IC 4 = UGC 123 = MCG +03-01-029 = CGCG 456-040 = PGC 897

00 13 26.9 +17 29 11

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 12d

 

24" (9/16/17): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, 35"x25".  No significant concentration but contains a quasi-stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Located 31' NW of NGC 57 in a star poor field.

 

Carl Frederick PechŸle discovered IC 4 on 12 Sep 1893 with an 11" refractor at the Copenhagen observatory, probably while searching for a comet.  He reported, "very faint, pretty round, 10"-12" diameter, perhaps even bigger, fairly even brightness."  The IC position is 3' too far south, but there are no other nearby candidates.

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IC 6 = MCG -01-01-075 = PGC 1228

00 18 55.0 -03 16 34

V = 13.3;  Size 0.8'x0.8'

 

24" (9/1/16): at 220x; fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, round, 20" diameter, gradually increases to the center.  Situated between two mag 12.5 stars 3.4' NW and 4.0' SE.  Forms a pair (identical redshifts) with IC 8 3.8' NE.

 

MCG -01-01-074, located 8.2' SSW, appeared extremely faint, very small, occasionally elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, very low surface brightness.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 6 = Sf. 89 = J. I-4 on 23 Sep 1867 with the 18.5-inch refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  His position is 1' SE of PGC 1228, the brighter of a pair with IC 8, which he missed.  The Dearborn discovery list was not published until 1887 and added as an appendix to the NGC the following year.  Stephane Javelle probably was unaware of the prior discovery, and found the galaxy again on 19 Sep 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory. He reported it as the 4th object in his first discovery list with description "faint, round, 15" diameter, stellar nucleus of 14th mag."  Dreyer assumed Sf. 89 referred to nearby IC 8 so Javelle was credited with the discovery of IC 6.

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IC 8 = MCG -01-01-076 = PGC 1234

00 19 02.7 -03 13 19

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 129d

 

24" (9/1/16): at 220x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 NW-SE, ~25"x18", weak concentration.  Fainter of a pair with IC 6 3.8' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 8 = J. I-5 on 19 Sep 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  He recorded "vF, vS, irr E, lbM" and measured an accurate position.  Dreyer assumed Truman Safford's Sf. 89 was an earlier discovery of this galaxy and credited Safford, but he discovered nearby IC 6.

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IC 9 = MCG -02-02-001 = PGC 1271

00 19 44.0 -14 07 19

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  PA = 122d

 

24" (9/1/16): fairly faint, small, round, 18".  Contains a stellar nucleus embedded in a faint halo.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 9 = J. I-6 on 23 Aug 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  He recorded "vF, roundish, 1' diameter" and measured an accurate position.  Dreyer assumed Truman Safford's Sf. 89 was an earlier discovery of this galaxy and credited Safford, but he discovered nearby IC 6.

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IC 10 = UGC 192 = MCG +10-01-001 = LBN 591 = PP 5 = PGC 1305

00 20 23.2 +59 17 35

V = 10.4;  Size 6.3'x5.1';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

18" (9/6/10): this local group dwarf Irregular was immediately picked up at 108x (without a printed finder chart) as a large, low surface brightness hazy glow, ~4'x2.5', roughly elongated NW-SE, though the outer extent increased with averted vision and careful viewing.  A mag 12.7 star is superposed to the southeast of center and a few stars are on the northwest end.  The 1.5' region surrounding the mag 12.7 star is the brightest portion of the galaxy and the W and NW regions have a very low surface brightness and appeared irregular and patchy.  Located 12' NE of mag 7.3 HD 486 and just north of a right triangle of mag 10-11 stars

 

Using 175x, a very small 15" knot was clearly visible about 50" following the mag 12.7 star.  This knot is a giant HII region (site of violent starburst formation) catalogued by Hodge and Lee (1990) as HL 111.  At 285x with direct vision a faint star at its west edge was similar in visibility, but with averted vision the HII knot was more evident.  I probably viewed the brightest component 111c, which has a diameter of 11", of this HII complex.  Two mag 10.5 stars 3.5' S and 5.5' S of the galaxy (part of the right triangle mentioned above) provide a useful guide to pinpoint the location of HL 111.  The HII region is directly on a line and equally spaced with these stars -- just follow the stars to the small knot.

 

18" (7/15/07): at 225x this Local Group member (M31 subgroup) appeared faint, fairly large, slightly elongated NW-SE, ~4.5'x3.5', low even surface brightness except fades at the edges.  A mag 13 star is superimposed west of center and a fainter star follows.  Located 1.4 degrees ENE of mag 2.3 Beta Cas (Caph).

 

18" (10/8/05): picked up fairly easily at 115x as a large, low surface brightness hazy region with a mag 13 star superimposed.  Good view at 160x using the Meade 14mm Ultrawide.  Appeared faint, large, slightly elongated, ~4'-5' diameter (though no distinct borders) with a patchy, mottled appearance, very weak concentration.  Several faint stars (besides the mag 13 star) are superimposed.  Situated within a rich star field and appears similar to a low surface brightness emission or reflection nebula.

 

13.1" (11/5/83): very faint, moderately large, elongated NW-SE.  Unusually low even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is superimposed near the center.  Located in a very rich star field just 3.3” from the galactic plane!  Member of the Local Group.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 10 = Sw VII-1 on 8 Oct 1887 and recorded "F * involved in vL, eeeF nebulosity, eee difficult.  In line with 2 stars of equal mag which with a 3rd forms a right angled triangle."

 

Nicholas Mayall first recognized IC 10 as a galaxy in 1935 ("An Extragalactic Object 3” from the Plane of the Galaxy" in PASP, 47, 317).  In 1936, Hubble suggested it might be a member of the local group and called it "One of the most curious objects in the sky" in his 1936 classic "The Realm of the Nebulae."  This wasn't confirmed until 1996 using Cepheid variables and the current distance estimate is ~2.5 million l.y.  This irregular dwarf galaxy is probably a member of the M31 satellite system and it lies only 3.3 deg from the galactic plane.

