5-12 star is attached at the SE end (30" from center) and the galaxy "hangs" from the star spreading out towards the NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2158 = Sw XI-91 on 1 Dec 1897 and noted "vF; pS; lE; * in contact nf; north end like a brush."  Swift added a note on its singular appearance with "one side expanding like a brush."  His RA was 16 seconds too small although his description applies to ESO 425-007, though the star in contact is south-following.   Herbert Howe's position, given in MN LX, p132, is accurate.

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IC 2159 = Ced 67b = Sh 2-252

06 09 54 +20 24

 

17.5" (1/16/02): southern part of NGC 2174-2175.  At 64x and OIII filter, this is a beautiful, detailed nebulosity surrounding a mag 8 star (SAO 78049), extending at least 20' diameter.  The OIII filter gives a dramatic contrast gain.  With averted vision and careful viewing, the outer borders extend to ~25'.  Structure includes interior streaky dark lanes visible to the west of the star.  The rim is slightly brighter or has a higher contrast to the western edge but slightly more nebulosity is visible on the following side of the star.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 2159 = Big 386 on 11 Feb 1890.  His position is southeast of the central region of NGC 2175.

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IC 2162 = Sh 2-255 = Ced 72 = LBN 859 = PP 56 = P 9

06 13 04 +17 58 42

Size 3'

 

24" (2/5/13): IC 2162 = Sh 2-255 is the brightest and easternmost of four round low-excitation emission glows with Sh 2-257 and Sh 2-254 lined up roughly to the west.  Using 125x (21mm Ethos) and H-beta filter, it appeared as a moderately bright, round glow, ~3.5' diameter, surrounding the mag 11.6 exciting star.  Sh 2-257 lies 5' W, and is a similar size, but surrounds several stars and has a lower surface brightness.  Sh 2-256 is a very faint detached glow off the SW side.

 

17.5" (3/2/02): at 100x unfiltered, IC 2162 was visible as the following of two faint, round glows surrounding mag 10.5-11 stars.  IC 2162 = Sh 2-255 is the brighter and larger of the pair, nearly 4' in diameter and quite symmetric.  Just under 5' due west is a separate 3' fainter glow (Sh 2-257).  This pair of low excitation emission knots is situated midway between two mag 6 stars with a 50' separation near the edge of the 20mm Nagler field.  Close southwest of Sh 2-257 is a very faint patch of nebulosity, Sh 2-256, but this was not seen visually, nor was the larger HII region Sh 2-254, a low surface brightness glow to the west (11' diameter).

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 2162 visually on 30 Nov 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He first logged in his notebook "Found a v. difficult neb close f and involving a 10m star."  He added the comments "vF neb, pL, roundish, densest part following the 10m star." His field sketch pins down the identification with Sh 2-255 (eastern of a pair of faint HII glows).

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IC 2163 = ESO 556-009 = MCG -04-15-021 = UGCA 125 = PGC 18751

06 16 28.0 -21 22 33

V = 11.9;  Size 2.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 98d

 

48" (2/20/12): IC 2163 was stunning at 488x, attached at the east side of NGC 2207.  The central region is very bright, round, ~1' diameter, small bright core.  Attached on the southwest side is a spiral arm that gracefully sweeps to the east while curving gently clockwise.  The arm is ~1.5' long and significantly increases the overall size to roughly 2'x1'.  Just NE of the tip of the arm is 2MASX J06163579-2122032, which appears as a faint, very small knot.

 

18" (2/5/11): forms the eastern component of an impressive interacting pair with NGC 2207.  At 225x, IC 2163 is an elongated glow embedded on the east side of the halo of the brighter galaxy.  IC 2163 appears fairly faint, moderately large, oval E-W, 1.0'x0.7', weakly concentrated.

 

13.1" (1/28/84): this is a colliding system with NGC 2207.  A double nucleus is visible and an extension just seen to the east is probably IC 2163.

 

Herbert Howe discovered IC 2163 = Ho I-7 on 11 Feb 1898 with the 20-inch Clark refractor at Chamberlin Observatory in Colorado. He noted "eF, pS, follows NGC 2207 [by] 7 seconds."

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IC 2164 = ESO 034-005 = AM 0608-752 = PGC 18424

06 06 52.3 -75 21 53

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 122d

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): faint, small, round, 30" diameter, fairly low surface brightness, no concentration.  A mag 14 star is 1' SE.  NGC 2203, an LMC cluster, lies 9' SW.

 

Delisle Stewart discovered IC 2164 = DS 310 on a plate taken 18 Dec 1900 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted, "eF, eeS, R, stell N."

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IC 2165 = PK 221-12.1 = PN G221.3-12.3

06 21 42.7 -12 59 14

V = 10.6;  Size 9"x7"

 

17.5" (12/28/00): at 220x appears as a bright, compact, high surface brightness disc with a bluish color.  Crisp-edged at 380x and slightly elongated but no central star seen (mag 17.9). 

 

13" (1/11/86): at 88x appears bright, very small, just non-stellar, slightly bluish color.  Takes 360x and appears slightly elongated E-W.  No central star visible, fuzzy edges to the bright oval disc.  Located 38' W of 903 = 6.1/10.8 at 23".

 

8" (12/6/80): stellar at low power.  Definite disc seen at 220x, bluish, slightly elongated.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 2165 = Fleming 79 on a Harvard objective prism plate taken in 1898.

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IC 2166 = UGC 3463 = MCG +10-10-001 = PGC 19064

06 26 55.8 +59 04 48

V = 12.4;  Size 3.0'x2.1';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 115d

 

17.5" (3/8/97): fairly faint, diffuse glow with little concentration, although appears asymmetric.  Moderately large, 2.0'x1.2', elongated NW-SE.  Possibly up to 2.5' major axis with averted vision. A mag 13.5 star is at the west edge.  An easy mag 10/12 pair [at  24" separation] lies 3' E.  A 50" string of three mag 13 stars 4' NW is collinear with the galaxy.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 2166 visually on 6 Oct 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "After visitors left found a new nebula.  1' following faint star, 3' preceding a double (1.5" or 2").  A small star following the double."  He made a rough sketch in his notebook.  His RA is 5 minutes too large, but the description and sketch clearly apply to UGC 3463.

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IC 2174 = UGC 3666 = MCG +13-06-002 = PGC 20252

07 09 06.0 +75 21 11

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (8/27/87): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, weak concentration. Located 5.7' WNW of NGC 2314.

 

17.5" (2/22/87): faint, small, round, diffuse glow, even surface brightness, visible with direct vision.  Picked up 6' W of NGC 2314.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 2174 = B. 264 on 24 Dec 1891 with the 12" refractor at the Paris Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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IC 2177 = LBN 1027 = Gum 2 = RCW 1 = Sh 2-296 = Ced 89c = Eagle or Seagull Nebula

07 05 06 -10 42

Size 120'x40'

 

13x80mm (1/17/09): excellent view using of the Seagull Nebula using the 80mm finder with a 24mm Panoptic and a NPB filter.  This long sinuous river of nebulosity winds for approximately two degrees ~N-S beginning just south of open cluster NGC 2335 and curving to the west of a 4' pair of mag 5.4/7.7 stars, midway along its length.  The south end is skewed and curves towards the SE.  The nebula is brighter along a central filament, particularly near the midway point and a dark notch intrudes on the west side just south.  Although the 18" at 73x and UHC filter added more detail and structure only half of the entire Seagull could be viewed in one field.

 

13.1" (1/19/85): at 62x and UHC filter appears as a very large, very elongated strip of nebulosity.  At the north end is the open cluster NGC 2335 within Monoceros.  The southern portion is difficult to trace; it crosses into Canis Major and ends at an easily visible reflection nebula = Ced 90 surrounding a mag 8 star.  Also includes nebula NGC 2327 midway along the length.  This emission/reflection nebula is referred to as the Eagle or Seagull Nebula.

 

17.5" (2/2/02): On the NW side is a circular nebulosity (the head of the Seagull) catalogued as vdB 93 = Sh 2-292, although this is actually the object reported by Roberts and listed by Dreyer as IC 2177.  In my 17.5" at 100x, it appeared as a very large, circular glow perhaps 15' in diameter of low surface brightness surrounding mag 7.1 V750 Mon = BD-10 1848 with vague hints of structure. The OIII filter gave only a very weak enhancement, but the H-beta filter noticeably improved the contrast at low power.  This combination HII/reflection nebula is situated off the NW end of the huge winding IC 2177 strip that extends mostly to the south, and is a wonderfully rich region of the Milky Way with a number of clusters and star groups in the vicinity.

 

Off the south side is the smaller nebula Ced 90.  At 64x it appeared as a faint, round, 3'  haze surrounding a mag 8.5 star.  Two mag 10.5 stars are collinear off the east side, 2.5' and 3.3' from the center and several mag 12 stars are involved at the south edge.  The H-beta filter noticeably improves the contrast and makes the nebulosity a moderately bright, direct-vision object.  With averted vision the glow increases to 4'-5' in diameter with some very faint haze extending east.  The star density drops off immediately to the west, except for a few stars.  Ced 90 is located at the extreme southern tip of the 2.5 degree giant emission nebula IC 2177, which extends north into Monoceros.  This is one of a select group of low-excitation nebulae that can be added to the list of H-beta objects.

 

Isaac Roberts discovered IC 2177 photographically in 1898 surrounding mag 7.3 BD-10 1848.  His position (for the mag 7 star) and dimensions of 13' corresponds with the position of vdB 93 = Gum 1 = Sh 2-292, not the 2 N-S strip of nebulosity that is commonly identified as IC 2177 in modern catalogues!  The often photographed strip was discovered by Max Wolf in 1905.  See Corwin's comments for the full story!

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IC 2179 = UGC 3750 = MCG +11-09-038a = PGC 20516

07 15 32.4 +64 55 34

V = 12.4;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

13.1" (1/11/86): fairly faint, small, almost round, brighter center.  Located 1.4' E of a mag 10 star.  Forms a pair with NGC 2347 13' S.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 2179 = Big 267 on 24 Feb 1894.  According to Corwin, Bigourdan misidentified his offset star so his position in Comptes Rendus is incorrect.  But either Dreyer or Bigourdan caught the error as the IC position is just 1' N of UGC 3750.  All modern catalogues identifies this galaxy as IC 2179, but Malcolm Thomson feels that IC 2179 is a duplicate of NGC 2347 based on Bigourdan's published position. See Malcolm Thomson's IC Corrections and Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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IC 2184 = UGC 3852 = VV 644 = MCG +12-07-041 = CGCG 330-039 = VII Zw 156 = Mrk 8 = PGC 21123

07 29 25.4 +72 07 44

V = 13.9;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

24" (2/5/13): at 375x, fairly faint, fairly small, irregularly round, ~25"x20", irregular surface brightness but no resolution into components.  Perhaps higher power is needed to see the two main components.

