IC 10 = UGC 192 = MCG +10-01-001 = LBN 591 = PP 5 = PGC 1305

00 20 23.2 +59 17 35

V = 10.4;  Size 6.3'x5.1';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

18" (9/6/10): this local group dwarf Irregular was immediately picked up at 108x (without a printed finder chart) as a large, low surface brightness hazy glow, ~4'x2.5', roughly elongated NW-SE, though the outer extent increased with averted vision and careful viewing.  A mag 12.7 star is superposed to the southeast of center and a few stars are on the northwest end.  The 1.5' region surrounding the mag 12.7 star is the brightest portion of the galaxy and the W and NW regions have a very low surface brightness and appeared irregular and patchy.  Located 12' NE of mag 7.3 HD 486 and just north of a right triangle of mag 10-11 stars

 

Using 175x, a very small 15" knot was clearly visible about 50" following the mag 12.7 star.  This knot is a giant HII region (site of violent starburst formation) catalogued by Hodge and Lee (1990) as HL 111.  At 285x with direct vision a faint star at its west edge was similar in visibility, but with averted vision the HII knot was more evident.  I probably viewed the brightest component 111c, which has a diameter of 11", of this HII complex.  Two mag 10.5 stars 3.5' S and 5.5' S of the galaxy (part of the right triangle mentioned above) provide a useful guide to pinpoint the location of HL 111.  The HII region is directly on a line and equally spaced with these stars -- just follow the stars to the small knot.

 

18" (7/15/07): at 225x this Local Group member (M31 subgroup) appeared faint, fairly large, slightly elongated NW-SE, ~4.5'x3.5', low even surface brightness except fades at the edges.  A mag 13 star is superimposed west of center and a fainter star follows.  Located 1.4 degrees ENE of mag 2.3 Beta Cas (Caph).

 

18" (10/8/05): picked up fairly easily at 115x as a large, low surface brightness hazy region with a mag 13 star superimposed.  Good view at 160x using the Meade 14mm Ultrawide.  Appeared faint, large, slightly elongated, ~4'-5' diameter (though no distinct borders) with a patchy, mottled appearance, very weak concentration.  Several faint stars (besides the mag 13 star) are superimposed.  Situated within a rich star field and appears similar to a low surface brightness emission or reflection nebula.

 

13.1" (11/5/83): very faint, moderately large, elongated NW-SE.  Unusually low even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is superimposed near the center.  Located in a very rich star field just 3.3ˇ from the galactic plane!  Member of the Local Group.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 10 = Sw VII-1 on 8 Oct 1887 and recorded "F * involved in vL, eeeF nebulosity, eee difficult.  In line with 2 stars of equal mag which with a 3rd forms a right angled triangle."

 

Nicholas Mayall first recognized IC 10 as a galaxy in 1935 ("An Extragalactic Object 3ˇ from the Plane of the Galaxy" in PASP, 47, 317).  In 1936, Hubble suggested it might be a member of the local group and called it "One of the most curious objects in the sky" in his 1936 classic "The Realm of the Nebulae."  This wasn't confirmed until 1996 using Cepheid variables and the current distance estimate is ~2.5 million l.y.  This irregular dwarf galaxy is probably a member of the M31 satellite system and it lies only 3.3 deg from the galactic plane.

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IC 18 = Arp 100 NED1 = VV 234 = VIII Zw 25 = MCG -02-02-023 = PGC 1759

00 28 35.0 -11 35 12

Size 1.0'x0.5';  PA = 29d

 

48" (10/25/14): at 488x; moderately bright, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 30"x20", weak concentration with an overall fairly low surface brightness.  A mag 16.5 star is adjacent to the center of the galaxy at the east edge.

 

The northern tidal plume was visible as a very faint, narrow extension, ~1' long, to the north-northeast (PA 30ˇ).  The spike or plume stretched roughly twice the length of the galaxy and was slightly brighter or easier to view near where it emerged on the north side of the galaxy. 

 

24" (9/15/12): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 30"x15", low surface brightness.  Fainter of a pair (Arp 100) with IC 19 3.4' SSE.  The long, narrow tidal plume extending to the NNE was not seen.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 18 = J. 1-11, along with IC 19, on 31 Aug 1892.  He noted "pF, S, irr, gbM" and measured an accurate position.

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IC 19 = Arp 100 NED2 = Mrk 949 = MCG -02-02-024 = PGC 1762

00 28 39.5 -11 38 27

Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 30d

 

48" (10/25/14): at 488x; fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, , 25'x 20", bright core, stellar nucleus.  Brighter (higher surface brightness) of an interacting pair with IC 18 3.4' NNW.

 

24" (9/15/12): at 322x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 25" diameter, weak even concentration.  Brighter of pair (Arp 100) with IC 18  3.4' NNW.  Located nearly at the midpoint of mag 7.4 HD 2438 and mag 7.4 HD 2553 (17' separation WSW-ENE).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 19 = J 1-12, along with IC 18, on 31 Aug 1892.  He noted "R, 20" diameter, stellar [nucl] = 14m." and measured an accurate position.

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IC 27 = (R)NGC 135 = PGC 143572

00 33 06.2 -13 22 17

Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

17.5" (12/3/88): very faint, small, slightly elongated ~N-S, very low surface brightness.  Located 7.9' SSE of mag 8.9 SAO 147331 and 8.6' NW of mag 8.6 SAO 147330.  MCG -02-02-051 lies 13' N.

 

The RNGC misidentifies IC 27 as NGC 135.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 27 = J 1-19 on 4 Nov 1891 and recorded "faint, ill-defined, slightly elongated along the diurnal movement, 20" long, brighter center."  The RNGC misidentifies IC 27 as NGC 135, as well as secondary sources such as Megastar.  PGC 143572 is not identified as IC 27 in HyperLeda (as of 12/15).

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IC 43 = MCG +05-02-040 = CGCG 500-072 = LGG 014-017 = PGC 2536

00 42 22.1 +29 38 30

V = 13.2;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 117d

 

17.5" (10/5/02): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.9'x0.7', broad concentration to a slightly brighter core.  A faint stellar nucleus was visible with direct vision.  Located 3.4' NW of a mag 10.4 star.  Member of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 43 = B. 106 on 15 Nov 1889 and noted "diffuse, with a stellar condensation, and seems slightly eccentric."

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IC 48 = IC 1577 = MCG -01-03-001 = MCG -02-03-001 = PGC 2603

00 43 34.5 -08 11 11

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 171d

 

18" (12/17/11): at 288x appeared moderately bright, fairly small, round, sharply concentrated with a very small, very bright 15" core surrounded by a much fainter 35" halo.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 48 on 30 Nov 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory and noted "pB, S, R, gbM to stellar nucleus 13m."  His position (published in AN 3097) is accurate, but Dreyer made an error precessing the declination and the IC declination is 18' too far south.  Barnard apparently later sent the discovery directly to Dreyer and it was recatalogued as IC 1577, though the RA is 1 minute too small!  So, IC 48 = IC 1577, probably both from the same observation.

 

Barnard thought IC 48 and IC 356 were variable nebulae ("Two Probably Variable Nebulae" in AN 3097, 1892) and wrote "On November 30, 1888 I discovered a small pretty bright nebula in Cetus [IC 48] and was surprised from the brightness of the nebula, to find that it was not in any catalogue.  I carefully measured its position with the micrometer, and examined it the next night, suspecting it to be a comet.  No motion being detected it was observed further.  I have a very distinct recollection of the object and from my description I would estimate that it was between 9th and 10th magnitude.  In its center was a very small stellar nucleus of the 13th mag.  Not having seen the nebula in my subsequent sweeps in that neighborhood, I was led in 1891 to examine its position with the 12-inch.  The nebula was found with some difficulty.  It was extremely faint, and was only identified by the aid of the comparison star of the previous observation.  This was November 22, 1891.  I estimated it to be 13.5 magnitude, 1/2' in diameter, with perhaps a faint nucleus.

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IC 51 = Arp 230 = MCG -02-03-011 = PGC 2710

00 46 24.2 -13 26 32

Size 1.3'x1.2';  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (12/11/99): at 280x, faint, fairly small, round, 0.6' diameter.  A mag 15 star is just off the SW edge [52" from center].  Located 28' E of mag 7.6 SAO 147425].

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 51 = J. 1-33 on 30 Aug 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  He recorded "pB, S, bM, slightly mottled."

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IC 59 = Sh 2-185 = LBN 620 = Ced 4a

00 57 30 +61 08

Size 10'x5'

 

18" (12/22/11): best view was unfiltered at 108x.  Appears as a faint, large, irregular glow, roughly 8'x5'. Elongated E-W and extends to a group of a half-dozen stars at the NE end.  This group of stars is also possibly involved with the haze.  There is a slightly brighter patch on the south side.  Located 25' N of Gamma Cas.

 

18" (7/15/07): this large reflection nebula just 20' N of Gamma Cas (Navi) has a low even surface brightness and appears as a large oval-shaped hazy region ~6'x4' and elongated ~N-S.  Fainter of pair with IC 63 located 25' SE.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): located 20' N of Gamma Cassiopeia.  This emission nebula is larger than IC 63 but has a lower surface brightness.  Easy with averted vision and appears large, elongated ~N-S, with a fairly even surface brightness.  IC 63 lies 20' SE.

 

13": very faint, fairly large, very diffuse, visible with averted only.  Forms a pair with IC 63.

 

IC 59 and 63 were discovered independently on photographs taken by Max Wolf (end of Dec 1893) as well as E.E. Barnard (6 Feb 1894).  Wolf announced the discovery in AN 134 [3214], 365 (1894), "Ueber einige neue Nebelflecke" (Some New Nebulae).  Roberts photographed the Gamma Cas area earlier on 17 Jan 1890, but his image shows no nebulosity and he fails to mention nebulosity in the field.

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IC 63 = Sh 2-185 = LBN 622 = Ced 4b

00 59 29 +60 54 40

Size 10'x3'

 

18" (7/15/07): unusual triangular or wedge-shaped nebula just 20' NE of Gamma Cas.  At 115x appears fairly large, elongated SW-NE, ~6' diameter, with the brighter vertex at the west end. The southern edge, which extends towards the SW, is slightly brighter and more sharply defined.  The interior of the wedge is slightly fainter with subtle brightness variations.  The OIII and UHC filter dimmed the object.  IC 63 is brighter than IC 59, which is found 20' N of Gamma.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): distinct fan-shaped nebulosity extending east and NE with the vertex at the west end.  The southern border (extending E-W) has a sharper edge.  Brighter than nearby IC 59 in the field 20' NW.  Located 20' NE of Gamma Cassiopeiae.

 

13": very faint, fairly large, very diffuse, fan-shaped.  Forms a pair with IC 63.

 

IC 59 and 63 were discovered independently on photographs taken by Max Wolf (end of Dec 1893) as well as E.E. Barnard (6 Feb 1894).  Wolf announced the discovery in AN 134 [3214], 365 (1894), "Ueber einige neue Nebelflecke" (Some New Nebulae).

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IC 65 = UGC 625 = MCG +08-03-005 = CGCG 551-004 = LGG 016-003 = PGC 3635

01 00 55.6 +47 40 55

V = 12.8;  Size 3.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (9/1/02): fairly faint, fairly large, edge-on 4:1 NNW-SSE, 2.5'x0.6'.  Contains a slightly brighter, bulging core.  The outer tips fades into the background, so it was difficult to estimate the full extent.  A faint star is just off the following side of the core and a pair of mag 14 stars is off the southeast extension.  Located in a rich star field 8.5' WSW of mag 8 HD 5982.

 

17.5" (11/26/94): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 7:2 NNW-SSE, 3.5'x1.0', weak concentration to a brighter middle but no nucleus.  Several faint stars are near including a mag 14 star at the northwest tip and two mag 14 stars are situated on either side of the south-southeast end.  A brighter mag 12 star is 3.5' NNW of center.  Located 8.6' WSW of mag 7.8 SAO 36857.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 65 = Sw X-4 on 25 Sep 1890 and recorded "eF; pL; vE; 2 B st. in field; one f[ollowing] the other s[outh]."

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IC 66 = UGC 623 = MCG +05-03-033 = CGCG 501-059 = LGG 014-039 = PGC 3606

01 00 32.5 +30 47 50

V = 14.1;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 125d

 

17.5" (10/5/02): faint, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.3'.  Located 8' N of NGC 338 and 18' SW of IC 69 in the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster (SW of the Pisces Chain).

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 66 = Big 108 on 12 Nov 1890 with the 12" refractor at the Paris Observatory.

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IC 69 = MCG +05-03-041 = CGCG 501-066 = LGG 014-041 = PGC 3666 = PGC 1929122

01 01 23.8 +31 02 29

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (10/5/02): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.8'x0.6', low even surface brightness.  Located 4' SW of mag 8.4 SAO 54358.  IC 66 lies 18' SW.  Member of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 69 = Sf 66 on 8 Nov 1866 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory and recorded "F, iF, lbM."

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IC 77 = MCG -03-04-012 = SCG 8 = PGC 73653

01 08 43.7 -15 25 15

Size 0.5'x0.5'

 

18" (11/22/03): extremely faint and small, round, 10" diameter.  Only visible intermittently.  Located just 2' SW of IC 80 in AGC 151.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 77 = J 1-41, along with IC 80 on 31 Aug 1892.  Harold Corwin notes that Javelle's positions are unambiguous although MCG misidentified IC 80 (a double galaxy) as IC 77.

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IC 78 = MCG -03-04-010 = PGC 4079

01 08 47.6 -15 50 34

V = 13.5;  Size 1.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 124d

 

18" (11/22/03): faint, moderately large, fairly low surface brightness with weak concentration.  Initially just a 40" core was noticed but with extended viewing larger extensions increased the total size to ~1.2'x0.6'.  Possible member of AGC 151 or in a foreground group with IC 79 6.4' S and IC 82 10' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 78 = J 1-42, along with IC 79 and 82, on 30 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 79 = MCG -03-04-011 = PGC 4082

01 08 49.7 -15 56 55

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

18" (11/22/03): faint, small, slightly elongated, 25"x20", a mag 14 star is just off the NNE edge, 30" from center.  Located between IC 78 6.4' N and IC 82 5' SE in AGC 151 (or possibly a foreground cluster).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 79 = J 1-43, along with IC 78 and 82, on 30 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 80 = MCG -03-04-008/009 = SCG 8 = PGC 4072 + PGC 4071

01 08 51.1 -15 24 23

V = 13.7;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  PA = 45d

 

18" (11/22/03): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 40"x25", low even surface brightness.  This is a double system and the observation probably refers to both components, which were not resolved.  IC 80 forms a close pair with IC 77 2' SW in AGC 151.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 80 = J 1-44, along with IC 77 on 31 Aug 1892.  Although Javelle's positions are unambiguous MCG misidentifies IC 80 as IC 77 and SIMBAD misidentifies MCG -03-04-012 = PGC 4070 as IC 80.

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IC 82 = MCG -03-04-013 = PGC 4103

01 09 05.8 -16 00 01

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 111d

 

18" (11/22/03): very faint, small, round, 0.4' diameter, low surface brightness.  Third in the 257x field close south of the core of AGC 151 with IC 79 5' NW and IC 78 10' NW.  Located 6' NW of a mag 10.4 star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 82 = J 1-45, along with IC 78 and 79, on 30 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 92 = MCG +05-04-020 = CGCG 502-029 = PGC 4780

01 19 48.4 +32 46 04

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (12/23/89): extremely faint, small.  A mag 15 star is 1' NW.  Located 10' WNW of NGC 472 = NGC 468.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 92 = Big. 115 on 2 Nov 1885 with the 12" refractor at Paris.  His position is a fairly close match with CGCG 502-029 = PGC 4780.  This galaxy has been assumed identical to NGC 468 = h98, discovered by JH on 22 Nov 1827.  His position is 4' south of the galaxy and as a result Dreyer added the comment in the IC "? different from h 98", indicating his uncertainty if IC 92 was the same object.

 

In Mar 2015, Harold Corwin checked JH's observing logs (in response to an inquiry from Courtney Seligman about the identity), and found that Herschel made an error in reducing the position of NGC 468 by 37 seconds (recording the wrong wire).  Once corrected, his position for h98 = NGC 468 is a close match with NGC 472 = UGC 870, a significantly brighter galaxy than IC 92.  So, IC 92 should be the single identity for this galaxy.  See NGC 468 for more.

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IC 93 = IC 1671 = MCG -03-04-043 = PGC 4724

01 19 02.3 -17 03 37

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 170d

 

18" (11/13/07): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated at least 3:1 NNW-SSE, 0.7'x0.2', broad weak concentration.  The tips taper, though there is a strong impression of irregularities at the tips.  Forms a pair with much fainter IC 1667 4.8' W.  The IC 1670 pair lies 15' N.

 

18" (12/18/06): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 0.75'x0.3', weak concentration, slightly asymmetric appearance at the ends.  IC 1667 lies 4.8' W.  Located 11' W of mag 8.5 HD 8061.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 93 = Sw IX-2 on 28 Sep 1889 and recorded "vF; pS; lE; 8 mag * f 46s and 1' north."  His position and description matches   MCG -03-04-043 = PGC 4724.  He found this galaxy again on 18 Dec 1895 and included it in list XI-18.  His position, though, was poor (30 seconds of time too large and 2.3' too far south), so Dreyer assumed Sw XI-18 was a new object and recatalogued it as IC 1671.  Swift's description ("p 7m * nf 47 sec") confirms IC 93 = IC 1671.

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IC 101 = UGC 949 = MCG +02-04-036 = CGCG 436-039 = LGG 023-003 = PGC 5147

01 24 08.6 +09 55 50

V = 13.8;  Size 1.4'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 127d

 

18" (12/3/05): faint hazy spot, irregularly round, ~20"-25" diameter.  A mag 14.5 star lies 1' S.  Pair with fainter IC 102 5' SE.  Located 10' SW of NGC 522 in the NGC 524 group.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 101 = J. 2-523, along with IC 102 and 114, and recorded "vF, E, about 1' long, no central condensation."  It was found again on a Crossley reflector plate and published in 1908PLicO...8...31 ("Catalogue of New Nebulae Discovered on the Negatives").

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IC 102 = UGC 954 = CGCG 436-040 = PGC 5172

01 24 26.3 +09 53 12

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

18" (12/3/05): extremely faint, very small, 15" diameter, no details.  Marginal object that was just glimpsed as drifted through the field.  Located 8' SW of NGC 522 in the NGC 524 group.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 102 = J. 2-524, along with IC 101 and 114, and recorded "eF, S, poorly define, no central condensation."  It was found again on a Crossley reflector plate and published in 1908PLicO...8...31 ("Catalogue of New Nebulae Discovered on the Negatives").

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IC 107 = IC 1700 = UGC 986  = MCG +02-04-041 = CGCG 436-047 = PGC 5271

01 25 24.7 +14 51 53

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  PA = 6d

 

24" (12/1/13): moderately to fairly bright, small, round, 20", high surface brightness.  Gradually increases towards the center, then a sharp stellar nucleus.  A mag 14.5 star is at the southwest edge.  Brightest in a small trio with IC 1698 1.6' SSW and UGC 978 2.8' WNW.  IC 1704 lies 26' ESE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 107 = Sw X-5 on 18 Sep 1890 and recorded "vF; vS; R; * close preceding."  His position is 19 seconds of RA west of UGC 986 = PGC 5271, the brightest of a trio, and this galaxy has a star "close preceding" matching his description.  Coincidentally, his poor position falls near UGC 978, the faintest in the trio, which is misidentified as IC 107 in the CGCG, UGC, MCG, RC 3 and NGC 2000, as well as secondary sources such as Megastar software.  

 

Stephane Javelle independently found PGC 5271 again on 18 Jan 1896 (along with IC 1698, IC 1704 and IC 1706), assumed it was new, and Dreyer catalogued it again as IC 1700.  Most sources identify UGC 986 as IC 1700 due to its unambiguous position, though by historical precedence IC 107 should be the primary designation.

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IC 114 = UGC 1015 = MCG +02-04-048 = CGCG 436-050 = PGC 5343

01 26 22.6 +09 54 36

V = 14.1;  Size 1.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 150d

 

18" (12/3/05): extremely faint, small, appears as a low surface brightness spot ~25" diameter, appears elongated but too faint for details.  A mag 13 star lies 1.8' W.  Located 30' NE of NGC 524 in a large group of galaxies.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 114 = J. 2-526, along with IC 101 and 102, and recorded "eF, vS, R, 20" diameter."

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IC 131 = M33-A29 = BCLMP 290

01 33 14.6 +30 44 56

 

18" (12/8/07): faint, quasi-stellar knot to the southeast of a N-S pair of stars (this pair is also collinear with NGC 592 located 6' S of IC 131).  But, according to Harold Corwin this compact HII region was assumed to be a mag 13.5 star by Bigourdan and IC 131 refers to two very small star clouds close following (seen in the 10/25/97 observation below, but missed this time). The nearly stellar knot I observed is listed as BCLMP 290B.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): very faint, very small, round, 10" diameter.  This HII region is located 10' WNW of the center of M33 near a wide pair [50"] of mag 11/12 stars.  A mag 14 star is nearby and at first I thought this star was IC 131 (on the DSS this 14th magnitude "star" is a compact HII region and was also described as a star by Bigourdan).  Collinear with IC 133 8' N and IC 132 11.5' N.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 131 = B. 122, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.

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IC 132 = BCLMP 638

01 33 15.8 +30 56 45

Size 0.8'x0.6'

 

18" (12/8/07): this faint HII complex in M33 appears as a 20"-25" knot, situated just 1' N of a 10" pair of mag 13 stars and 1.5' W of mag 9.3 HD 9444.  IC 133 lies 3.5' S.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): faint but easily visible HII knot of 20" diameter. Located 1' N of a pair of mag 13 stars at 10" separation and 1.6' W of a mag 9 star.  Forms the northern member of a pair of HII regions with IC 133 3.4' S.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 132 = B. 123, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.

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IC 133 = M33-A137 = BCLMP 624

01 33 15.8 +30 53 05

V = 14.3

 

18" (12/8/07): this star cloud/HII complex appeared as a faint, fairly large diffuse patch, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 1.0'x0.4'.  Located 15' NW of the center of M33 and 4' SSW of mag 9.3 HD 9444.  IC 132 lies 3.5' N.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): faint, diffuse, hazy HII region of 35" diameter at the NW end of M33 15' NW of the center.  Forms a "pair" with IC 132 3.4' N.  This object is larger than IC 132 at times with averted vision but has a lower surface brightness.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 133 = B. 124, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  Harold Corwin notes that Bigourdan's position is "toward the southern end where there appears to be a fairly compact HII region."

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IC 135 = M33-A100 = BCLMP 28/88

01 34 15.8 +30 37 11

 

18" (12/8/07): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated N-S, ~1.0'x0.5'.  Located off the ESE side of the core of M33 on the opposite side of the core from NGC 595.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): fairly faint, fairly small, 1' diameter.  This HII region is located 6' ESE of the center of M33 and is symmetrically placed on the opposite side of M33 from NGC 595.  IC 136 lies 3.5' S.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 135 = B. 126, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  Harold Corwin notes that Bigourdan made an error with the "estimated offset from M33's nucleus of his comparison star".  It also appears that his offsets were applied with the wrong signs as the relative positions of these objects are reversed in RA as well as declination!  As a result, the IC positions for IC 135, 136, 139, and 140 are incorrect and out of RA order.  But if the relative differences in RA and NPD are reversed and applied to IC 135 at the position given here, then they land on the correct positions for IC 136, 139 and 140.

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IC 136 = M33-A101 = BCLMP 88

01 34 17 +30 34 00

Size 0.6'

 

18" (12/8/07): faint, fairly large, very low surface brightness patch, ~1.5' diameter, located 3.5' S of IC 135.  Appears roughly circular, though the outline is ill defined.  This object is not as prominent as nearby IC 139/140 (to the west and southwest) and IC 135 to the north.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): very faint, ill-defined hazy region in M33 between IC 135 3.5' N and a mag 11.5 star 2.5' SSE (just west of the line connecting these objects).  Appears as a slightly locally brighter region of 30" diameter and not as noticeable as the other IC HII regions - would have passed over if casually sweeping galaxy.  This star association may have a smaller HII component.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 136 = B. 127, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  See IC 135.

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IC 137 = M33-A12 = BCLMP 21/200/201/202/203/204/205/207/208

01 33 39.1 +30 31 20

 

18" (12/8/07): very large brightening in the outer spiral arm, ~9' to the SSW of the center of M33, ~2.5'x2.0'.  M33-A14 lies NW.

 

17.5" (7/5/86): very faint HII knot or star association in M33 located along the main southern spiral arm 10' SSW of center of M33.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 137 = B. 128, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  His micrometric position falls within M33-A12; IC 137 is the southwestern part of the association.

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IC 139 = M33-A4 = BCLMP 6/7/11

01 33 59.2 +30 34 03

 

18" (12/8/07): fairly small, ~45"x30, extended N-S, moderately bright HII knot/cluster forming a 1' pair with IC 140 to the south.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): fairly prominent elongated HII region and star association just following a mag 13 star 5.4' SSE of the center of M33.  Extended ~N-S, perhaps 2.0'x0.5' and consists of two brighter knots at both ends (the size appears too large).  Similar view on 7/5/86.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 139 = B. 129, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  See IC 135.

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IC 140 = M33-A5

01 33 58.1 +30 33 02

 

18" (12/8/07): this moderately bright knot in M33 is ~35" in diameter, roundish and located just 1' S of IC 139.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): located SSW of IC 139 in M33 and visible as an easy knot, ~1' in diameter with ill-defined edges.  There is a second knot close west which is slightly fainter.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 140 = B. 130, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  See IC 135.