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IC 11 = NGC 281 = IC 1590 = Cr 8 = LBN 616 = Sh 2-184 = Ced 3 = "Pac-Man" Nebula

00 52 48 +56 37 42

Size 35'x30'

 

See observing notes for NGC 281.

 

E.E. Barnard found IC 11 around 1892 using the 6-inch Cooke refractor at Vanderbilt Observatory in Nashville.  The discovery was probably relayed directly to Dreyer as its not mentioned in any of his published papers.  There is nothing at the IC position but Corwin notes that his description points to NGC 281, which is 30 minutes of RA east, and perhaps there was a transcription error.

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IC 18 = Arp 100 NED1 = VV 234 = VIII Zw 25 = MCG -02-02-023 = PGC 1759

00 28 35.0 -11 35 12

Size 1.0'x0.5';  PA = 29d

 

48" (10/25/14): at 488x; moderately bright, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 30"x20", weak concentration with an overall fairly low surface brightness.  A mag 16.5 star is adjacent to the center of the galaxy at the east edge.

 

The northern tidal tail was visible as a very faint, narrow extension, ~1' long, to the north-northeast (PA 30”).  The spike stretched roughly twice the length of the galaxy and was slightly brighter or easier to view near where it emerged on the north side of the galaxy.  The tidal plume to the south (not a bridge but extends in the general direction of IC 19) was not seen.

 

24" (9/15/12): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 30"x15", low surface brightness.  Fainter of a pair (Arp 100) with IC 19 3.4' SSE.  The long, narrow tidal plume extending to the NNE was not seen.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 18 = J. 1-11, along with IC 19, on 31 Aug 1892.  He noted "pF, S, irr, gbM" and measured an accurate position.

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IC 19 = Arp 100 NED2 = Mrk 949 = MCG -02-02-024 = PGC 1762

00 28 39.5 -11 38 27

Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 30d

 

48" (10/25/14): at 488x; fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, , 25'x 20", bright core, stellar nucleus.  Brighter (higher surface brightness) of an interacting pair with IC 18 3.4' NNW.

 

24" (9/15/12): at 322x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 25" diameter, weak even concentration.  Brighter of pair (Arp 100) with IC 18  3.4' NNW.  Located nearly at the midpoint of mag 7.4 HD 2438 and mag 7.4 HD 2553 (17' separation WSW-ENE).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 19 = J 1-12, along with IC 18, on 31 Aug 1892.  He noted "R, 20" diameter, stellar [nucl] = 14m." and measured an accurate position.

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IC 26 = NGC 135 = PGC 2010 = LEDA 138192

00 31 45.9 -13 20 16

V = 15.2;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (10/21/95): faint, very small, round, weak concentration with a slightly brighter core.  Forms a quadrilateral with three mag 14 stars, all within 2'.  Located 3.5' SW of a mag 9.5 SAO 147324.

 

IC 27, misidentified as NGC 135 in the RNGC and PGC, lies 20' ESE.  It appeared very faint, small, slightly elongated ~N-S, very low surface brightness.  Located 7.9' SSE of mag 8.9 SAO 147331 and 8.6' NW of mag 8.6 SAO 147330.  MCG -02-02-051 lies 13' N.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 26 = J. 1-18, along with IC 27 and 28, on 4 Nov 1891.  This galaxy was discovered earlier by Francis Leavenworth on 2 Oct 1886 and reported in list I-5 (later NGC 135).  His rough position, though, is ~2 minutes too far west, but the identification is secure based on his sketch.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position for NGC 135 around 1899 (repeated in the IC 2 notes) though Dreyer failed to equate NGC 135 and IC 26.  So, IC 26 is likely an duplicate entry for NGC 135 (or vice versa).  See NGC 135 for more.

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IC 27 = (R)NGC 135 = LEDA 143572

00 33 06.2 -13 22 17

Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

17.5" (12/3/88): very faint, small, slightly elongated ~N-S, very low surface brightness.  Located 7.9' SSE of mag 8.9 SAO 147331 and 8.6' NW of mag 8.6 SAO 147330.  MCG -02-02-051 lies 13' N.

 

The RNGC misidentifies IC 27 as NGC 135.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 27 = J 1-19, along with IC 28, on 4 Nov 1891 and recorded "faint, ill-defined, slightly elongated along the diurnal movement, 20" long, brighter center."  PGC and RNGC misidentify IC 27 as NGC 135, as well as secondary sources such as Megastar.  PGC 143572 is not identified as IC 27 in HyperLeda (as of 12/15).

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IC 29 = MCG +00-02-072 = CGCG 383-036 = PGC 2042

00 34 10.8 -02 10 39

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.7'

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, low even surface brightness.  First in a quartet with IC 30 5.7' NNE.  The light-travel time is ~750 million years, so a pretty distant group.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 29 = J. 1-21, along with IC 30, 32 and 33, on 6 Nov 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 30 = MCG +00-02-074 = PGC 2050

00 34 14.7 -02 05 04

V = 15.1;  Size 0.7'x0.35';  PA = 23d

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; extremely faint and small, 12" (probably the core only), only occasionally visible though confirmed.  Second and probably faintest in a quartet of IC galaxies with IC 29 5.7' SSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 30 = J. 1-22, along with IC 29, 32 and 33, on 6 Nov 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 32 = MCG +00-02-080 = PGC 2096

00 35 01.7 -02 08 30

V = 14.7;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 1d

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; very faint, extremely small, round, 12" diameter.  Forms a close pair with IC 33 just 0.9' E.  IC 32 is collinear with two mag 14/14.5 stars 1.4' WNW and 3.3' WNW. The duo is 12' following IC 29 and 30, forming a quartet.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 32 = J. 1-23, along with IC 29, 30 and 33, on 6 Nov 1891.  His position is accurate to within 30".