 

CGCG calls this object a "Triple system"; UGC says "double or triple"; Mrk says "two doubles"; CGPG described it as a "blue post-eruptive quadruple of two bar-shaped and two spherical compacts" and V-V calls is a "nest of six compact galaxies".

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 2184 = Big 390 on 24 Jan 1900.  The IC position is nearly 11' too far southeast.  Corwin re-reduced his original offsets, though, and they match this multiple system.  CGCG (330-039) doesn't give the IC identification.

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IC 2187 = MCG +04-18-010 = CGCG 117-025 = PGC 20857

07 22 43.3 +21 29 00

Size 0.4'x0.3'

 

24" (2/5/13): faint, very small, elongated N-S, 20"x10".  A mag 12.5 star is attached at the north end, which interferes with viewing.  Forms a close pair with IC 2188 = IC 2186 1.8' N.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2187 = J 3-997, along with IC 2186, on 11 Feb 1896.  Malcolm Thomson notes that the CGCG incorrectly identifies IC 2187 as being IC 2188.

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IC 2188 = IC 2186 = MCG +04-18-011 = CGCG 117-026 = PGC 20858

07 22 43.2 +21 30 47

Size 0.9'x0.6';  PA = 111d

 

24" (2/5/13): brightest in a trio with IC 2187 1.8' S.  At 375x appeared fairly faint, small, slightly elongated 22"x15" ~E-W, faint stellar nucleus.  2MASX J07224774+2131452 lies 1.5' NE.  This small group is located 45' SE of the double star Delta Gem (3.5/8.5 at 6").

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2188 = J. 3-998 on 28 Feb 1900.  IC 2186, found by Javelle on 11 Feb 1896, may be the first observation of this galaxy.  See Corwin's notes for the story.

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IC 2191 = MCG +04-18-024 = CGCG 117-047 = PGC 21163

07 30 17.5 +24 19 40

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.55';  PA = 20d

 

24" (2/14/15): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, 20"x15", contains a very small brighter nucleus.  NGC 2398 lies 10' due south.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2191 = J. 3-1000 on 7 Feb 1896.  His position is accurate.

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IC 2193 = UGC 3902 = MCG +05-18-018 = PGC 21276

07 33 23.8 +31 28 59

V = 13.4;  Size 1.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (1/23/93): faint, small, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, small bright core.  A mag 13.5 star is at the north edge 32" NNE of center.  IC 2194 lies 10' SSE and IC 2196 lies 11.4' SW.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 2193 on 12 May 1888 with the 12-inch at Lick Observatory.  This was three nights after he found IC 2194, 2196 and 2199 - his first discoveries at Lick.  He noted (from his logbook), "Found a new nebula in field with those of May 9th, and north of them.  Small, hazy, faint, less than 1' s.p. 10m star."  Although the star is closer to 13th magnitude and his position is poor, the identification is certain.

 

Harold Corwin notes that Javelle's IC 2192 is not identical to IC 2193 as suggested by Dreyer in the IC description.  IC 2192 is an extremely faint galaxy at 07 33 20.3 +31 21 41 (J2000).

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IC 2194 = MCG +05-18-020 = CGCG 147-039 = PGC 21285

07 33 40.2 +31 20 04

Size 1.0'x0.3'

 

17.5" (1/23/93): faint, very small, round, very small bright core.  Faintest in the IC 2199 group with IC 2196 7' NE and IC 2193 10' NNW.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 2194 = J. 3-1002 , along with IC 2196, 2197 and 2199, on 9 May 1888.  These were his first discoveries with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory and labeled "b" on the sketch of the field.  He spent a great deal of effort in trying to calculate the positions with respect to Castor.  Stephane Javelle independently discovered the galaxy on 24 Jan 1898 and noted J. 1002 as "faint, round, 20"-25", gradually condensed, granular."

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IC 2196 = UGC 3910 = MCG +05-18-021 = PGC 21300

07 34 09.8 +31 24 20

V = 12.7;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 150d

 

17.5" (1/23/93): fairly faint, fairly small, round, even concentration to a brighter core.  On line with three mag 13.5 stars 1.1' SW, 2.1' SSW and 2.5' SSW.  Second brightest in the IC 2199 group with IC 2199 12.6' SE, IC 2193 11.4' NW and IC 2194 7' SW.  Located 30' S of Castor!

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 2196 = J. 3-1003, along with IC 2194, 2197 and 2199, on 9 May 1888.  These were his first discoveries with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory and labeled "c" on his field sketch.  He also found "d", which he described as "vvF, foll 'c' [IC 2196] about 3' of arc."  At this offset is 2 stars and an extremely faint galaxy attached.  Stephane Javelle independently discovered IC 2196 on 24 Jan 1898 and noted "faint, nearly round, 25"-30", gradually condensed, granular."

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IC 2199 = UGC 3915 = MCG +05-18-022 = PGC 21328

07 34 55.8 +31 16 35

V = 13.1;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (1/23/93): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, brighter along major axis.  A small elongated group of eight mag 13 stars is close west.  Preceded by mag 8 SAO 60192 7.7' WSW and mag 8.5 SAO 60197 6.3' SW.  Brightest in a group of 4 IC galaxies with IC 2196 12' NW and IC 2193 24' NW.  Located about 35' S of Castor!

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 2199, along with IC 2194, 2196 and 2197, on 9 May 1888.  These were his first discoveries with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  His position is 3.5' too far south (similar offset as IC 2194) and labeled "a" on the sketch.

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IC 2200 = ESO 123-012 = LGG 144-005 = PGC 21075

07 28 17.5 -62 21 10

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 58d

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x appeared moderately bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, even surface brightness.  A mag 12.6 star is off the northeast end.  Forms a close pair with IC 2200A at 1.4' SW.  OC 2200A had an unusual appearance with a very bright stellar nucleus (or a star is superimposed) and much fainter extensions SW-NE.  This duo is located 15' SW of NGC 2417.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2200 = DS 313 on a plate taken in 1900 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "eF, eS, eE at 65, bet 2 st, susp."  The western of the "2 st[ars]" in the description is likely not a star, but IC 2200A.

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IC 2205 = CGCG 148-015 = WBL 152-001 = PGC 21773

07 46 54.6 +26 52 20

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.35';  PA = 51d

 

24" (2/16/15): at 300x; fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 16"x12", brightens weakly to the center.  Contains a well defined halo of moderate surface brightness.  Located 6.6' SW of NGC 2449 in the WBL 152 group.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2205 = J. 3-1009 on 16 Jan 1896.  His position is accurate.

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IC 2209 = UGC 4093 = Mrk 13 = PGC 22232

07 56 14.4 +60 18 14

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 145d

 

13.1" (1/11/86): very faint, diffuse, small, weak concentration, requires averted vision.  Forms the fainter member of a pair with NGC 2460 5.4' NE.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 2209 = Big. 268 on 24 Feb 1894.  The IC position is accurate.

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IC 2220 = Toby Jug Nebula = ESO 124-RN?3

07 56 50.9 -59 07 32

Size 6.0:'x4.0:'

 

13.1" (1/30/06 - Costa Rica): at 105x the "Toby Jug Nebula" is visible surrounding a bright red variable star, V341 Carinae and was easy to chase down just 1.6 north of the naked-eye open cluster NGC 2516.  The nebula appears as a large, irregular glow unfiltered.  With careful viewing the west side is bowed in with thin extensions to the west on the north and south ends.  The nebulosity is not as extensive on the following side of the star.

 

13.1" (2/17/04 - Costa Rica): The "Toby Jug Nebula" is an unusual bipolar red reflection nebula 1.5 degrees north of NGC 2516.  Unfiltered at 105x, a fairly large irregular glow is visible surrounding the bright red variable V341 Car = HD 65750 (mag 6.2-7.1).  The nebula is bowed towards the west with the curved section on the following side of V341.  It extends furthest to the NW and the SW and is indented and weaker due west of the star.  The total size of the "Toby Jug" is 2'-3'.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2220 = DS 315 on a plate taken in 1908 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "!! Nebula involving [HD 65750], extends 2' in dec and 1' in RA, 2 B and 2 F spiral wisps, spiral in form."

 

IC 2220 was named the Toby Jug Nebula by Paul Murdin, David Allen and David Malin in their book "Catalogue of the Universe" published in 1979.  David Malin included the Toby Jug Nebula in his 1999 book "The Invisible Universe" and wrote, "A few degrees from the bright star Avoir and a little south of Miaplacidus is a curious nebula with the uninspiring catalog name IC 2220.  It has a popular name taken from its superficial resemblance to the profile of a toby jug, a traditional English beer mug with a large handle, with one side molded as a stout character with a rustic, painted face. My colleagues and I suggested the name Toby Jug in our book "Catalogue of the Universe" in 1978, and it seems to have stuck, even in the United States, where toby jugs are rarely seen."

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IC 2233 = UGC 4278 = MCG +08-15-052 = CGCG 236-036 = FGC 730 = PGC 23071

08 13 59.0 +45 44 38

V = 12.6;  Size 4.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 172d

 

48" (4/15/10): this remarkably thin, beautiful superthin edge-on extends 4.0'x0.25' (~15:1 axial ratio) NNW-SSE.  Contains a brighter elongated central region with a slightly brighter nucleus (though no bulge).  The overall surface brightness is fairly low and the galaxy gradually dims near the ends of the extensions.  The center is situated only 0.9' SW of a mag 10 double (a mag 13.5 companion lies 13" away) and the orientation aligns with the center of the galaxy.  Roughly midway along the northern extension is a mag 14 star.  Beyond this star the galaxy gradually fades to the tip, extending to within 0.6' of a faint star off the NNW tip.  On the south extension, the galaxy also fades, but after nearly dimming out there is a feeble glow at the very tip that is slightly angled or bent towards the east.  Located 17' SE of the Bear-Paw galaxy.

 

17.5" (2/24/90): very faint, moderately large, extremely thin edge-on NNW-SSE with a low even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is embedded at the north tip and a mag 11/14 double star at 13" separation is off the east side 1.0' from center.  Located 17' SSE of NGC 2537.  This galaxy is one of the thinnest known.

 

Isaac Roberts discovered IC 2233 photographically on 25 Mar 1894 using the 20" reflector at his "Starfield" observatory in Sussex, England.

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IC 2293 = MCG +04-20-024 = CGCG 119-054 = PGC 23352

08 19 32.1 +21 23 39

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 123d

 

18" (2/26/11): faint, small, round, 20" diameter, low even surface brightness.  This member of the Cancer I cluster is located 5.6' SE of brighter NGC 2557.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2293 = J. 3-1034 on 2 Mar 1896.