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IC 142 = M33-A67 = BCLMP 301

01 33 55.6 +30 45 26

Size 0.5'

 

24" (12/28/13): B324, a highly luminous hypergiant and the brightest individual star in M33, appeared as a 15th magnitude star at the north edge of IC 142.  At 325x, it was not resolved from the general glow, but appeared as a sharp stellar point just within the glow on the north side.  IC 142 is nearly collinear with a mag 13.5 star 2.1' NW and a mag 11 star 2.9' NW.  Globular Cluster U49 lies 3.3' NW.

 

18" (12/10/07): fairly bright, small, contains a bright core and faint extensions SW-NE, ~25"x13".  Forms the south vertex of an equilateral triangle with two mag 11 stars 3' WNW and 3' N.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): fairly faint, very small, round.  Stands out nicely 6' N of the center of M33.  Either contains a stellar spot near the center or a faint star is superimposed.  This "stellar spot" is likely B324, the brightest individual star in M33 excluding Luminous Blue Variables.  B324 is an A-type supergiant with a V magnitude of 15.2. IC 142 is the first of three HII regions in the spiral arm containing IC 142, IC 143 and ending with NGC 604.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 139 = B. 131, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.

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IC 143 = M33-A75 = BCLMP 688/689

01 34 11.2 +30 46 38

 

18" (12/10/07): very faint, small, hazy patch, ~25"x20", situated close west of a mag 13.5 star and 4.5' due west of NGC 604.  Immediately noticed at 225x, though diffuse with an ill-defined outline.  Forms a pair with M33-A71 just 1.5' NW.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): appears as a very faint, hazy patch close WNW of a mag 13.5 star.  This HII region (M31-A75) is located 5' W of NGC 604 and 8' NNE of the center of M33.  M33-A71 is another very faint, 20" knot just 1.3' NW that appeared slightly brighter than IC 143. This is the second of three HII regions along with IC 142 3.5' WSW and NGC 604 5' E in the spiral arm attached at the west side of M33 and winding towards the NE.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 143 = B. 132, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.

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IC 154 = UGC 1229 = MCG +02-05-023 = PGC 6439

01 45 16.4 +10 38 57

V = 14.0;  Size 1.4'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 66d

 

17.5" (12/18/89): very faint, fairly small, appears as a very thin sliver WSW-ENE.  A mag 13.5 star is at the preceding end 40" WSW of center.  Member of the NGC 665 group and forms a pair with IC 156 6' SSE.  NGC 665 lies 14' SSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 154 = J 2-535, along with IC 156, on 15 Dec 1892 and recorded "F, vS, lbM, * 11.5 sp."

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IC 156 = UGC 1231 = MCG +02-05-025 = PGC 6448

01 45 29.3 +10 33 09

V = 13.5;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

17.5" (12/18/89): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE.  A mag 14 star is 0.9' N.  Located 2.5' W of mag 8.7 SAO 92617.  Member of the NGC 665 group with IC 154 6' NNW and NGC 665 11' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 156 = J 2-536, along with IC 154, on 15 Dec 1892 and recorded "pB, R, 30" diameter, mbMN = * 12 mag."

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IC 161 = VV 54a = UGC 1266 = MCG +02-05-036 = CGCG 437-033 = Mrk 1007 = LGG 031-015 = PGC 6644

01 48 43.7 +10 30 28

V = 13.8;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 65d

 

24" (12/28/13): at 375x appeared moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~E-W, 0.4'x0.25', well concentrated with a very bright core than increases to a stellar nucleus.  An extremely faint companion off the SE side (together forming VV 54) was not seen.  Forms a pair with IC 162 = VV 55 = Arp 228 2.5' ENE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 161 = Sw IX-3 on 3 Oct 1889 or 8 Jan 1891, and recorded "eeF; S; cE, between 2 dist star in meridian."  He returned to the field in January 1891 and recorded IC 161 again, as well as IC 162 (list X-11 and X-12).   It's not certain whether his first observation in 1889 refers to the southwest or northeast member of this pair.  To further confuse the situation, the entry for List X-11 is 10' too far south and Dreyer used the erroneous dec for IC 161.

 

UGC, CGCG and MCG all misidentify IC 161 = UGC 1266 as IC 162 and don't assign an IC designation to IC 162 = UGC 1267.  See Corwin's notes on IC 161 and 162 as well as Malcolm's Thomson's IC Corrections.

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IC 162 = Arp 228 = VV 53a = UGC 1267 = MCG +02-05-038 = CGCG 437-034 = LGG 031-009 = PGC 6643

01 48 53.4 +10 31 17

V = 12.7;  Size 1.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

24" (12/28/13): at 375x appeared moderately bright, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, fairly well concentrated with a small bright core.  The halo increases in size to at least 0.8' with averted vision.  In a small group with MCG +02-05-039 = PGC 6653 just 1.0' SE, IC 161 2.5' WSW and UGC 1268 4.0' N.  PGC 6653 appeared very faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 24"x12".

 

Arp placed IC 162 in his category of "concentric rings".  V-V classified this galaxy as an interacting pair (VV 53), but the galaxy looks single on the SDSS.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 162 = Sw X-11 in January 1891 or perhaps earlier on 3 Oct 1889 (list IX-3).  The interpretation depends on which single galaxy he picked up in 1889.  Furthermore, Swift's position for List  XI-11 is 10' too far south.  The UGC, CGCG and MCG misidentify IC 161 (southwestern member of the pair) as IC 162.  See Harold Corwin's notes and Malcolm Thompson's IC Corrections.

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IC 166 = OCL-334 = Lund 60 = Tombaugh 3

01 52 22 +61 51 18

V = 11.7;  Size 5'

 

18" (12/22/11): easily picked up at 175x though at this power appeared as a faint, fairly small, roundish glow.  At 285x ~10-12 mag 14-15.5 stars are resolved with a couple at the edge of visibility over a mottled background.  Roughly 3.5' diameter.  A brighter mag 12.5 star is at the west edge.

 

17.5" (8/5/97): position identified at 100x using a GSC chart, although only a couple of stars are plotted.  Appears as a very faint circular glow with a couple of faint stars superimposed.  Located 7' E of a wide pair of mag 9/11 stars [at 38" separation].  Does not resemble a cluster in appearance and would have otherwise thought this was a Milky Way patch. At 220x, the glow is ~4' in diameter and there are a sprinkling of ~10 very faint stars, mostly mag 14.5-15.5 with one mag 13 star.  The glow has an irregular surface brightness with a mottled appearance and the periphery is not well defined.

 

William Denning discovered IC 166 around 1890 with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector.  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer.  The IC position corresponds with the faint open cluster OCL-334 = Lund 60.  Clyde Tombaugh independently found IC 166 and was the first to classify it as an open cluster (previously described as a small, nebulous cluster).

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IC 167 = Arp 31 = UGC 1313 =  MCG +04-05-021 = CGCG 482-025 = Holm 123 = LGG 034-008 = PGC 6833

01 51 08.6 +21 54 46

V = 13.1;  Size 2.9'x1.8';  Surf Br = 14.8;  PA = 95d

 

18" (11/22/03): very faint, elongated 4:3, 0.8'x0.6', low surface brightness.  Located 5.5' SSE of NGC 694 in a group and 3.9' S of a mag 10.5 star.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 167 = Big 133 on 4 Jan 1889.  He noted a mag 10.5 star was at 4' separation in PA 358ˇ (N).

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IC 171 = UGC 1388 = MCG +06-05-050 = CGCG 522-064 = PGC 7139

01 55 10.3 +35 16 52

V = 12.2;  Size 2.5'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (12/19/87): fairly faint, slightly elongated ~E-W, 1.0'x0.8', weak central concentration, stellar nucleus.  A mag 10 star is off the NE edge 45" from center.  Almost collinear with double star mag 12/13 at 18" located 2.5' W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 171 = Sw VIII-1 on 6 Sep 1888 and recorded "pB; pS; cE; * nr nf."  His RA is 10 seconds too large but the identification is certain.

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IC 178 = UGC 1456 = MCG +06-05-070 = CGCG 522-094 = LGG 037-014  = PGC 7488

01 58 54.8 +36 40 30

V = 13.3;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (9/1/02): this member of the AGC 262 cluster appeared faint, small, round, 0.5' diameter, weak concentration.  Located 4.6' NNE of mag 7.3 HD 12007.  A wide pair of mag 11.5/13 stars is 1.5' SE.

 

17.5" (12/19/87): fairly faint, fairly small, round, brighter core.  Located 4.7' NNE of mag 7.2 SAO 55161.  Member of AGC 262 with CGCG 522-098 10' NNE.

 

17.5" (11/14/87): fairly faint, small, round, slightly brighter core. A wide pair (35" separation) of mag 12 and 13 stars is 1.5' SE of center.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 178 = Sf 67 on 8 Nov 1866 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  The discovery list was not published until 1887 so Safford is not credited in the NGC.  His position is 4' south of CGCG 501-066 = PGC 3666.

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IC 179 = UGC 1475 = MCG +06-05-075 = CGCG 522-101 = PGC 7581

02 00 11.5 +38 01 17

V = 12.6;  Size 1.8'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 110d

 

24" (11/24/14): at 375x; moderately bright, fairly small, round, high surface brightness (central region), 25" diameter, weak concentration to the center, possible very low surface brightness halo.

 

UGC 1493 lies 14' NE and appears fairly faint to moderately bright, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 E-W, 0.8'x0.3', fades at tips.  Seems to have a sharper light cut off on the north side. A string of four mag 13-14.5 stars is close NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 179 = Sw X-13 on 28 Jun 1890 with the 16-inch refractor at the Warner Observatory and recorded "pB, S, lE, 9m * near nf."  His position is 8 second of time too far west.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate micrometric position around 1900 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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IC 180 = MCG +04-05-029 = CGCG 482-040 = PGC 7558

02 00 00.4 +23 36 16

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.4'

 

17.5" (12/8/90): very faint, small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE.  In a trio with NGC 776 3' NNW and IC 181 3.0' N.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 180 = J. 2-544, along with IC 181, while observing the field of NGC 776 on 15 Dec 1892. 

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IC 181 = MCG +04-05-030 = CGCG 482-040 = PGC 7559

02 00 02.3 +23 39 31

V = 14.8;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (12/8/90): extremely faint and small, round.  Faintest of a close trio with NGC 776 2' SW and IC 180 3.0' S.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 181 = J. 2-545, along with IC 180, while observing the field of NGC 776 on 15 Dec 1892.  CGCG and the UGC notes to NGC 776 fail to identify this galaxy as IC 181.

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IC 184 = MCG -01-06-021 = PGC 7554

01 59 51.2 -06 50 25

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 177d

 

48" (10/24/14): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 N-S, 0.6'x0.25'.  Contains a bright core and a very bright nucleus.

 

IC 184 is a Seyfert 2 galaxy and the brightest in a small group that includes the three brightest members of HCG 14, located ~13' S.

 

17.5" (12/23/97): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, broad concentration.  Located 2.7' NNW of a mag 10-11 star.  This galaxy was picked up while searching for HCG 14 which is located 14' due south and is brighter than the two primary galaxies in HCG 14.  NGC 788 lies 19' E (also stumbled across in the area).

 

Ormond Stone discovered IC 184 = LM(S) 55 on 15 Oct 1887 and recorded it as #55 in the Leander-McCormick Observatory catalogue of Southern Nebula (1893).  Stone noted mag 15.0 and 0.2' diameter and his micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 187 = UGC 1507 = MCG +04-05-037 = CGCG 482-048 = LGG 041-009 = PGC 7683

02 01 30.7 +26 28 51

V = 12.9;  Size 2.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 70d

 

24" (12/22/14): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, 0.6'x0.25'.  Contains a small, brighter rounder core with fairly low surface brightness extensions that increased in size with averted.  Brighter member of an double system with PGC 2800932 at the east-northeast edge.  The companion was faint, small and barely detached.  An evenly matched 10" pair of mag 12.5-13 stars lies 6' SSW.  NED does not include redshift data on the companion, so this may be either be a merging or overlapping pair.

 

18" (12/22/11): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 0.6'x0.3'.  Broad concentration with a brighter and rounder 15" core.  Forms a double system with PGC 2800932 = MAC 0201+2629.  The fainter companion was at or just off the east end and appeared as very faint, small, roundish glow that was sometimes detached, depending on if the halo (arms) of IC 187 was visible or not.

 

Edward Swift discovered IC 187 = Sw IX-7, along with IC 188, on 18 Jan 1890 while searching for "Swift's Comet".  The RA is 21 sec of time too large, but matches in declination.

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IC 188 = UGC 1510 = MCG +04-05-038 = CGCG 482-049 = LGG 041-010 = PGC 7706

02 01 46.5 +26 32 49

V = 13.8;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 45d

 

24" (12/22/14): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 24"x12", nearly even surface brightness.  Located 5' NE of the double system IC 187.

 

18" (12/22/11): faint to fairly faint, small, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, 20"x15", weak concentration to center but no nucleus.  Located 5' NE of IC 187.  The IC designation (from Corwin) is uncertain due to a poor declination by Swift.

 

Edward Swift discovered IC 188 = Sw IX-8, along with IC 187, on 18 Jan 1890, while searching for "Swift's Comet".  Described as "eeef, vS; R; 2 stars point to it."  There is nothing at his position, but 10 sec of RA west and 30' south is UGC 1510, and there is a pair of 12th magnitude stars to the north-northwest that could fit Swift's description. 

 

But due to the large error in declination Malcolm Thomson rejects UGC 1510 as IC 188.  He argues that no similar error occurred with nearby IC 187, and if he did find this galaxy, the description would have mentioned "sp of 2" and "nf of 2." for the pair.   No modern catalogue identifies UGC 1510 as IC 188.  So this identification is quite uncertain.  See Harold Corwin's IC identification notes as well as Courtney Seligman's summary.

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IC 195 = Arp 290 NED1 = VV 309b = UGC 1555 = MCG +02-06-017 = CGCG 438-019 = PGC 7846

02 03 44.6 +14 42 33

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 126d

 

17.5" (11/17/01): faint, small, bright core, faint extensions NW-SE, 0.4'x0.2'.  A mag 12 star lies 1.4' S.  Forms a close pair (Arp 290) with brighter IC 196 2.2' NE.  Preceding by just 2.2' is a nice mag 10.5/12.5 pair at 15" with two additional mag 12 stars to the SSW of the closer pair.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 195 = Sw IX-10, along with IC 196, on 20 Oct 1889 and recorded "eeF; S; R; F * nr south; sp of 2 [with IC 196]."  His position and description is a good match with UGC 1555.

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IC 196 = Arp 290 NED2 = VV 309a = UGC 1556 = MCG +02-06-018 = CGCG 438-020 = PGC 7856

02 03 49.8 +14 44 21

V = 12.9;  Size 2.8'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (11/17/01): fairly faint, fairly small, nearly edge-on 4:1 SSW-NNE, 1.2'x0.3'.  Contains a rounder, bright core and stellar nucleus.  Forms a close pair with IC 195 2.2' SW.  This galaxy is actually an interacting quartet, although only the main galaxy was observed along with IC 195.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 196 = Sw IX-11, along with IC 195, on 20 Oct 1889 and recorded "pF; pS; R; trap with 3 st; nf of 2 [with IC 195]."  His position and description is a good match with UGC 1556, though Howe measured an accurate micrometric position in 1898.

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IC 200 = UGC 1577 = MCG +05-06-002 = CGCG 503-085 = CGCG 504-007 = LGG 042-008 = PGC 7967

02 05 26.8 +31 10 30

V = 12.9;  Size 2.2'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 85d

 

18" (12/22/11): fairly faint, moderately large, irregularly round, 0.8' diameter, broad concentration with a small brighter core.  Forms the northeast vertex of a right triangle with mag 8.8 SAO 55246 7' W and mag 8.7 SAO 55245 10' SW.  Several additional 11th and 12th magnitude stars are scattered around SAO 55246.  CGCG 504-012 (often identified as IC 200) lies 18' E.  It was logged as faint, small, round, 18" diameter, low even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (11/26/94): faint, fairly small, irregularly round, about 1.5' diameter.  Low but uneven surface brightness, weak concentration with one or two brighter spots near the center.  A mag 14.5 star is just off the west edge 1.1' from the center.  Located 27' NE of NGC 804.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 200 = Sf 71 on 4 Dec 1866 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory and recorded "pB, pL, R, bM."  There is nothing at his position but two minutes west is UGC 1577, which fits his description.  CGCG and PGC likely misidentify CGCG 504-012 = PGC 8064 as IC 200.  This 15th magnitude galaxy is closer to Safford's position -- off by 34 seconds of RA -- though Harold Corwin notes "[this galaxy] is probably too faint to have been seen by Safford, and the description does not match in any case."

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IC 206 = MCG -01-06-053 = Holm 57a = PGC 8238

02 09 30.7 -06 58 06

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 138d

 

18" (11/22/03): second of trio with IC 209 10' SW and IC 207 3.6' NE.  Appears very similar to IC 207: very faint, small, round, 25" diameter (elongated 5:2 on DSS image so probably viewed core only), weak concentration.  The IC positions are incorrect due to a mix-up by Javelle with his offset star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 206 = J 1-77, along with IC 207, on 26 Jan 1892.  There is nothing at his position, but both Harold Corwin and Malcolm Thomson found that Javelle misidentified his reference star.  Applying his offsets to the correct star (SAO 129729) matches this identification.

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IC 207 = MCG -01-06-054 = Holm 57b = PGC 8251

02 09 39.3 -06 55 20

V = 13.9;  Size 2.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 99d

 

18" (11/22/03): third of 3 with IC 206 3.6' SW and IC 209 13' SW.  IC 206 and IC 207 for an equilateral triangle with a mag 11.4 star 3.4' WNW.  Although this galaxy is quite elongated I must have just recorded the brighter core as appeared very faint, small, round, 25", weak concentration.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 207 = J 1-78, along with IC 206, on 26 Jan 1892.  There is nothing at his position, but both Harold Corwin and Malcolm Thomson found that Javelle misidentified his reference star.  Applying his offsets to the correct star (SAO 129729) matches this identification.

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IC 208 = UGC 1635 = MCG +01-06-044 = CGCG 413-045 = LGG 047-002 = PGC 8167

02 08 27.7 +06 23 42

V = 13.8;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.2

 

24" (1/25/14): fairly faint, fairly large, round, 1.5' diameter, very low though irregular surface brightness, no core or nucleus.  Located 4.5' NNW of NGC 825.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 208 = B. 134 on 3 Dec 1888 and recorded "mag 13.4-13.5; very diffuse; 1.0'-1.5' dia; no nucleus."  His position is 1.5' too far south but the description is accurate.

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IC 209 = MCG -01-06-051 = Holm 56a = PGC 8200

02 08 58.7 -07 03 32

V = 13.1;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 60d

 

18" (11/22/03): brightest in trio with IC 206 10' NE and IC 207 13' NE.  Appears moderately bright, fairly small, irregularly round, 1.2'x1.0', weak concentration, irregular surface brightness.  Surprisingly easy for an IC galaxy.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 209 = J. 1-79 on 28 Jan 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 210 = MCG -02-06-032 = PGC 8232

02 09 28.3 -09 40 49

V = 13.1;  Size 2.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 66d

 

18" (10/21/06): fairly faint, fairly large, edge-on 6:1 WSW-ENE, 1.8'x0.3', very low even surface brightness.  Located 3.4' SW of a mag 9.3 star (SAO 129724).  MCG -02-06-035 lies 11' E.  Located 27' due north of NGC 835 (HCG 16).

 

Aron Skinner, an assistant to Truman Safford, discovered IC 210 = Sf 101 on 23 Oct 1867 with the 18.5-inch refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  As the discovery list wasn't published until 1887 (too late for inclusion in the main NGC table), Dreyer credited Safford with the discovery in the IC 1.  The discovery position is just off the north edge of the galaxy, so the identification is certain.

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IC 211 = UGC 1678 = MCG +01-06-053 = CGCG 413-057 = PGC 8360

02 11 08.0 +03 51 09

V = 13.4;  Size 2.3'x1.8';  Surf Br = 14.8;  PA = 50d

 

24" (1/25/14): faint, moderately large, slightly elongated SW-NE, low surface brightness and difficult to estimate diameter, increases in size with averted but at least 1.0'x0.8', slightly brighter core.  Located 4.5' NNW of NGC 851.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 211 = J. II-559 on 5 Dec 1893 and recorded "F, R, 40" dia, vS core."  His position is accurate.

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IC 218 = MCG +00-06-061 = CGCG 387-066 = PGC 8716

02 17 07.2 +01 16 56

V = 14.9;  Size 0.8'x0.25';  PA = 75d

 

24" (1/25/14): very faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, 25"x8", low even surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is close off the ENE edge [35" ENE of center].  Located 2.4' NNE of NGC 875

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 218 = J 2-564 on 26 Dec 1893 and recorded "vF, poorly defined, slightly elongated, close to a *13.5."  His position and description is accurate.

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IC 223 = ESO 545-008 = MCG -04-06-031 = KTS 16B = LGG 056-004 = PGC 8998

02 22 01.1 -20 44 45

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 152d

 

24" (10/3/13): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 NW-SE, broad concentration, 30"x20".  Forms the vertex of a triangle with a mag 11.5 star 1.8' N and a mag 12.5 star 2.5' ENE.  Second in a trio (KTS 16) with brighter NGC 899 5' SSW and NGC 907 14' ENE.

 

17.5" (12/4/93): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, broad concentration.  Forms an isosceles triangle with a mag 11.5 star 1.8' N and a mag 12.5 star 2.5' ENE.  Forms a pair with NGC 899 5' SSW. NGC 907 lies 14' ENE.

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 223 = LM(S) 71 = Big. 135 on 19 Nov 1887 with the 26-inch refractor at the Leander McCormick. It was recorded as #71 in the 1893 catalogue of "Southern Nebulae" with the description "iR, sbM, stell nucleus?"  Bigourdan independently discovered it on 1 Dec 1888.  The IC position is accurate.

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IC 226 = UGC 1922 = MCG +05-06-046 = PGC 9373

02 27 45.9 +28 12 32

V = 14.2;  Size 1.7'x1.4';  Surf Br = 15.0

 

24" (2/7/16): fairly faint, fairly small, very sharply concentrated with a small, round bright core embedded in a very low surface halo perhaps 0.6' diameter (no distinct edge).  Two mag 14/15 stars (15" separation) are just off the northwest side.  A mag 9.6 star is 1.8' NNW and mag 8.6 HD 15271 is 6.2' WNW.  The two stars are collinear with the galaxy.  IC 226 forms a 4.4' pair with IC 227 to the southeast.

 

Rudloph Spitaler discovered IC 226 = Spitaler 2, along with IC 227, on 31 Dec 1891 with the 27" refractor at the Wien Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.  His description (summaried in the IC) is "pF, S, R, bM, 2 F st n."

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IC 227 = UGC 1932 = MCG +05-06-048 = CGCG 504-087 = PGC 9383

02 28 03.6 +28 10 31

V = 14.5;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.6;  PA = 70d

 

24" (2/7/16): at 200x; slightly brighter and larger of a pair with IC 226 4.4' NW.  Appears fairly faint or moderately bright (the listed mag may be too faint), fairly large, slightly elongated, ~1.0'x0.8', the diffuse halo fades out gradually so the size is difficult to estimate.  Sharply concentrated with a well defined, relatively large core that gradually increases to the center.  Mag 8.6 HD 15271 lies 4.6' NNE.  I also picked up LEDA 213001 11.5' ESE, but missed nearby UGC 1958, an extremely low surface brightness edge-on.  LEDA 213001 appeared very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.

 

Rudloph Spitaler discovered IC 227 = Spitaler 3, along with IC 226, on 31 Dec 1891 with the 27" refractor at the Wien Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.  His description (summaried in the IC) reads "F, pS, R, lbM."

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IC 230 = MCG -02-07-016 = PGC 9436

02 28 47.3 -10 49 53

V = 14.8;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 87d

 

24" (12/22/14): faint to fairly faint, small, round, 12"-15" diameter.  Easily seen despite a mag 15.7B.  Located 5.5' due west of the double system NGC 942/943.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 230 on 8 Oct 1891 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory while observing the double system NGC 942 and 943.

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IC 239 = UGC 2080 = MCG +06-06-065 = CGCG 523-071 = LGG 070-002 = PGC 9899

02 36 27.9 +38 58 08

V = 11.1;  Size 4.6'x4.2';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 3d

 

18" (11/26/03): at 115x appears as a large, round, low surface brightness glow, ~3.5' with a broad, weak concentration to a slightly brighter 30" core.  With extended viewing the surface brightness is somewhat irregular with a hint of structure.  IC 239 is located just north of a mag 8.6 (2.2' from center) that somewhat hinders viewing.  A distinctive curved string of mag 10-11 stars close west cradles the galaxy.  Member of the NGC 1023 group.

 

17.5" (8/6/02): at 274x appeared faint, fairly large, slightly elongated ~N-S, ~3' diameter.  The galaxy exhibited only a broad, weak concentration with no defined core.  The halo faded at the edge and was ill defined.  Situated between mag 8.6 SAO 55698 just off the south end 2.2' from center and a mag 9.6 star 3.3' N within a distinctive asterism of 5 brighter stars.  Located ~45 due west of NGC 1023.

 

Isaac Roberts discovered IC 239 in 1893 and it was announced in MNRAS 54, 371 (1894), "Photograph of a 'New' Spiral Nebula in Perseus."  He noted "the convolutions of the spiral is very faint, but clearly visible on the negative, and involved in them are four 14-15 mag stars and 6 or 7 stars, or star-like condensations, less bright than 16th mag.  The convolutions are symmetrical, and proceed from a very faint star-like nucleus."

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IC 241 = UGC 2115 = MCG +00-07-058 = CGCG 388-071 = PGC 9969

02 37 54.5 +02 19 40

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 150d

 

18" (11/18/06): fairly faint, small, low surface brightness halo surrounding a very small brighter core.  Located 8' N of a mag 9.5 star and 14' NW of NGC 1016 in a cluster.

 

18" (10/21/06): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, fairly faint stellar nucleus.  Located 12' SE of mag 7.2 HD 16314 in the NW corner of the NGC 1016 cluster.  A fainter galaxy, NGC 1009, lies 6' ESE. 