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IC 33 = MCG +00-02-082 = PGC 2101

00 35 05.2 -02 08 16

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.6'

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; similar or slightly fainter than IC 32, just 0.9' W.  Appeared extremely to very faint, round, 12" diameter, no structure.  Last in a quartet with IC 29, 30 and 32.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 33 = J. 1-24, along with IC 29, 30 and 32, on 6 Nov 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 34 = UGC 351 = MCG +01-02-032 = CGCG 409-044 = PGC 2134

00 35 36.4 +09 07 27

V = 12.6;  Size 2.4'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 156d

 

24" (9/1/16): at 200x; fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 1.5'x0.6', bright core.  A mag 15 star is 1.4' S of center, just off the south end.  Forms a pair with UGC 353 7.7' S.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 34 = Sf. 97 = Sw IX-1 on 22 Oct 1867 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  The discovery list was not published until 1887 and Lewis Swift found the galaxy again on 18 Sep 1889 and reported it in list IX-1.  Both Safford's and Swift's position are good and both are credited in the IC.

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IC 39 = NGC 178 = VIII Zw 34 = MCG -02-02-078 = PGC 2349

00 39 08.4 -14 10 26

V = 12.6;  Size 2.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 175d

 

See observing notes for NGC 178.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 39 = J. 1-28 on 26 Aug 1892.  His position matches MCG -02-02-078 = PGC 2349.  This galaxy was discovered first by Ormond Stone on 3 Nov 1885.  Stone's rough position for LM I-7 (later NGC 178) is 1.5 min too far west, but his description and sketch (examined by Harold Corwin) matches this galaxy.  Herbert Howe later searched for NGC 178 and measured an accurate position in 1898-99 (repeated in the IC 2 notes), though Dreyer failed to equate NGC 178 and IC 39.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 41 = LEDA 138206

00 39 40.4 -14 10 28

Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 162d

 

24" (9/30/16): at 282x; faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, ~20"x15".  Located 3.7' N of NGC 207 and 7.8' E of NGC 178.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 41 = J. 1-29 on 26 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate so there is no doubt about the identification.  Nevertheless MCG misidentifies MCG -03-02-035 = NGC 207 as IC 41.  As a result, the PGC incorrectly equates IC 41 and NGC 207.  See NGC 207 for more identification errors.

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IC 43 = UGC 448 = MCG +05-02-040 = CGCG 500-072 = LGG 014-017 = PGC 2536

00 42 22.1 +29 38 30

V = 13.2;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 117d

 

17.5" (10/5/02): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.9'x0.7', broad concentration to a slightly brighter core.  A faint stellar nucleus was visible with direct vision.  Located 3.4' NW of a mag 10.4 star.  Member of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 43 = B. 106 on 15 Nov 1889 and noted "diffuse, with a stellar condensation, and seems slightly eccentric."

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IC 44 = NGC 223 = UGC 450 = MCG +00-02-129 = PGC 2527

00 42 15.8 +00 50 44

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 62d

 

See observing notes for NGC 223.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 44 = Sw X-1 on 12 Nov 1890 and reported "eF; S; R; bet 2 st." His position is ~2' north of NGC 233 Dreyer either assumed it was new or just missed the equivalence.  In any case, NGC 223 = IC 44.  See NGC 223 for more.

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IC 48 = IC 1577 = MCG -01-03-001 = MCG -02-03-001 = PGC 2603

00 43 34.5 -08 11 11

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 171d

 

18" (12/17/11): at 288x appeared moderately bright, fairly small, round, sharply concentrated with a very small, very bright 15" core surrounded by a much fainter 35" halo.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 48 on 30 Nov 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory and noted "pB, S, R, gbM to stellar nucleus 13m."  His position (published in AN 3097) is accurate, but Dreyer made an error precessing the declination and the IC declination is 18' too far south.  Barnard apparently later sent the discovery directly to Dreyer and it was recatalogued as IC 1577, though the RA is 1 minute too small!  So, IC 48 = IC 1577, probably both from the same observation.

 

Barnard thought IC 48 and IC 356 were variable nebulae ("Two Probably Variable Nebulae" in AN 3097, 1892) and wrote "On November 30, 1888 I discovered a small pretty bright nebula in Cetus [IC 48] and was surprised from the brightness of the nebula, to find that it was not in any catalogue.  I carefully measured its position with the micrometer, and examined it the next night, suspecting it to be a comet.  No motion being detected it was observed further.  I have a very distinct recollection of the object and from my description I would estimate that it was between 9th and 10th magnitude.  In its center was a very small stellar nucleus of the 13th mag.  Not having seen the nebula in my subsequent sweeps in that neighborhood, I was led in 1891 to examine its position with the 12-inch.  The nebula was found with some difficulty.  It was extremely faint, and was only identified by the aid of the comparison star of the previous observation.  This was November 22, 1891.  I estimated it to be 13.5 magnitude, 1/2' in diameter, with perhaps a faint nucleus.

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IC 49 = UGC 468 = MCG +00-03-003 = CGCG 384-003 = PGC 2617

00 43 56.1 +01 51 01

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 107d

 

24" (9/22/17): at 375x: faint to fairly faint, slightly elongated ~E-W, 45"x35", slight brighter core but overall low surface brightness.  At times it appeared a bit more elongated, perhaps 4:3.  A mag 14.4 star is 2.5' S.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 49 = Sw. X-2 on 18 Sep 1890 and reported "eeeF; pS; R; eee diff.  Faintest object ever seen here [at Warner Observatory]."  His position is accurate.  This statement surprises me as I've observed much fainter galaxies that Swift discovered in Draco.

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IC 50 = MCG -02-03-010 = PGC 2698

00 46 05.7 -09 30 11

V = 13.9;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  PA = 168d

 

24" (9/30/16): at 282x; fairly faint, small, round, 18" diameter, gradually increases to a faint stellar nucleus.  Situated within a triangle formed by mag 9.1 HD 4306 10' WSW, mag 8.5 HD 4435 7.5' SE and mag 9.7 HD 4410 4' NE.  The latter star has two wide 13.5-14 companions.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 50 = J. 1-32 on 27 Sep 1892.  He noted "faint, appears as a mag 13 star surrounded by nebulosity" and measured an accurate position.