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IC 2311 = ESO 495-002 = MCG -04-20-007 = PGC 23304

08 18 46.0 -25 22 11

V = 11.5;  Size 2.1'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (3/25/95): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 1.2' diameter.  Even concentration to a small bright core and stellar nucleus.  Located in a rich star field 2.3' SE of a mag 10.5 star.  Just south is a 10' distinctive semicircle of stars leading to NGC 2566 located 7.6' S.  Second brightest member of the Klemola 10 quartet (2 fainter E-galaxies to the SW not seen).

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 2311 = Ho I-8 visually on 27 Jan 1889 using the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  It was found sweeping along with NGC 2566, which was described as "the S. of 2, roundish, pB, two stars involved."  IC 2311 was noted as "the N one is pB, S, R, stellar nucleus (?).  It is 1/2 [150 dia field = 8'] north of the above neb.  They are both among scattered stars."  He later added the note "one of these is new - the other probably = NGC 2566."

 

Herbert Howe independently rediscovered this galaxy on 16 Feb 1898 with the 20-inch Clark Refractor at Chamberlin Observatory in Colorado.  He noted "pB, vS, R, lbM, 6' n of NGC 2566" and measured an accurate position.  Barnard apparently never notified Dreyer (along with other discoveries) and Howe is credited with the discovery in the IC, though Barnard's observation was 9 years earlier.

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IC 2338 = Arp 247 NED1 = UGC 4383a = MCG +04-20-044 = CGCG 119-080sw = PGC 23546

08 23 32.7 +21 20 18

V = 14.8;  Size 0.5'x0.4'

 

17.5" (3/8/02): this is the southwestern component of a double system with IC 2339 (Arp 247).  IC 2338 was extremely faint and small, ~10" diameter, with possibly a faint stellar nucleus.  A threshold star about 30" NW also confuses sorting out the identifications and orientations.  Member of the Cancer I cluster.  In a small trio with IC 2341.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2338 = J. 3-1036, along with IC 2339 and 2341, on 2 Mar 1896.

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IC 2339 = Arp 247 NED2 = UGC 4383b = MCG +04-20-045 = CGCG 119-080ne = PGC 23542

08 23 34.2 +21 20 51

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x0.6'

 

17.5" (3/8/02): Arp 247 consists of a very close pair of faint galaxies with IC 2341 5.7' SSW.  The brighter component, IC 2339, is very faint, small, 30"x20" SW-NE.  IC 2338 is a very compact companion nearly just off the SW end (separation 0.7' between centers).  One or two extremely faint stars about 30" NW also confuse the observation.  Member of the Cancer I cluster.  Located 5' WSW of mag 9.6 SAO 80153.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2339 = J. 3-1037, along with IC 2338 and 2341, on 2 Mar 1896.

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IC 2341 = UGC 4384 = MCG +04-20-046 = CGCG 119-081 = PGC 23552

08 23 41.4 +21 26 05

V = 13.6;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 1d

 

17.5" (3/8/02): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 40"x20", weak concentration.  Arp 247 = IC 2339/2341 lies 5.7' NNE in the same high power field.  Member of the Cancer I cluster.  Located 4.8' NW of mag 9.6 SAO 80153.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2341 = J. 3-1039, along with IC 2338 and 2339, on 2 Mar 1896.

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IC 2367 = ESO 562-005 = PGC 23579 = PGC 23580

08 24 10.1 -18 46 32

V = 11.9;  Size 2.4'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 55d

 

16" LX200 (4/14/07): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, ~1.0x0.65', broad concentration.  Two faint stars (aligned N-S) are just off the NW side and a very faint star is at the west edge.  Situated in a rich Puppis star field peppered with faint stars and a mag 10.6 star 7' NW.  This is a relatively bright galaxy that was missed in the NGC.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 2367 visually on 1 Dec 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "Picked up a smallish pB nebula, not in NGC." and measured micrometric offsets from a nearby star.

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IC 2374 = CGCG 149-027 = MCG +05-20-016 = PGC 23758

08 28 22.1 +30 26 36

V = 15.3;  Size 0.5'x0.45';  PA = 163d

 

18" (2/26/11): extremely faint to very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Forms the NW vertex of an equilateral triangle with IC 2378 2.2' ESE and IC 2376 2.3' SSE.  CGCG 149-028 lies 1.4' NNE.  In the dense core of the challenging cluster AGC 671

 

17.5" (2/22/03): marginal object in AGC 671, nearly on a line with brighter IC 2380 and IC 2378, just 2.2' WNW of IC 2378.  Glimpsed a few times at 220x, but needing a better night for a decent view.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2374 = J. 3-1043, along with IC 2376, 2378 and 2380, on 24 Jan 1898.  CGCG doesn't equate 149-027 with IC 2374.  The galaxy identified as IC 2374 in CGCG is actually IC 2376.  The PGC also has the identifications confused and Megastar has all the IC designations on the wrong galaxies.  Finally, it's odd that Javelle mentions "near star 11.5", but there is no brighter star near this galaxy.  Corwin questions whether he could have seen an asteroid instead? 

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IC 2375 = MCG -02-22-014 = PGC 23672

08 26 19.7 -13 18 11

V = 13.1;  Size 1.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 83d

 

24" (2/16/15): first in a striking trio of IC galaxies.  At 322x; appeared fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated 7:2 E-W, 0.8'x0.25'.  IC 2377 lies 1.6' E and IC 2379 2.1' ENE.

 

In addition, I picked up MCG -02-22-011 14' SSW (same redshift as triplet; the quartet forming LDCE 574).  MCG -02-22-011 was comparable to the ICs and appeared fairly faint, small, elongated 5:3 N-S, ~25"x15", small bright core.  A mag 12.3 star is off the southeast side [30" from center].

 

17.5" (2/8/97): first and brightest of a close trio with IC 2377 1.6' E and IC 2379 2.1' ENE.  Faint, moderately large, elongated 3:1 E-W, 1.5'x0.5', even surface brightness.  The group lies near two mag 11 stars oriented SW-NE.

 

Herbert Howe discovered IC 2375 = Ho I-9, along with IC 2377 and 2379, on 22 Feb 1898 with the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver.  He noted "F, vS, elongated at 90, 1st of 3" and his micrometric position matches MCG -02-22-014 = PGC 23672.

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IC 2376 = CGCG 149-029 = MCG +05-20-017 = PGC 23764

08 28 26.1 +30 24 28

Size 0.7'x0.45';  PA = 65d

 

18" (2/26/11): faint to very faint, very small, elongated SW-NE, 18"x12".  Located 25" NW of a mag 13.7 star and 1.8' SW of IC 2378 in the core of AGC 671. 

 

17.5" (2/22/03): extremely faint and small, round, 10" diameter.  Appears as a very small knot 24" NW of a mag 13.7 star.  Located in the core of AGC 671, 1.9' SW of brightest member IC 2378.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2376 = J. 3-1044, along with IC 2374, 2378 and 2380, on 24 Jan 1898.  CGCG misidentifies this galaxy as IC 2374.  See Harold Corwin's notes on IC 2374 for more.

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IC 2377 = MCG -02-22-015 = PGC 23683

08 26 26.1 -13 18 23

Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 36d

 

24" (2/16/15): at 322x; faint to fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.4'x0.3', even surface brightness.  Faintest (lowest overall surface brightness) in a close trio with IC 2375 1.6' W and IC 2379 0.9' NNE.  A mag 11 star is 1.6' ESE

 

17.5" (2/8/97): second and faintest in a trio with IC 2375 and IC 2379.  Extremely faint, small, round, very low even surface brightness, 30" diameter.  IC 2379 is just 0.9' NNE and IC 2375 1.6' W.  A mag 11 star lies 1.5' ESE.

 

Herbert Howe discovered IC 2377 = Ho I-10, along with IC 2375 and 2379, on 22 Feb 1898 with the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver.  He noted "eF, vS, 2nd of 3" and his micrometric position matches MCG -02-22-015 = PGC 23683.  The identifications of IC 2377 and IC 2379 are reversed in PGC but correct in MCG.

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IC 2378 = CGCG 149-031 = MCG +05-20-018 = PGC 23771

08 28 31.6 +30 25 53

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  PA = 30d

 

18" (2/26/11): faint to fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 45"x35", low surface brightness halo with only a broad weak concentration, then sharply concentrated with a very small brighter nucleus.  IC 2378 is the largest and brightest galaxy in the core of AGC 671 with a number of faint galaxies nearby including IC 2374 2.2' WNW, IC 2376 1.8' SW, IC 2380 3' SE, CGCG 149-28 and CGCG 149-35.

 

17.5" (2/22/03): very faint, small, round, 25" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Brightest in AGC 671 with IC 2380 3.1' SE, IC 2376 1.9' SW and IC 2374 2.2' WNW.  Other fainter members nearby.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2378 = J. 3-1045, along with IC 2374, 2376 and 2380, on 24 Jan 1898.

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IC 2379 = MCG -02-22-016 = PGC 23681

08 26 27.8 -13 17 36

Size 0.9'x0.5';  PA = 144d

 

24" (2/16/15): at 322x; fairly faint, fairly small, oval 4:3 NW-SE, 0.45'x0.3', small bright core.  Second brightest in the triplet with IC 2377 0.9' SSW and IC 2375 2' WSW.  A mag 11 star lies 1.7' SE and a slightly fainter star is 1.9' NE.

 

17.5" (2/8/97): third in close trio with IC 2375 0.9' SSW and IC 2377 2.1' WSW.  Very faint, small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 0.5'x0.3'.  A mag 15 star lies 30" N.  Located 1.9' SW of a mag 12 star and 1.7' NW of a mag 11 star.

 

Herbert Howe discovered IC 2379 = Ho I-11, along with IC 2375 and 2377, on 22 Feb 1898 with the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver.  He noted "vF, vS, 2nd of 3" and his micrometric position matches MCG -02-22-016 = PGC 23681.  The identifications of IC 2377 and IC 2379 are reversed in PGC but correct in MCG.

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IC 2380 = CGCG 149-032 = MCG +05-20-019 = PGC 23777

08 28 43.9 +30 24 16

V = 14.4;  Size 0.75'x0.6';  PA = 169d

 

18" (2/26/11): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, weak concentration.  Situated 1.4' NE of a mag 12 star and 3' SE of brighter IC 2378.