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Located 6.2' W of NGC 1009 in the NGC 1016 cluster.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 241 = B. 137 on 19 Nov 1886 and recorded "mag 13.3; round, 35"-40" diameter, stellar nucleus."  His position matches UGC 2115.

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IC 248 = UGC 2170 = MCG +03-07-044 = CGCG 462-043 = PGC 10197

02 41 25.8 +17 48 44

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): fairly faint, fairly small, gradually brighter middle, almost round, diffuse halo.  Located 11' WNW of a mag 8.2 SAO 93057 in the NGC 1020 group.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 248 in Sep 1891 while unsuccessfully searching for NGC 1059 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory (Publ of Lick Observatory, II). His position is accurate.

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IC 253 = MCG -03-07-058 = PGC 10226

02 42 05.7 -15 02 50

V = 13.5;  Size 0.3'x0.25'

 

17.5" (12/20/95): IC 253 is in a compact group (SCG 19) and forms a pair with NGC 1065 2.7' S.  Fairly faint, fairly small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus, 30" diameter.  Interestingly, IC 253 appeared slightly larger and brighter than NGC 1065!  Located 9' NE of mag 7.6 SAO 48549.  PGC 144985, situated just 1.2' SW, was not seen.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 253 = J. 1-96, along with IC 254, on 5 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate. It seems strange that Swift, who discovered NGC 1065, missed this object.

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IC 254 = PGC 3642494

02 42 05.0 -15 06 24

PA = 55d

 

17.5" (12/20/95): appears as an extremely faint, round, barely nonstellar spot just 1.0' SSW of NGC 1065 in a small group with IC 253.  It required averted vision to glimpse and appeared less than 10" in diameter.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 254 = J. 1-97, along with IC 253, on 5 Dec 1891.  Despite a good position, the RNGC incorrectly equates IC 254 with nearby NGC 1065.

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IC 256 = V Zw 280 = PGC 10729

02 49 40.3 +46 57 17

V = 15.3;  Size 0.3'x0.2'

 

17.5" (10/24/87): extremely faint and small, slightly elongated N-S, ~15"x10".  Located 26" N of an easier mag 15 star.  Requires averted and visible ~50% of the time.  Situated 1.6' SW of IC 257 (2nd in V Zw 280, a trio of three compact ellipticals).  Identification not certain.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 256 = Sw VIII-2, along with IC 257 and IC 260, on 6 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF; lE; S; in vacancy. 1st of 3."  His position is 5 sec of RA west and 0.3' south of IC 257.  The galaxy described here is 1' due south of this offset.  It's possible, though, it's too faint to have been seen by Swift, but it was detected in my scope (knowing the exact location in advance) and Swift has a few other faint discoveries in the same ballpark.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 257 = UGC 2298 = MCG +08-06-011 = CGCG 554-008 = PGC 10729

02 49 45.5 +46 58 34

V = 12.6;  Size 2.2'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 0.8'x0.5'.  The slightly brighter core contains a quasi-stellar nucleus at moments.  A trio of very faint galaxies lies close SW (including IC 256?).  IC 260 lies 13' E.

 

WH discovered IC 257 = Sw VIII-3 on 11 Dec 1786 (sweep 645) and recorded "a few very small stars mixed with very faint seeming nebulosity, in the direction of the meridian [north-south]; most probably only a patch."  He didn't assign this nebula an internal discovery number or H-designation, but his position is just 2' north of IC 257 and the orientation of the galaxy (PA 155ˇ) is a reasonable match with his description.  Steinicke confirms this observation (email April 2015).

 

Lewis Swift rediscovered this galaxy on 6 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF; pS; R; in vacancy; v diff.  2nd of 3 [with IC 256 and IC 257]."  Swift, of course, is credited in the IC.  MCG misidentifies this galaxy as IC 256.

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IC 258 = UGC 2306 = CGCG 539-107 = PGC 10730

02 49 46.1 +41 03 06

V = 14.1;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.5;  PA = 165d

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x fairly faint to faint, slightly elongated N-S, 30"x24", small brighter nucleus.  A mag 10 star is 1.9' ENE and interferes a bit with viewing.  IC 258 is the brighter of a close pair with IC 259 1.0' WNW.

 

Sherburne Burnham discovered IC 258, along with IC 259, on 3 Sep 1891 while observing double stars with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  The identifications of IC 258 and IC 259 are reversed in most modern sources.  See notes on IC 259.

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IC 259 = CGCG 539-106 = PGC 10721

02 49 40.9 +41 03 18

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 126d

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x; faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, stellar nucleus.  A star (close double on the DSS) is at the northwest edge [17" from center]."  Forms a close pair with IC 258 1.0' ESE.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 259, along with IC 258, on 3 Sep 1891 while observing double stars with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He measured the offsets for both objects correctly with respect to 10th magnitude BD +40ˇ608.  But he applied his RA (time) offset in the wrong direction for the western object, which he described as double.  So the computed position for IC 258 is east of IC 259, placing these objects out of RA order in the sky.  As a result, the identifications of IC 258 and IC 259 are reversed in UGC, CGCG, PGC, HyperLeda, WikiSky, etc.  NED has the correct identifications.

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IC 260 = UGC 2325 = MCG +08-06-014 = CGCG 554-011 = PGC 10812

02 51 00.9 +46 57 17

V = 13.1;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (10/2/99): faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, ~30"x24", weak concentration.  A pair of mag 11.5 stars is close southwest (0.7' and 1.4') and collinear with the galaxy.  In a group with IC 257 located 13' W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 260 = Sw VIII-4, along with IC 256 and IC 257, on 6 Sep 1888 and recorded "eeeF; pS; in line with 2 nr faint stars. 3rd of 3."  His position is accurate.

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IC 263 = CGCG 389-027 = PGC 10716

02 49 40.0 -00 04 12

Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 167d

 

18" (1/15/07): faint, very small, slightly elongated, 20"x15", even surface brightness, seen with direct vision.  This galaxy is not identified as IC 263 in the CGCG or PGC as an error in Javelle's offset star gave an incorrect position in the IC.  Located 20' NE of NGC 1104 and 105' due east of M77.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 263 = J 1-99 on 9 Nov 1891.  There is nothing at his position, but Malcolm Thomson found that Javelle misidentified his reference star, which should have been GSC 4699-221.  When his offsets are applied to this star, the position lands on this galaxy.

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IC 265 = MCG +07-07-006 = CGCG 539-127 = CGCG 540-009 = AWM 7-3 = PGC 10978

02 54 44.0 +41 39 19

V = 14.6;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

18" (11/18/06): faint, small, round, 20" diameter.  Located 5.5' NE of NGC 1129 in the cluster AWM 7 and 4.5' NW of a mag 9.7 star in a cluster.  PGC 10962 lies 3' W.  Appears brighter than listed CGCG magnitude of 15.7pg. 

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 265 = Sw VIII-6 on 3 Nov 1888 and recorded "eeF; eS; R; 1129 near."  His position is fairly accurate.

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IC 267 = UGC 2368 = MCG +02-08-028 = PGC 10932

02 53 50.2 +12 50 57

V = 13.0;  Size 2.0'x1.6';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (10/21/95): faint, moderately large, edge-on 5:1 NNW-SSE, 1.8'x0.3', broad weak concentration.  Located 10.3' SSE of NGC 1134.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 267 = Sw VII-7 = Big 138 and recorded "eeF; pS; E; sf of GC 620 [NGC 1134]."  His RA is 35 seconds too large.  Bigourdan independently found it again on 28 Nov 1888 and measured an accurate position.  Both are credited in the IC.

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IC 270 = MCG -02-08-028 = PGC 11061

02 55 44.1 -14 12 29

Size 1.3'x1.2'

 

17.5" (10/17/98): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 SW-NE, ~0.9'x0.6'.  Forms the northeast vertex of a small trapezium with three mag 12 stars 1.0' SW, 1.5' WNW and 2.2' SW.  Forms a pair with IC 272 5.5' ENE.  NGC 1158, which is a fainter galaxy, lies 24' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 270 = J 1-103, along with IC 272, on 1 Dec 1891 with the 29-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory. His position matches MCG -02-08-028.  IC 270 and IC 272 appear to be the brightest in a cluster of faint galaxies (or superimposed on a more distant cluster).

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IC 272 = MCG -02-08-030 = PGC 11086

02 56 06.4 -14 11 13

Size 0.9'x0.6';  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (10/17/98): extremely faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, ~0.8'x0.6'.  Forms a pair with brighter IC 270 5.5' WSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 272 = J 1-104, along with IC 270, on 1 Dec 1891 with the 29-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory. His position matches MCG -02-08-030.

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IC 284 = UGC 2531 = MCG +07-07-023 =LGG 082-003 = PGC 11643

03 06 10.2 +42 22 18

V = 11.5;  Size 4.1'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 13d

 

24" (1/25/14): at 200x and 375x appeared moderately bright, large, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, at least 3'x1.5', weak concentration to a brighter core.  Two mag 15 stars are superimposed on the east edge of the core.  V Zw 319 = PGC 11646 is on the southwest edge of the halo, 0.7' SW of center!  The companion appeared very faint, round, only 12" diameter. A 17" pair of mag 11.5 stars lies 2.5' NW.  IC 288 lies 15' E.

 

NED has no distance info on V Zw 319, though there is no indication of interaction on the SDSS and an arm from IC 284 is silhouetted on V Zw 319, indicating it may be a background object.

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, moderately large, diffuse, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, gradually increases to a small bright core.  A mag 11 double at 16" separation is 2.5' NW.  Located 18' E of NGC 1175.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 284 = Sw VIII-13 on 27 Oct 1888 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  He noted "eeF, pL, lE, D * np, bet 2 st".  His position is 12 sec of RA west of UGC 2531 but the comment "D * np" pins down the identification.

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IC 285 = MCG -02-08-044 = PGC 11557

03 04 06.2 -12 00 56

Size 1.1'x0.2'

 

17.5" (10/20/90): very faint, small, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, very low even surface brightness.  Last of four in the NGC 1200 compact group with NGC 1200 3' WNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 285 = J 2-578 on 7 Dec 1893 with the 29-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory. His position matches PGC 11557.

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IC 288 = UGC 2544 = MCG +07-07-027 = CGCG 540-043 = LGG 088-001 = PGC 11702

03 07 32.9 +42 23 15

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 42d

 

24" (1/31/14): moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.2', sharply concentrated with a very small bright core.  IC 284 lies 15' W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 288 = Sw VIII-14 on 31 Oct 1888 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory and recorded "vF, vS, R, 2 pB st nf point to it, r[esolution] suspected".  His position is 1.6' SW of UGC 2544 = PGC 11702, though the two "pB" stars are south-following.  MCG +07-07-027 does not label their entry as IC 288.  The NGC 2000.0 classifies this galaxy as an open cluster, probably as Dreyer changed "r suspected" to "? S Cl".

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IC 289 = PK 138+2.1 = PN G138.8+02.8 = Hb 1

03 10 19.2 +61 19 01

V = 13.5;  Size 42"x28"

 

48" (10/25/14): at 375x unfiltered; fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 0.6'x0.5'.  Weakly annular with a slightly brighter rim and irregularly lit darker center that contains a very faint central star.  A thin, very low surface brightness outer halo is more elongated along the minor axis.

 

18" (11/13/07): at 300x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, ~35"x30" with an irregular surface brightness.  The rim was very slightly brighter than the interior with a strong impression of irregularities.  The rim sometimes appeared slightly brighter along the north side or contained a very faint stellar knot.  At 450x, there was an occasional faint sparkle in the interior, but I couldn't pin down if it was likely the central star.  Located 1.8' N of a mag 10 star.  A mag 14 star lies just 45" NE.

 

17.5" (1/16/02): at 140x, IC 289 was seen as a fairly faint, 35-40" disc with a modest contrast gain using a UHC filter.  Situated 2' N of a mag 10 star and near the tip of two curving strings of stars which head north and NW from IC 289.  Excellent view at 380x - the planetary is slightly elongated and has a mottled appearance with a marginally brighter rim, particularly on the west or NW side, giving an impression of weak annularity.  At moments, there was a brief sparkle at the center, possibly the central star.  A mag 14 star is 45" NE of center and a mag 13 star lies 1.3' following.

 

13" (12/7/85): at 79x and OIII filter appears faint, small, round.  At 166x and UHC filter can just hold steadily with averted vision, fairly small, almost round.

 

8": at 100x and UHC filter this planetary is very faint, very small.  Situated near the tip of two converging rows of mag 10-12 stars.  Several difficult positive sightings made from poor transparency in El Cerrito!

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 289 = Sw VIII-15 on 2 Sep 1888 and recorded "pB; pL; R; bet 2 vF st."

 

Hubble included this object in a 1921 paper titled "Twelve New Planetary Nebulae" in PASAP, Vol 33, No 193, p. 174 available at http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1921PASP...33..174H. Included in his table are NGC 2818, NGC 6072, NGC 7048, NGC 7635, IC 289, IC 1470, IC 4670, Hb 4, Hb 5, Hb 7, Hb, 8 and Hb 12.

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IC 290 = UGC 2561 = CGCG 540-047 = IC 1884 = PGC 11817

03 09 42.7 +40 58 27

V = 14.6;  Size 1.1'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 131d

 

18" (11/22/03): very faint, very small, appears as a tiny elongated streak, ~25"x8".  Located 5' N of NGC 1212 and 2.8' NNW of mag 8.7 SAO 38614 at the west side of AGC 426.  Two mag 12/13 stars lie 50" E and 1.3' NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 290 = Sw VIII-16, along with IC 292, 293 and 294, on 11 Sep 1888 and recorded "eeeF; S; R: in field with Algol."  His position is just off the northwest edge.  Barnard independently discovered the galaxy (as well as the other Swift discoveries) on 26 Nov 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He communicated the result directly to Dreyer who didn't notice the equivalence with the previous entry.  As a result, IC 290 = IC 1884. See Harold Corwin's notes.

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IC 292 = IC 1887 = UGC 2567 = MCG +07-07-030 = CGCG 540-049 = PGC 11846

03 10 12.9 +40 45 56

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 75d

 

18" (11/22/03): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 0.9'x0.4', very weak concentration.  Located 2.4' S of a mag 10 star at the west edge of AGC 426.  NGC 1212 lies 10' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 292 = Sw VIII-17, along with IC 293, on 11 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF; pS; R; * nr s; bet 2 st.; in field with Algol."  His position is fairly accurate.  E.E. Barnard independently discovered this galaxy (as well as IC 293) on 23 Nov 1888 while sweeping near Algol with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer and he recatalogued it as IC 1887.  So, IC 292 = IC 1887.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 294 = IC 296 = IC 1889 = UGC 2574 = MCG +07-07-033 = LGG 088-012 = PGC 11878

03 11 03.1 +40 37 20

V = 13.8;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  PA = 106d

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 E-W, 24"x18", weak concentration.  Three similar stars are near; a mag 14.5 star is 0.6' NW, a mag 14 star is 1.4' WNW and another mag 14 star is 1.1' WSW.  IC 292 lies 13' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 294 = Sw VIII-19, along with IC 290, 292, 293 and 294, on 11 Sep 1888 and recorded "vF; pS; iR; in finder field with Algol."  Barnard independently found this galaxy (along with IC 292 and 293) while sweeping near Algol on 23 Nov 1888 and noted "faint, moderately size, follows several stars."  Barnard send the discovery notice directly to Dreyer at some point so it also has the designation IC 1889.  Swift placed IC 295 close southeast, but there is nothing there.  IC 296 = Sw VIII-21, discovered by Swift just 3 nights later, is perhaps another observation (position matches and nothing else nearby he might have picked up, except for faint stars).  So, IC 294 = IC 296 = IC 1889 (and perhaps IC 295!).  CGCG labels this galaxy as IC 296 while MCG and RC3 lists it as IC 294.

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IC 296 = IC 294 = IC 1889 = UGC 2574 = MCG +07-07-033 = LGG 088-012 = PGC 11878

03 11 03.1 +40 37 20

V = 13.8;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  PA = 106d

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 E-W, 24"x18", weak concentration.  Three similar stars are near; a mag 14.5 star is 0.6' NW, a mag 14 star is 1.4' WNW and another mag 14 star is 1.1' WSW.  IC 292 lies 13' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 296 = Sw VIII-21 on 14 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF, pS, irr R, F D * p."  His position is fairly close match with UGC 2574.  This galaxy was probably discovered 3 nights earlier by Swift and listed as VIII-19 (later IC 294).  Some sources identify this galaxy as IC 294, others as IC 296 or both.  IC 1889 is an independent discovery by Barnard a couple of months later.

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IC 298 = Arp 147 = I Zw 11 = VV 787 = CGCG 390-016 = MCG +00-09-015 = PGC 1190197 = PGC 11890

03 11 18.9 +01 18 53

V = 14.6;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 126d

 

48" (10/23/11): at 488x both components of this ring system were easily resolved.  The eastern "collider" component (identified as IC 298A in PGC but IC 298B in NED) appeared moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 N-S, 24"x9", very small brighter core.  The ring component (no nucleus) just west is a faint, small, irregularly round glow, ~20" diameter with a low but very uneven surface brightness.  The rim was slightly brighter, creating a weak annular appearance, particularly on the east side.  The system is located 3' NW of a mag 9.3 star.

 

18" (1/26/09): at 285x appeared very faint and small, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, ~18"x9", low even surface brightness.  Located 3' NW of mag 9.3 SAO 111034.  This is a remarkable pair of disrupted galaxies (Arp 147) forming a "10" or "IC" on images.  The fainter western component (collisional Ring), forming the "C" or "0" was not visible.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 298 = J 2-580 on 29 Dec 1893 and recorded "Small, nearly round, 1 'in diameter. It looks like the nebula covers two very small bright spots."  Based on his description, it appears Javelle saw both components described in my observation.  MCG appears to misidentify IC 298 as MCG +00-09-015 instead of MCG +00-09-014.  Although IC 298 applies to both systems, PGC identifies the ring as IC 298 and the eastern component as IC 298A, while NED identifies the ring as IC 298A and the eastern system as IC 298B.

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IC 304 = UGC 2609 = MCG +06-08-005 = CGCG 525-010 = LGG 089-001 = PGC 12080

03 15 01.4 +37 52 55

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 27d

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, elongated ~5:3 SSW-NNE, ~25"x15", slightly brighter nucleus.  A mag 14 star is 30" SE and a mag 13 star is 1.2' SE.  Forms a pair with IC 305 1.4' SSE.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 304, along with IC 305, while searching for double stars on 12 Sep 1890 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  The micrometric position (measured by Barnard) is accurate.

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IC 305 = CGCG 525-012 = MCG +06-08-006 = PGC 12083

03 15 03.8 +37 51 36

Size 0.8'x0.6';  PA = 45d

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, small, round, very small bright nucleus, compact, 15" diameter.  Appears brighter (higher surface brightness) than CGCG mag of 15.7 suggests.  A mag 13 star is 50" NE.  Forms a close pair with IC 304 1.4' NNW.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 305, along with IC 304, while searching for double stars on 12 Sep 1890 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.

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IC 309 = MCG +07-07-043 = CGCG 540-072 = LGG 091-001 = PGC 12141

03 16 06.3 +40 48 16

V = 13.5;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (1/7/89): faint, small, round, even surface brightness.  Situated between two mag 12 stars 1' NW and 1.4' SE.  UGC 2617 lies 5' NNW but was not seen.  Member of AGC 426.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 309 = Sw VIII-26 on 11 Sep 1888 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; bet 2 st."

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IC 310 = UGC 2624 = MCG +07-07-045 = CR 6B = PGC 12171

03 16 43.1 +41 19 29

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (12/19/87): moderately bright, fairly small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with UGC 2626 3.7' NE.  Member of AGC 426.

 

17.5" (12/3/88): fairly faint, fairly small, round, small bright core.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 17 year-old son, discovered IC 310 = Sw VIII-28 on 3 Nov 1888 and recorded "vF; pS; R; [NGC] 1259, 1260 in field."  The position matches UGC 2624, probably the brightest member of AGC 426 that is not in the NGC.

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IC 312 = UGC 2644 = MCG +07-07-051 = CGCG 540-086 = LGG 088-004 = PGC 12279

03 18 08.4 +41 45 16

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 125d

 

17.5" (1/7/89): faint, small, oval NW-SE.  A mag 13 star is 1.2' E of center.  Forms a pair with PGC 12288 1.9' SE within AGC 426.  The companion appeared very faint, very small, elongated SW-NE.  A mag 15 star is just off the NE edge.

 

17.5" (8/12/88): faint, small, elongated NW-SE, brighter core.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 312 = Sw VIII-29 on 3 Nov 1888 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; nearly bet. 2 stars."  His position is accurate though MCG doesn't identify their catalogue entry MCG +07-07-051 as IC 312.

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IC 313 = UGC 2682 = MCG +07-07-073 = CGCG 540-111 = LGG 097-005 = CR 45 = PGC 12558

03 20 58.1 +41 53 38

V = 14.1;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 42d

 

24" (2/7/16): fairly faint, small, round, 24" diameter, slightly brighter nucleus.  A double star 14.5/14.5 (separation ~6") is 30" SE, just off the southeast edge.  A superimposed star barely south of the nucleus was not noticed.  IC 316 lies 4.6' NE and a mag 10.5 star is 2.5' N.

 

17.5" (1/7/89): very faint, very small, almost round.  A mag 14 star (close double) is off the southeast edge 30" from center.  Forms a pair with IC 316 4.5' NE within AGC 426.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 313 = Sw VIII-33, along with IC 316, on 14 Sep 1888 and recorded "eeF; vS; R; e close D * v near south."

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IC 316 = UGC 2688 = MCG +07-07-074 = CGCG 540-112 = PGC 12576 +12578

03 21 19.9 +41 55 55

V = 14.1;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 64d

 

24" (2/7/16): IC 316 is a spectacular interacting/merging pair of spiral galaxies with the nuclei of the two galaxies separated by only 10".  The close duo is embedded in a irregular common halo about 1' across.  At 226x, a single fairly faint glow was seen, slightly elongated ~N-S, ~25" diameter.  At 452x (10mm ZAO + 2x Powermate), I immediately noticed a nearly stellar nucleus [of the northern face-on spiral] offset near the north edge creating an unusual appearance.  Often a very faint "spike" [the southern edge-on spiral] was seen close south of the stellar nucleus, angling towards the southeast, ~15"x5".

 

17.5" (1/7/89): faint, small, oval ~N-S, weak concentration.  Located 5' ENE of IC 313 in AGC 426.  A companion is superimposed 0.2' S, but the merged systems were not resolved.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 316 = Sw VIII-34, along with IC 313, on 14 Sep 1888 and recorded "eeeF; pS; R."  So, Swift did not resolve the two nuclei.

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IC 334 = UGC 2824 = MCG +13-03-007 = CGCG 346-006 = PGC 13759

03 45 16.9 +76 38 17

V = 11.3;  Size 2.5'x1.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 58d

 

17.5" (1/9/99): surprisingly bright for an IC galaxy!  The center is sharply concentrated with a bright 1' core and a much fainter irregular halo at least 2.5' in diameter.  A faint star is superimposed at the south side of the core.  Situated in a starry field with several mag 12/13 stars within a few arcmin.

 

William Denning discovered IC 334 on 30 Sep 1891 with his 10-inch reflector.  He called it "tolerably bright, pretty small" and noted "an extremely faint star involved on the S. side of the nebula.  The latter is fairly conspicuous with a power of 60, and much brighter in the middle."

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IC 335 = IC 1963 = ESO 358-026 = MCG -06-08-031 = LGG 094-008 = PGC 13277

03 35 31.0 -34 26 49

V = 11.9;  Size 2.6'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 84d

 

18" (1/21/04): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated ~E-W, 1.5'x0.4', slightly brighter core, tapering extensions (spindle-shaped).  Located 7.5' E of a mag 11.5 star.  This is one of the brighter non-NGC galaxies in the Fornax I cluster.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 335 = Sw VII-8 on 15 Oct 1887 and recorded "pF pS; eE; east and west."  His position is 30 seconds of RA west of ESO 358-026 = PGC 13277.  Swift found this galaxy again on 7 Sep 1897 and logged "pB; S; eeeE; a hair line 90ˇ.  See note."  The note mentions "these [along with IC 2135] are the most interesting nebulae I have ever seen, especially No. 56 [IC 1963], which is a nebulous hair-line of one uniform size from end to end."  His second position was 37 seconds of RA too far west (both positions have the same declination) though clearly refers to the same edge-on.  Dreyer assumed they were different, but IC 335 = IC 1963.

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IC 342 = UGC 2847 = MCG +11-05-003 = PGC 13826

03 46 48.6 +68 05 47

V = 8.4;  Size 21.4'x20.9';  Surf Br = 14.9

 

17.5" (12/16/95): very unusual galaxy, appears as a very faint, very large glow surrounding a 1' high surface brightness core that increases to a bright stellar nucleus.  The irregular halo is difficult to trace but extends to ~10' diameter with a number of superimposed stars including a striking 6' string of six mag 10.5-12 star oriented NW-SE on the southwest side of the halo.  No arm structure was seen.  The core forms a small triangle with two similar superimposed mag 11 stars 1.0' N and 2.0' NE.  Situated just 10.6ˇ above the galactic plane and suffers from significant dust obscuration.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): at 144x the nucleus is prominent as a mag 12 "fuzzy" star.  At this power the outer halo disappears.

 

8" (10/13/81): very faint, large, very diffuse outer halo, very small prominent 12th magnitude nucleus.  A line of three stars is superimposed.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 342 on 11 Aug 1890 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "with 500x it is quite a bright object, 1/2' dia and quite [?], mbM, not cometary.  Object 1' S of this star [shown on sketch] and following 3s or 4s." His rough position and sketch (showing the superimposed linear strings of stars) is an excellent match.