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IC 51 = Arp 230 = MCG -02-03-011 = PGC 2710

00 46 24.2 -13 26 32

Size 1.3'x1.2';  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (12/11/99): at 280x, faint, fairly small, round, 0.6' diameter.  A mag 15 star is just off the SW edge [52" from center].  Located 28' E of mag 7.6 SAO 147425].

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 51 = J. 1-33 on 30 Aug 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  He recorded "pB, S, bM, slightly mottled."

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IC 59 = Sh 2-185 = LBN 620 = Ced 4a

00 57 30 +61 08

Size 10'x5'

 

18" (12/22/11): best view was unfiltered at 108x.  Appears as a faint, large, irregular glow, roughly 8'x5'. Elongated E-W and extends to a group of a half-dozen stars at the NE end.  This group of stars is also possibly involved with the haze.  There is a slightly brighter patch on the south side.  Located 25' N of Gamma Cas.

 

18" (7/15/07): this large reflection nebula just 20' N of Gamma Cas (Navi) has a low even surface brightness and appears as a large oval-shaped hazy region ~6'x4' and elongated ~N-S.  Fainter of pair with IC 63 located 25' SE.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): located 20' N of Gamma Cassiopeia.  This emission nebula is larger than IC 63 but has a lower surface brightness.  Easy with averted vision and appears large, elongated ~N-S, with a fairly even surface brightness.  IC 63 lies 20' SE.

 

13": very faint, fairly large, very diffuse, visible with averted only.  Forms a pair with IC 63.

 

IC 59 and 63 were discovered independently on photographs taken by Max Wolf (end of Dec 1893) as well as E.E. Barnard (6 Feb 1894).  Wolf announced the discovery in AN 134 [3214], 365 (1894), "Ueber einige neue Nebelflecke" (Some New Nebulae).  Roberts photographed the Gamma Cas area earlier on 17 Jan 1890, but his image shows no nebulosity and he fails to mention nebulosity in the field.

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IC 63 = Sh 2-185 = LBN 622 = Ced 4b

00 59 29 +60 54 40

Size 10'x3'

 

18" (7/15/07): unusual triangular or wedge-shaped nebula just 20' NE of Gamma Cas.  At 115x appears fairly large, elongated SW-NE, ~6' diameter, with the brighter vertex at the west end. The southern edge, which extends towards the SW, is slightly brighter and more sharply defined.  The interior of the wedge is slightly fainter with subtle brightness variations.  The OIII and UHC filter dimmed the object.  IC 63 is brighter than IC 59, which is found 20' N of Gamma.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): distinct fan-shaped nebulosity extending east and NE with the vertex at the west end.  The southern border (extending E-W) has a sharper edge.  Brighter than nearby IC 59 in the field 20' NW.  Located 20' NE of Gamma Cassiopeiae.

 

13": very faint, fairly large, very diffuse, fan-shaped.  Forms a pair with IC 63.

 

IC 59 and 63 were discovered independently on photographs taken by Max Wolf (end of Dec 1893) as well as E.E. Barnard (6 Feb 1894).  Wolf announced the discovery in AN 134 [3214], 365 (1894), "Ueber einige neue Nebelflecke" (Some New Nebulae).

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IC 65 = UGC 625 = MCG +08-03-005 = CGCG 551-004 = LGG 016-003 = PGC 3635

01 00 55.6 +47 40 55

V = 12.8;  Size 3.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (9/1/02): fairly faint, fairly large, edge-on 4:1 NNW-SSE, 2.5'x0.6'.  Contains a slightly brighter, bulging core.  The outer tips fades into the background, so it was difficult to estimate the full extent.  A faint star is just off the following side of the core and a pair of mag 14 stars is off the southeast extension.  Located in a rich star field 8.5' WSW of mag 8 HD 5982.

 

17.5" (11/26/94): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 7:2 NNW-SSE, 3.5'x1.0', weak concentration to a brighter middle but no nucleus.  Several faint stars are near including a mag 14 star at the northwest tip and two mag 14 stars are situated on either side of the south-southeast end.  A brighter mag 12 star is 3.5' NNW of center.  Located 8.6' WSW of mag 7.8 SAO 36857.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 65 = Sw X-4 on 25 Sep 1890 and recorded "eF; pL; vE; 2 B st. in field; one f[ollowing] the other s[outh]."

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IC 66 = UGC 623 = MCG +05-03-033 = CGCG 501-059 = LGG 014-039 = PGC 3606

01 00 32.5 +30 47 50

V = 14.1;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 125d

 

17.5" (10/5/02): faint, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.3'.  Located 8' N of NGC 338 and 18' SW of IC 69 in the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster (SW of the Pisces Chain).

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 66 = Big. 108 on 12 Nov 1890 with the 12" refractor at the Paris Observatory.

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IC 69 = MCG +05-03-041 = CGCG 501-066 = LGG 014-041 = PGC 3666 = PGC 1929122

01 01 23.8 +31 02 29

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (10/5/02): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.8'x0.6', low even surface brightness.  Located 4' SW of mag 8.4 SAO 54358.  IC 66 lies 18' SW.  Member of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 69 = Sf 66 on 8 Nov 1866 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory and recorded "F, iF, lbM."

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IC 77 = MCG -03-04-012 = SCG 8 = PGC 73653

01 08 43.7 -15 25 15

Size 0.5'x0.5'

 

18" (11/22/03): extremely faint and small, round, 10" diameter.  Only visible intermittently.  Located just 2' SW of IC 80 in AGC 151.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 77 = J 1-41, along with IC 80 on 31 Aug 1892.  Harold Corwin notes that Javelle's positions are unambiguous although MCG misidentified IC 80 (a double galaxy) as IC 77.