 

17.5" (2/22/03): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Second brightest in AGC 671 and just slightly fainter than IC 2378 3.1' NW, though similar in size.  A mag 12.5 star is 1' SW.  IC 2376 lies 3.8' due west.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2380 = J. 3-1046, along with IC 2374, 2376 and 2378, on 24 Jan 1898.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 2388 = CGCG 089-063

08 39 56.5 +19 38 43

Size 0.5'x0.3'

 

18" (1/13/07): extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Located 1.5' S of a mag 10 star in the Beehive cluster and forms the southwest vertex of a 3.5'x1.5' rectangle including two mag 10 stars (one mentioned above at 3.6' separation).

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 2388 and communicated the discovery directly to Dreyer.  His position and description matches this faint galaxy, but the discovery date and telescope are unknown.

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IC 2389 = UGC 4576 = MCG +12-09-011 = CGCG 331-064 = CGCG 332-011 = PGC 24711

08 47 58.2 +73 32 18

V = 13.4;  Size 1.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 126d

 

17.5" (1/12/02): fairly faint, very elongated 7:2 NW-SE, 0.75'x0.2'.  Situated just off the NW end of a curving 5' string of 5 stars oriented SE-NW, the brightest being a mag 11.8 star 2.3' SE.  NGC 2646 lies 11' SE.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 2389 = Big. 269 on 3 Feb 1894.  His position is accurate.

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IC 2391 = ESO 165-SC4 = Cr 191 = Omicron Velorum Cluster

08 40 18 -52 55

V = 2.5;  Size 50'

 

13.1" (1/30/06 - Costa Rica): very bright and large naked-eye cluster surrounding mag 3.6 Omicron Vel (just north of the False Cross).  Resolved in 9x50 finder and my 15x50 IS binoculars.  Includes 7 bright stars with a wide (1.3') bright pair of mag 5 stars on the east side.  The border of this scattered group is not well defined but the fainter stars fill out over a degree in the 20mm Nagler 66' field.

 

13.1" (2/17/04 - Costa Rica): this very large naked-eye cluster appears as a fuzzy glow surrounding mag 3.6 Omicron Velorum (1.8 degrees NNW of mag 2.0 Delta Velorum in the False Cross).  This scattered 50' group contains perhaps three dozen stars and barely fits in the field of the 20 Nagler.  Perhaps a better view is obtained in the 9x50 finder or 10x30 IS binoculars which does a nice job of resolving the brighter stars, but the group is really too sparse and scattered to look impressive in the 13".

 

Al-Sufi first mentioned IC 2391 = Lac II-5 around 644 AD as a "nebulous star."  Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille observed it in 1751-1752 during his journey to the Cape and described a "small heap of stars" in his 1/2-inch refractor.  Solon Bailey also found the cluster on a photographic plate in 1896 using a 1" (f/13) Cook lens at the Arequipa station.  The discovery was reported in "A Catalogue of Bright Clusters and Nebulae" (Annals of Harvard College Observatory, Vol LX, No. VIII) and Bailey was credited with the discovery in the IC.

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IC 2395 = ESO 210-SC3 = Cr 192 = vdB-Ha 47 = Lund 1060

08 42 31 -48 06 30

V = 4.6;  Size 15'

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): this bright naked-eye group includes mag 5.5 HX Velorum on the west side.  Resolved in the 9x50 finder.  In the 13.1", roughly three dozen stars are visible in a 10' field.  The bright stars are scattered mostly on the following side of the group in an elongated arrangement extending to the southeast.  There is also a fairly rich gathering of stars within 4' of HX Vel.  NGC 2660 is located 48' S.

 

Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered IC 2395 = Lac. III-3 between 1751-1752 during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope.  This identification was missed by Dreyer, Jones, etc.  Solon Bailey independently discovered the cluster photographically in 1896 with a 1" Cook lens at the Arequipa station in Peru.  The discovery was published in his 1908 paper "A Catalogue of Bright Clusters and Nebulae, Annals of Harvard Observatory, Vol LX, No. VIII.

 

Brent Archinal noted the equivalence of this cluster with vdB-Ha 47.  The Lynga position for IC 2395 is incorrect but OK for vdB-Ha 47.  Brian Skiff gives a centroid position of 08 42 31 -48 06.5 (2000).

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IC 2398 = MCG +03-23-003 = CGCG 090-006 = PGC 24664

08 46 44.6 +17 45 18

V = 14.9;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  PA = 8d

 

48" (4/4/11): moderately bright, oval 5:3 N-S, 30"x18", broad concentration, brighter core.  Three mag 12.5-14 stars within 1' cradle the galaxy to the NE, SE and south.  Located 2.2' NNW of a mag 10.9 star.  The faint planetary Abell 30 lies 8' NNE.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 2398 = W. I-136 on a photographic plate taken on 13 Jan 1901 at the Heidelberg Observatory.

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IC 2411 = NGC 2667B = MCG +03-23-009 = CGCG 090-018 = Holm 98b = WBL 196-004 = PGC 24755

08 48 30.2 +19 02 38

V = 14.9;  Size 0.8'x0.25';  PA = 43d

 

24" (2/16/15): at 322x; very faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 25"x12", very low surface brightness.  Fainter of a pair with NGC 2667 1.6' SSW.

 

Ralph Copeland discovered IC 2411 on 26 Dec 1873 with LdR's 72-inch telescope and noted "cF, pS, lE pf; was thought to have an eF companion about 2' nf."  Dreyer followed this up on 21 Feb 1876, saying, "eF; I think it is only a * 16 m +- nf."  Because of his uncertainty Dreyer didn't assign this galaxy an IC designation. 

 

Max Wolf discovered it again on a Heidelberg plate on 13 Jan 1901 and assumed it was new.  Dreyer catalogued it as IC 2411, with no mention of the prior discovery. Corwin notes that "Had Dreyer been observing on a somewhat better night, or (perhaps) with a freshly-polished mirror, the fainter galaxy might also have received an NGC number."  MCG doesn't label this galaxy as IC 2411.

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IC 2421 = UGC 4658 = MCG +06-20-013 = CGCG 180-019 = Holm 101A = PGC 24996

08 54 21.6 +32 40 51

V = 13.3;  Size 2.2'x2.0';  Surf Br = 14.8;  PA = 147d

 

18" (4/4/12): at 175x appeared faint, moderately large, roundish, ~40" diameter.  Pretty low nearly even surface brightness with very weak concentration and no distinct core or zones, so appears fainter than V mag suggests.  This pretty face-on two-armed spiral is located 49' SE of NGC 2683 and 9' SW of mag 7.4 HD 76069.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2421 = J. 3-1060 on 6 Apr 1896 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 2431 = "Browning" = VV 645 = UGC 4756 = MCG +03-23-030 = CGCG 090-063 = Mrk 1224 = SDSS CGB6 = PGC 25476 + PGC 200245 + PGC 200246

09 04 35.4 +14 35 39

V = 14.0;  Size 0.55'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 32d

 

48" (2/21/12): at 488x this compact 25" quartet resolved into a trio of adjacent, extremely small "knots" (galaxies) each ~8" diameter, within a common halo.  One or two seem to have stellar nuclei including the knot on the south side, which corresponds with SDSS J090434.82+143536.3 = PGC 200246 (V = 15.7).  The other two knots are very close west and northwest (PGC 200245).  A mag 12 star is 1.7' NNE.  The seeing was fairly poor at the time of the observation, so I needed to wait for steady moments.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2431 = J. 3-1068 on 24 Feb 1896 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.

 

UGC classifies IC 2431 quadruple system.  The V-V Atlas of Interacting Galaxies II, has the note ""Browning".  Three?"  The name "Browning" probably refers to a Browning pistol, which it resembles in the atlas.

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IC 2437 = ESO 564-021 = MCG -03-23-020 = PGC 25518

09 05 33.1 -19 12 26

V = 12.9;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 123d

 

17.5" (2/8/97): brightest of three galaxies in field including NGC 2754 and NGC 2758 about 10' S.  Fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 40"x25".  Weak even concentration to a brighter core and faint stellar nucleus.  Forms the north vertex of a triangle with two mag 12.5 stars 1.0' W and S.

 

17.5" (3/25/95): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, slightly brighter core.  Forms the vertex of an isosceles right triangle with two mag 12.5 stars 1.0' W and 0.9' S of center.  A line of three mag 9.5 stars follows in the field including SAO 154906 and 154914.  In a trio with NGC 2758 9.7' N and NGC 2754 8.9' NW.

 

Herbert Howe discovered IC 2437 = Ho I-13 on 23 Feb 1898 and recorded "F, vS, R, 10' s of NGC 2754, 2757 and 2758."  His micrometric position is accurate.  It's odd that Muller viewed NGC 2754 and 2758 at the Leander-McCormick Observatory but missed this brighter galaxy about 10' north.

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IC 2448 = PK 285-14.1 = ESO 061-PN1 = PN G285.7-14.9

09 07 06.3 -69 56 31

V = 10.5;  Size 11"x9"

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this extremely bright, 10.5-magnitude compact planetary is located 34' SW of mag 1.7 Beta Carinae (Miaplacidus).  At 350x it appeared ~10" diameter with a very high surface brightness disc and a faint, thin outer envelope increasing the diameter a couple of arc seconds.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 2448 = Fleming 80 on a Harvard objective prism plate taken in 1898 at the Arequipa station.

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IC 2449 = HCG 37B = NGC 2783B = UGC 4856 = MCG +05-22-017 = CGCG 151-026 = Holm 113b = FGC 857 = PGC 26012

09 13 32.9 +29 59 59

V = 14.3;  Size 1.9'x0.2';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 77d

 

24" (2/9/13): faint to fairly faint, thin edge-on 5:1 WSW-ENE, 50"x10", contains a small brighter core.  HCG 37C lies 1' E and NGC 2783 is 1.5' SE.  Collinear with two mag 10/11 stars 1.6' SSE and 2.7' SSE.  A mag 14 star lies 0.6' N.

 

17.5" (2/8/97): second brightest of three visible in HCG 37.  Appears very faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 or 3:1 E-W (difficult to determine due to very low surface brightness arms).  Only core noticed at first glance, extensions require averted vision to see well.  Located 1.5' WNW of NGC 2783.  HCG 37c is 1.0' E of center.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2449 = J. 3-1081 on 16 May 1903.  There is nothing at his position but Malcolm Thomson found that reversing the offset for his RA separation lands on UGC 4856 = HCG 37B.  This galaxy is not identified as IC 2449 in modern catalogues except for NED, Corwin, Thomson and Steinicke.