 

William Denning independently discovered IC 342 on 19 Aug 1892 while comet hunting with his 10-inch reflector.  The discovery was announced in a short note, "New nebula", Astronomy and Astro-Physics, 12, 189 (1893).  As Barnard never published his discovery or informed Dreyer, Denning is credited with the discovery in the IC.

 

In a note by Hubble and Seyfert titled "A Spiral Nebula of Unusually Large Dimensions" (Harvard College Observatory Bulletin No. 899, pp.16-17): "In a letter written to Dr. J. L. Dreyer before 1894, Mr. W. F. Denning, the well known meteor observer of Bristol, included in a short list of new nebulae an object in the position 3h 37m 8s, +67d 46.9' (1900), which was simply described as "pretty bright, very small, star of 12th magnitude close to nucleus."

 

Hubble and Humason (1934), first recognized this object as a spiral galaxy and suggested the possibility that IC 342 was a possible Local Group member (heavily reddened) based on its recessional velocity, though it was later shown to be too distant.

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IC 343 = ESO 548-066 = MCG -03-10-029  = PGC 13495

03 40 07.1 -18 26 37

V = 13.2;  Size 1.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 118d

 

17.5" (12/11/99): faint, small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 30"x20".  Situated between two mag 13 stars 1.6' E and 2.0' SW of center.  Located 8' N of NGC 1407 in a group of 8 NGC galaxies.

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 343 = LM(S) 160 on 14 Oct 1887 and noted "lE 90ˇ, dif."  His micrometric position in the 1893 catalogue of "Southern Nebulae" (#160) matches ESO 548-066.

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IC 344 = MCG -01-10-020 = PGC 13568

03 41 29.5 -04 39 58

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

13.1" (12/7/85): first of three on a line with NGC 1417 and NGC 1418.  Extremely faint, round, very diffuse.  Detectable with averted vision only 20% of time.  Located 7.3' WNW of NGC 1417.

 

JH discovered IC 344 = h305 = LM(S) 163 = Sw IX-13 on 17 Oct 1827 and simply recorded "the first of 3 [with H II-455 and H II-456]".  His position matches MCG -01-10-020 = PGC 13568, although he thought the object was identical with H-III 569 = NGC 1397. So, both the GC (756) and NGC (1397) misidentify h305 as H III-569.  As a result, h305 did not receive a separate NGC designation and IC 344 is JH's only discovery with an IC designation.  This galaxy was also observed at Birr Castle (and missed on several occasions).

 

Lewis Swift independently found the galaxy again on 23 Dec 1889, reported "eeF; pL; R; passed in line with 1417-18; cometary; unable to refind it; seeing good.  Failed also at Harvard College Observatory [during a visit]."  Frank Muller also found it in late 1887 while measuring positions for NGC 1417 and 1418.  Dreyer credited both JH (h305) and Swift in the IC.  Sherburne Burnham measured IC 344 (Publ of Lick Observatory, II) and correctly sorted out the confusion with JH's observation.

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IC 347 = MCG -01-10-024 = PGC 13622

03 42 32.6 -04 17 55

V = 12.7;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 40d

 

13.1" (12/7/85): fairly faint, small, almost round, stellar nucleus.  Surprisingly bright for an IC galaxy.  Located 26' N of NGC 1418 in the NGC 1417 group.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 347 = Sw IX-14 on 25 Dec 1889 and recorded "eF; vS; R; stellar."

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IC 348 = IC 1985 = Cr 41 = OCL-409 = vdB 19 = LBN 758 = Ced 20

03 44 36 +32 10

V = 7.3;  Size 10'x10'

 

17.5" (12/16/95): IC 348 is an unusual object consisting of a scattered group of stars with associated nebulosity situated near a large dark cloud virtually devoid of stars.  The cluster consists of 15 stars of varying magnitudes in a 6' group located 5'-10' S of Omicron = 38 Persei (V = 3.8).  The brightest star in the group is mag 8.4 SAO 56680, which has two nearby companions and the group is clearly encased in a fairly bright reflection nebula, ~3' diameter.  The star at the southwest end of the cluster is a nice close evenly matched double (·437 = 9.8/10 at 11").  The immediate 50' low power field to the south is strangely devoid of almost all stars! (Barnard 3 and 4).  Omicron also has a halo but this appears to be scattered light.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 348 = Sf 70 on 1 Dec 1866 and recorded "vL, pB, vgbM."  He added the footnote "a loose cluster with nebula" and his position is accurate.  E.E. Barnard independently discovered this nebulous cluster photographically on 6 Dec 1893 and it was also catalogued as IC 1985.

 

The Lynga position for the scattered cluster is about 8' too far north and this error is repeated in the Sky Catalogue 2000.

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IC 349 = Barnard's Nebula = vdB 22 = Ced 19i

03 46 20.1 +23 56 23

Size 0.5'

 

48" (10/31/13):  IC 349 is a reflection knot just 36" SSE of Merope.  We used 813x and carefully placed Merope barely outside the north edge of the field.  The orientation was easy to judge using two 15th magnitude stars 1.8' S and 1.8' SSW of Merope and the elongated glow fell between the diffraction spikes.  Despite the glare from Merope making the observation much more difficult, I was surprised this small reflection nebula was fairly bright and elongated (roughly pointing south from Merope) with a straighter western edge, perhaps 20"x10" in size.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 349, a fan-shaped knot of nebulosity just 0.6' SSE of Merope, visually on 14 Nov 1890 using the Lick 36" refractor.  It was announced in a discovery note in AN 3018.  "On Nov. 14 while examining the cluster, I discovered a new and comparatively bright round cometary nebula close south and following Merope, every precaution was taken to prove that it was not a ghost of Merope by examining the other stars of the group under the same conditions.  I have since seen it several times and on Dec. 8th I could see it with some difficulty in the 12-inch by occulting Merope with a wire in the eyepiece.  With the great telescope the nebula can be seen fairly well with Merope in the field and is conspicuous when the star is placed just outside the north edge of the field.  It is about 30" in diameter, of the 13th mag, gradually brighter in the middle, and very cometary in appearance.  It was examined with powers of 300, 520 and 1500, with all of which it was comparatively easy."

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IC 351 = PK 159-15.1 = PN G159.0-15.1

03 47 33.0 +35 02 49

V = 11.9;  Size 8"x6"

 

17.5" (3/1/03): swept up at 100x as a fuzzy mag 12 "star".  Nice view at 380x, which reveals a moderate surface brightness 7" disk.  Fairly evenly illuminated but the halo has a slightly irregular surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is 20" WNW of center with a slightly fainter star further north.  Located 3.4' NW of mag 9.5 SAO 56707.  A mag 11 and 13 stars complete a trio to the SE. 

 

17.5" (1/8/00): picked up at 100x as an out of focus mag 11 "star".  At 220x, this high surface brightness PN was clearly nonstellar and slightly oval with a hint of a sparkle (central star) at the center.  At 500x, appeared as a small, well-defined disc, elongated 4:3 SW-NE with dimensions ~7"x5".  The quasi-stellar center was brighter with a small, fainter halo that seemed irregular.  A couple of faint stars are close west and north.  Located 3.5' NW of a distinctive trio of mag 10/11/13 stars.

 

8" (12/4/80): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated SW-NE.  A wide trio of stars is about 3.5' SE consisting of mag 9 SAO 56707, a mag 10.5 star and a mag 12.5 star (separations of 32", 36" and 58").

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 351 on 5 Dec 1890 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory, while examining the region near Comet Zona.  He estimated a diameter of 4.6" and a magnitude of 10.5-11.  Sherburne Burnham measured a diameter of 10".

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IC 356 = Arp 213 = UGC 2953 = MCG +12-04-011 = PGC 14508

04 07 46.5 +69 48 45

V = 10.5;  Size 5.2'x3.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 90d

 

48" (2/18/12): bright, large, oval 3:2 E-W, 3.0'x2.0', large brighter core.  There appears to be a very slightly brighter streak extending from the core to the southwest.  Several stars are superimposed on the halo.  UGC 2955 is 9' SSE and PGC 166486 = 2MASX J04083779+6950160 lies 4.7' NE.

 

17.5" (11/2/91): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated 3:2 E-W, 2.25'x1.5'.  Contains a large brighter core 30" diameter with a fairly faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star is embedded in the NE portion of halo.  Located 3.5' S of mag 8.6 SAO 13024.  This is one of the brightest IC galaxies.

 

8" (11/28/81): very faint, round, diffuse, even surface brightness.  Located south of a mag 9 star.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 356 on 23 Aug 1889 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  His simple eyepiece sketch clearly identifies the neighboring stars.  Barnard didn't publish his discovery until 1892 (AN 3097) in response to an independent discovery by William Denning on 7 Nov 1890 (Observatory, 15, 104 (1892)).  Barnard's article was titled "Two Probably Variable Nebulae".  In the article he mentions "from its brightness it is not possible that it has been so conspicuous for any great length of time, or it would surely have been found by Swift and others."

 

Both Barnard and Denning are credited in the IC.  Denning was a bit peeved about Barnard's late discovery note and wrote "Mr. Barnard claims to have discovered [IC 356] in August 1889 whereas I did not pick it up until Nov 1890.  While admitting this claim, I would venture to remark that anyone who makes a discovery ought to be prompt in announcing it, as a delay of several years is very likely to cause misconception and unnecessary trouble to others.  I think that in ordinary cases priority of announcement ought to be accepted as priority of discovery."  But perhaps Barnard wasn't the first to discover this galaxy.  Swift claims (Astro-Physics, Vol XI, 566) the first discovery before 1879 based on marking the object on his Burritt's star atlas, but he didn't record or remember any particulars as he claimed he thought his early discoveries were all known!

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IC 357 = UGC 2941 = MCG +04-10-016 = CGCG 487-016 = PGC 14384

04 03 44.0 +22 09 33

V = 13.2;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 175d

 

24" (2/14/15): at 375x; fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, contains a very small brighter core.  A mag 12 star lies 1.5' E and two additional stars form an isosceles triangle (sides 2', 2' and 3').  Located 14' WNW of 4.3-magnitude 37 Tauri.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 357 = Sf 73 on 1 Jan 1867 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  He reported "F, S, R, Nucl = 13.5m".

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IC 359 = UGC 2980 = MCG +05-10-009 = CGCG 508-008 = PGC 14653

04 12 28.4 +27 42 08

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

17.5" (3/1/03): easily swept up at 100x.  At 280x appears faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, weak concentration to a slightly brighter core and nucleus.  A mag 15 star is just off the WSW edge [26" from center].  A mag 15.5 star is ~1.5' ~1' E (other nearby stars surround the galaxy on the DSS).

 

This number is incorrectly applied to the reflection nebula GN 04.15.5 = LBN 782 at 04 19.0 +28 17 (2000) in NGC 2000, Lynds, Neckel and Vehrenberg, etc.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 359 = Sw X-14 on 25 Dec 1891 and recorded "eeF; pL; R; Not no. 29 cat. 2.  That is still missing."  There is nothing at his position but 1 min of RA west is UGC 2980.  This galaxy is not identified as IC 359 in MCG (+05-10-009) and IC 359 is misidentified as the reflection nebula GN 04.15.5 = DG 29 = LBN 782 at 04 19.0 +28 17 (2000) in NGC 2000, Lynds, MOL, Neckel and Vehrenberg, etc (private communication with Corwin on 10/3/94).  LBN 782 is 6.5 min of RA following Swift's position and according to Dave Riddle, is the tail of cometary nebula Ced 30 = Hubble 4 = Hubble's "nebulous star".

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IC 361 = Cr 48 = Mel 24 = OCL-393 = C 0414+581

04 18 51 +58 15 00

V = 11.7;  Size 6'

 

18" (11/26/03): very faint cloud of partially resolved stars, ~4' in diameter.  A number of fairly uniform mag 14-15 stars are just resolved over haze, though it's difficult to tally a total. A brighter 7' string of mag 11-12 stars oriented NW-SE passes along the north edge of the cluster.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 361 on 10 Oct 1890 with the 6 1/2" refractor at Lick Observatory.  He recorded in his logbook, "In 6 1/2 inch it is apparently a very faint nebula between two or three stars.  In 12-inch (175x) it is pL, excessively faint and seems to be an excessively faint cluster or extremely faint stars, with possibly some nebulosity - power too high."  His simple sketch shows the cluster on line with two 6th magnitude stars to the southwest and the identity is certain.   William Denning found it again on 11 Feb 1893 with his 10-inch reflector (see The Observatory, 41, 140) and is credited with the discovery in the IC as Barnard never published his discovery or notified Dreyer.

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IC 366 = CGCG 393-002 = PGC 14887

04 19 41.5 +02 21 35

Size 0.35'x0.2';  PA = 20d

 

24" (12/22/14): faint, small, round, 12" diameter.  Located 3.1' SSE of much brighter NGC 1550.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 366 on 5 Oct 1890, while observing NGC 1550 with the 36" refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "That found by d'Arrest [NGC 1550] is at least six or eight times brighter than the other.  There is a faint star, about 13m, between the two."  His micrometric offset from NGC 1550 is very accurate.

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IC 373 = MCG -01-12-013 = PGC 15335

04 30 42.7 -04 52 13

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.9'

 

17.5" (12/26/00): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter.  Gradually increases to a brighter core.  In a line of 3 stars oriented N-S and ~2' from two mag 11 stars to the north and south.  Located 19' NW of NGC 1600 in a group.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 373 = J 2-595 on 11 Feb 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 374 = MCG +03-12-001 = CGCG 467-001 = PGC 15474

04 32 32.8 +16 38 03

Size 0.8'x0.4';  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (1/31/87): faint, extremely small, round, brighter core, possibly elongated ~E-W.  Visible with direct vision at 220x.  Located 3.2' NE of a mag 9 star.  Two stars mag 11/12 7' E and 9' ENE are collinear with the mag 9 star.  Located 48' W and 7' N Aldebarran.  Appears almost stellar on the POSS.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 374 = Spitaler 4 on 28 Oct 1891 with the 27-inch refractor at the Vienna Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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IC 381 = NGC 1530A = UGC 3130 = MCG +13-04-007 = CGCG 347-006 = PGC 15917

04 44 28.5 +75 38 24

V = 12.3;  Size 2.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (3/1/03): picked up at 100x as a moderately large, low surface brightness galaxy.  Brightens somewhat towards the center.  A mag 13 star is superimposed near the edge of the halo.  At 220x, the star is at the north edge and the galaxy is elongated 4:3 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.6', although the edge of the halo is difficult to define.

 

William Denning discovered IC 381 on 26 Aug 1889 with his 10-inch reflector in England and recorded "F, S, bM, * 12 np."  Harold Corwin comments that IC 381 was called "NGC 1530A" in Philip Keenan's 1935 paper discussing magnitudes of galaxies.

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IC 382 = (R)NGC 1632 = MCG -02-12-049 = PGC 15691

04 37 55.5 -09 31 10

V = 12.2;  Size 2.3'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (1/23/93): fairly faint, moderately large, round, 1.5' diameter, gradually increases to small bright core.  A 10' string of stars extends towards the NW.  Appears brighter and larger than NGC 1632 30' ENE!  Misidentified in the RNGC as NGC 1632.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 382 = J 2-587 on 6 Feb 1893.  His position is accurate.  RNGC and NGC 2000.0 incorrectly equates IC 382 = NGC 1632.  See NGC 1632.

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IC 391 = UGC 3190 = MCG +13-04-011 = CGCG 347-009 = PGC 16402

04 57 21.7 +78 11 25

V = 12.7;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (3/1/03): easily swept up at 100x; fairly faint, moderately large, round, fairly even surface brightness.  At 220x, embedded in the middle of a scattered group of stars, 1' diameter, nearly uniform surface brightness, possibly slightly elongated ~E-W, 1.0'x0.9'.

 

William Denning discovered IC 391 on 7 Nov 1890 with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector from England.  He simply noted "F, S, R." and measured a fairly accurate position.

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IC 392 = UGC 3158 = MCG +01-13-001 = CGCG 420-002 = PGC 15973

04 46 25.9 +03 30 22

V = 12.3;  Size 1.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (2/11/96): faint, fairly small, irregularly round, 1.0' diameter, even concentration to a very small brighter core.  Located 2.3' WNW of a mag 10 star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 392 = J 2-604 on 6 Jan 1894.  His position matches UGC 3158, although neither UGC nor MCG equate their entry with IC 392.

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IC 395 = NGC 1671? = UGC 3178 = MCG +00-13-015 = Holm 80a = PGC 16095

04 49 34.1 +00 15 10

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (2/11/96): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 45" diameter.  At first appeared elongated but this illusion was caused by a mag 14.5 star at the following edge 25" from center.  Another mag 13.5-14 star is 1' W.  This galaxy may be NGC 1671 with a very poor position.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 395 = Sw IX-15 on 20 Oct 1889.  His position is 10 seconds west of UGC 3178 (Howe later measured an accurate position).  It is possible NGC 1671 = Sw V-63 also refers to this galaxy, though this requires Swift's earlier position to be off by 45 seconds in RA and 1 degree in declination.  His comment "pB * nr sp" applies, though, to IC 395.

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IC 396 = UGC 3203 = MCG +11-07-002 = CGCG 306-007 = CGCG 307-001 = PGC 16423

04 57 59.0 +68 19 23

V = 12.0;  Size 2.1'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (3/1/03): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2, 1.2'x0.8', small bright core is extended NNW-SSE.  This galaxy is fairly bright for the IC galaxy and was immediately swept up at 100x.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 396 on 20 Sep 1890 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted a "small, indef, 12 1/2 mag, field marked by 3 or 4 pairs of stars.  The neb = 3/4' diameter, somewhat brighter in the middle [difficult to read]." His rough position is off by 16', but he made an accurate field sketch that clearly identifies this galaxy.  He later computed an accurate position using the coordinates for his offset star (HD 30530). William Denning independently discovered it just a month later (19 Oct 1890), describing "F, S, R< bMN, F double star Sf."  Denning was credited with the discovery in the IC as Barnard never notified Dreyer.

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IC 399 = Mrk 1090 = LGG 123-007 = PGC 16582

05 01 44.1 -04 17 19

V = 14.8;  Size 0.3'x0.3'

 

48" (11/2/13): at 375x appeared moderately bright, fairly small, round, 18", fairly high surface brightness with a very small bright nucleus.  Located 2.3' SE of the HCG 31 quartet.  A mag 11.4 star lies 1.5' NW, between IC 399 and the quartet.

 

17.5" (2/8/97): very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, low even surface brightness.  This galaxy is located just 2.3' SE of NGC 1741 = HCG 31A and 2.5' SE of a mag 12 star on a line, although it was not listed as a group member.  Nevertheless, it is part of the same group, with a similar redshift as HCG 31A, 31B and 31C.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 399 = Spitaler 35 on 25 Feb 1892 with the 27-inch refractor at the Vienna Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.  The MCG and NGC 2000 incorrectly equate IC 399 with NGC 1741.  See Malcolm Thomson's IC identification notes.

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IC 405 = Flaming Star Nebula = LBN 795 = Sh 2-229 = Ced 42 = vdB 34

05 16 12 +34 16

Size 30'x19'

 

18" (1/20/07): barely visible without filter as a very low surface brightness hazy region mainly to the north of mag 6 AE Aurigae.  The H-beta filter increases the contrast somewhat.  The haze is brightest in the region surrounding AE and mostly extends in a broad fan for 10'-15' to the north and NE.

 

17.5" (2/8/86): the "Flaming Star" nebula is a very faint, large, diffuse nebulosity extending mainly north of AE Aurigae without filter.  Enhanced with an H-beta filter.

 

13.1" (12/7/85): very low surface brightness haze at 62x using an H-beta filter, though nebulosity seen to 15' diameter and extending generally to the north and NE of AE Aurigae.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): nebulosity highly suspected on east side of AE Aurigae.

 

John Martin SchŠeberle discovered IC 405 photographically on 21 Mar 1892 using the Willard lens strapped to the 6-inch Clark refractor at Lick Observatory.  An announcement ("A Large New Nebula in Auriga") and description was given in PASP, Vol 4, No. 22.  Wolf also photographed it on 25 Sep 1892 (AN 131 [3130], 159) and in 1903 reported this nebula "looks like a burning body from which several enormous curved flames seem to break out like gigantic prominences".  He urged his colleagues to aim their spectroscopes at this "flaming star" - hence the name "Flaming Star Nebula".

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IC 410 = LBN 807 = Sh 2-236 = Ced 43

05 22 36 +33 31

Size 40'x30'

 

24" (1/4/14): at 125x unfiltered, emission nebulosity is evident surrounding and beyond the borders of open cluster NGC 1893, but the only a large patch to the NW of the cluster stands out well.  A UHC filter transformed the nebula to a showpiece and it appeared bright, very large (~30' diameter), very irregular with a large darker patch to the west of the central portion of the cluster.  The brightest section of nebulosity is to the NW of the cluster (as noticed without a filter), though mag 9.0 HD 242908 (a hot 04-type star) at the NW tip of the cluster is at the east edge of this bright, 6' circular patch.  Somewhat fainter nebulosity envelops the entire cluster but an extensive field of nebulosity continuous south of the cluster for an additional 10'.  It was difficult to see a clean edge on the south and west side as the nebulosity seems to gradually fade away, but the entire diameter is at least 25'.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): very faint nebulosity involved with open cluster NGC 1893.  The brightest portion is at the NW edge of cluster.  A dark "hole" is just south of this nebulosity.  More extensive nebulosity is suspected but difficult to confirm due to the general background haze of the cluster.  Enhanced with UHC and OIII filters.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): nebulosity is evident preceding the NW star of the triangle of stars surrounding the cluster.  Very faint but definite with a filter in poor transparency.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 410 on 25 Sep 1892 on a Heidelberg plate.  In AN 3130, p159, he noted the plate revealed a group of stars and a large nebula surrounding the star BD +33ˇ1023.  His position matches the brightest star (mag 9.0 HD 242908) in the nebula.  NGC 1893 refers only to the open cluster, which was discovered by John Herschel.

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IC 412 = IC 2123 = UGC 3298 = MCG +01-14-034 = CGCG 421-041 = VV 225b = VV 630 = PGC 17180

05 21 56.7 +03 29 11

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 30d

 

24" (1/12/13): both members of this interacting pair (VV 225) are fairly faint, small, roughly 20"-25" in size, and each contains small bright cores.  IC 412, the northwest component, is larger and more elongated , roughly 5:3 SW-NE, 25"x15".  IC 413 is just off the ESE side, 35" between centers. A mag 12.3 star is 30" ENE (at the north edge of IC 413).  The stretched spiral arm or tidal tail to the north was not seen. The pair is 14' WSW of the bright double 23 Ori = STF 696 (5.0/7.2 at 32").  IC 414 lies 8.5' S.

 

17.5" (12/26/00): this is the northwest member of an unusual close pair of interacting galaxies with IC 413 -- just 35" separation (in PA 115ˇ) and both members appearing to extend from a mag 12 star (30" from centers to star)!  Both galaxies are faint, very small, slightly elongated, ~25"x15", with small brighter cores.  IC 412 is elongated SSW-NNE and 30" SW of the mag 12 star - with the NE end just west of the star.  Located 6' SSW of mag 7.6 SAO 112679 and 14' WSW of the (32") mag 5/7 double 23 Orionis.  A third galaxy, IC 414, is in the field 8.5' S, forming the poor galaxy cluster WBL 114.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 412 = IC 2123, along with IC 413 = IC 2124, on 30 Oct 1888 while sweeping with the 12-inch telescope of Lick Observatory.  He noted "the nebulae are very small, roundish, mbM.  Close south of a small star."  His field sketch confirms the identification.  Sherburne Burnham who discovered nearby IC 414, also observed and measured the pair at Lick Observatory (Publ of Lick Observatory, II).  The discovery was communicated at some point directly to Dreyer.

 

Stephane Javelle independently found the pair (J. 608 and 609) on 12 Jan 1894.  These observations became IC 412 and 413 (Javelle's descriptions used), though Barnard is also credited. So IC 412 = IC 2123 and IC 413 = IC 2124.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 413 = IC 2124 = UGC 3299 = MCG +01-14-035 = CGCG 421-042 = VV 225a = VV 630 = WBL 114-003 = PGC 17181

05 21 58.9 +03 28 56

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 135d

 

24" (1/12/13): this is the southeast component of the close interacting pair VV 225.  At 375x it appeared fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, ~22"x17", sharply concentrated with a very small, high surface brightness nucleus.  A mag 12.3 star is just 25" N of center and a mag 16.2 star is 46" SSW. IC 412 is just 35" NW and roughly similar in appearance.  IC 414 lies 8.5' S.

 

17.5" (12/26/00): the southeast member of an unusual interacting pair (tidal tails on DSS image) of similar galaxies with IC 412 just 35" NW and both galaxies straddle a mag 12 star!  IC 413 appears similar to IC 412 - ~25"x15", slightly elongated NW-SE with a small brighter core.  The northwest tip of the galaxy is virtually in contact with the mag 12 star.

 

See notes for IC 412 = IC 2123.

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IC 414 = MCG +01-14-033 = CGCG 421-040 = WBL 114-001 = PGC 17179

05 21 55.0 +03 20 31

Size 0.4'x0.3';  PA = 135d

 

24" (2/5/13): faint to fairly faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 24"x18", weak concentration.  Located 8.5' S of the interacting pair VV 225 = IC 412/413.

 

17.5" (12/26/00): faint, small, round, 25" diameter.  Located 9' S of the IC 412/413 pair and 2' NW of mag 9.4 SAO 112675.

 

Sherbourne Burnham discovered IC 414 on 8 Nov 1891 with the 36" refractor at Lick Observatory while sweeping for IC 412 and 413.  The latter pair was discovered earlier by Barnard using the 12-inch at Lick.

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IC 417 = LBN 804 = Sh 2-234 = Ced 46

05 28 06 +34 26

Size 13'x10'

 

18" (1/20/07): large, irregular faint haze, ~8'-9' diameter.  Involved with open cluster Stock 8 (35-40 stars at 115x) in the field of 5.2-magnitude Phi Aurigae.  Mild contrast gain with a UHC filter.  NGC 1931 lies 45' ESE and NGC 1907 is 53' N.