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IC 78 = MCG -03-04-010 = PGC 4079

01 08 47.6 -15 50 34

V = 13.5;  Size 1.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 124d

 

18" (11/22/03): faint, moderately large, fairly low surface brightness with weak concentration.  Initially just a 40" core was noticed but with extended viewing larger extensions increased the total size to ~1.2'x0.6'.  Possible member of AGC 151 or in a foreground group with IC 79 6.4' S and IC 82 10' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 78 = J 1-42, along with IC 79 and 82, on 30 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 79 = MCG -03-04-011 = PGC 4082

01 08 49.7 -15 56 55

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

18" (11/22/03): faint, small, slightly elongated, 25"x20", a mag 14 star is just off the NNE edge, 30" from center.  Located between IC 78 6.4' N and IC 82 5' SE in AGC 151 (or possibly a foreground cluster).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 79 = J 1-43, along with IC 78 and 82, on 30 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 80 = MCG -03-04-008/009 = SCG 8 = PGC 4072 + PGC 4071

01 08 51.1 -15 24 23

V = 13.7;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  PA = 45d

 

18" (11/22/03): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 40"x25", low even surface brightness.  This is a double system and the observation probably refers to both components, which were not resolved.  IC 80 forms a close pair with IC 77 2' SW in AGC 151.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 80 = J. 1-44, along with IC 77, on 31 Aug 1892.  Although Javelle's positions are unambiguous MCG misidentifies IC 80 as IC 77 and SIMBAD misidentifies MCG -03-04-012 = PGC 4070 as IC 80.

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IC 81 = MCG +00-04-015 = CGCG 385-010 = PGC 4127

01 09 22.3 -01 41 45

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  PA = 135d

 

24" (9/22/17): at 375x; fairly faint, small, round, sharp stellar nucleus, surround by a small 15" halo that was better seen with averted vision.  A mag 13.2 is close southeast [0.8' from center].  Forms a pair with UGC 726 9.4' ESE.  The UGC appeared faint, moderately large, elongated NW-SE but irregular with a low surface brightness, weakly brighter center.  A mag 9.6 star is 5' WSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 81 = Sw. VII-2 on 18 Oct 1887 and reported "eF;, S; lE; * close nf."  His position is 2.8' WNW of CGCG 385-010 = PGC 4127.  Herbert Howe reobserved the galaxy in 1900 and reported, "I could find no "* close nf."  A star of mag 11 follows 3s, 0.3' south."  He also corrected the position, which was repeated in the IC notes/corrections section.  The MCG lists this galaxy (-00-04-013), but doesn't identify it as IC 81.

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IC 82 = MCG -03-04-013 = PGC 4103

01 09 05.8 -16 00 01

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 111d

 

18" (11/22/03): very faint, small, round, 0.4' diameter, low surface brightness.  Third in the 257x field close south of the core of AGC 151 with IC 79 5' NW and IC 78 10' NW.  Located 6' NW of a mag 10.4 star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 82 = J 1-45, along with IC 78 and 79, on 30 Aug 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 89 = NGC 446? = MCG +01-04-012 = CGCG 411-016 = PGC 4578

01 16 03.6 +04 17 38

V = 12.4;  Size 2.0'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (12/23/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 NW-SE, prominent sharp bright core with a nearly stellar nucleus.  This galaxy is identified as IC 89 in UGC, CGCG and RC3.  NGC 446 lies 19' WSW and NGC 462 is 30' ESE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 89 = J 1-49 on 20 Aug 1892.  His position matches CGCG 411-016 = PGC 4578.  This galaxy is possibly identical to NGC 446, discovered by Marth on 23 Oct 1864.  Marth's position is 1.0 minute of RA west of IC 89.  UGC, CGCG, MCG and RC3 use IC 89 as the primary designation for this galaxy.  Karl Reinmuth also makes the equivalence NGC 446 = IC 89 and gives the IC position.  UGC, CGCG (411-010) and RNGC identify UGC 794 = PGC 4494 as NGC 446.  This galaxy is located 13 sec of RA east and 7' north of UGC 794, which would require random errors in both directions by Marth instead of a single digit error.

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IC 92 = MCG +05-04-020 = CGCG 502-029 = PGC 4780

01 19 48.4 +32 46 04

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (12/23/89): extremely faint, small.  A mag 15 star is 1' NW.  Located 10' WNW of NGC 472 = NGC 468.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 92 = Big. 115 on 2 Nov 1885 with the 12" refractor at Paris.  His position is a fairly close match with CGCG 502-029 = PGC 4780.  This galaxy has been assumed identical to NGC 468 = h98, discovered by John Herschel on 22 Nov 1827.  Herschel's position was 4' south of the galaxy and as a result Dreyer added the comment in the IC "? different from h 98", indicating his uncertainty if IC 92 was the same object.

 

In March 2015, Harold Corwin checked JH's observing logs (in response to an inquiry from Courtney Seligman about the identity), and found that Herschel made an error in reducing the position of NGC 468 by 37 seconds (recording the wrong wire).  Once corrected, his position for h98 = NGC 468 is a close match with NGC 472 = UGC 870, a significantly brighter galaxy than IC 92.  So, IC 92 should be the single identity for this galaxy.  See NGC 468 for more.

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IC 93 = IC 1671 = MCG -03-04-043 = PGC 4724

01 19 02.3 -17 03 37

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 170d

 

18" (11/13/07): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated at least 3:1 NNW-SSE, 0.7'x0.2', broad weak concentration.  The tips taper, though there is a strong impression of irregularities at the tips.  Forms a pair with much fainter IC 1667 4.8' W.  The IC 1670 pair lies 15' N.

 

18" (12/18/06): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 0.75'x0.3', weak concentration, slightly asymmetric appearance at the ends.  IC 1667 lies 4.8' W.  Located 11' W of mag 8.5 HD 8061.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 93 = Sw IX-2 on 28 Sep 1889 and recorded "vF; pS; lE; 8 mag * f 46s and 1' north."  His position and description matches   MCG -03-04-043 = PGC 4724.  He found this galaxy again on 18 Dec 1895 and included it in list XI-18.  His position, though, was poor (30 seconds of time too large and 2.3' too far south), so Dreyer assumed Sw XI-18 was a new object and recatalogued it as IC 1671.  Swift's description ("p 7m * nf 47 sec") confirms IC 93 = IC 1671.