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IC 2469 = ESO 433-017 = MCG -05-22-008 = UGCA 163 = PGC 26561

09 23 01.1 -32 27 00

V = 11.2;  Size 4.7'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 37d

 

18" (3/17/07): moderately bright, very elongated 7:2 SW-NE, 2.5'x0.7', sharply concentrated with a bright 40"x30" core and much fainter extensions.  A mag 12 star is superimposed on the southwest end.  A mag 10 star lies 5.8' W.  This is a bright and large IC galaxy that was surprisingly missed by John Herschel and discovered by Swift in 1897.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2469 = Sw XI-93 on 28 Dec 1897 and recorded "pF, cS, vE, 10m * close sp."  His RA is 36 seconds too small, but the identification is certain based on his description.

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IC 2474 = MCG +04-22-057 = PGC 26810

09 27 11.4 +23 02 04

Size 0.5'x0.2'

 

17.5" (4/13/91): extremely faint and small, round.  A mag 14 star is attached at the SE end and interferes with viewing.  Forms a close pair with NGC 2885 2' SE.  Faintest of three in a small group.

 

Sir Robert Ball probably discovered IC 2474 = Big. 275 on 10 Jan 1867 using LdR's 72".  He noted "3 objects seen close together, of which one is probably a nebula, the other possibly also, and third a star?  All of these are eF, and would perhaps not be seen unless on so good a night as this is."  The second and third objects are probably IC 2474 and MCG +04-22-060, though Dreyer did not include any additional entries in the NGC because of his uncertainty.  In any case, Bigourdan discovered the galaxy again on 21 Mar 1890 and was credited with the discovery in the IC.

 

CGCG and UGC misidentify NGC 2885 = IC 538 = CGCG 121-098 as IC 2474. 

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IC 2488 = ESO 166-SC14 = Cr 208 = Mel 97

09 27 27 -56 57 24

Size 70'

 

24" (4/10/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): very large, very bright cluster at 84x but fairly scattered.  The most striking portion are two bright ~N-S strings of stars, each ~5' in length, on the SE side of the cluster.  These two strings are connected on the north end by a couple of stars forming a "U" outline.  Many of the other stars are also arranged in strings including streams of stars that extend to the NW on both the north and south side of the cluster.  The most prominent string starts at the northern end of the western row and extends NW to a mag 9.4 star.  The outline of the cluster then meanders south on the west side before heading back SE towards the two parallel strings.  Although the listed diameter is 70', my description applies to the central 15' portion of the cluster.  Located 30' W of mag 3.1 north Velorum.  The irregular planetary, NGC 2899, lies 51' N.

 

Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered IC 2488 = Lac III-4 = D 330 between 1751-1752 using a 1/2-inch telescope at 8x during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope.  James Dunlop described "A faint cluster of small stars of mixed magnitude, with two or three pretty bright stars in it.  This answers to 485 Argus (Bode) and is described as a small star surrounded by a nebula."  Solon Bailey also found the cluster on a photographic plate in 1896 using a 1" f/13 Cook lens at Arequipa station.  The discovery was reported in "A Catalogue of Bright Clusters and Nebulae" (Annals of Harvard College Observatory, Vol LX, No. VIII) and Bailey was credited with the discovery in the IC.

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IC 2493 = MCG +06-21-056 = CGCG 181-065 = PGC 27322

09 36 17.5 +37 21 50

V = 14.1;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

17.5" (3/12/94): faint, very small, round, 30" diameter, smooth unconcentrated glow.  A mag 14 star is 1.4' NW.  NGC 2922 lies 21' NNE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2493 = J. 3-1115 on 14 May 1903.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 2497 = PGC 165538

09 41 04.1 +34 43 58

V = 15.1;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  PA = 116d

 

48" (4/1/11): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, 0.4'x0.3', brighter core.  This galaxy is located just 20" N of Hanny's Voorwerp!  2MASX 094106.75+3443565 lies 33" E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2497 = J. 3-1118 on 14 May 1903.  HyperLeda doesn't identify PGC 165538 as IC 2497.

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IC 2501 = PK 281-5.1 = ESO 126-PN26 = PN G281.0-05.6

09 38 47.2 -60 05 31

V = 10.4;  Size 2"

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x, this very compact planetary appeared as a very bright, mag 10.5 blue "star" that was slightly out of focus.  Although it was barely non-stellar at this power, it was obvious by its "soft" nature and blue color that it was a planetary.  Good contrast gain with a UHC filter.  At 350x, IC 2501 was clearly resolved as a very small 3" disc with a crisp edge and extremely high surface brightness.  Located 15' SE of mag 6.9 HD 83614.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 2501 = HN 101 in 1904 on a Harvard objective prism plate taken at the Arequipa station.

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IC 2510 = ESO 373-029 = MCG -05-23-017 = PGC 28147

09 47 43.5 -32 50 15

V = 12.5;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 148d

 

18" (3/17/07): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, weak concentration.  Located 3.7' E of a mag 9.8 star.  IC 2511 lies 21' E.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2510 = DS 320 on a plate taken in Apr 1900 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "eF, vS, cE at 140, bM, susp."

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IC 2511 = IC 2512 = ESO 374-049 = MCG -05-23-018 = PGC 28246

09 49 25.4 -32 50 31

V = 12.3;  Size 2.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 41d

 

18" (3/17/07): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 4:1 SW-NE, 1.2'x0.3'.  Forms a pair with IC 2513 8' ESE.  Located 24' WSW of NGC 3038 and 5.7' E of mag 8.5 HD 85117.  IC 2512 and 2514 are duplicate entries for IC 2511 and 2513 in Lewis Swift's same published list.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2511 = Sw XI-97, along with IC 2514, on 30 Dec 1897.  He recorded "pB; pS; eeE; spindle; 7m * np; not 3038; np of 2 [with IC 2514]."  His position is pretty good, but he found the pair again on 12 Feb 1898 but confused the orientation of the pair.  Although DeLisle Stewart only found one pair on an Harvard plate at Arequipa, Dreyer included both pairs in the IC.  So, IC 2511 = IC 2512 and IC 2514 = IC 2513.

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IC 2514 = IC 2513 = ESO-374-050 = MCG -05-23-019 = PGC 28290 = PGC 28283

09 50 00.7 -32 53 01

Size 1.5'x0.3';  PA = 62d

 

18" (3/17/07): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 WSW-ENE, 0.45'x0.3' (core region) with possibly very faint extensions, brightens to a quasi-stellar nucleus.  Two mag 12/13 stars are close following and a faint star is at the ENE end.  Forms a pair of edge-ons with IC 2511 = IC 2512 8' WNW.  NGC 3038 lies 17' NE and a mag 10.7 star lies 3' E.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2514 = Sw XI-100, along with IC 2511, on 30 Dec 1897.  He recorded "eeF; eS; 3 F st close f; sf of 2 [with IC 2511]."  His position and description is good, but he found the pair again on 12 Feb 1898 and confused the orientation in his second observation.  As a result, IC 2514 = IC 2513.

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IC 2522 = UGCA 189 = ESO 374-010 = MCG -05-24-004 = KTS 37B = PGC 28606

09 55 08.9 -33 08 14

V = 11.9;  Size 2.8'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (4/15/93): fairly faint, large, round, diffuse, just a weak concentration.  Forms a pair with IC 2523 4.5' S.  Located 1.8' S of mag 9 SAO 200865.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2522 = DS 322, along with IC 2523, on a plate taken in Apr 1900 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "vF, cL, R, * 8 n, susp."

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IC 2523 = ESO 374-011 = MCG -05-24-005 = KTS 37C = PGC 28607

09 55 09.5 -33 12 37

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated.  One or two faint stars are off the east end.  Forms a pair with IC 2522 4.5' N.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2523 = DS 323, along with IC 2522, on a plate taken in Apr 1900 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "vF, vS, cE at 20, susp."

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IC 2531 = ESO 435-025 = MCG -05-24-015 = UGCA 191 = AM 0957-292 = FGCE 896 = LGG 185-006 = PGC 28909

09 59 55.4 -29 37 02

V = 12.0;  Size 6.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 75d

 

17.5" (2/1/03): large, low surface brightness streak, 1.5'x0.3', oriented WSW-ENE; broad, weak concentration.  In a field with a number of mag 10-11 stars.  Located 6' SE of a wide mag 10.7/13.5 pair and a similar distance south of a quartet of mag 11/12 stars.  At the southwest edge of the 220x field are a trio of mag 9-10 stars.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2531 = Sw XI-104 on 15 Feb 1898 and logged "eeeF; pS; cE; trapezium n and nf; D * np."  His position is poor, but the identification is certain.

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IC 2533 = ESO 435-027 = MCG -05-24-017 = PGC 28948

10 00 31.7 -31 14 42

V = 12.0;  Size 1.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 1d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): moderately bright, small, almost round, strong bright core, possible stellar nucleus.  Located 31' N of NGC 3095.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 2533 = D.S. 325 visually on 13 May 1890 using the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "Indef. 12m.  A 7 1/2m star 10' p and 5' S.  His rough pointing (9h 56m -30.9 for 1890) lands 12'-14' from NGC 3095, NGC 3100 and IC 2533.  Barnard has the note "= NGC 3100" in his notebook, but his description of the mag 7.5 star only fits IC 2533.  Mag 7.2 HD 86765 is 7' preceding and 6' south of IC 2533.  DeLisle Stewart recorded it from an Arequipa plate in 1900 and is credited in the IC.

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IC 2536 = ESO 374-026 = PGC 29157

10 03 30.1 -33 57 00

V = 13.8;  Size 1.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (4/1/00): very faint glow close NW of a mag 14 star.  This is an edge-on but appeared too faint in unsteady seeing to clearly view any details.  An evenly matched pair of mag 11.5 stars lie 5' NE.  Located 28' NW of NGC 3120.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2536 = DS 327 on a plate taken 1 May 1900 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "F, S, E at 50, cbM."

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IC 2537 = ESO 499-039 = MCG -04-24-015 = UGCA 197 = LGG 185-009 = PGC 29179

10 03 51.9 -27 34 15

V = 12.1;  Size 2.6'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 26d

 

18" (2/19/09): relatively bright IC galaxy that was missed by John Herschel.  At 175x it appeared fairly faint, moderately large, oval 3:2 SSW-NNE, ~2'x1.5', broad weak concentration.  The Antlia Dwarf lies 15' NNE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2537 = Sw XI-105 on 14 Feb 1898 and reported "eeF; L; cE; no B * near; no triangle as per [NGC] 3113."

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IC 2538 = ESO 374-027 = MCG -06-22-015 = PGC 29181

10 03 56.5 -34 48 28

V = 13.9;  Size 1.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 1d

 

17.5" (4/1/00): extremely faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S, 0.4'x0.3'.  Probably viewed brighter core region only.  A mag 12.5 star lies 1' SW of center. Located 4' N of mag 8.3 SAO 201012.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2538 = DS 328 on a plate taken 1 May 1900 at Harvard's Arequipa station.  He noted "vF, vS, R, cbM."