 

17.5" (2/9/02): this large HII region encases the open cluster Stock 8 and is situated ~6' SE of 5th magnitude Phi Aurigae.  At 140x, the cluster consists of 40-50 stars including two mag 10 (the brightest is the wide double ·707 = 9.7/11.4 at 18") and numerous mag 12-14 stars.  With a UHC filter (or OIII filter at 100x), the cluster is encased in a moderately bright glow, ~8'x5'.  The nebulosity is brightest in a triangular wedge, tapering towards the south with the two mag 10 stars oriented N-S (2' separation) along the western boundary.  The glow is irregular but has a fairly sharp border along the western edge.

 

8" (12/6/80): faint nebulosity involved with three stars mag 9-11 including ·707 = 9.7/11.4 at 18".  The brightest portion is located 8' SE of Phi Aurigae (V = 5.1).  Embedded in the open cluster Stock 8.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 417 on 25 Sep 1892 on a Heidelberg plate.  In AN 3130 (131), p159, he noted a "vast nebula envelopes the star cluster" and his position is within the cluster.

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IC 418 = PK 215-24.1 =  PN G215.2-24.2 = Spirograph Nebula = Raspberry Nebula

05 27 28.2 -12 41 50

V = 9.3;  Size 12"

 

48" (2/18/12): at 488x, the sharply defined, vivid raspberry annulus appeared relatively thin and extended NNW-SSE, ~14"x12".  The high contrast central dark hole was striking surrounding the bright central star.  Surrounding the annulus is a faint outer halo, increasing the size to roughly 20".

 

48" (4/2/11): truly impressive view at 375x and 488x, which revealed a very high surface brightness, slightly elongated halo, ~14"x12", surrounding the very bright central star.  I was surprised to see the planetary was clearly annular with a very bright, irregular rim that varied slightly in thickness and a fairly high contrast darker hole surrounding the central star.  The ring's outer rim was a shocking, deep raspberry color.  The color was more intense at 375x and slightly more saturated along one-half of the annulus.

 

18" (1/26/09): striking view at 175x with the mag 10.5 central star blazing within a 10" disc with a crisply defined halo.  Excellent contrast gain using an H-beta filter with the central star nearly lost with the high surface brightness disc.  There appears to be a very faint, thin envelope surrounding the main 10" disc extending a few arc seconds.  At 285x, the planetary is slightly oval NNW-SSE with subtle variations in surface brightness; slightly weaker around the central star and slightly brighter along portions of the rim.

 

18" (1/15/07): at 115x, the bright mag 10.5 central star is surrounded by a small 10" disc with a noticeable raspberry tint.

 

17.5" (2/22/03): at 100x, the bright 10.5 magnitude central star was centered in a 10" round halo with a definite rosy or raspberry tint at the outer edge of the halo, though the effect is fairly subtle.  Using an H-beta filter, the central star is strongly dimmed but the halo is significantly enhanced, dramatically changing the view of this planetary.  At 380x, no color was visible but the halo was a bit asymmetrical with a "softer" edge and possible double shell structure.  The center was very slightly darker around the central star.

 

17.5" (12/30/99): at 82x the mag 10.5 central star was enveloped in a very small round halo which appeared to have a slight reddish tinge at its edge.  This is a low-excitation PN and using a H-beta filter, the halo brightened and the central star faded, leaving a more noticeable disc.  At 220x, the prominent central star was surrounded by a well-defined 10" halo that partially "blinked" on and off switching from averted to direct vision.  At 280x, the small halo was possibly surrounded by an extremely faint envelope, but this could not be confirmed.  380x and 500x presented a superb view of the inner disc which appeared weakly annular.

 

17.5" (3/8/97): unusually bright mag 10.5 central star surrounded by a small high surface brightness halo.  At 220x, this planetary has a distinct "blinking" effect; staring at central star partially washes out the halo and with averted the halo is more dominant.  At 82x, an unusual rosy tinge is evident at the edge of the small halo, although the effect is fairly subdued.  The seeing was not steady enough for high power viewing of the outer shell.

 

17.5": high surface brightness planetary, appears very bright at 481x.  Contains a bright "fuzzy" central star with a bright inner portion surrounded by a second fainter shell slightly elongated N-S.

 

13" (10/20/84): very bright, small, takes 350-410x well, bright central star, subtle shell structure.

 

8" (2/5/81): nearly stellar at 100x, bright, appears as a mag 10 star with a small, faint bluish halo.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 418 on 26 Mar 1891 based on a spectrum plate taken at Harvard College Observatory.  In a letter communicated by Pickering in AN 3049, she mentioned the hydrogen spectrum was unusually large for a planetary.  Pickering is attributed with the discovery in the NGC.

 

A star is plotted at this position on the Uranometria 2000.0 Atlas because the BD catalogue included the central star.

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IC 420

05 32 09.5 -04 31

Size 8'

 

18" (2/19/09): large, extremely faint reflection nebula surrounding mag 8.2 HD 36540.  Appears roughly 6' in diameter.  The surrounding field seems weakly luminous, but the glow surrounding the star is slightly more evident and extends roughly to mag 8.8 HD 36559 located 4.5' SE.  Located 45' W of the bright, scattered cluster NGC 1981 and 50' NW of the bright nebulous cluster NGC 1977 (north of M42).

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 420 = HN 63 on 27 Jun 1888 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate.  She noted "very faint nebulosity preceding and a little south of DM -4ˇ1162.  Not confirmed by Plate 2414."  Edward Pickering announced the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).  Photographs taken with the Bache telescope, a photographic 8-inch f/5.5 doublet, covering 10 degrees square, were examined by Fleming with a magnifying glass.

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IC 421 = UGCA 111 = MCG -01-15-001 = PGC 17407

05 32 08.5 -07 55 05

Size 3.2'x2.8';  PA = 80d

 

24" (2/7/16): fairly faint, very large, slightly elongated ~E-W, ~2' diameter, broad fairly weak concentration, so the surface brightness of this reddened galaxy is fairly low.  A wide double star (HJ 2271 = 10/11.5 at 19") is 6.4' NNW.  MCG -01-15-002 = VV 848 is 14' NE.  This disrupted galaxy appeared faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 24"x18", contains a slightly brighter nucleus.  The tidal tail to the southwest was not seen.

 

17.5" (2/14/99): very faint, moderately large low surface brightness glow, ~2' diameter, very weak concentration, ill-defined halo fades into background.  A mag 13 star lies 2.3' ESE of center.  The galaxy is collinear with two wide brighter unequal pairs 6' NNW and 13' NNW.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 421 = HN 66 on 27 Jun 1888 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate of the M42 region.  She described "faint nebulosity about 2' in diameter."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annal publication (1890AnHar..18..113P) and he was credited with the discovery in the IC.  The published position is 10' too far south.

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IC 423 = LBN 913 = Ced 52

05 33 24 -00 37 00

Size 6'x4'

 

17.5" (12/26/00): fairly faint, large, slightly elongated NW-SE, ~5' diameter.  A couple of mag 12.5 stars are superimposed.  The edges fade into the background.  Photographically, this reflection nebula has an irregular ring shape.  Located 28' SE of mag 2.2 Delta Orionis (top star in Orion's Belt).  Nearby IC 424 to the NE was not noted, though observed on 2/19/09.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 423 = HN 58 on 27 Jun 1888 during a photographic survey of the M42 at the Harvard College Observatory.  She noted a "irregular oval ring having diameters 3' by 5'.  The position angle of the larger axis is about 165ˇ." Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P) and is credited with the discovery in the IC.  Fleming examined photographs taken with the Bache telescope, an 8-inch f/5.5 doublet covering 10 degrees square, with a magnifying glass.

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IC 424

05 33 36 -00 25

Size 2.0'x1.0'

 

18" (2/19/09): faint, fairly small reflection nebula, ~2' in diameter.  Involving 4 or 5 stars with the two brightest at mag 13-14 forming a 35" pair oriented E-W.  Located 3' NE of mag 8.3 HD 36683 and 25' ESE of mag 2.2 Mintaka (Delta Orionis).  IC 423 (observed previously) is located 12' SSW.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 424 = HN 56 on 27 Jun 1888 during a photographic survey of the M42 at the Harvard College Observatory.  Edward C. Pickering announced the discovery in the 1908 Harvard Annals publication and he is credited with the discovery in the IC.  IC 423 was described as a "Nebula about 2' in diameter, brightest on the following side."

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IC 426 = LBN 921 = Ced 55j

05 36 31 -00 17 54

Size 5'x5'

 

18" (11/22/03): at 115x, surprisingly large reflection nebula just following a mag 8.6 star.  Appears ~7'x5' in diameter and oval E-W, though the outline is ragged.  There are a number of brighter stars nearby and the nebula is situated northeast of a distinctive N-S chain of 5 stars mag 8.6-10.  A distinct border runs E-W just following the mag 8.6 star.  An OIII filter killed the nebula, though I didn't try either a UHC or H-beta filter.  Located one degree NNE of Alnilam (middle belt star).

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 426 = HN 57, along with IC 423 and 424, on 27 Jun 1888 during a photographic survey of the M42 at the Harvard College Observatory.  Edward C. Pickering reported the discovery in the 1908 Harvard Annals publication and he is credited with the discovery in the IC.  IC 423 was described as a "faint nebula about 5' in diameter."

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IC 428 = Bernes 120

05 36 23 -06 27 02

 

18" (2/5/11): at 108x, this difficult reflection nebula appears as a very faint, hazy glow just west of mag 8 HD 37210, which detracts from viewing.  A mag 11 star may be involved.  Located 15' N of NGC 1999.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 428 = HN 64 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate on 27 Jun 1888 and noted "perhaps this object should have been included with No. 15 [IC 427]."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).

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IC 429 = PP 37 = V883 Ori

05 38 19.2 -07 02 24

 

18" (1/21/04): this cometary nebula appears as a very weak, small enhancement, ~10" diameter, about 2' NE of a wide pair of mag 13 stars located 13' NW of mag 4.8 49 Orionis.  At moments it appeared stellar or an extremely faint star is involved.  Located at the northwest tip of reflection nebula IC 430, which extends primarily to the northwest of mag 4.8 49 Orionis

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 429 = J 2-612 on 6 Feb 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  Dave Riddle noted the equivalence with Parsamyan-Petrossian 37.

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IC 430 = Ced 55k

05 38 33.2 -07 05 07

Size 11'x11'

 

18" (1/21/04): very faint, fairly large low surface brightness glow to the northwest of mag 4.8 49 Orionis, ~4'.  Extends to a wide pair of mag 13 stars.  This reflection nebula needs to be reconfirmed as the bright star may have confused the observation.   See IC 429, which lies at the northwest tip of IC 430.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 430 = HN 65 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate taken on 27 Jun 1888.  She noted a "nebulous band 3' wide extending 10' north preceding from DM -7ˇ 1142."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P)."

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IC 431 = LBN 944

05 40 13.4 -01 27 45

Size 5'x3'

 

17.5" (12/26/00): very faint, hazy glow surrounding mag 7.7 SAO 132436 and 11' WNW of brighter IC 432, which encases a mag 7.5 star.  Located 30' NNW of Zeta Orionis!

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 431 = HN 61 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate taken on 27 Jun 1888.  She noted "nebulosity surrounding DM -1ˇ 1001."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).

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IC 432 = LBN 946 = Ced 55m

05 40 56.2 -01 30 26

Size 8'x4'

 

13.1" (1/11/86): very faint glow surrounding mag 7.5 SAO 132446, diffuse appearance.  Located 27' N of Zeta Orionis.

 

8" (12/6/80): faint, diffuse, 4' diameter, envelops a mag 8 star.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 432 = HN 60 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate taken on 27 Jun 1888.  She noted "well-marked nebulosity surrounding DM -1ˇ 1005.  Unlike most nebulous stars, the nebulosity does not fade away towards the edges.  It looks rather like an irregular oval nebula on which a star was superimposed."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).

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IC 434 = LBN 953 = Sh 2-277 = Ced 55n

05 41 00 -02 24

Size 60'x10'

 

13.1" (1/11/86): using an H-beta filter IC 434 appears a very faint, very large, very elongated strip of nebulosity running south of Zeta Orionis for almost one degree in a N-S direction.  There is a well-defined sharp edge along the east side while the west side fades off into the background.  Contains the famous dark nebula B33 = "Horsehead Nebula" as a dark "notch".  IC 434 extends beyond NGC 2023 off the east edge and the star density drops off significantly east of IC 434 whereas a number of faint stars are pepper the field to the west of IC 434.  This is one of the few emission nebulae that responds very well to a H-Beta filter.  Extremely difficult without filter.

 

24" (1/21/12): the view of the Horsehead through a 24" f/4.1 Starmaster using a Collins I3 image intensifier mated with a narrowband H-alpha filter at the Mauna Kea visitor center (9300') was absolutely stunning.  The outline stood out in extremely sharp relief like a photograph and the dark cloud was pitch black against the bright background.  I'm not sure of the magnification used but the field was 30' or less and the Horsehead was large enough to show exquisite detail in the outline.

 

17.5" (12/26/00 and 12/28/00): at 100x using an H-beta filter, the huge IC 434 strip was very prominent and easy to follow south from Zeta Orionis throughout the entire 50' field of view.  The boundary was razor-sharp along its eastern edge against a background sky darkened by the H-beta filter.  The Horsehead was very easy to view as a nearly black, semi-circular 4' indentation that protruded into the nebulosity.  With averted vision there was a short extension or knob on the north side.  This forms the snout of the horse and with concentration faint nebulosity is visible just below (east) of the snout.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): easily held with direct vision using the H-beta filter.  The head or snout protrudes to the north.

 

17.5" (9/14/85 and 10/12/85): the Horsehead Nebula appears as a jet black dark nebula using an H-beta filter at 84x superimposed against the fairly prominent emission nebula IC 434.  Appears as a semi-circular indentation or "bite" of 5' diameter along the sharply defined eastern edge of IC 434 "strip" which extends through field in a N-S orientation.  Significant contrast gain with and H-Beta filter which renders the background sky and B33 extremely dark.  Difficult to see the "snout" feature which protrudes to the north but it is detectable.  Mag 8.5 SAO 132451 lies 8' N.

 

13" (1/18/85): visible with direct vision with H-Beta filter and striking with averted.  The snout was suspected.  The contrast between B33 and the sky was high with the background jet black and sharply outlined against the easy glow of IC 434.  Best view with 24mm.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 434 on Harvard College Observatory plates in 1883. Edward Pickering announced the discovery (along with a number of other Orion nebulae) in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).  She also described the dark notch (later dubbed the "Horsehead") as "A large nebulosity extending nearly south the Zeta Orionis for about 60'.  More intense and well marked on the following side with a semicircular indentation 5' in diameter 30' south of Zeta. All good plates of this region show this object, and it has been used here as a test for some time." Dreyer didn't mention the "indentation" in the IC description.

 

Harold Corwin comments that "Some people have suggested that it was actually found by WH.  This is not true; WH's comment (see Latusseck, J. Astron. Data 14, 4, 2008 where it is reprinted) "Wonderful black space included in Nebulosities" refers to NGC 2024, not to IC 434."

 

But Wolfgang notes that on 1 Feb 1786 (sweep 518), WH recorded a large region of nebulosity extending roughly 2ˇ north-south, not far east of IC 434.  He noted "I am pretty sure the places of which these are the boundaries are all full of diffused milky nebulosity; but notwithstanding I used every means of ascertaining it by motion of the telescope, my range was neither far enough, nor sufficiently quick to put it beyond doubt.  He assigned it internal discovery number (1321), which became H. V 35 (first of 4 different fields associated with that designation).  Wolfgang Steinicke feels it may apply to IC 434, though Herschel's RA is about 3 minutes too large, so this identification is very uncertain.

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IC 435 = Ced 55q

05 43 00 -02 19

Size 5'x3'

 

13.1" (1/18/85): at 88x with OIII filter appears as a very faint and difficult circular nebulosity surrounding mag 8.3 SAO 132478.  Located 20' ESE of bright NGC 2023.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 435 = HN 59 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate taken on 27 Jun 1888 and noted "Nebulosity surrounding DM -2ˇ1350."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).  Photographs taken with the Bache telescope, a photographic 8-inch f/5.5 doublet, covering 10 degrees square, were examined by Fleming with a magnifying glass.

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IC 438 = ESO 555-009 = MCG -03-15-025 = UGCA 115 = LGG 134-003 = PGC 18047

05 53 00.1 -17 52 34

V = 12.0;  Size 2.8'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (3/8/97): fairly faint, moderately large, nearly 2' diameter.  Appears as a diffuse roundish glow with a very weak, broad concentration.  A mag 14.5 star is attached at the NE end 1.0' from the center.  A 1' pair of mag 10 stars precedes by 3.5'.  Located 8' SSE of mag 8.6 SAO 150914.  Forms a pair with IC 2151 7.7' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 438 = Sw X-15 = Sw XI-88 on 7 Jan 1891 and recorded "eeF; pS; E in meridian; wide D * nr preceding."  He found it again on 7 Oct 1897 and included it in list XI-88 as "vF; pL; R; v wide D * near p[receding]."

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IC 442 = UGC 3470 = MCG +14-04-003 = CGCG 362-022 = CGCG 363-005 = PGC 19306

06 36 11.9 +82 58 06

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

24" (2/7/16): IC 442 was picked up at 226x (10mm ZAO) as a fairly faint, fairly small round glow, ~18" diameter.  Adding a 2x Powermate (452x), two extremely close nuclei [separated by 8"] were resolved within the halo!  The nucleus in the south-southwest part of the halo (PGC 2787456) was almost seen continuously in periods of fairly steady seeing, while the north-northeast nucleus (PGC 19306) was a bit more subtle.  Both were stellar or quasi-stellar and towards the outer edges of the halo.

 

William Denning discovered IC 442 on 9 Nov 1890 while comet seeiking in Camelopardus with his 10-inch reflector.  He noted "F, S, R, mbM"

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IC 443 = LBN 844 = Sh 2-248 = Ced 73 = Simeis 40 = SNR G189.1+03.0 = Jellyfish Nebula

06 16 54 +22 47

Size 50'

 

18" (2/23/06): easily visible at 73x and OIII filter.  The brightest portion is a 5' elongated strip that very gently curves WNW-ESE.  Faint haze extends out from this strip towards the south and west.  An extremely faint extension of the strip continues to the SE and curves towards an obtuse triangle of three stars, increasing the length of the edge of the shell to over 10'.

 

17.5" (1/16/02): at 64x and OIII filter, the most prominent section of this supernova remnant is a gently curving band of nebulosity oriented NW-SE, ~10'x3' with a well-defined edge along the eastern (bowed-out) boundary. A larger region of low surface brightness haze, ~20' in size, spreads out to the west of the northern end.  At the SE end, the band dims and seems to hook to the SW towards a small arrowhead of stars.  Located ~2.5 degrees SE of M35 and following mag 3.3 Eta Gem.

 

17.5" (1/20/90): at 82x with OIII filter this supernova remnant appears moderately bright, large, elongated 5:2 NW-SE.  Appears a bit larger and brighter at the NW end.  Much fainter nebulosity is close south off the west end and a couple of mag 10 stars are superimposed. Surprisingly easy to view with an OIII filter.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): at 62x with filter, appears as a very faint elongated strip of nebulosity, perhaps 10' in length.  Not visible without a filter.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 443, along with IC 444, on 25 Sep 1892 with a 2 1/4" lens.  In AN 3130 (1892), he recorded finding "[Two] Very large and bright nebulous masses are visible there [near Mu and Eta Geminorum], which very roughly have their centers at approximately 6h 14m +24ˇ [IC 444] and 6h 08m +22ˇ [IC 443]."

 

E.E. Barnard independently discovered these two nebulae in 1894 and his report appeared in "Astronomy and Astro-Physics", Vol 8, No. 3, page 177, 1894.  Harold Corwin quotes Barnard's description, "On this same plate [taken on 1 Feb 1894 with a 2h 10m exposure] is a faint narrow curved nebulosity in about, 1860.0, 6h 8m + 23ˇ 0'.  It is nearly 1/2ˇ long, extending north and south and convex to the east."

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IC 444 = LBN 840 = Ced 74

06 19 22.5 +23 16 28

Size 8'x4'

 

17.5" (2/11/96): fairly easy, round reflection nebula surrounding mag 7.0 SAO 78225 (12 Gem), ~3' diameter.  Visible without filter in comparison with other nearby comparable stars.  This star forms the southern vertex of an equilateral triangle with mag 7 stars 12' N (SAO 78222 = 11 Gem) and a mag 7.5 star 13' NE.  The illuminating star is at the northwest edge of a large, scattered 15' triangular group of mag 9-13 stars (Cr 89?), with most of the stars forming the outline.

 

See IC 443.

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IC 446 = IC 2167 = LBN 898 = Ced 77

06 31 07 +10 27 18

Size 5'x4'

 

17.5" (1/23/93): fairly faint reflection nebula surrounds a mag 10-11 star. This bi-polar nebula is fairly large, about 2.5' diameter.  Appears to extend further (or is brighter) on the south side.  Bordered by three collinear mag 13 stars on the south side.

 

E.E. Barnard visually discovered IC 446 = IC 2167, along with IC 2169, on 11 Oct 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "a 9 1/2 mag star with largish faint nebula, a little heavier following." 

 

He later found it again photographically on 24 Jan 1894 with the Willard 6" lens and announced it in "Photographic Nebulosities and Star Cluster Connected with the Milky Way" (Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol XIII, No 3).  Based on this discovery note, Dreyer catalogued it as IC 446.  Barnard states, though, he first found it visually around 1888 "while sweep over this region..I also found a 10 mag nebulous star about half a degree north preceding 2245."  His position in this paper is accurate.  Apparently Barnard also sent Dreyer his original visual discovery, hence the two IC designations.  In any case, IC 446 = IC 2167.  This object is a bi-polar reflection nebula. Listed in article on bi-polar nebulae by Ronald Stoyan in Deep Sky Observer #12.

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IC 447 = IC 2169 = LBN 903 = Ced 78 = vdB 76 = vdB 77 = vdB 78

06 31 12 +09 54

Size 25'x20'

 

24" (1/31/14): picked up unfiltered at 200x, though low contrast as the entire field is patchy in faint stars and affected by some dust.  Seems roughly 20'x10, elongated N-S and includes several bright stars (Cr 95) with mag 7.9 HD 46005 near the center (illuminating star), mag 8.9 HD 258853 near the south end, and a mag 9.3 star at or beyond the NW end.  The contrast is significantly improved at 125x using a NPB filter and the outline is better defined, particularly at the southern end.  Although the nebulosity is slightly brighter to the south of HD 46005, there are no high surface brightness sections.

 

18" (2/4/08): at 175x unfiltered, this is a huge, interesting reflection nebula, ~25'x18', elongated N-S with an irregular outline and subtle variations in brightness.  A number of mag 8-10 stars are superimposed, including mag 8 HD 46005 (illuminating star) which is part of a 10' N-S string of four brighter stars on the east side. Nearby reflection nebulae include NGC 2245 ~30' NE, IC 446 35' N and NGC 2247 40' NE (this group forms the association Monoceros R1).

 

IC 2169 is located two degrees due west of the Christmas Tree cluster and the whole region of bright and dark nebulosity is part of the same molecular cloud complex Mon OB1.

 

E.E. Barnard visually discovered IC 447 = IC 2169, along with IC 446 = IC 2167, on 11 Oct 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "1 radius of 80x field [21'] south and 1 radius [21'] preceding the 7 1/2' m star [NGC 2245] is a large nebulosity, faint, that involves several 9 or 9 1/2 mag star.  Nearly 1/2ˇ in size, irregular(?)".  His offset lands in the southern part of the nebula, though clearly he was referring the entire portion.  This discovery was not published but later sent directly to Dreyer.  He picked it up again on 26 Feb 1889 and logged "22' S and 22' p. the neb NGC 2245 is a vL neby, with some bright stars in it.  It is extended N & S nearly, 15 x 12' +/- diam.  There are 3 or 4 9th and 10th mag stars in a curve seemingly connected with it."

 

He found this reflection nebula again photographically on 24 Jan 1894 with the Willard 6" lens though and announced it in "Photographic Nebulosities and Star Cluster Connected with the Milky Way" (Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol XIII, No 3).  Barnard stated he first found it visually around 1888 "while sweep over this region, I found a very large, weak, diffused nebulosity some half a degree south of the nebula NGC 2245. This was mixed up with several considerable stars."  As a result, it was catalogued twice (IC 2169 = IC 447).

 

Barnard retracted his discovery of IC 447 in Lick Publications, Vol 11, incorrectly claiming it to be identical to NGC 2245.  Hubble included this object in his 1922 paper "A general study of diffuse galactic nebula" in Contributions from the Mount Wilson Observatory / Carnegie Institution of Washington, vol. 241, pp.1-38.

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IC 454 = UGC 3570 = MCG +02-18-002 = PGC 19725

06 51 06.3 +12 55 19

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 140d

 

24" (2/7/16): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.3'.  A star (mag 13.5-14?) is superimposed near the northwest end.  Contains a slightly brighter nucleus, which is close southeast of the star.  There may be one or two additional mag 15.5-16 star near the periphery.  Since the galaxy appears to extend from the brighter star it has a comet-like appearance.  Situated in a rich Milky Way star field.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 454 = Sw IX-16 on 21 Jan 1889 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "a faint nebula, elongated with 13 mag star attached to end N.p."  His rough RA (in his notebook) is about 24 seconds too large, but his small field sketch matches.  The discovery was probably not communicated to Dreyer as Barnard isn't credited in the IC.

 

Lewis Swift independently found this galaxy on 27 Dec 1889 and simply noted "eeF; S; e diff."  Swift's RA is 9 seconds too large and he gets the credit in the IC.  Howe measured an accurate position in 1898 and noted, "One or two stars are involved in this nebula."