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IC 96 = MCG +05-04-023 = CGCG 502-035 = PGC 4840

01 20 33.2 +29 37 01

Size 0.8'x0.3';  PA = 43d

 

24" (10/1/16): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, ~30"x15", low even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with IC 1672 5' NNE.  The identification of IC 96 is very uncertain and the number may be a duplicate of IC 1672.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 96 = Sf 69 on 1 Dec 1866 and recorded "pB, pS, vmb MN = 12-13m".  His position is 4.6' NW of CGCG 502-035.  Harold Corwin, Wolfgang Steinicke and NED identifies CGCG 502-035 = PGC 4840 as IC 96, but not PGC or HyperLEDA.  But Safford's position is also 4.6' SW of IC 1672, so his object could be to either object.  Malcolm Thomson and Courtney Seligman favor IC 96 = IC 1672 as Safford only found one object and IC 1672 is roughly a magnitude brighter.  Also his description is a better match with IC 1672, which is not noticeably elongated and has a brighter nucleus.

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IC 97 = NGC 475 = PGC 4796

01 20 02.0 +14 51 40

V = 15.0;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

See observing notes for NGC 475.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 97 = Big. 3-117 on 12 Oct 1888 while searching for NGC 475, which he misidentified as a star.  His position matches NGC 475, which was discovered by Marth on 3 Nov 1864.  The NGC position (supposedly an improved micrometric position from C.H.F. Peters) is 0.3 minutes of RA too far east, so Dreyer mistakenly assumed Big. 117 was a new object and catalogued it again as IC 97.   So, IC 97 = NGC 475, with discovery credit to Marth.

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IC 101 = UGC 949 = MCG +02-04-036 = CGCG 436-039 = LGG 023-003 = PGC 5147

01 24 08.6 +09 55 50

V = 13.8;  Size 1.4'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 127d

 

18" (12/3/05): faint hazy spot, irregularly round, ~20"-25" diameter.  A mag 14.5 star lies 1' S.  Pair with fainter IC 102 5' SE.  Located 10' SW of NGC 522 in the NGC 524 group.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 101 = J. 2-523, along with IC 102 and 114, and recorded "vF, E, about 1' long, no central condensation."  It was found again on a Crossley reflector plate and published in 1908PLicO...8...31 ("Catalogue of New Nebulae Discovered on the Negatives").

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IC 102 = UGC 954 = CGCG 436-040 = PGC 5172

01 24 26.3 +09 53 12

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

18" (12/3/05): extremely faint, very small, 15" diameter, no details.  Marginal object that was just glimpsed as drifted through the field.  Located 8' SW of NGC 522 in the NGC 524 group.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 102 = J. 2-524, along with IC 101 and 114, and recorded "eF, S, poorly define, no central condensation."  It was found again on a Crossley reflector plate and published in 1908PLicO...8...31 ("Catalogue of New Nebulae Discovered on the Negatives").

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IC 103 = UGC 963 = MCG +00-04-117 = CGCG 385-107 = WBL 043-001 = PGC 5192

01 24 36.4 +02 02 39

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 127d

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; faint, very small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 25"x20", quasi-stellar nucleus.  First in a triplet (WBL 043) three with IC 105 3' NE and IC 109 9' ENE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 103 = J. 1-53, along with IC 105 and 109, on 5 Nov 1891 and recorded "faint, round, 10" diameter."  His positions are all offset ~1' to the northwest, but the identifications are certain.

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IC 105 = CGCG 385-109 = WBL 043-002 = PGC 5206

01 24 46.2 +02 04 31

V = 15.0;  Size 0.5'x0.25';  PA = 47d

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; very faint, very small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 25"x20".  A mag 12.8 star is 2.2' N and a mag 14.5 star is 1.3' SE.  In a trio (WBL 043) with IC 103 3' SW and IC 109 7' ESE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 105 = J. 1-54, along with IC 103 and 109, on 5 Nov 1891 and recorded "faint, round, 5" diameter, small central condensation."  His positions are all offset ~1' to the northwest, but the identifications are certain.

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IC 106 = NGC 530 = UGC 965 = MCG +00-04-119 = PGC 5210

01 24 41.7 -01 35 14

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 134d

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, fairly small, oval NW-SE, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is at the SE end 0.9' from center.  Forms a pair with IC 1696 3' SE within AGC 194.

 

13" (9/22/84): moderately bright, edge-on NW-SE, bright core.  A mag 12 star is off the SE end.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 106 = Big. 3-119 on 16 Nov 1887.  This galaxy was discovered a year earlier by Lewis Swift and reported in his sixth list (Sw. VI-9 = NGC 530).  Swift's RA is 15 seconds too large, so Bigourdan and Dreyer missed the equivalence IC 106 = NGC 530 until the field was examined again in 1897 by Herbert Howe.  MCG identifies this galaxy as IC 106 only (NGC 530 is misidentified as MCG +00-04-122) but UGC states NGC 530 = IC 106.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 107 = IC 1700 = UGC 986  = MCG +02-04-041 = CGCG 436-047 = PGC 5271

01 25 24.7 +14 51 53

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  PA = 6d

 

24" (12/1/13): moderately to fairly bright, small, round, 20", high surface brightness.  Gradually increases towards the center, then a sharp stellar nucleus.  A mag 14.5 star is at the southwest edge.  Brightest in a small trio with IC 1698 1.6' SSW and UGC 978 2.8' WNW.  IC 1704 lies 26' ESE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 107 = Sw X-5 on 18 Sep 1890 and recorded "vF; vS; R; * close preceding."  His position is 19 seconds of RA west of UGC 986 = PGC 5271, the brightest of a trio, and this galaxy has a star "close preceding" matching his description.  Coincidentally, his poor position falls near UGC 978, the faintest in the trio, which is misidentified as IC 107 in the CGCG, UGC, MCG, RC 3 and NGC 2000, as well as secondary sources such as Megastar software.  