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IC 2553 = PK 285-5.1 = ESO 127-PN10 = PN G285.4-05.3

10 09 20.9 -62 36 48

V = 10.4;  Size 11"x7"

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 171x this small, high surface brightness planetary was immediately seen in a rich star field.  It appeared bright (V = 10.4), very small, slightly elongated, ~8"x6", with a bluish tinge.  Excellent contrast gain with a UHC filter.  Located 58' directly west of NGC 3211 which was viewed immediately afterwards.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 2553 = Fleming 70 in 1893 on a Harvard objective prism plate taken at the Arequipa station.

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IC 2554 = ESO 092-012 = AM 1007-664 = PGC 29512

10 08 50.6 -67 01 51

V = 11.8;  Size 3.1'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 7d

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x this is a remarkable interacting double consisting of a very close pair of edge-ons with just slightly different orientations (both ~SSW-NNE) that run into each other.  The southern member is brighter and larger, ~1.4'x0.3' with the northern member perhaps half as long, though they are nearly merged so it was difficult to clearly distinguish.  With averted vision, the appearance is even more confusing as there is a strong impression of an additional component in the chain.  Located 27' NE of NGC 3136.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2554 = DS 334 on a plate taken 20 Mar 1901 at Harvard's Arequipa station.  He noted "cF, S,2-branch spiral, cE at 10, N."

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IC 2560 = ESO 375-004 = MCG -05-25-001 = LGG 196-003 = PGC 29993

10 16 18.7 -33 33 50

V = 11.7;  Size 3.2'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 45d

 

18" (4/10/04): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 1.4'x0.8', moderate concentration with a small brighter core and much fainter extensions.  Nestled within a neat asterism of 5 stars forming a rough rectangle including two mag 12 stars 1.3' NE and 1.9' ENE of center.  This Seyfert galaxy (type 2) is a possible outlying member of the Antlia Cluster within the Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2560 = Sw XI-106 on 28 Dec 1897 and reported "eeF; pS; iR; in center of trapezium."  His RA is 30 seconds too small, but the identification is certain based on the description.  Howe measured a more accurate position in 1899 or 1900, though still 1' too far north.

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IC 2572 = UGC 5636 = MCG +05-25-008 = PGC 30562

10 25 07.3 +28 05 40

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 27d

 

17.5" (3/25/95): extremely faint, small.  Appears very elongated ~N-S although difficult to determine exact orientation due to faintness.  Located 4.7' NNE of NGC 3235.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2572 = J. 3-1156 on 7 May 1896.

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IC 2574 = Coddington's Nebula = UGC 5666 = MCG +12-10-038 = CGCG 333-031 = DDO 81 = VII Zw 330 = PGC 30819

10 28 22.4 +68 24 58

V = 10.4;  Size 13.2'x5.4';  Surf Br = 14.8;  PA = 50d

 

48" (2/21/12): This large, low surface brightness dwarf irregular in the M81 group extends roughly 10'x4' SW-NE with only a weak, broad concentration.  The galaxy is dominated by a giant star forming/HII complex near the NE end of the galaxy.  At 375x, four separate, compact knots were easily resolved within a 1.2' region, though the brighter glow from the entire complex spans roughly 1.5'x1.0' from WSW to ENE.  The brightest and largest knot carries the designation IC 2574:[HK83] #15, from Hodge and Kennicutt's "An Atlas of H II regions in 125 Galaxies" in AJ, 88, 296 (1983).  This high surface brightness knot is very bright, slightly elongated N-S, 20"x15", and is situated at the NW vertex of the four knots.  #13/34 is a fainter irregular knot of ~12" diameter at the NE vertex.  #35 forms the SE vertex and appears as a faint, round knot, only 8"-10" in size, just 24" SSW of #13/#34.  The knot at the SW vertex is not listed in the H-K atlas, but is catalogued in NED as radio source NVSS J102844+682809.  It appeared similar to #35, though slightly elongated, and is situated only 20" S of #15.  At 488x, a 5th knot was seen ~30" SW of #15, and appeared as a very faint, ill-defined 15" glow (this region contains #17 and #19).

 

17.5" (3/12/94): faint, very large, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 7.0'x2.5', low surface brightness, no concentration.  Four faint stars are near the north side.  There is a fairly bright nonstellar HII region that is clearly visible at the NE end as a high surface brightness knot.  Member of the M81 group  (distance ~12 million l.y.).

 

Edwin Coddington discovered IC 2574 at Lick Observatory on a plate of the M81/82 region taken on 17 and 20 Apr 1898 with the 6" Crocker telescope (Willard Lens).  The discovery was announced in PASP 10, 123 (1898).  He noted he observed it visually on the 22nd with the 12-inch refractor.  Also, on 19 May, Coddington obtained an additional photograph that showed "the different condensations to be connected by faint nebulous matter, and the whole to extend over an area fully 4' in width and 12' in length."

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IC 2580 = ESO 436-025 = MCG -05-25-004 = PGC 30814 = Klemola 11B

10 28 18.0 -31 31 05

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 154d

 

18" (4/25/09): faint, moderately large, round, 50" diameter.  Appears as a diffuse, low surface brightness hazy glow with only a weak central brightening.  Located 9.4' NW of brighter ESO 436-027 in the southern group Klemola 11.  A 35" pair of mag 9.6/10.8 stars lies 9' SW.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2580 = DS 346 on a plate taken 1 May 1900 at Harvard's Arequipa station.  He noted "cB, S, bM."

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IC 2581 = ESO 168-SC3 = Cr 222

10 27 26.1 -57 37 32

V = 4.3;  Size 25'

 

14" (4/4/16 - Coonabarabran, 71x and 142x): very bright group of stars, dominated by mag 4.7 V399 Car.  This star forms the eastern vertex of an equilateral triangle with a mag 7.1 star 4.3' NW and a mag 8.7 star 4' SW.  In a 5' region there are roughly 35 stars, including a few mag 10-11 just south of the mag 4.7 star.  A curving star chain with fainter stars extends north of V399 Car.  The NGC 3247 cluster/nebula lies 27' SW.

 

Edward Pickering (or assistant) discovered IC 2581 on a Harvard plate taken at the Arequipa station on 10 May 1893.

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IC 2597 = HCG 48A = ESO 501-058 = MCG -04-25-051 = PGC 31586

10 37 47.3 -27 04 53

V = 11.8;  Size 2.6'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 4d

 

17.5" (4/1/00): moderately bright, elongated 3:2 N-S, 1.0'x0.7', fairly sharp concentration with a small bright core.  A mag 14 star is close SE [40" from center].  This is the brightest member of HCG 48 along with HCG 48b 2.5' S and HCG 48c 2.0' NW.  This HCG is actually a subgroup of AGC 1060 whose core is located just 30' SSW.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 2597 = Sw XI-114 on 13 May 1890 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  With respect to 5th magnitude HD 92036, he noted "20' N and 5' f, not large, not faint."  Swift rediscovered IC 2597 on 14 Feb 1898 and recorded "pB; pS; D* nr p." The last comment may refer to a star and HCG 48C.  Swift is credited with the discovery in the IC as Barnard didn't measure an accurate position or publish his discovery.

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IC 2602 = ESO 093-SC002 = Cr 229 = Southern Pleiades

10 43 00 -64 24

V = 1.9;  Size 60'

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): with the naked-eye, an obvious halo is visible around mag 2.7 Theta Carinae but only a few stars are resolved naked eye.  In the 9x50mm finder, a couple of dozen stars are resolved in a one degree region.  The "Southern Pleiades" is really too large and too scattered for an impressive view in the 13".  Includes about a dozen mag 6-7.5 stars scattered in the field and a couple of mag 5 stars along with blue colored Theta (B-V = -0.2).  Most of the bright stars are located in two main groups; a 45' string extending north and southwest of Theta and a large, detached, rectangular group of stars on the east end of the cluster, roughly 25' from Theta.  Melotte 101 lies 40' SSW.

 

Melotte 101

14.5" (4/4/16 - Coonabarabran, 73x and 147x): beautiful, very large cluster, centered 12' E of a mag 5.5 star.  Roughly 120-150 stars are resolved, depending on the assumed size. There is no distinct boundary so the size is pretty arbitrary but most of the brighter stars are within a 8'-10' circle.  Many of the stars are arranged in long chains and loops.  The brightest mag 9.7 star is at the west end, but the majority of the stars are 12-13 magnitude.

 

Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered IC 2602 = Lac II-9 in 1751-1752 with a 1/2-inch telescope at 8x during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope.  He recorded "The star Theta Navis, of the third magnitude or less, surrounded by a large number of stars of 6th, 7th & 8th magnitude, which resemble the Pleiades."  The nickname "Southern Pleiades derives from this description.  Solon Bailey also found the cluster on a photographic plate in 1896 using a 1" (f/13) Cook lens at the Arequipa station.  The discovery was reported in "A Catalogue of Bright Clusters and Nebulae" (Annals of Harvard College Observatory, Vol LX, No. VIII) and Bailey was credited with the discovery in the IC.

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IC 2605

10 49 49.6 +32 58 43

 

48" (5/4/16): this number refers to the brighter southwestern spiral arm of NGC 3395.  A fairly easy, well-defined (inner) spiral arm is on the south side of the galaxy; it rotates sharply counterclockwise nearly 180, ending on the east side of the galaxy.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 2605 = Big. 402 on 11 Apr 1899 while observing NGC 3395.  According to Harold Corwin, Bigourdan commented, ""Nebulous rounded object, about 20 arcsec across, it would be nearly impossible to make measurements." and estimated an offset of 0.5 seconds of time west and 17" south from the nucleus.  Corwin identifies this with the brighter inner spiral arm just south of the core of the galaxy.

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IC 2621 = PK 291-4.1 = ESO 093-PN4 = PN G291.6-04.8

11 00 20.2 -65 14 58

V = 11.4;  Size 5"

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): picked up by blinking with an OIII filter at 76x (27 Panoptic) and appeared as a slightly fuzzy bluish "star".  Excellent contrast gain using the filter.  Situated in the middle of a string of 3 stars with a mag 11.5 star 1' NW and a mag 10.8 star 75" SE.  Appears ~0.5 magnitudes fainter than the SE star (giving an estimated V mag of 11.3) but significantly brighter using the OIII filter.  Appears quasi-stellar at 228x, perhaps 3" diameter at most.  Located 2 SE of IC 2502 = "Southern Pleiades".