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IC 455 = UGC 3815 = MCG +14-04-033 = CGCG 362-044 = CGCG 363-030 = LGG 145-012 = PGC 21334

07 34 57.7 +85 32 14

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 82d

 

18" (8/2/11): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, ~30"x25", fairly sharply concentrated with a small bright core that increases to a stellar nucleus.  Located 11' SSE of NGC 2300 in a group of far northern galaxies near +85ˇ declination.

 

18" (3/13/04): fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter, weak concentration to a slightly brighter core.  With direct vision, a sharp stellar nucleus is intermittently visible.  Located 16' ESE of NGC 2276 and 11' SSE of NGC 2300.  This galaxy is the 5th closest to the celestial pole in the NGC or IC (2nd in the IC) and 3 of these 5 are visible in the same low power field!

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 455 on 20 Sep 1890 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  While comet hunting in the north, Barnard found NGC 2276, 2300 and IC 455.  He was confused on his pointing direction this far north, but made a field sketch including nearby stars and labeled the nebulae A (NGC 2276), B (NGC 2300) and C (IC 455, outside the 150x field).  He noted "C is 10' S and 3' foll B.  A is 2' diameter, faint, vglbM."  The sketch clearly identifies the three galaxies.  William Denning independently discovered IC 455 less than a month later on 17 Oct 1890 with his 10-inch reflector.  Denning is credited with the discovery in the IC as Barnard never published his discovery or notified Dreyer.

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IC 456 = ESO 427-024 = MCG -05-17-002 = PGC 19993

07 00 17.5 -30 09 50

V = 12.0;  Size 2.1'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (3/20/93): fairly faint, fairly small, round, gradually increases to a small bright core.  Located just 1' SW of mag 9 SAO 197461 and 6' SE of mag 7.1 SAO 197448.  Also mag 8.7 SAO 197447 lies 7' WNW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 456 = Sw X-16 on 19 Dec 1890 and recorded "vF; pS; R; B * close nf; B * with pB dist comp np."

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IC 458 = UGC 3713 = MCG +08-13-085 = WBL 133-004 = PGC 20306

07 10 34.3 +50 07 06

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 175d

 

18" (12/18/06): fairly faint, small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 0.6'x0.4', weak concentration to center.  A mag 12.5 star is just off the south edge 0.6' from center.  In a small group with NGC 2340, IC 458, IC 461, IC 464, IC 465.

 

17.5" (1/20/90): very faint, very small, elongated 5:2 N-S, small bright core.  A mag 13 star is off the south end 36" from center.  In a field of four galaxies with NGC 2340 7' ENE, IC 464 5.0' ENE and IC 465 12' NE.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered IC 458, along with IC 459, 461, 464 on 31 Jan 1851 (shown on sketch) with LdR's 72".  The 1861 publication did not include any details of the Birr Castle discoveries so this nebula was not included in the GC or GC Supplement.  Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 14 Sep 1888 (list VIII-44 and by Kobold on 15 Apr 1893 (all 3 credited in the IC).  The IC position from Kobold matches UGC 3713.  The MCG misidentifies +08-13-089 as IC 458.

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IC 459 = CGCG 234-082 = PGC 20311

07 10 38.7 +50 10 38

Size 0.5'x0.4'

 

18" (12/18/06): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, low surface brightness, no concentration.  Located 5' due west of NGC 2340 in the core of the cluster and 3.6' N of IC 458.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered IC 459, along with IC 458, 461, 464 on 31 Jan 1851 (shown on sketch).  Hermann Kobold discovered it independently at Strasbourg on 2 Dec 1893 (both Rosse and Kobold are credited in the IC).

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IC 460 = MCG +08-13-089 = CGCG 234-084 = WBL 133-007 = PGC 20318

07 10 44.3 +50 12 09

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.5'

 

18" (12/18/06): extremely faint galaxy in the core of the NGC 2340 group.  Just visible with averted vision and concentration as a 10" knot just off the northeast side of a mag 13 star [only 18" separation].  This star forms a pair with another mag 13 star 44" NW.  Located 4.5' WNW of NGC 2340 and 1.8' NNE of IC 459.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 460 on 2 Dec 1893 with the 18" refractor at Strassburg Observatory.  This galaxy was missed at Birr Castle when the cluster was observed in January 1851.

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IC 461 = MCG +08-13-088 = CGCG 234-083 = WBL 133-006 = PGC 20319

07 10 45.0 +50 04 53

Size 0.6'x0.35';  PA = 35d

 

18" (12/18/06): extremely faint, very small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 0.3'x0.2'.  This small galaxy is just preceding a 1.5' string of 3 mag 12-13 stars angling from SW to NE and 2.8' SE of IC 458 in the NGC 2340 group (second faintest of 7 in the field at 280x).

 

Bindon Stoney discovered IC 461, along with IC 458, 459, 464 on 31 Jan 1851 (shown on sketch) with LdR's 72".  Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 14 Sep 1888 (list VIII-45 and by Kobold on 8 Dec 1893 (all 3 are credited in the IC as Kobold's position was used).

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IC 464 = CGCG 234-087 = MCG +08-13-092 = WBL 133-009 = PGC 20332

07 11 04.8 +50 08 13

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 60d

 

18" (12/18/06): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.35', even concentration but with no defined core of nucleus.  Located 2.5' SSW of NGC 2340 in a rich group of galaxies with NGC 2350, IC 458, IC 459, IC 460, IC 461 and IC 465 in the same 280x field!

 

17.5" (1/20/90): faint, small, oval SW-NE.  Located 2.5' SSW of NGC 2340 in a group with IC 458 5.0' WSW and IC 465 8.1' NE.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered IC 464, along with IC 458, 459, 461 on 31 Jan 1851 (shown on sketch) with LdR's 72".  Kobold measured an accurate position on 18 Jan 1893.

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IC 466 = Sh 2-288 = LBN 1013 = Ced 92

07 08 36 -04 19

Size 1'x1'

 

17.5" (2/28/87): mag 12.5 star in an easy, very small, round nebulosity.  Located 1.5' SSW of a mag 10.5 star.  A wide pair of mag 10 stars lie 7' SW.  Enhanced with a UHC filter at 220x.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 466 = J 2-616 on 18 Feb 1893 with the 30-inch f/23 refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 467 = UGC 3834 = MCG +13-06-007 = PGC 21164

07 30 17.3 +79 52 21

V = 12.6;  Size 3.2'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (2/22/87): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated ~E-W, weak concentration.  A faint mag 15 star is near the SW end.  Located 20' SSE of NGC 2336.

 

William Denning discovered IC 467 on 7 Nov 1890 with his 10-inch reflector while comet hunting and recorded "vF, pS, 22' ssf of NGC 2336."  Although his position is poor, the identification is certain based on the description.

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IC 469 = UGC 3994 = MCG +14-04-038 = CGCG 362-047 = CGCG 363-035  = CGCG 364-001 = LGG 145-004 = PGC 22213

07 55 59.1 +85 09 32

V = 12.6;  Size 2.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 90d

 

18" (8/1/11): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 E-W, ~2.0'x0.8', broad concentration, brighter core increases to a slightly brighter nucleus.  This galaxy, NGC 2300 and IC 512 are the brightest within 5 degrees of the north celestial pole.  Situated within a triangle formed by mag 9 star 3.8' N, a mag 10 star 4.5' SW and a mag 10.5 star 3.7' SSE.  A 3' group of mag 11-13 stars is close NE.

 

17.5" (3/20/93): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 E-W, 2.0'x1.0', large brighter middle, broad concentration but no nucleus.  Surrounded by three mag 8.5-9.5 stars.  Mag 8.5 SAO 1236 just 3.8' N is at the west edge of a scattered group of 10 stars including a close, faint double (mag 14/14 at 10").  Mag 9.2 SAO 1224 lies 4.4' SW and mag 9.5 SAO 1237 is 3.6' S.  This galaxy is relatively bright for an IC galaxy.  UGC 3993 lies 14' S.

 

William Denning discovered IC 469 on 14 Sep 1890 with his 10-inch reflector while comet hunting and recorded "F, S, E, 46' sf of NGC 2336."

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IC 471 = UGC 3982 = MCG +08-14-035 = CGCG 235-033 = PGC 21659

07 43 36.4 +49 40 03

V = 13.3;  Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

24" (2/7/16): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 20" diameter, well concentrated with a small bright nucleus.  Forms a pair with IC 472 3.9' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 471 = Sw IX-17, along with IC 472, on 20 Apr 1890.  He recorded "eF; pS; R; np of 2 [with IC 472]."  His RA is 15 seconds too small, a similar offset as IC 472.

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IC 472 = UGC 3985 = MCG +08-14-036 = CGCG 235-034 = PGC 21665

07 43 50.3 +49 36 51

V = 13.4;  Size 1.6'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 167d

 

24" (2/7/16): at 260x; fairly faint to moderately bright, slightly elongated ~N-S, 30"x24", well concentrated with a roundish bright core.  Forms a pair with IC 471 3.9' NW.   Double star Es 1082 = 10.1/11.1 at 5.6" lies 4.7' SE and is collinear with the two galaxies.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 472 = Sw IX-18, along with IC 472, on 20 Apr 1890.  He recorded "eeF; pS; R; sf of 2 [with IC 471].  D * nr sf nearly points to both."  His position is 3' too far northwest, a similar offset as IC 471, and the double star is Es 1082.

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IC 476 = MCG +05-19-006 = CGCG 148-018 = WBL 152-002 = PGC 21796

07 47 16.3 +26 57 03

V = 15.0;  Size 0.6'x0.45';  PA = 102d

 

24" (2/16/15): at 300x appeared very faint, small, slightly elongated, 15"x12".  Appeared brighter at Willow Springs 3000 than two nights ago from Lake Sonoma.

 

24" (2/14/15): at 300x and 375x; extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Required averted vision and could not hold steadily.  Located just 1.5' NW of NGC 2449.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 476 = J. I-138 on 30 Jan 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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IC 484 = CGCG 148-084 = WBL 165-003 = PGC 22419

08 00 01.1 +26 39 57

V = 14.5;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  PA = 49d

 

24" (2/7/15): faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~18"x12".  A mag 15.5 star is 0.8' SW.  IC 485 is 4.8' NE and IC 486 is 5.5' SE.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 484, along with IC 485 and IC 486, on 6 Mar 1891 with the 27" refractor at Vienna.  Stephane Javelle independently discovered the galaxy on 30 Jan 1892.  Both measured accurate micrometric positions.

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IC 485 = UGC 4156 = CGCG 148-088 = WBL 165-006 = PGC 22443

08 00 19.8 +26 42 05

V = 14.5;  Size 1.2'x0.3';  PA = 153d

 

24" (2/7/15): at 260x; very faint, small, slightly elongated, 15"x10".  Faintest in a trio forming an equilateral triangle with IC 484 4.7' SW and IC 486 5.3' S.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 485, along with IC 484 and IC 486, on 6 Mar 1891 with the 27" refractor at Vienna, thoug didn't measure a position.  Stephane Javelle independently discovered the galaxy on 30 Jan 1892 and measured an accurate position.

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IC 486 = UGC 4155 = MCG +04-19-018 = CGCG 148-087 = WBL 165-005 = PGC 22445

08 00 21.0 +26 36 49

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 139d

 

24" (2/7/15): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 18"x12", small brighter core.  Brightest in a trio with IC 484 5.5' NW and IC 485 5.3' N.  The trio, along with a few CGCG galaxies, from the small group WBL 165, and lies at a distance of ~380 million l.y.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 486 = Spitaler 12, along with IC 484 and IC 485, on 6 Mar 1891 with the 27" refractor at Vienna.  Stephane Javelle independently discovered the galaxy on 2 Mar 1892 and measured an accurate position.

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IC 497 = MCG +04-20-001 = CGCG 118-067 = CGCG 119-002 = KTG 20A = PGC 22918

08 10 06.1 +24 55 19

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  PA = 177d

 

24" (3/22/14): at 375x appeared faint to fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 0.4'x0.2', weak concentration. A 12" double (mag 12.5-13 stars) lies 1' N and a mag 14 star is just off the NNW side [27" from center].  Brightest in the KTG 20 triplet.

 

UGC 4257 = KTG 20C lies 2' SE and appeared as an extremely faint, thin edge-on 6:1 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.1', very low even surface brightness.  A mag 15.5 star is just off the west edge.  CGCG 118-068 = KTG 20B, just 1.0' S, was extremely faint to very faint (slightly higher surface brightness than UGC 4257), round, just 10" diameter.  A mag 13 star is 33" SE of center.

 

24" (1/25/14): at 375x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 24"x12", bright core.  A 12" pair of mag 12.5-13 stars lies 1' N and a mag 14 star is 27" NW of center.  This galaxy is the brightest member of the KTG 20 triplet with UGC 4257 2' SSE and CGCG 118-68 3' SSE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 497 = J I-153 on 2 Mar 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 499 = UGC 4463 = MCG +14-04-054 = CGCG 363-046 = CGCG 364-005 = LGG 145-006 = PGC 24602

08 45 16.9 +85 44 24

V = 12.5;  Size 2.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 80d

 

18" (8/1/11): moderately bright, moderately large, slightly elongated ~E-W, ~50"x35".  Very low surface brightness outer halo with a fairly bright central region that is sharply concentrated to a very small bright nucleus.  A mag 14 star is superimposed on the SW side and a brighter mag 12 star is off the NE side, 1.2' from center.  Located 5.7' SW of mag 8.5 SAO 1370. UGC 4297 lies 20' SW.  This is the closest IC galaxy to the north celestial pole!

 

William Denning discovered IC 499 on 8 Sep 1890 with his 10-inch reflector while comet hunting and recorded "pF, S, mbM, * nf."

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IC 512 = UGC 4646 = MCG +14-05-002 = CGCG 363-049 = CGCG 364-008 = LGG 145-010 = PGC 25451

09 03 49.8 +85 30 06

V = 12.2;  Size 1.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 175d

 

18" (8/1/11): moderately bright, fairly large, slightly elongated N-S, ~1.5'x1.2'.  Asymmetric appearance with an irregular surface brightness.  Appears to have a brighter "bar" though not centered in the glow.  A faint pair of stars is off the south side and a 10' string of stars oriented NNW to SSE is off the east side.  Located 12' WSW of mag 7.9 HD 75797.  This is the third closest IC galaxy to the north celestial pole.

 

17.5" (3/20/93): fairly faint, moderately large, round, almost even surface brightness.  A 10' string of stars just east is oriented roughly N-S with a mag 9 star at the north end.  Lies 12' W of mag 8.0 SAO 1443.

 

William Denning discovered IC 512 on 23 Aug 1890 with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector while comet hunting and recorded "F, S, R, gbM.  In same field as preceding [IC 499] and sff."

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IC 514 = CGCG 004-066 = WBL 188-001 = PGC 24119

08 35 22.3 -02 02 49

V = 14.9;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  PA = 160d

 

24" (2/5/13): very faint, very small, round, 12" diameter.  A mag 16 star is attached at the south edge.  Located 12' SSW of NGC 2616 in a group (WBL 188) and 3.5' NE of a mag 10.1 star.  Forms a pair with CGCG 004-065 2.4' S.  I'm surprised that Javelle, who discovered IC 514, missed the CGCG as it's similar in brightness and size.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 514 = J 2-621, along with IC 517, on 20 Mar 1893 and recorded "vF, elongated in the meridian [N-S], no central brightening."  The next night he discovered nearby IC 515 and IC 516.

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IC 515 = UGC 4488 = CGCG 004-068 = WBL 188-003 = PGC 24125

08 35 31.3 -01 54 04

V = 14.5;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  PA = 32d

 

24" (2/5/13): faint, very small, slightly elongated, 18"x14", soft even glow.  Located 3.1' SSW of NGC 2616 in a group and 2.6' NE of a mag 11.4 star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 515 = J 2-622, along with IC 516, on 21 Mar 1893.  He noted it was distinct from NGC 2616, which was also measured.

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IC 516 = CGCG 004-075 = WBL 188-007 = PGC 24155

08 35 50.8 -01 52 16

V = 15.0;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  PA = 65d

 

24" (2/5/13): very faint, extremely small, slightly elongated, 12"x8", stellar nucleus.  Located 4.4' ESE of NGC 2616 in a group (WBL 188) and 5.2' NE of IC 515.  CGCG 004-072 lies 4.5' SSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 516 = J 2-623, along with IC 515, on 21 Mar 1893.  He noted it was distinct from NGC 2616, which was also measured.

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IC 517 = CGCG 004-082 = WBL 188-008 = PGC 24179

08 36 22.1 -02 03 20

V = 15.0;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 29d

 

24" (2/5/13): very faint, very small, round, 12" diameter. A mag 12 star lies 1.7' SW and a mag 14.5 star is closer at 0.9' SW.  Located 17' SE of NGC 2616 in the WBL 188 group (brightest member NGC 2616, along with 4 IC galaxies).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 517 = J 2-624, along with IC 514, on 20 Mar 1893 and recorded "vF, S, irr figure, no central brightening."  The next night he discovered nearby IC 515 and IC 516.

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IC 520 = UGC 4630 = MCG +12-09-026 = PGC 24970

08 53 42.2 +73 29 27

V = 11.7;  Size 1.9'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (3/20/93): this is an unusually bright IC galaxy and appears moderately bright, slightly elongated 4:3 N-S with a prominent small bright core and stellar nucleus.  A mag 13.5 star is at the SE edge 46" from the center.  NGC 2646 lies 14' W.

 

13" (1/11/86): fairly faint, small, round. A faint star is near the south end.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 520 = Sw VIII-49 on 29 Aug 1888 and recorded "pB; pL; R; bM; nearly bet a nr and a distant *; nf of 2 [with IC 511]; another suspected." Swift's position is a perfect match.  It is unusual that the Herschels, d'Arrest and Tempel examined this area and missed this galaxy.

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IC 523 = UGC 4652 = MCG +02-23-009 = CGCG 061-018 = PGC 24948

08 53 11.3 +09 08 53

V = 13.1;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (2/14/99): extremely faint, small, round, 25" diameter, low surface brightness, very weak concentration.  View perhaps hindered by mag 8.4 SAO 117225 3.3' NW and dew on secondary.  Located 20' NW of giant PN AGC 31.  Nearby are MCG +02-23-008 and CGCG 61-020.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 523 = J 2-627 on 13 Apr 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His position is a little too far north as the offset star is slightly misplaced in declination.

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IC 527 = UGC 4810 = MCG +06-20-039 = CGCG 180-049 = PGC 25821

09 09 41.9 +37 36 04

V = 13.2;  Size 1.7'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

17.5" (4/5/97): faint, fairly small, round, 1.2' diameter, gradually increases to a slightly brighter core.  On line with mag 12.5 and 10.5 stars to the NW [2.3' and 5.2', respectively].  Located 13' E of NGC 2759. Forms a pair with CGCG 180-050 6.5' NNE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 527 = Sw IX-20 on 19 April 1890 and recorded "eeeF; pL; R; ee dif; 2759 in field sf."  His position is a good match with UGC 4810 although NGC 2759 lies to the west-northwest.

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IC 528 = HCG 36A = UGC 4811 = MCG +03-24-001 = CGCG 091-008 = PGC 25783

09 09 22.6 +15 47 46

V = 14.1;  Size 1.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 163d

 

48" (4/1/11): at 488x appeared bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 1.0'x0.4', sharply concentrated with a small, very bright core.  Brightest of 5 close galaxies in HCG 36 with "C" 50" NW, "B" 1.1' NE, "D" 1.1' S and SDSS J090920.83+154747.3 25" W.  Located 1.8' SE of mag 8.9 HD 78574, which hampers the view of HCG 36B.

 

17.5" (4/5/97): faint, moderately large, elongated ~3:1 NNW-SSE, 1.4'x0.4'.  Contains a brighter core with faint tapering extensions.  View hampered by a mag 9 star (SAO 98393) just 1.8' NE.  This galaxy is the brightest in HCG 36 and the only member viewed.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 528 = J 2-631 on 12 Dec 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  He recorded "pB, vS, R, mottled, Nucl =13m" and measured an accurate position.  IC 528 lies in the foreground of the other members of HCG 36.

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IC 529 = UGC 4888 = MCG +12-09-035 = CGCG 332-038 = PGC 26295

09 18 32.7 +73 45 37

V = 11.9;  Size 3.6'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (4/5/97): moderately bright, fairly large irregular glow, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, ill-defined halo up to ~2.8'x1.4', broad concentration to an ill-defined core.  A mag 14 star is just north of the SE end [1.2' from center] and a second mag 13.5-14 star is close NE [1.9' from center].  The outer halo increases with averted vision beyond the star off the SE end.

 

William Denning discovered IC 529 around 1890 with his 10-inch reflector and apparently communicated the discovery directly to Dreyer.

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IC 557 = MCG +02-25-027 = CGCG 063-055 = PGC 27866

09 44 02.4 +10 59 17

V = 14.1;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (4/1/00): faint, very small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 30"x15", weak concentration, very faint stellar nucleus at moments.  The elongation was not always evident, so often was just viewing the slightly brighter core.  Located 7' SE of NGC 2984.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 557 = J 1-169 on 22 Apr 1892.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 574 = MCG -01-25-056 = PGC 28569

09 54 27.0 -06 57 12

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

18" (4/14/12): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 N-S, 24"x18", small brighter core.  IC 575 = Arp 292 lies 6' NNE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 574 = J 2-655, along with IC 575, on 9 Mar 1893.  He noted "pB, S, R, 20" dia, mbM, * 12 s." and measured an accurate micrometric position

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IC 575 = Arp 292 = VV 111 = MCG -01-25-058 = PGC 28575

09 54 32.9 -06 51 27

V = 13.2;  Size 1.6'x1.1';  PA = 126d

 

48" (2/20/12): this unusual system has a dust lane along the major axis and a polar-ring like disc. The galaxy appears as a fairly bright oval, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.4', with a small bright core.  There was only a hint of the dust lane but narrow extensions or spikes were visible poking out on the NW and SE end, with the SE extension brighter. A mag 15.2 star is 1.3' NNE and two mag 13 and 14.5 stars are 2.3' SE and 1.7' SE, respectively.  There are two close companions but I only noted 2MASX J09543313-0650143 1.2' N.  The observation was made during a period of fairly poor transparency and seeing so this galaxy would be worth revisiting.  IC 575 is listed as a polar ring candidate in Whitmore et al "New observations and a photographic atlas of polar-ring galaxies" (1990AJ....100.1489W)

 

18" (4/14/12): at 246x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, oval 4:3 NW-SE, ~28"x21", only a very weak broad concentration with no core or zones.  The extensions seen in the 48" were not resolved.  IC 574 lies 6' SSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 575 = J 2-656, along with IC 574, on 9 Mar 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 585 = UGC 5371 = MCG +02-26-014 = PGC 28897

09 59 44.2 +12 59 18

V = 13.4;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (3/29/97): faint, small, round, bright core, 40" diameter.  Located 4.4' SW of NGC 3080 and 2.9' SSW of a mag 13.5 star (mentioned in observation of NGC 3080).  Very similar size and magnitude as NGC 3080 and surprisingly, possibly easier visually due a brighter core.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 585 = Big. 157 on 18 Mar 1890.  His Comptes Rendus position is about 2' too far north (but matches in RA) and there is no mention of nearby N3080.

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IC 591 = UGC 5458 = MCG +02-26-025 = Todd 22 = PGC 29435

10 07 27.8 +12 16 26

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (2/13/88): faint, small, slightly elongated, even surface brightness.  Located 15' W of dwarf galaxy Leo I in the same 140x field (35')!

 

David Todd discovered IC 591 = Todd 22 = J 1-177 on 6 Feb 1878 during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet using the 26-inch Clark refractor at USNO.  It was not assigned an NGC designation as no position was given.  But Harold Corwin found his sketch is a good match with UGC 5458 (specifically a mag 13 star 86 seconds of time west).  Javelle independently discovered this galaxy on 31 Mar 1892, so the IC position for 591is accurate.  UGC doesn't label UGC 5458 as IC 591.

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IC 600 = VV 97 = MCG +00-26-034 = CGCG 008-085 = UGCA 209 = PGC 30041

10 17 10.9 -03 29 52

V = 12.5;  Size 2.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (3/25/95): faint, moderately large, 1.5' diameter, irregularly round, broad concentration, low surface brightness.  Forms the vertex of an obtuse isosceles triangle with a nice double star 5' N (mag 11/12 at 18" separation) and a mag 9 star (SAO 118106) 5.6' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 600 = J 2-671 on 3 May 1893. His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 601 = MCG +01-26-033 = CGCG 036-087 = Holm 176b = PGC 30086

10 18 15.3 +07 02 19

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 41d

 

17.5" (3/25/00): extremely faint, very small streak, ~20"x5".  Visible with averted vision only and could not hold continuously.  Located 1.3' SW of brighter IC 602.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 601 = J 2-672, along with IC 602, on 10 Apr 1893.

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IC 602 = UGC 5561 = MCG +01-26-034 = CGCG 036-089 = Arak 237 = Holm 176a = PGC 30090

10 18 19.7 +07 02 57

V = 13.1;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 177d

 

17.5" (3/25/00): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 0.8'x0.4', small bright core.  A mag 12 star is just off the SW end.  A group of 4 stars (trapezoid outline) is 4' NE.  Forms a pair with much fainter IC 601 1.3' SW (see notes).  MCG +01-26-032 (identified as NGC 3186 in RNGC) lies 11' SW.

 

17.5" (3/22/96): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, 0.8'x0.6'.  A mag 12.5-13 star is just off the SW side 35" from center.  A nearly square asterism of mag 11.5-14 stars with sides ~1.5' lies 4' NE.  Forms a pair with IC 601 1.3' SW (not seen).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 602 = J 2-673, along with IC 601, on 10 Apr 1893.  IC 602 may be identical to NGC 3186.  See that number for the story.