 

Stephane Javelle independently found PGC 5271 again on 18 Jan 1896 (along with IC 1698, IC 1704 and IC 1706), assumed it was new, and Dreyer catalogued it again as IC 1700.  Most sources identify UGC 986 as IC 1700 due to its unambiguous position, though by historical precedence IC 107 should be the primary designation.

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IC 109 = UGC 980 = MCG +00-04-128 = CGCG 385-117 = WBL 043-003 = PGC 5251

01 25 13.0 +02 04 01

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  PA = 90d

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; faint, small, slightly elongated, low surface brightness, 25" diameter, very weak concentration.  A mag 14.7 star is 1.6' W and a mag 15.4 star is off the west side [0.6' from center].  Third in a trio with IC 105 6.7' WNW and IC 103 9' WSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 109 = J. 1-56, along with IC 103 and 105, on 5 Nov 1891 and recorded "pretty bright, round, 10" diameter."  His positions are all offset ~1' to the northwest, but the identifications are certain.

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IC 113 = LEDA 3617669

01 26 25.5 +19 11 31

Size 0.35'x0.35'

 

24" (10/1/16): at 375x; very faint to faint, small, round, 15" diameter, low surface brightness.  Situated 2.7' NE of mag 5.4 Rho Psc and 5' SW of mag 5.5 94 Psc!  These stars are very bright and very distracting if within the field!  It was easy to place 94 Psc outside the edge of the field and with a little care Rho Psc could also be moved just outside the edge of the 10mm Zeiss Abbe Ortho.  IC 115 lies 7' ENE.  Located at a redshift-based light travel time of ~585 million years in the cluster AGC 195.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 113, along with IC 115, on 25 Jul 1890 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "vF, 3' nf of * 5m [Rho Psc]" and measured an accurate positon based on the bright star.

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IC 114 = UGC 1015 = MCG +02-04-048 = CGCG 436-050 = PGC 5343

01 26 22.6 +09 54 36

V = 14.1;  Size 1.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 150d

 

18" (12/3/05): extremely faint, small, appears as a low surface brightness spot ~25" diameter, appears elongated but too faint for details.  A mag 13 star lies 1.8' W.  Located 30' NE of NGC 524 in a large group of galaxies.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 114 = J. 2-526, along with IC 101 and 102, and recorded "eF, vS, R, 20" diameter."

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IC 115 = MCG +03-04-039 = CGCG 459-054 =

01 26 54.4 +19 12 53

V = 14.2;  Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

24" (10/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 20" diameter, fairly even surface brightness.  Located 3.4' SE of mag 5.5 94 Piscium and 9.6' NE of mag 5.4 Rho Piscium.  IC 115 is the brightest cluster member of AGC 195.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 115, along with IC 113, on 25 Jul 1890 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory while examining whether the nearby bright stars were double.  He noted "vF, * 6m [94 Psc] 3.5' npp" and measured an accurate offset with respect to the star.

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IC 117 = NGC 560 = UGC 1036 = MCG +00-04-151 = CGCG 385-145 = PGC 5430

01 27 25.4 -01 54 47

V = 13.0;  Size 1.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 178d

 

See observing notes for NGC 560.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 117 = J. 1-58 on 6 Nov 1891.  There is nothing at his position but Harold Corwin discovered that Javelle misidentified his offset star.  Once corrected, Javelle's offsets point directly to NGC 558.  So, IC 117 = NGC 558.  See Corwin's write-up on this error.

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IC 119 = UGC 1047 = MCG +00-04-157 = CGCG 385-149 = PGC 5465

01 27 55.0 -02 02 26

V = 14.2;  Size 1.2'x0.5';  PA = 77d

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 E-W, low even surface brightness, 0.6'x0.2'.  The view is significantly compromised by mag 7.0 HD 8943 just 1.6'E!  Also mag 8.6 HD 8930 is 3' N.  Member of AGC 194 with NGC 564 10' N, NGC 560 11' NW, NGC 558 11' WNW and IC 120 8' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 119 = J. 1-59 on 6 Nov 1891 and recorded "faint, elongated E-W, without condensation."  His position matches UGC 1047 in AGC 194.

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IC 120 = CGCG 385-152 = WBL 047-004 = PGC 5484

01 28 13.0 -01 54 56

V = 14.5;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  PA = 138d

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; faint to fairly faint, small, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 30"x12.  Located 6.6' ESE of NGC 564 and 7.7' NNE of mag 7.0 HD 8943.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 120 = J. 1-60 on 3 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 127 = MCG -01-04-057 = PGC 5581

01 29 47.6 -06 58 48

V = 13.7;  Size 1.7'x0.4';  PA = 110d

 

24" (10/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 1.0'x0.3', slightly brighter core.  The view is somewhat hampered by a mag 12.5 star that is superimposed on the south edge of the southeast extension.  The galaxy extends mostly northwest of this star.  Situated 4.3' WNW of a mag 9.7 star and 24' WSW of NGC 584 in a group.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 127 = J. 2-530 on 14 Dec 1892.  He noted "faint, pretty small, diffuse, very close to a mag 11.5 star" and measured an accurate position.

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IC 128 = MCG -02-04-063 = PGC 5659

01 31 23.9 -12 37 28

V = 14.6;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 165d

 

24" (10/1/16): at 375x; very faint, small, round, 15" diameter.  IC 128 is the fainter of a pair with IC 129 2.6' SE.  IC 128 appears distorted on the DSS with a tidal plume to the northwest.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 128 = J. I-65, along with IC 129, on 3 Jan 1891. He noted "faint, round, with stellar nucleus" and measured an accurate position.  The MCG incorrectly equates -02-04-062 with IC 128 instead of MCG -02-04-063.