 

Joseph Lunt discovered IC 2621 = HN 106 visually in 1901 with the Cape Observatory 24-inch refractor fitted with an object-glass prism.  He noted "a stellar nebula found visually wit the 24-inch o.g. prism.  Mag 10-11."  Williamina Fleming found it independently again in 1907 on a Harvard objective prism plate taken at the Arequipa station.

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IC 2627 = ESO 502-021 = MCG -04-27-002 = UGCA 227 = AM 1107-232 = PGC 33860

11 09 53.5 -23 43 35

V = 12.0;  Size 2.4'x2.3';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 66d

 

18" (3/29/03): fairly large but fairly faint roundish glow.  Has an irregular surface brightness at 300x with a patchy appearance (face-on spiral with an asymmetrically brighter arm and knotty appearance on the DSS).  Located 8.4' ESE of mag 9.9 SAO 179590.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2627 = Sw XI-120 on 10 Apr 1898 and reported "eF; L; R; sev st in L semi circle n, in finder field with Beta Crateris."  Howe noted it has "a stellar nucleus of mag 13.5."

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IC 2628 = CGCG 067-030 = PGC 34038

11 11 37.9 +12 07 19

V = 14.9;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

17.5" (5/4/02): extremely faint, very small, requires averted.  Located 0.9' WNW of a mag 13.5 star that interferes with viewing this faint galaxy.  Much brighter NGC 3559 lies 14' SW.  M65/M66 is ~2.5 degrees NE.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 2628 = W. VII-1 on a Heidelberg plate taken in March 1906.  His position is accurate.

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IC 2631 = ESO 038-EN009 = Ced 112

11 09 52.8 -76 36 51

Size 10'

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): surprisingly bright, very large reflection nebula surrounding the mag 9.0 T Tauri-type star HD 97300.  It extends nearly 8' in diameter (fades around the edges) and is essentially round.  It was missed by John Herschel although he picked up NGC 3620, a faint galaxy 32' NE.  IC 2631 is not plotted in Tirion's Sky Atlas 2000, Uranometria 2000 (both 1st and 2nd editions) nor the Millennium Star Atlas. Immediately to the south is the huge Chamaeleon Dark Cloud.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2631 = D.S. 352 on a plate taken on 22 May 1900 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "* 9 involved in neb of 2' radius."

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IC 2714 = ESO 129-SC18 = OCL-855 = Cr 245

11 17 25 -62 43 18

Size 12'

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this was a surprisingly appealing cluster, roughly 13' in diameter and framed nicely in the 30' field at 200x in the 13mm Ethos.  The stars are fairly uniform in brightness with a large number of mag 11-12.5 stars and they give the impression of being connected in numerous loops and chains over the entire cluster.  The cluster is not concentrated, though there are several mag 11 stars near the center and a close double.  Mel 105 is located 48' SSE.

 

James Dunlop discovered IC 2714 = D 281 on 27 Apr 1826 with his 9-inch reflector at Paramatta, NSW.  He described a "cluster of very small stars, a little elongated preceding and following, about 10' diameter; the stars are congregated towards the centre, a pretty bright star south, and a double star south following this."  His position was ~7' too far north.

 

Solon Bailey independently discovered the cluster in 1896 on a photographic plate using a 1" f/13 Cook lens at the Arequipa station.  The discovery was reported in "A Catalogue of Bright Clusters and Nebulae" (Annals of Harvard College Observatory, Vol LX, No. VIII) and Bailey was credited with the discovery in the IC.  His description reads "cluster, pretty compressed."

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IC 2735 = UGC 6364 = MCG +06-25-048 = PGC 34772

11 21 04.0 +34 20 37

V = 14.5;  Size 1.0'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (3/12/88): very faint, small, edge-on ~E-W, weak concentration.  Located midway on line between a mag 12 star 2.0' E and a mag 15 star 2.2' W.  First of six on a line in the core of galaxy cluster AGC 1228 with IC 2738 4.0' ENE and IC 2744 8.0' ENE.  Mag 9 SAO 62507 lies 5.3' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2735 = J 3-1177, along with ICs 2738, 2744 and 2751, on 22 May 1903 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 2738 = CGCG 185-042 = MCG +06-25-049 = PGC 34797

11 21 23.0 +34 21 24

V = 14.3;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (3/12/88): very faint, extremely small, small bright core, faint stellar nucleus, slightly elongated.  A mag 13.5 star is close off the west edge 35" from the center.  Second of six in the core of AGC 1228 with IC 2735 4.0' WSW and IC 2744 4.0' E.  Mag 9 SAO 62507 lies 3.5' directly north.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2738 = J 3-1178, along with ICs 2735, 2744 and 2751, on 22 May 1903.

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IC 2744 = CGCG 185-045 = MCG +06-25-052 = PGC 34833

11 21 42.5 +34 21 46

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (3/12/88): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 13.5 star is close off the south edge 35" from the center.  Third of six on a line in the core of AGC 1228 with IC 2738 4.0' W, IC 2735 8.0' WSW and IC 2751 5.1' E.  Mag 9 SAO 62507 lies 5.6' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2744 = J 3-1179, along with ICs 2735, 2738 and 2751, on 22 May 1903.

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IC 2751 = CGCG 185-047 = PGC 2048050

11 22 07.4 +34 21 59

Size 0.4'x0.4'

 

17.5" (3/12/88): extremely faint and small, nearly stellar, round.  Located 3.2' NNE of CGCG 185-046 and 5.1' E of IC 2744.  Fifth of six galaxies in the core of AGC 1228.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2751 = J 3-1180, along with ICs 2735, 2738 and 2744, on 22 May 1903.  His re-reduced position matches CGCG 185-047 = PGC 34873.  MCG, PGC, HyperLeda and secondary sources such as Megastar misidentify CGCG 185-046 as IC 2751.  Although this galaxy is larger and slightly brighter, it was missed by Javelle.

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IC 2759 = HCG 51E = MCG +04-27-027 = CGCG 126-041 = PGC 34881

11 22 13.3 +24 19 02

V = 14.1;  Size 0.35'x0.35';  Surf Br = 11.0

 

48" (4/18/15): at 488x; moderately bright, small, round, 18" diameter, sharply concentrated with a small bright core.  First of 7 in HCG 51 with HCG 51B 1.0' S.

 

17.5" (5/11/96): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, moderate surface brightness.  This member of HCG 51 forms a close pair with HCG 51B = MCG +04-27-026 1.0' S.  A mag 13 star lies 2.0' NW.  Located 3.2' NW of brightest member NGC 3651.

 

HCG 51B = MCG +04-27-026 appeared very faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 0.9'x0.6', very weak concentration.  Larger of close pair with IC 2759 1.0' N, though has a significantly lower surface brightness.  Modern catalogues misidentify this galaxy as IC 2759.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 2759 = B. 405 on 24 Apr 1897 and noted "strong stellar object that appears accompanied by nebulosity; a mag 13 star at p = 300 , d = 2'.5."  His position is close to HCG 51B and 51E (similar in brightness).  Based on my visual observation I suggested to Harold Corwin that IC 2759 = HCG 51E = CGCG 126-041 and he confirmed this identification based on Bigourdan's micrometric offsets from NGC 3651. Modern catalogues (CGCG, PGC, UGC, MCG, RC3 and secondary sources such as Megastar) misidentify CGCG 126-040 = HCG 51B as IC 2759.

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IC 2764 = ESO 439-008 = KTS 43A = PGC 35222

11 27 05.0 -28 58 49

V = 12.2;  Size 1.6'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

18" (3/19/04): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 35" diameter, weak concentration.  A mag 11 star is just off the northeast edge 48" from the center.  A mag 9 star (SAO 179902) lies 5.7' ENE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2764 = Sw XI-121 on 1 Jan 1898 and reported "pB; pS; R; 10m * close nf; 7m * f[ollowing]."  There is nothing near his position, but 5 minutes of time following is this relatively bright galaxy that matches his description.  MCG does not identify this galaxy as IC 2764, but it is correctly identified in modern sources.

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IC 2850 = MCG +02-29-030 = CGCG 067-082 = Holm 257f = PGC 35301

11 28 12.9 +09 03 44

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.1

 

18" (5/3/11): faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Located 0.5' NW of mag 14 star.  First of 6 IC galaxies in the IC 698 group.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): very faint, elongated NW-SE, very small, requires averted.  A mag 14.5 star is just off the SE edge 33" from the center.  Fifth brightest in the IC 698 group and forms a pair with IC 2853 5.1' N.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 2850 = W. VII-222, along with IC 2853 and 2857, on a Heidelberg plate taken on 27 Mar 1906.  He reported "pB, S, E at 120, bM, * 13 sf 1/2'."

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IC 2853 = UGC 6470 = MCG +02-29-031 = Holm 257c = PGC 35302

11 28 14.9 +09 08 48

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 15d

 

18" (5/3/11): faint to fairly faint, small, oval 3:2 SSW-NNE, ~25"x15", slightly brighter core.  Located less than 1' SSW of a mag 10 star  (SAO 118877) that hampers the view.  A mag 13.5 star is a similar distance east, forming a small equilateral triangle with the galaxy.  Furthest NW in the IC 698 group.  The SDSS shows a nice barred spiral with a more prominent arm emerging from the south end of the bar.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): faint, small, oval SSW-NNE, weak concentration.  Located just 0.9' SSW of a mag 10 star.  A mag 14 star is 0.9' E.  First of four brighter galaxies in the IC 698 group with IC 2850 5.1' S and IC 2857 4.8' SE.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 2853 = W. VII-225, along with IC 2850 and 2857, on a Heidelberg plate taken on 27 Mar 1906.  He reported "pB, pS, E in 160, bM, forms a triangle with 2 stars."

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IC 2857 = UGC 6475 = MCG +02-29-033 = FGC 1253 = Holm 257e = PGC 35320

11 28 31.1 +09 06 14

V = 14.5;  Size 1.9'x0.2';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 161d

 

18" (5/3/11): extremely faint, moderately large, edge-on NNW-SSE, required averted and can only glimpse for moments so not well seen.  Located 2.2' W of IC 696 and 1.3' S of a mag 13.5 star.  This is the faintest of 6 galaxies in the IC 698 group.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): extremely faint, edge-on NNW-SSE, visible only part of time with averted.  A mag 14.5 star is off the north end 1.3' from center.  Sixth brightest in the IC 698 group with IC 2853 4.8' NW.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 2857 = W. VII-229, along with IC 2850 and 2853, on a Heidelberg plate taken on 27 Mar 1906.  He reported "F, pL, 2' x 1/4' in PA 160, bM."  Rudolph Spitaler missed this galaxy when he went through the field visually on 31 Mar 1892 with the 27-inch refractor at the Wien Observatory.