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IC 609 = Arp 44 = VV 354a = UGC 5641 = MCG +00-27-009 = CGCG 009-026 = PGC 30600

10 25 35.5 -02 12 56

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (3/29/97): faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 1.2'x0.8', very weak concentration.  An unequal pair of mag 13/14.5 stars [at 36" separation] lies 3.5' W.  The nearby companion PGC 1097822 (not a physical pair) was not seen.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 609 = J 2-678 on 21 Mar 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 612 = MCG +02-27-019 = CGCG 065-039 = PGC 30729

10 27 05.8 +11 03 17

V = 14.6;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (5/19/01): extremely faint and small, round, 15" diameter.  Forms the northern vertex of a small triangle with two mag 13 stars 40" SSW and 46" SE.  Located in the core of AGC 1016 with IC 613 lies 2.7' S and IC 615 4.2' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 612 = J 2-679, along with IC 613 and 615 on 18 Apr 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 613 = MCG +02-27-018 = CGCG 065-038 = PGC 30728

10 27 07.8 +11 00 39

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.8'

 

17.5" (5/19/01): faint, small, round, 0.6', low surface brightness.  A mag 11 star lies 1.9' W.  In the core of AGC 1016 with IC 612 2.7' N and IC 615 5.4' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 613 = J 2-680, along with IC 612 and 615 on 18 Apr 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 614 = MCG +00-27-015 = CGCG 009-039 = WBL 272-002 = PGC 30699

10 26 51.9 -03 27 53

Size 0.75'x0.5';  PA = 17d

 

48" (4/18/15): at 697x; this Ring galaxy appeared moderately bright, round, sharply concentrated with a small bright core about 12" diameter and a low surface brightness halo ~30" diameter.  The ring feature (brighter rim) was not seen.

 

IC 614 is classified as a Collisional Ring Galaxy in Madore's 2009 "Atlas and Catalogue of Collisional Ring Galaxies".  The collider is supposedly on the north side of the ring, but there is no distinct object at this position on the SDSS.  The nucleus is a Sy2.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 614 = J. 2-681 on 3 May 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 615 = UGC 5665 = MCG +02-27-020 = CGCG 065-041 = PGC 30751

10 27 22.1 +11 04 47

V = 14.3;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  PA = 143d

 

17.5" (5/19/01): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, low even surface brightness.  Extended towards a mag 13 star 2' SE of center.  Brightest of trio in core of AGC 1016 with IC 613 4.2' SW and IC 612 5.4' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 615 = J 2-682, along with IC 612 and 613 on 18 Apr 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 632 = UGC 5792 = MCG +00-27-035 = PGC 31673

10 39 11.9 -00 24 35

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (3/22/96): faint, small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 0.8'x0.5', weak concentration.  Forms a pair with IC 632 3.3' NE.  Located 13' SSW of NGC 3325.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 632 = J 2-691, along with IC 633, on 9 May 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 633 = UGC 5796 = MCG +00-27-037 = PGC 31691

10 39 24.1 -00 23 22

V = 14.2;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.0;  PA = 102d

 

17.5" (3/22/96): very faint, small, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, 0.6'x0.2', low even surface brightness.  A mag 11 star is 1.0' NNE of center.  Forms a pair with IC 632 3.3' SW.  Located 11' S of NGC 3325.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 633 = J 2-692, along with IC 632, on 9 May 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 646 = MCG +09-18-039 = CGCG 267-019 = PGC 32568

10 51 35.2 +55 27 57

V = 14.4;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

17.5" (4/22/95): very faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 0.5'x0.4'.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 3398 4.6' SSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 646 = Sw IX-25 on 8 May 1890 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; nf of 2 [with IC 644 = NGC 3398]."  Swift's RA is 12 seconds too large.  PGC and RC3 (as well as Megastar) misidentify IC 646 as NGC 3398.  See NGC 3398 for more.

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IC 647 = PGC 946616

10 50 34.4 -12 51 16

Size 0.3'x0.2'

 

18" (3/29/03): at 300x this tiny companion to NGC 3411 appeared very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, required averted vision.  Located 2.1' ESE of NGC 3411.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 647 = J 1-184 on 21 Apr 1892 and noted it was distinct from NGC 3411.  The HyperLeda listing for PGC 946616 doesn't list IC 647 as an identity.

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IC 656

10 55 07.9 +17 36 48

V = 14.9/15.5;  Size 12"

 

24" (2/22/14): at 260x a 12" pair of mag 15 stars were resolved.  The SDSS shows a third fainter star, as well as a very faint galaxy (not seen).  Located 4.4' E of NGC 3457 = NGC 3460.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 656 on 15 Mar 1887 with the 12" refractor at the Paris Observatory.  At his position is a triple star plus PGC 1537008, an extremely faint galaxy on the southeast side.  I think the galaxy is probably too faint too have been seen by Bigourdan, but the stars certainly could have appeared nebulous.  Corwin notes that NGC 3467 = h793, observed by JH and guest Francis Bailey, *may* apply to IC 656 as the description "Stellar. 2 or 3 stars with a nebulous blur observed by Mr. Bailey", applies better to IC 656 than to the fairly bright galaxy 4.4' W.  But the galaxy is close to JH's position and much brighter, of course.  See Corwin's and Thomson's IC notes.

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IC 663 = CGCG 066-087 = PGC 33182

11 00 37.3 +10 26 14

V = 14.6;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (4/25/98): extremely faint and small, round, 15" diameter, required averted vision.  This is the third brightest of four galaxies viewed in the core of AGC 1142.  Located 6.4' SW of NGC 3492, midway between a mag 10.5 star 3.2' N and a mag 13 star 2.2' S.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 20 year-old son, discovered IC 663 = Sw X-18, along with IC 664, on 29 Mar 1891.  The description reads "eeF; pS; R; triangle with 2 F st; 1st of 3; NGC 3492 in field."  Stephane Javelle independently found this galaxy again at the Nice Observatory on 1 Mar 1892 and reported it in list 1-190.

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IC 664 = MCG +02-28-042 = CGCG 066-091 = PGC 33191

11 00 45.3 +10 33 11

V = 13.0;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (4/25/98): this is the second brightest of four viewed in AGC 1142, located 4.1' NW of NGC 3492.  Appeared faint, small, slightly elongated [SW-NE], 30" diameter, stellar nucleus at moments with direct vision.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 20 year-old son, discovered IC 664 = Sw X-19 (along with IC 663) on 29 Mar 1891.  The description reads "eF; pS; R; 2nd of 3; NGC 3492 near."  Stephane Javelle independently found it at the Nice Observatory on 22 Mar 1892.

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IC 666 = CGCG 066-097 = Mrk 1276 = PGC 33232

11 01 14.8 +10 28 52

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.3

 

17.5" (4/25/98): extremely faint and small, round, 15" diameter.  Last and most difficult of four found in AGC 1142 and observation confused by a mag 15 star 40" following. Difficult to view both simultaneously.  Located 4.6' SE of NGC 3492.  Viewed hampered by hazy sky conditions due to smoke.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 666 = J 1-192 = Sw (X)-2 on 1 Apr 1892.  Lewis Swift independently found it two weeks later on 16 Apr 1892 and logged "eeF, vS, ee diff.  NGC 3492 near.  4th of 4."

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IC 676 = UGC 6245 = MCG +02-29-009 = CGCG 067-032 = PGC 34107

11 12 39.9 +09 03 21

V = 11.8;  Size 2.1'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 10d

 

18" (3/5/05): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, 1.2'x0.8'.  Contains an elongated brighter core and brighter along the major axis.  At low power, collinear with a mag 10 star 9' WNW and a mag 10 star 14' ESE.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 20 year-old son, discovered IC 676 = Sw X-20 on 8 Apr 1891 and reported "vF; pS: lE; bet 2 distant stars."  The position matches UGC 6245.

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IC 691 = UGC 6447 = Mrk 169 = PGC 35206

11 26 44.4 +59 09 20

V = 13.9;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 150d

 

17.5" (3/19/88): fairly faint, very small, bright core, slightly elongated.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 691 = Sw VII-17 on 17 Apr 1888 and recorded "pF; pS; R; forms right angle with 2 st."

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IC 694 = Arp 299 NED1 = VV 118c = MCG +10-17-002a = PGC 35325

11 28 27.3 +58 34 43

V = 15.8;  Size 0.3'x0.25'

 

48" (5/12/12): IC 694, roughly 1' NW of the interacting pair NGC 3690, was easily visible as a fairly faint, slightly elongated glow, 15"x12", weak concentration.

 

17.5" (4/1/95): this threshold object was barely glimpsed 1.1' NW of the interacting double system NGC 3690.  It was just visible momentarily as an extremely small knot with averted vision but observation verified several times.  This object is probably IC 694 although the identification is not 100% certain.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered IC 694 = Sw (X-3) at Birr Castle on 27 Jan 1852 and described an "appendage about one object diameter northwest [of NGC 3690]."  Lewis Swift apparently found this galaxy on 18 Apr 1892 and noted "vS, close D[ouble] with 3690, suspected with 132, verified with 200x.  His position is -7 seconds of RA, +30'' of Dec with respect to NGC 3690, close to an extremely faint and small galaxy 1.1' NW of the interacting double system NGC 3690.

 

Modern catalogues apply IC 694 to one component of the brighter double system.  Despite the good match in position with PGC 35325, its possible that Swift noted the second component of NGC 3690, which is much more obvious in the eyepiece.

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IC 696 = UGC 6477 = MCG +02-29-034 = Holm 257a = PGC 35332

11 28 39.9 +09 05 55

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

18" (5/3/11): faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, fairly low surface brightness, weak concentration.  In a group of IC galaxies with much fainter IC 2857 2.3' W and slightly brighter IC 698 6' ENE.  This galaxy is a face-on Sc or Sd with a very small nucleus.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly faint, fairly small, diffuse, only a weak concentration.  This is the 2nd brightest in the IC 698 group with IC 698 6.0' ENE.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 696 = Spitaler 38, along with IC 698 and 699, on 31 Mar 1892 with the 27-inch refractor at Wien University Observatory.  Spitaler missed nearby IC 2857, which was discovered later by Wolf on a photographic plate of the region.

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IC 698 = UGC 6482 = MCG +02-29-035 = Holm 257b = PGC 35364

11 29 03.9 +09 06 42

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 147d

 

18" (5/3/11): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated nearly 2:1 NNW-SSE, ~35"x20", broad concentration to a brighter, elongated core that increases to a faint nucleus with direct vision.  Initially seen as slightly elongated, but then the outer extensions were noticed.  This is probably the highest surface brightness member of a 16' group of 6 IC galaxies including IC 696, 699, 2850, 2853 and 2857.  The nearest is IC 696, 6' WSW.  IC 698 is located 18.5' SW of NGC 3705.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly faint, fairly small, oval NW-SE, brighter core.  Brightest in the IC 698 group and 3rd of 4 brighter galaxies with IC 696 6.0' WSW.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 698 = Spitaler 39, along with IC 696 and 699, on 31 Mar 1892.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 699 = UGC 6485 = MCG +02-29-036 = Holm 257d = PGC 35365

11 29 06.6 +08 59 18

V = 13.9;  Size 1.2'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 12d

 

18" (5/3/11): faint to fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 40"x20".  The halo is broadly concentrated then increases suddenly to a small brighter nucleus.  Located 7.5' S of IC 698 in a small group of 6 IC galaxies (unrelated to nearby NGC 3692 and NGC 3705).  The SDSS image shows a very compact, bright nucleus surrounded by a smooth ring.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): faint, small, bright core, stellar nucleus, faint extensions SSW-NNE.  Fourth brightest in the IC 698 group with IC 698 7.5' N.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 699 = Spitaler 40, along with IC 696 and 698, on 31 Mar 1892.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 700 = HCG 54A = UGC 6487 NED2 = VV 498 NED2 = Rose 27 NED2 = MCG +04-27-047 NED2 = UGC 126-067 NED2 = PGC 35382

11 29 15.3 +20 35 00

V = 13.0;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.1

 

48" (4/16/15): at 610x, the main (central) component of HCG 54 = Rose 27 appeared moderately bright and large, elongated 5:3 WSW-ENE, ~30"x18", fairly even surface brightness. The three fainter components flank HCG 54A and together nearly merge to create an irregular extended glow ~50"x18", bending to the north on the east end.

 

HCG 54B, at the southwest end, is faint to fairly faint (B = 16.2), very small, round, ~8"-10" diameter. This is the second brightest of the 4 members.  On the SDSS, HCG 54B appears as a very compact, bright blue knot just 15" SW of center of IC 700.

 

HCG 54C was easily seen as a faint (B = 17.2), small, round, 10" knot.  HCG 54C is squeezed between fainter HCG 54D and HCG 54A (18" NE of the center of HCG 54A).

 

HCG 54D was not noticed at 613x.  At 813x it appeared very faint (B = 18.5), round, only a 6" knot.  HCG 54D is the faintest member of the quartet and sits at the northeast end of the chain.

 

17.5" (3/8/97): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, 1.0'x0.4', low (but probably irregular) surface brightness.  A mag 14 star lies 1' S. At a couple of moments there appeared to be an extremely faint "star" at the west edge (this is probably HCG 54B).  Located ~15' SE of HCG 53!

 

17.5" (4/1/95): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, 1.0'x0.4', even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is 1.1' S of center.  Located 4.8' NE of a mag 10 star.  NGC 3697 (brightest in HCG 53) lies 14' NNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 700 = J. 1-198 on 28 Apr 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at Nice.  His position matches HCG 54A = UGC 6487.  Harold Corwin notes that "his description "Nearly round, about 40 arcsec in diameter, a little brighter toward the middle" suggests he saw at least the brightest three of the objects, blended into a single image."  HCG 54 is considered a post-merger of 2 or more galaxies.

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IC 701 = Arp 197 NED1 = VV 3a = UGC 6503 = MCG +04-27-051 = CGCG 126-074 = PGC 35494 = LEDA 86632

11 31 00.7 +20 28 08

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 105d

 

48" (5/12/12): at 488x, IC 701 = Arp 197 appeared fairly bright, oval 2:1 WNW-ESE, 0.6'x0.3', contains a small bright core.  A very low surface brightness hazy plume extends to the NE about 30".  Occasionally VV 3b, an extremely faint hazy spot, was glimpsed at the northeast tip of the tail.  In Arp's class "galaxies with material ejected from nuclei".  CGCG 126-073, a thin edge-on described by Arp as a shred of IC 701, lies 2.5' SSW.  It appeared as a faint, extremely thin streak, 8:1 WNW-ESE, ~40"x5", fairly low surface brightness.  Situated very close west of a mag 13-14 star.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 701 = Sw VIII-57 on 22 Apr 1889 and recorded "eF; vS; R; 2 pB stars south following."

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IC 708 = Papillon Galaxy = UGC 6549 = MCG +08-21-056 = PGC 35720

11 33 59.4 +49 03 42

V = 13.0;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 95d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): brightest in AGC 1314 cluster.  Fairly faint, slightly elongated, 0.8' diameter.  Fairly high surface brightness, well concentrated with a bright core.  Forms a pair with IC 709 2.7' SE.  Nearby are IC 712 8.2' E and IC 711 9.9' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 708 = Sw IX-28 on 11 May 1890 and recorded "eF; S; R.  1st of 4 [with IC 709, 711 and 712]."

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IC 709 = MCG +08-21-057 = CGCG 242-049 = PGC 35736

11 34 14.5 +49 02 35

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.6'

 

17.5" (4/22/95): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, very small brighter core.  A mag 15 star is just 23" NW of center.  Located 2.7' SW of IC 708 in the core of AGC 1314.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 709 = Sw IX-29 on 11 May 1890 and recorded "eeF; S; R.  2nd of 4 [with IC 708, 711 and 712]."

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IC 711 = MCG +08-21-062 = CGCG 242-053 = PGC 35780

11 34 46.6 +48 57 22

V = 14.1;  Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

17.5" (4/22/95): very faint, extremely small, round, 15" diameter.  Located 1.0' NE of a mag 14.5/15.5 double star in the core of AGC 1314. On the DSS the fainter "star" is a compact galaxy, IC 712 lies 7.3' N and brightest member IC 708 is 10' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 711 = Sw IX-30 on 11 May 1890 and recorded "eeeF; pS; R; F * close sp.  3rd of 4 [with IC 708, 709 and 712]."

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IC 712 = MCG +08-21-063 = CGCG 242-054 = PGC 35785

11 34 49.3 +49 04 39

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly faint, small, round, 0.6' diameter.  Even concentration to a small bright core and stellar nucleus.  Located 1.9' SSW of mag 8.4 SAO 43812.  Located in the core of galaxy cluster AGC 1314 with IC 711 7.3' S and IC 709 6.1' SW and brightest member IC 708 8.2' WSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 712 = Sw IX-31 on 11 May 1890 and recorded "eeF; S; R; pB * nr nf.  4th of 4 [with IC 708, 709 and 711]."

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IC 730 = NGC 3849 = MCG +01-30-013 = CGCG 040-040 = Todd 10 = PGC 36658

11 45 35.2 +03 13 54

V = 13.7;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 35d

 

48" (4/16/15): at 488x; moderately bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 or 5:3 SW-NE, 0.5'x0.3', small bright core, fairly high surface brightness.  A mag 16.3 star is off the southeast side [27" from center].  An extremely faint "star" was noted off the northwest side [25" from center].  After later checking the SDSS, I discovered this is a compact galaxy (SDSS J114534.52+031417.8) with V = 17.8.  An extremely faint edge-on poking out of the east side of IC 730 was not seen.

 

17.5" (4/9/99): faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 25" diameter, no concentration.  Visible steadily with direct vision.  A mag 15 star lies 1.6' SSW.  This is a Todd discovery and due to a poor position is listed as nonexistent in RNGC.  This galaxy is listed as IC 730 (good position from Javelle) in modern catalogues.

 

David Todd discovered NGC 3849 = Todd 10 on 11 Feb 1878 in his search for trans-Neptunian planets with the 26-inch refractor at the Naval Observatory.  He noted a "large and nebulous" object with a star 2' in PA ~210ˇ (SSW).  There is nothing at his rough position, but using Todd's discovery sketch, Harold Corwin identifies NGC 3849 =CGCG 040-040.

 

Stephane Javelle independently discovered this galaxy again on 22 Mar 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory and measured an accurate position.  Javelle and Dreyer assumed it was new, of course, but likely NGC 3849 = IC 730. Most modern catalogues label this galaxy as IC 730, though Deep Sky Field Guide and Uranometria Sky Atlas use NGC 3849.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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IC 732 = MCG +04-28-050 = CGCG 127-051 = Holm 290a/b = PGC 36688 + 83488

11 45 59.8 +20 26 20

Size 0.8'x0.5+0.5'x0.2'

 

17.5" (2/20/88): very faint, very small, very elongated.  Located 4' NW of brighter NGC 3884 in AGC 1367.  This system is a contact pair (not resolved).

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 732 = Big. 165 on 29 Mar 1886.  Harold Corwin notes there are two galaxies very near Bigourdan's position and he may have glimpsed both of them.

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IC 736 = HCG 59B = MCG +02-30-037 = CGCG 068-068 = [Rose 7] = WBL 358-001 = PGC 36853

11 48 20.1 +12 42 59

V = 14.6;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

48" (4/19/15): at 488x; HCG 59B is moderately bright, fairly small, round, 24" diameter, contains a small bright nucleus.  PGC 1415034 (not a member of HCG 59, but part of the group) lies 0.8' NW.  Using 697x, this 17.5-18 magnitude companion appeared extremely faint and small, very low surface brightness.  It was visible only ~1/3 of the time.  Slightly brighter IC 737 = HCG 59A lies 1.9' ENE.

 

17.5" (3/8/97): HCG 59B is the fainter of two visible in HCG 59 and located 1.9' WSW of IC 737 = HCG 59A.  Very faint, small, round, 20" diameter.  With averted vision, the halo is closer to 30" (similar to IC 736) but the surface brightness is slightly lower.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 736 = J. 1-203, along with IC 737, on 23 Apr 1892 with the 30" refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His micrometric position correspond with HCG 59B = CGCG 068-068 and HCG 590A = CGCG 068-070, respectively.  Several catalogues (including RC3, MCG and CGCG) misidentify HCG 59A as IC 736 and HCG 59D = MCG +02-30-040 = CGCG 068-072 as IC 737.  When I took a look at this group, this immediately seemed odd as the brightest pair of galaxies are clearly HCG 59A and HCG 59B and I missed HCG 59D.  So, the correct identifications are

 

IC 736 = HCG 59B = MCG +02-30-037 = CGCG 068-068 = PGC 36853

IC 737 = HCG 59A = MCG +02-30-039 = CGCG 068-070 = PGC 36861

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IC 737 = HCG 59A = MCG +02-30-039 = CGCG 068-070 = [Rose 7] = WBL 358-002 = PGC 36861

11 48 27.5 +12 43 38

V = 14.0;  Size 0.6'x0.5'

 

48" (4/19/15): at 488x; moderately bright, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 0.5'x0. 4', contains a small bright core.  IC 737 = HCG 59A is the brightest member of HCG 59 with IC 736 = HCG 59B 1.9' WSW, MCG +02-30-040 = HCG 59D 0.8' E, CGCG 068-073 = HCG 59C 1.8' SE and HCG 59E 2.7' NW.  A mag 13.5-14 star is 1.4' E.

 

HCG 59D = MCG +02-30-040 (often misidentified as IC 737) is faint, fairly small, diffuse, no core or zones, very low surface brightness.  It is squeezed between HCG 59A 0.8' W and a mag 13.5-14 star 0.6' SE.  HCG 59C is the largest member of the quintet.  It appeared fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 E-W, ~48"x16", slightly brighter core.  HCG 59E is the faintest in the quintet and appeared very faint, small, elongated 3:2 or 2:1 SW-NE, ~15"x8", even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (3/8/97): faint, small, elongated 4:3 ~WNW-ESE (difficult to pin down orientation).  Appears slightly brighter than similar HCG 59B 1.9' WSW.  A mag 13.5 star follows by 1.3'.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 737 = J. 1-204, along with IC 737, on 23 Apr 1892.  See identification notes for IC 736.

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IC 749 = UGC 6962 = MCG +07-25-008 = KTG 40A = Holm 313a = PGC 37692

11 58 34.0 +42 44 03

V = 12.4;  Size 2.3'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 150d

 

24" (5/11/13): moderately bright, large, slightly elongated ~N-S, 1.3'x1.1', diffuse appearance with an ill-defined halo due to low surface brightness around periphery.  But the surface brightness is irregular or mottled with a very small, slightly brighter nucleus and an impression of spiral structure.  Forms a contrasting pair with IC 750 3.4' ESE.  The SDSS image resolves the spiral arms into numerous blue HII regions and that probably contributed to the visual impression of mottling. Mag 8.9 HD 103954 lies 3.1' SW.

 

13.1" (3/17/86): fairly faint, moderately large, diffuse glow, no central brightening, slightly elongated NNW-SSE.  Forms a pretty pair with IC 750 3.3' E.  Located 3.0' NE of mag 8.6 SAO 43979.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 749 = Spitaler 46, along with IC 750, on 22 Apr 1892 using the 27-inch Grubb refractor at Vienna Observatory. A month later he found (or measured) IC 751 and 752 (just south).

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IC 750 = UGC 6973 = MCG +07-25-010 = KTG 40B = Holm 313b = PGC 37719

11 58 52.2 +42 43 21

V = 11.9;  Size 2.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 41d

 

24" (5/11/13): bright, fairly large, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 1.5'x0.5', well concentrated with a bright, elongated core that gradually increases to the center.  A mag 16 star lies 1' S of center.  Forms an usual 3.4' pair with IC 749, which is a Sc face-on with a much lower surface brightness.  Mag 8.9 HD 103954 lies 5.5' WSW.  IC 751 lies 9' due S.

 

13.1" (3/17/86): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, brighter along the major axis.  Higher surface brightness than IC 749 3.3' W.  Mag 8.6 SAO 43979 lies 5.6' WSW.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 750 = Spitaler 47, along with IC 749, on 22 Apr 1892 using the 27-inch Grubb refractor at Vienna Observatory.

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IC 751 = UGC 6972 = MCG +07-25-011 = CGCG 215-011 = KTG 40C = PGC 37721

11 58 52.6 +42 34 13

V = 14.1;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 30d

 

24" (5/11/13): fairly faint to moderately bright, very elongated 7:2 SSW-NNE, 40"x12".  Sharply concentrated with a very small bright nucleus.  Forms a pair with IC 752 4.1' E.  Brighter IC 749 and 750 lie 9' N.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 751 = Spitaler 48, along with IC 752, on 18 May 1892 with the 27-inch Grubb refractor at Vienna Observatory.

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IC 752 = CGCG 215-014 = PGC 37747

11 59 15.0 +42 34 01

V = 15.0;  Size 0.6'x0.45'

 

24" (5/11/13): faint to fairly faint, small, round, fairly low even surface brightness, 20" diameter.  Fainter of a pair with IC 751 4.1' W.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 752 = Spitaler 49, along with IC 751, on 18 May 1892 with the 27-inch Grubb refractor at Vienna Observatory.

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IC 760 = ESO 440-052 = MCG -05-29-010 = LGG 271-006 = PGC 38345

12 05 53.5 -29 17 32

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 148d

 

18" (5/28/06): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 0.8'x0.3', broad concentration to a slightly bulging center.  A group of faint stars lies ~5' N and another group with a couple of brighter mag 11 stars is SW.  A faint 20" pair of mag 14/15 stars is 1.5' SW.

 

Ormond Stone discovered IC 760 = LM(S) 464 on 3 Jan 1889 with the 26-inch refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "rr, bM, stellar N, mag 15.0, 0.2' dia."  The discovery was published in the observatory's catalogue of Southern Nebulae (Vol 1, Part 6, 1893)

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IC 773 = MCG +01-31-044 = CGCG 041-073 = PGC 39493

12 18 08.1 +06 08 22

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  PA = 0d

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 20" diameter, gradually incr to the center.  Located 19' WNW of NGC 4260.  IC 3136 lies 12.5' ENE and a mag 9.5 star is 4.4' S.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 773 = J 2-744 on 4 May 1893 with the 30" refractor at the Nice Observatory and recorded "F, vS, dif, 2 vF st inv."  His position is accurate.