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IC 2943 = CGCG 268-062 = Mrk 41 = PGC 35926

11 36 42.3 +54 50 45

V = 14.4;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.1

 

17.5" (3/19/88): very faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  Forms a close pair with brighter NGC 3759 located 2' SE.  Member of AGC 1318.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 2943 visually on 6 Jul 1896 with the 18-inch refractor at the Strassburg Observatory.

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IC 2944 = ESO 094-SC004 = OCL-862 = RCW 62 = Gum 42 = Ced 118

11 36 36 -63 02

V = 4.5;  Size 75'x50'

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): this is a bright and fascinating HII region southeast of Lambda Centauri using an OIII filter and 20mm Nagler combination!  Surrounds open cluster Cr 249, which is encased in nebulosity.  Additional haze extends beyond the cluster towards the southeast for several arcminutes.  At this point there is a sharp bend and a bright section of nebulosity extends to the north.  This section is wider and brighter than other regions.  The brightest sections roughly form a huge "7" shape, perhaps 30' in size!  This object is referred to as the "Running Chicken Nebula" and photographs reveal several embedded Bok globules.

 

Royal H. Frost discovered IC 2944 = F. 789, along with IC 2948, on a 24-inch photographic plate taken at the Arequipa station on 5 May 1904.  He noted nebulosity but not the scattered cluster.  Images reveal several interesting dark blobs called Thackeray's Globules (dense star forming regions).  The IC designations refer to different parts of the same HII complex.  See Harold Corwin's notes on this object.

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IC 2948 = ESO 094-SC005 = RCW 62 = Gum 42 = Lambda Cen Nebula = Running Chicken Nebula

11 39 05 -63 26 36

Size 44'

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): this is a bright and fascinating HII region southeast of Lambda Centauri using an OIII filter and a 20mm Nagler combination!  Surrounds open cluster Cr 249 (notes below) that is encased in nebulosity.  Additional haze extends beyond the cluster towards the southeast for several arcminutes.  At this point there is a sharp bend and a bright section of nebulosity extends to the north.  This section is wider and brighter than other regions.  The brightest sections roughly form a huge "7" shape, perhaps 30' in size!  This object is referred to as the "Running Chicken Nebula" and photographs reveal several embedded Bok globules.

 

Cr 249 = Lambda Cen cluster is a bright group of two dozen stars elongated NW-SE, ~12'-15' diameter, centered ~30' SE of mag 3 Lambda Cen.  Situated in the midst of a fascinating field of nebulosity and dark lane which run just north of the cluster and which spreads out to the east of the cluster!  The field seems riddled with dark lanes and brighter patches.  Mag 6.5 HD 101205 is near the center of the group and a mag 7 star lies 4.6' NW.

 

Royal H. Frost discovered IC 2948 = F. 790, along with IC 2944, on a photographic plate taken  5 May 1904 with the 24-inch refractor at the Arequipa station.  He noted nebulosity only. See notes on IC 2944.

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IC 2951 = UGC 6688 = MCG +03-30-061 = CGCG 097-082 = PGC 36436

11 43 24.5 +19 44 59

V = 13.6;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (2/20/88): very faint, small, edge-on E-W.  A mag 13 star is at the east edge 41" from the center.  Forms a close pair with UGC 6683 2' W within AGC 1367.

 

Friedrich Bidschof discovered IC 2951 visually in February 1897 using the 27" refractor at the Vienna Observatory.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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IC 2955 = MCG +03-30-096 = CGCG 097-128 = PGC 36603

11 45 03.9 +19 37 14

V = 14.0;  Size 0.2'x0.2';  Surf Br = 10.3

 

17.5" (3/12/88): faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  This is the fainter member of a very close pair with NGC 3862 in AGC 1367, situated just 0.9' NNW of NGC 3862.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): very faint, extremely small, round, requires averted.  Located just off NNW edge of NGC 3862.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 2955 = Big. 406 on 28 Mar 1886 in an observation of NGC 3862.

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IC 2966 = ESO 094-EN008 = VdBH 56 = Ced 121

11 50 13.5 -64 52 23

Size 3'x2'

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly faint, fairly large elongated glow surrounding a 43" pair of stars oriented E-W (viewed unfiltered).  This reflection nebula extends at least 2'x1' and perhaps 2.5'x1.25'.  Located 22' NW of mag 4.9 HD 103079 (close double COO 130 = 5.2/7.4 at 1.6").

 

Royal H. Frost discovered IC 2966 = F. 791 = D 266? on a photographic plate taken  5 May 1904 with the 24-inch refractor at the Arequipa station.  It's possible that James Dunlop discovered it first on 8 May 1826 and recorded "A very small nebula, very bright immediately at the center; the bright point is nearly equal in brightness to one of the minute stars north of the nebula.  I do not think the bright point is a star, but a very high condensed nucleus, surrounded by a faint chevelure, not more than 10" diameter.  Another very minute nebula precedes it."  Dunlop's position is 16' too far northwest, so this identification is not certain.

 

Van den Bergh and Herbst included this object as No. 56 in their Catalogue of Southern Stars Embedded in Nebulosity (AJ, 1975), noting that it had a high surface brightness and was equally bright on both the red and blue plates. The maximum diameter on the red plate was 2.4' and the blue plate was 2.6'.

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IC 2968 = CGCG 127-085 = PGC 37192

11 52 30.5 +20 37 31

V = 14.8;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (4/7/89): very faint, small, very elongated E-W.  Located 3' W of NGC 3937 in a group.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 2968 on 2 Apr 1894 with the 18-inch refractor at the Strassburg Observatory. The CGCG and UGC notes to NGC 3937 misidentify this galaxy as IC 2958.  Harold Corwin notes that RNGC, UGC, NGC 2000.0, and PGC all incorrectly equate IC 2968 with NGC 3937.

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IC 2979 = UGC 6925 = MCG +05-28-054 = CGCG 157-059 = PGC 37559

11 56 54.3 +32 09 33

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (2/24/90): very faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S, even surface brightness.  Located 3' SE of mag 8.0 SAO 62767.  Picked up viewing the NGC 3955 group with NGC 3986 8' S and NGC 3966 15' WNW.  Verified on the POSS.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2979 = J. 3-1201, along with IC 2981, on 12 Jun 1896.  There is nothing at the IC position, but Harold Corwin and Malcolm Thomson found that Javelle made a 1 degree error in the north polar distance of his offset star.  Once corrected, his position fits UGC 6925 perfectly.  Due to this error, modern catalogues fail to identify their equivalent entries as IC 2979.  NED and HyperLeda now use the IC designation.

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IC 2981 = MCG +05-28-048 = CGCG 157-056 = PGC 37462

11 55 42.6 +32 11 21

V = 14.5;  Size 0.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.2

 

17.5" (2/24/90): very faint, very small, round.  Two mag 13/14 stars are 1.3' W.  Member of the NGC 3995 group.  Incorrectly identified as NGC 3966 in modern sources.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 2981 = J. 3-1202, along with IC 2979, on 12 Jun 1896.   He used the same comparison star (BD +33 2172) for IC 2979 for which there was a one degree error its north polar distance, but after making this correction there is nothing at the position for IC 2981.  None of the major galaxy catalogues include a listing for IC 2981 except for MOL (Master Optical List) and NGC 2000 (at the incorrect IC declination).  However, Corwin found that reversing the sign of the RA offset points directly at CGCG 157-056 = PGC 37462.  This identification is given here.

 

To further confuse the issue, PGC 37462 is misidentified as NGC 3966 in RNGC, MCG, CGCG and PGC.  Max Wolf suggested that Heinrich d'Arrest's single position was 30 seconds off in RA.  His "corrected" position is given in the IC 2 Notes and matches PGC 37462.  But Harold Corwin (e-mail from 3/6/98) found that d'Arrest's description did not match this galaxy, particularly the nearby mag 12-13 star.  d'Arrest mentions he was searching for h1027 = NGC 3986, and this galaxy matches his description of the nearby star!  So, despite a poor match in RA and Dec, NGC 3966 = NGC 3986, instead.

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IC 2982 = NGC 4004B = CGCG 157-063 = Holm 312b = WBL 367-002 = PGC 37636

11 57 51.4 +27 52 07

V = 14.3;  Size 0.4'x0.25'

 

17.5" (4/9/99): faint, very small, elongated 20"x15" SW-NE.  Just follows a mag 11 star [45" to center] which is the brightest star in an inverted "L" asterism and which detracts from viewing.  Located 3.1' W of NGC 4004 and 6.0' W of NGC 3988.

 

John Dreyer probably discovered IC 2982 = Big. 285 = NGC 4004B on 5 Apr 1877.  A sketch reproduced in the 1880 LdR Monograph shows GC 2633 [later NGC 3988] and a second nebula close following a star.  Dreyer assumed this was GC 2645 [later NGC 4004], but the placement with respect to the included stars matches IC 2982.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan "officially" discovered IC 2982 again on 28 Apr 1894.  The IC position is 3' too far south but Corwin's re-reduced position is a good match and his description fits.  Bigourdan is credited with the discovery in the IC.

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IC 2995 = ESO 440-050 = MCG -05-29-008 = UGCA 268 = LGG 270-002 = PGC 38330

12 05 46.9 -27 56 25

V = 12.2;  Size 3.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 117d

 

18" (4/29/06): faint, fairly large, very elongated WSW-ENE.  In poor seeing appears as a low surface brightness, elongated strip with an irregular, patchy surface brightness and a slightly brighter bulging center but no defined core.  Mag 9.5 HD 105111 lies 5.3' ESE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 2995 = Sw XI-131 on 30 Dec 1898 and noted "vF; L; cE; 8m * near f[ollowing]; np of 2 [with Sw XI-133]."  The second entry was actually observed 2 nights later, so he may have added the comment "np of 2" when preparing his manuscript.  Howe observed the field in 1899-00 and reported, "These were discovered on different nights; their positions agree closely, and their descriptions fairly.  I examined the locality on two nights, and found only one nebula, which is elongated at 120, is about 1.5' long, and points toward a star of mag 9, which follows 15 or 20 seconds."  So, Sw XI-133 is a duplicate entry for IC 2995.  DeLisle Stewart found this galaxy again on an Arequipa plate in 1899, measured the position, and noted "F, cL, ellip. sp form, E at 125."

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IC 2996 = ESO 440-051 = MCG -05-29-006 = LGG 271-004 = PGC 38334

12 05 48.6 -29 58 19

V = 13.5;  Size 1.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 21d

 

18" (5/28/06): very faint, very small, slightly elongated, 0.4'x0.3', low surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is attached at the south edge.  Located 17' SW of NGC 4105/4106 pair.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 2996 = D.S. 357 on a plate taken in July 1899 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "F, vS, E at 20, * sp."

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