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IC 776 = UGC 7352 = MCG +02-31-088 = PGC 39613

12 19 03.2 +08 51 20

V = 13.8;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 98d

 

17.5" (5/14/88): faint, moderately large, diffuse, slightly elongated.  Forms the northern vertex of two stars mag 10/11 to south.  Pair with IC 3134 6.6' NNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 776 = J. 2-746 on 4 May 1893.

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IC 777 = UGC 7363 = MCG +05-29-052 = CGCG 158-064 = PGC 39663

12 19 23.8 +28 18 36

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (4/9/99): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 0.9'x0.4', little if any concentration.  The compact cluster Shkh 202 is ~8' NE!  (six faint members close to a mag 6.7 located 11' NE viewed).

 

17.5" (5/23/98): faint, small, round, 30" diameter.  Picked up 9' N of 9 Com (V = 6.3).  At 280x, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, PA ~160ˇ, 0.8'x0.5', very weak concentration.  Located 18' NE of NGC 4251.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 777 = Sf 18 on 14 May 1866 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory and simply noted "vF". His RA is 9 seconds too large.

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IC 780 = UGC 7381 = MCG +04-29-064 = CGCG 128-077 = PGC 39745

12 19 58.4 +25 46 18

V = 13.5;  Size 1.6'x1.2';  PA = 7d

 

24" (5/30/16): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:3 N-S, ~35"x20", brighter along the major axis.  Located 10' W of HJ 517 = 9.1/12.5 at 20", 14' SSW of mag 6.1 HD 107326 and 35' WSW of mag 4.8 12 Com.  IC 3171 lies 14' SSE.

 

WH discovered IC 780 on 6 Apr 1785 (sweep 393) and recorded "suspected, but probably a deception of two close stars."  CH's reduction is 1.3' northeast of this galaxy, so the identification is certain, although he didn't confirm the observation and it wasn't included in his published catalogues.  Wolfgang Steinicke included this observation of IC 780 in his "Herschel Special" objects file.

 

Stephane Javelle found the galaxy again on 13 Apr 1893 and recorded it in list II-747. Dreyer, assuming it was new, catalogued it as IC 780 with credit to Javelle.

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IC 781 = MCG +03-32-002 = CGCG 099-017 = PGC 39754

12 20 03.3 +14 57 41

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (5/23/87): very faint, small, round, diffuse, very weakly concentrated core.  A mag 15 star is off the north end 30" from center.  Located 2.0' ESE of a mag 10 star.  Form a pair with NGC 4262 9' SW.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 781 = Big. 172 on 10 May 1888.

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IC 782 = MCG +01-32-020 = CGCG 042-043 = PGC 39962

12 21 36.9 +05 45 56

V = 13.6;  Size 1.4'x0.6';  PA = 59d

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly faint, small, round, 18" (core), weak concentration to center.  I missed the low surface brightness outer extensions WSW-ENE.  A mag 13.4 star is 0.6' S of center.  This galaxy is a little brighter than NGC 4287, which lies 14' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 782 = J 1-212 on 17 Mar 1892 with the 30" refractor at the Nice Observatory and recorded "eF, S, R."  His position is just off the west side of CGCG 042-043 = PGC 39962.

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IC 787 = MCG +03-32-031 = CGCG 099-043 = Holm 395b = PGC 40517

12 25 25.1 +16 07 27

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (5/23/87): very faint, small, round.  Located 3' S of a mag 10 star and 11' WSW of NGC 4405.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 787 = Sw VII-21 on 7 Apr 1888 and logged "eF; pS; R; B * n; 4405 following."

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IC 790 = NGC 4410C = MCG +02-32-051 = CGCG 070-075 = WBL 408-005 = PGC 40713

12 26 35.5 +09 02 07

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 94d

 

24" (6/4/16): at 225x; fairly faint, small, elonagated 3:2 E-W, 24"x16", very small brighter nucleus.  Third of three in an interconnected quartet with CGCG 070-079 2.3' ENE and NGC 4410A/B contact pair 1.8' WSW.  CGCG 070-079 appeared faint, small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, 24"x12".

 

17.5" (3/24/90): very faint, very small, elongated E-W.  Forms a pair with NGC 4410 2' SW.  CGCG 070-079, 2.3' NE, was not noticed.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 790 = Big. 173 on 6 Apr 1888, very near NGC 4410.

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IC 797 = UGC 7676 = MCG +03-32-058 = PGC 41504

12 31 54.9 +15 07 25

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 108d

 

17.5" (5/23/87): faint, small, slightly elongated ~E-W, weak concentration.  Located 42' N of M88.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 797 = J 1-217 on 22 Apr 1892 and recorded "faint, almost round, 30" diameter, gradually bM."

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IC 800 = UGC 7716 = MCG +03-32-069 = PGC 41763

12 33 56.8 +15 21 16

V = 13.4;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 148d

 

17.5" (5/23/87): very faint, diffuse, almost round, even surface brightness.  Forms the west vertex of an 8' equilateral triangle with two mag 11-12 stars to the SE and NE.  NGC 4540 lies 18' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 800 = J 1-219 on 22 Apr 1892 and recorded "faint, almost round, 30" diameter, gradually bM."

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IC 803 = Arp 149 = VV 564 = MCG +03-32-080 = CGCG 099-105 = Holm 435a/b = PGC 42367 + PGC 215034

12 39 37.5 +16 35 17

Size 0.8'x0.15';  PA = 124d

 

48" (4/19/15): at 488x and 697x; the core of the eastern component of this interacting double system appeared fairly faint, small, round.  A very faint, thin spike (tidal plume or jet) extends ~15" SE.  Occasionally a second, very faint stubby tidal tail extends ~10" north-northwest .  The entire length of this chaotic galaxy is ~30".

 

The nucleus of the western component (PGC 215034) is just 25" W.  It was moderately bright but appeared stellar.  At 697x, A very low surface brightness, very small halo was visible, but the tidal plume or jet extending southwest was not seen.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 803 = J. 1-220 on 25 Apr 1892 with the 30-inch f/23 refractor at Nice, France.  His position is accurate.

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IC 804 = PGC 42549

12 41 16.0 -05 00 33

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.5'

 

17.5" (1/31/87): fairly faint, very small, round, small bright core, slightly elongated.  Fourth of four in a low power field 12' NE of NGC 4602 and 30' NE of NGC 4593.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): appears slightly elongated.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 804 = Sw VII-22 on 3 Apr 1888 and logged "vF; vS; R."

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IC 819 = NGC 4676A = The Mice = Arp 242 NED1 = VV 224a = UGC 7938 = MCG +05-30-076 = CGCG 159-072N = Holm 459b = PGC 43062

12 46 10.1 +30 43 55

V = 13.7;  Size 2.3'x0.7';  PA = 179d

 

48" (4/6/13): IC 819 is the NNW component of a fascinating interacting pair with IC 820 (slightly brighter SSE component), separated by 40" between centers.  At 375x and 488x in soft seeing, IC 819 appeared fairly bright, small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 24"x16", high surface brightness. IC 820 was bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 30"x20", high surface brightness, increased to a small, very bright nucleus.  The two galaxies are connected or surrounded by a low surface brightness bridge.  IC 819 has a remarkable bright, long thin tidal tail shooting due north!  The tail has a high surface brightness (brightest feature of this type I've observed in any galaxy) and extends roughly 80"x8", dimming at the north end and ending just east of a mag 17.3 star.

 

17.5": the northwest member (IC 819) of the interacting pair "The Mice" appeared faint, small, low surface brightness, elongated N-S.

 

Rudolph Spitaler resolved IC 819 and 820, the two components of the "Mice", on 20 Mar 1892 using the 27" Grubb refractor at Vienna.  His position is exactly 1 min of RA too far east, so he made a digit error in computing or copying the position.

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IC 820 = NGC 4676B = The Mice = Arp 242 NED2 = VV 224b = UGC 7939 = MCG +05-30-077 = CGCG 159-072S = Holm 459a = PGC 43065

12 46 11.2 +30 43 22

V = 13.6;  Size 2.2'x0.8';  PA = 2d

 

48" (4/6/13): IC 820 is the slightly brighter SSE component of NGC 4676, a fascinating interacting system with IC 819 (NNW component) separated by 40" between centers.  At 375x and 488x in soft seeing, IC 820 appeared bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 30"x20", high surface brightness, increased to a small, very bright nucleus.  The two galaxies are connected or surrounded by a low surface brightness bridge.  IC 820 has a small, low surface brightness halo on its south side, but its tail to the south was not visible.  See notes for IC 819 for the bright tail.

 

17.5": this is the southeast member of the interacting pair dubbed "The Mice".  This object is the brighter of the pair and appears faint, small, round with a small bright core.  In contact with NGC 4676A at the northwest edge.

 

Rudolph Spitaler resolved IC 819 and 820, the two components of the "Mice", on 20 Mar 1892 using the 27" Grubb refractor at Vienna.  His position is exactly 1 min of RA too far east, so he made a digit error in computing the position.

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IC 829 = MCG -02-33-037 = PGC 43675

12 52 27.4 -15 31 07

V = 13.7;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 11.9

 

18" (5/28/06): very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  This member of AGC 1631 is in a very tight trio with MCG -02-33-036 at the west edge (difficult to resolve) and MCG -02-33-038 1.4' E.  MCG -02-33-038 appeared very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Located 8' SW of NGC 4756.

 

18" (4/29/06): brightest in small trio within AGC 1631.  Appeared fairly faint, fairly small, small bright core.  Initially appeared elongated 2:1 E-W though in moments of better seeing in poor conditions, it appeared double with a knot (MCG -02-33-036) resolved at the west edge.  Located 8.8' NW of NGC 4756.  In a close trio with MCG -02-33-038 1.4' E, which appeared very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  With the addition of MCG -02-33-35 this quartet would satisfy the criteria of a Hickson group.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 829 = Big. 178 on 13 May 1888.  MCG and PGC misidentify MCG -02-33-038 as IC 829.

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IC 842 = UGC 8118 = MCG +05-31-087 = CGCG 160-088 = PGC 44795

13 00 39.6 +29 01 11

V = 13.9;  Size 1.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 57d

 

18" (4/30/11): faint, fairly small, oval 4:3 SW-NE, 0.7'x0.45', broad weak concentration with no distinct core or nucleus. Located 13' SW of NGC 4913 = IC 843 and 14' WSW of IC 4088.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 842 = Sf 2 on 3 May 1866 with the 18.5-inch refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.

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IC 844 = MCG -05-31-024 = ESO 443-040 = LGG 317-006 = PGC 45086

13 03 18.2 -30 31 16

V = 12.8;  Size 1.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 100d

 

18" (5/3/11): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, elongated ~2:1 E-W, 30"x15", slightly brighter core.  Located 13' W of NGC 4936 and 6' NW of B 240 (9.3/11.3 at 6"), which was barely resolved.

 

18" (3/17/07): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, 0.8'x0.3', slightly brighter core.  In a group with NGC 4936 12' E.  A mag 9 star (HD 113397) lies 6' SE.

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 844 = LM(S) 585 on 13 May 1887 with the 26-inch refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His filar micrometer offset matches ESO 443-040.

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IC 871 = UGC 8358 = MCG +01-34-016 = CGCG 044-058 = KTG 46A = 46321

13 17 58.7 +04 24 12

V = 13.4;  Size 1.7'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 70d

 

24" (5/11/13): first and largest in a trio (KTG 46) with IC 873 5.7' NE and IC 876 10' NE.  At 375x appeared fairly faint, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 0.8'x0.4', sharply concentrated with a bright core and diffuse halo.  A mag 12 star lies 1.3' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 871 = J 2-761, along with IC 873 and 876, on 5 Jun 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 873 = CGCG 044-059 = KTG 46B = PGC 46345

13 18 16.3 +04 27 52

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.7'

 

24" (5/11/13): at 375x appeared fairly faint, small, round, 18", weak concentration.  Compact galaxy with a moderately high surface brightness. Second of three (KTG 46) with IC 871 5.7' SW and IC 876 4.8' ENE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 873 = J 2-762, along with IC 871 and 876, on 5 Jun 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 874 = ESO 508-042 = MCG -04-31-050 = PGC 46410

13 19 00.5 -27 37 44

V = 12.4;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 17d

 

24" (5/25/14): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 4:3 E-W, 40"x30", well concentrated with a small bright core that increases to the center.  Located 17' SW of NGC 5078.  A wide 45" pair of mag 10.7 stars lies 3' NNW.

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 874 = LM(S) 599 on 14 Mar 1888 with the 26" refractor at Leander-McCormick Observatory.  His two micrometric offsets (in RA) matches ESO 508-042.

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IC 876 = MCG +01-34-017 = CGCG 044-061 = KTG 46C = PGC 46370

13 18 34.6 +04 29 11

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.7'

 

24" (5/11/13): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 N-S, 24"x18", weak concentration, small brighter nucleus.  Third in trio with IC 871 and 873, spanning 10' SW to NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 876 = J 2-763, along with IC 871 and 873, on 5 Jun 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 879 = IC 4222 = ESO 508-047 = MCG -04-31-052 = LGG 341-003 = PGC 46479

13 19 40.6 -27 25 44

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 102d

 

24" (5/25/14): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 50"x25", slightly brighter 20" core, fairly low surface brightness.  Forms a pair with much brighter NGC 5078 2' NE.

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 879 = LM(S) 602 = Sw XI-154 on 16 Feb 1888 with the 26" refractor at Leander-McCormick Observatory.  His two micrometric offsets (in RA) matches ESO 508-047.  Lewis Swift independently found the galaxy on 28 Mar 1898, near the end of his discoveries at Lowe Observatory in southern California.  His position is exactly one degree too far south, but he mentions "5078 near north-following", clinching the identification.  So, IC 879 = IC 4222 with IC 879 the primary designation.

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IC 897 = CGCG 102-020 = PGC 47816

13 34 19.5 +17 50 53

V = 15.0;  Size 0.6'x0.15'

 

17.5" (5/30/92): extremely faint, very small.  I could only glimpse this object for moments with averted vision but it appeared very elongated 3:1 SW-NE and extremely thin.  Forms a pair with NGC 5217 3' WNW.  Observation verified on the POSS.

 

All modern sources (except for NED) misidentify IC 897 as UGC 8544, a thin edge-on located 10' SW.  Bigourdan, who discovered IC 897, unfortunately misidentified his offset star and when his offsets are applied to the star he noted, the position falls close to UGC 8544.  But when the correct offset star is used, the identification of IC 897 = CGCG 102-20 is matched.  This identification also agrees with his offsets for IC 897 from NGC 5217.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 897 = Big. 180 on 20 May 1890 and noted "Magnitude 13.5; situated from NGC 5217 at a PA of 105, Dist. = 3.5 arcmins."  His published position in Comptes Rendus (used by Dreyer in the IC) happens to fall near UGC 8544 = CGCG 102-016 and that is the galaxy that modern catalogues have assumed to be IC 897.  Malcolm Thomson sorted out the correct identification (see "The True Identity of IC 897" in Deep Sky Observer #136) as well as Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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IC 904 = UGC 8628 = CGCG 017-047 = MCG +00-35-014 = KTG 47B = PGC 48217

13 38 32.2 +00 32 25

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  PA = 127d

 

24" (5/11/13): moderately bright and large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 40"x20", fairly high surface brightness, brighter nucleus.  Brightest in a trio (KTG 47) with UGC 8631 1.9' E and CGCG 17-46 2.0' SSW.  A mag 9.5 star lies 4.7' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 904 = J 2-761 on 8 Jun 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 960 = UGC 8849 = VV 335 = M+03-36-003/004 = CGCG 103-013 = PGC 49535/49536 = LEDA 3167744

13 55 59.6 +17 30 21

Size 1.5'x0.8'

 

24" (7/1/16): at 375x; IC 960 = VV 335 is an interacting pair with a separation of 0.8' SSW-NNE.  The brighter NNE component (VV 335a) is faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 SSW-NNE, 0.5'x0.3', low surface brightness.  The SSW galaxy (VV 335b) is extremely faint/very faint, small, round, 15" diameter, very low surface brightness.  On the SDSS this is a disrupted system (possibly a merged pair) with tidal tails that were not detected.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 960 = J. 1-265 on 17 Jun 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory. He noted "faint, diffuse, rather extended with a little bit of condensation."  According to Harold Corwin, his recomputed position corresponds with the northern (brighter) nucleus.

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IC 962 = UGC 8868 = MCG +02-36-003 = CGCG 074-015 = KTG 51A = PGC 49626

13 57 13.2 +12 01 17

V = 13.3;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

24" (5/11/13): fairly bright, fairly small, round, 24", small bright nucleus, high surface brightness.  First in the KTG 51 triplet with CGCG 74-14 1.4' S and CGCG 74-16 3.1' SE.  Located 8.7' NW of mag 7.7 HD 121845.

 

CGCG 74-14 appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 0.4'x0.25', sharply concentrated with a very small bright nucleus and a diffuse halo. CGCG 74-16 lies 1.8' SE and appeared faint to fairly faint, small, round, weak concentration, 18" diameter, small slightly brighter core.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 962 = Sw VIII-80 on 7 Apr 1889 and logged "pF, vS, R, bM."  He apparently missed the two fainter galaxies just south.

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IC 964 = MCG +03-36-010 = CGCG 103-024 = Ark 433 = WBL 480-002 = PGC 49661

13 57 41.3 +17 30 31

V = 14.8;  Size 0.6'x0.5'

 

24" (7/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 20" diameter, low nearly even surface brightness.  Brighter of a pair with IC 965 1.5' E.  Part of a group (WBL 480) at a distance of 300 million l.y.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 964 = J. 1-268, along with IC 965, on 23 Jun 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory. He noted "extremely faint, very small, round, 10" diameter, uniformly faint."  His position is accurate.

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IC 965 = MCG +03-36-011 = CGCG 103-026 = WBL 480-003 = PGC 49667

13 57 47.5 +17 30 38

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  PA = 64d

 

24" (7/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, small, round, high surface brightness, 12"-15" diameter, very small bright nucleus.  Forms a pair with IC 964 1.5' W.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 965 = J. 1-269, along with IC 964, on 23 Jun 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory. He noted "very faint, very small, round, 10" diameter, with a very small nucleus."  His position is accurate.

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IC 968 = CGCG 018-019 = MCG +00-36-007 = PGC 4986 + PGC 1080186

14 00 37.2 -02 54 27

V = 14.7/15.0;  Size 0.7'x0.4'

 

48" (5/16/12): this pair is at the south end of a chain of 6 galaxies with dominant member NGC 5400 3' N.  At 488x the western component (MCG +00-36-007 = PGC 49866 at V = 14.7) appeared fairly faint to moderately bright, small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 24"x16", small bright core.  The eastern component  (PGC 1080186 = SDSS J140037.96-025422.7 at V = 15.0), just 22" NE, appeared fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, 18"x14', small bright core.

 

18" (6/30/11): this small double system lies 3' S of NGC 5400, a cD galaxy in the center of the poor group MKW 5.  At 285x appeared as a very faint, very small pair oriented SW-NE, each ~10" diameter and virtually tangent.  The NE component appeared slightly brighter.  A mag 11 star lies 3.2' WSW.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 968 = Big. 181 on 6 May 1888.  His position is off by 2' in declination due to an error in the position of the offset star.  Harold Corwin notes that Bigourdan has two measurements and his position is closer to the brighter member of the pair.

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IC 971 = MCG -02-36-005 = PGC 50120

14 03 52.8 -10 08 26

V = 12.8;  Size 2.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

24" (6/15/15): at 260x; moderately bright and large, slightly elongated ~N-S, broad weak concentration.  Brightest in a group including IC 4358 4.6' WSW, IC 4634 11' NE and MCG -02-36-011 11.5' SE.

 

MCG -02-36-011 appeared fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, 0.6'x0.5' [core region], small bright nucleus.  Occasionally extremely faint extensions were seen north and south.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 971 = Sf 105 on 20 May 1868 with the 18.5-inch refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  In a note in 1905 "Ein schoner Spiralnebel" ("A Beautiful Spiral Nebula"), Max Wolf described IC 971 as a "rare pure S-shape spiral with a mag 14 core." (AN 168, 75).

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IC 972 = PK 326+42.1 = Abell 37 = PN G326.7+42.2

14 04 26.0 -17 13 41

V = 13.6;  Size 43"x40"

 

18" (6/11/07): picked up unfiltered at 115x as a fairly small, round disc of ~40" diameter with no additional structure.  Good contrast gain with the OIII filter and appears as a moderately bright, crisp-edged disc with an even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (5/11/96): faint but easily picked up at 100x without filter as a moderately large, round disc less than 1' diameter.  Nicely enhanced with OIII filter and appears moderately bright, crisp-edged and slightly elongated N-S, 45"x40".  Also nice view at 100x with UHC filter.  Located 6.7' S of mag 9.4 SAO 158326.

 

13" (4/10/86): at 79x and OIII filter appears fairly faint, fairly small, round, with an even surface brightness and sharp edges.  Faint but visible without filter.  Easily takes 166x with a UHC filter.  No central star seen with or without a filter.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 972 = J 1-272 on 25 May 1892 with the 30" refractor at the Nice Observatory.  Although the IC position is accurate, Abell assumed it was new and included it as #37 in his list of new planetary nebulae found by inspection of the POSS.  So, IC 972 = Abell 37.

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IC 982 = Arp 117 NED1 = UGC 9059 = MCG +03-36-066= CGCG 103-096 = WBL 493-004 = LGG 376-002 = PGC 50560

14 09 59.1 +17 41 46

V = 13.0;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

18" (5/3/08): fairly faint, fairly small, round, weak concentration, 35" diameter. Forms the SW component of an Arp pair with IC 983 2.5' NNE.  Located 2.7' SW of a mag 9 star that detracts from viewing.  NGC 5490 lies 9' S and other fainter galaxies are in the field (see notes for NGC 5490).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 982 = J 1-274, along with IC 983, on 27 May 1891.

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IC 983 = Arp 117 NED2 = UGC 9061 = MCG +03-36-068 = CGCG 103-098 = WBL 493-006 = PGC 50577

14 10 04.3 +17 44 01

V = 11.7;  Size 5.4'x4.7';  Surf Br = 15.1;  PA = 120d

 

18" (5/3/08): moderately bright but fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, ~25"x20", weak concentration to a very faint stellar nucleus.  Located 1.5' NW of mag 9 HD 123930.  The bright star overwhelms a much larger fainter halo that was not seen.  Forms a close interacting pair (Arp 117) with IC 982 2.5' SW.  NGC 5490C = Arp 79 lies 7' S and bright NGC 5490 is 11' S.  Arp 79 is very faint, fairly small, 25" diameter, irregularly round, low even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (5/23/98): not seen initially as I was looking for a large object, but at 280x I picked up a small 20" glow just 1.5' NW of mag 8.6 SAO 100889.  This was the small core -- the large, low surface brightness halo was overpowered by the nearby bright star.  I started to look for nearby IC 982 2.6' SW but the skies began to cloud over and observing was cut short.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 983 = J 1-275, along with IC 982, on 27 May 1891.

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IC 984 = UGC 9062 = MCG +03-36-070 = CGCG 103-099 = Holm 596a = PGC 50580

14 10 07.7 +18 21 53

V = 13.6;  Size 1.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (6/2/00): very faint, small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 1.0'x0.3', smooth surface brightness.  Located 1.5ˇ SE of Arcturus!

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 984 = J 1-276 on 27 May 1891.  CGCG misidentified CGCG 103-094 as IC 984, instead of CGCG 103-099.

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IC 986 = MCG +00-36-025 = CGCG 018-073 = PGC 50662

14 11 26.2 +01 17 11

V = 14.0;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (5/11/02): faint, very small, round, 0.4' diameter, compact appearance. Located 4.7' SSW of mag 6.4 SAO 120334 and 13' W of NGC 5501.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 986 = J 2-781 on 8 Jun 1893.

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IC 997 = MCG -01-37-001 = PGC 51220

14 19 59.3 -04 27 05

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 23d

 

18" (6/18/04): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 or 5:3 ~N-S. Contains a small, brighter, roundish core and the extensions are a much lower surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is just 0.8' N of center. A striking equilateral triangle of mag 11-12 stars is close northeast with the nearest star 1' N of center.  IC 997 is an (unresolved) interacting pair and the brightest of a trio with IC 4401 9' WSW and IC 998 5' ENE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 997 = Sw (X)-4 = Sw XI-168, along with IC 998, on 16 May 1892 and recorded "vF; S; R; * with distant companion near north; p of 2 [with IC 998]." His description of a "* with distant companion near north" appears a good match with this unusual interacting pair of galaxies.  But Malcolm Thomson argues that IC 997 = IC 4401 = PGC 51173 and IC 998 is PGC 51220 (the galaxy listed here), as Swift more likely found the brightest two galaxies.  Harold Corwin comments, though, that the separations and descriptions are better match with the identifications given here. See Harold Corwin's and Malcolm Thompson's identification notes for a full analysis.

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IC 998 = PGC 1058483

14 20 19.3 -04 24 59

Size 0.9'x0.3';  PA = 60d

 

18" (6/18/04): faint, very small, round. The view is a bit confused by a very faint star which is close south (~20") so these objects could initially appear to be a faint, close double. The galaxy appeared only 10" or so in diameter. Barely visible with direct vision though only a faint stellar nucleus remained. Faintest of trio with IC 997 and IC 4401 and situated 5' ENE of IC 997.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 998 = Sw (X-5) = Sw XI-169, along with IC 997, on 16 May 1892 and recorded "eeF; S; R; following of 2 [with IC 997]."  Malcolm Thomson argues against the identification given here (PGC 1058483).  See his detailed analysis in IC identifications.  See IC 997.

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