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IC 129 = MCG -02-05-001 = PGC 5675

01 31 31.2 -12 39 16

V = 14.1;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  PA = 78d

 

24" (10/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 WSW-ENE, 24"x16" (central region), contains a small bright nucleus that gradually increases to the center.  Forms a physical pair with IC 128 2.6' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 121 = J. 2-528, along with IC 123 = J. 2-529, on 6 Jan 1894.  Both positions are offset about 1.2' too far NNW, but the identifications are certain.

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IC 131 = M33-A29 = BCLMP 290

01 33 14.6 +30 44 56

 

18" (12/8/07): faint, quasi-stellar knot to the southeast of a N-S pair of stars (this pair is also collinear with NGC 592 located 6' S of IC 131).  But, according to Harold Corwin this compact HII region was assumed to be a mag 13.5 star by Bigourdan and IC 131 refers to two very small star clouds close following (seen in the 10/25/97 observation below, but missed this time). The nearly stellar knot I observed is catalogued as BCLMP 290B.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): very faint, very small, round, 10" diameter.  This HII region is located 10' WNW of the center of M33 near a wide pair [50"] of mag 11/12 stars.  A mag 14 star is nearby and at first I thought this star was IC 131 (on the DSS this 14th magnitude "star" is a compact HII region and was also described as a star by Bigourdan).  Collinear with IC 133 8' N and IC 132 11.5' N.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 131 = B. 122, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.

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IC 132 = BCLMP 638

01 33 15.8 +30 56 45

Size 0.8'x0.6'

 

18" (12/8/07): this faint HII complex in M33 appears as a 20"-25" knot, situated just 1' N of a 10" pair of mag 13 stars and 1.5' W of mag 9.3 HD 9444.  IC 133 lies 3.5' S.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): faint but easily visible HII knot of 20" diameter. Located 1' N of a pair of mag 13 stars at 10" separation and 1.6' W of a mag 9 star.  Forms the northern member of a pair of HII regions with IC 133 3.4' S.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 132 = B. 123, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.

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IC 133 = M33-A137 = BCLMP 624

01 33 15.8 +30 53 05

V = 14.3

 

18" (12/8/07): this star cloud/HII complex appeared as a faint, fairly large diffuse patch, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 1.0'x0.4'.  Located 15' NW of the center of M33 and 4' SSW of mag 9.3 HD 9444.  IC 132 lies 3.5' N.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): faint, diffuse, hazy HII region of 35" diameter at the NW end of M33 15' NW of the center.  Forms a "pair" with IC 132 3.4' N.  This object is larger than IC 132 at times with averted vision but has a lower surface brightness.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 133 = B. 124, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  Harold Corwin notes that Bigourdan's position is "toward the southern end where there appears to be a fairly compact HII region."

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IC 135 = M33-A100 = BCLMP 28/88

01 34 15.8 +30 37 11

 

18" (12/8/07): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated N-S, ~1.0'x0.5'.  Located off the ESE side of the core of M33 on the opposite side of the core from NGC 595.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): fairly faint, fairly small, 1' diameter.  This HII region is located 6' ESE of the center of M33 and is symmetrically placed on the opposite side of M33 from NGC 595.  IC 136 lies 3.5' S.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 135 = B. 126, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  Harold Corwin notes that Bigourdan made an error with the "estimated offset from M33's nucleus of his comparison star".  It also appears that his offsets were applied with the wrong signs as the relative positions of these objects are reversed in RA as well as declination!  As a result, the IC positions for IC 135, 136, 139, and 140 are incorrect and out of RA order.  But if the relative differences in RA and NPD are reversed and applied to IC 135 at the position given here, then they land on the correct positions for IC 136, 139 and 140.

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IC 136 = M33-A101 = BCLMP 88

01 34 17 +30 34 00

Size 0.6'

 

18" (12/8/07): faint, fairly large, very low surface brightness patch, ~1.5' diameter, located 3.5' S of IC 135.  Appears roughly circular, though the outline is ill defined.  This object is not as prominent as nearby IC 139/140 (to the west and southwest) and IC 135 to the north.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): very faint, ill-defined hazy region in M33 between IC 135 3.5' N and a mag 11.5 star 2.5' SSE (just west of the line connecting these objects).  Appears as a slightly locally brighter region of 30" diameter and not as noticeable as the other IC HII regions - would have passed over if casually sweeping galaxy.  This star association may have a smaller HII component.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 136 = B. 127, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  See IC 135.

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IC 137 = M33-A12 = BCLMP 21/200/201/202/203/204/205/207/208

01 33 39.1 +30 31 20

 

18" (12/8/07): very large brightening in the outer spiral arm, ~9' to the SSW of the center of M33, ~2.5'x2.0'.  M33-A14 lies NW.

 

17.5" (7/5/86): very faint HII knot or star association in M33 located along the main southern spiral arm 10' SSW of center of M33.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 137 = B. 128, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  His micrometric position falls within M33-A12; IC 137 is the southwestern part of the association.

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IC 139 = M33-A4 = BCLMP 6/7/11

01 33 59.2 +30 34 03

 

18" (12/8/07): fairly small, ~45"x30, extended N-S, moderately bright HII knot/cluster forming a 1' pair with IC 140 to the south.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): fairly prominent elongated HII region and star association just following a mag 13 star 5.4' SSE of the center of M33.  Extended ~N-S, perhaps 2.0'x0.5' and consists of two brighter knots at both ends (the size appears too large).  Similar view on 7/5/86.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 139 = B. 129, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  See IC 135.

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IC 140 = M33-A5

01 33 58.1 +30 33 02

 

18" (12/8/07): this moderately bright knot (cluster) in M33 is ~35" in diameter, roundish and located just 1' S of IC 139.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): located SSW of IC 139 in M33 and visible as an easy knot, ~1' in diameter with ill-defined edges.  There is a second knot close west which is slightly fainter.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 140 = B. 130, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.  See IC 135.

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IC 142 = M33-A67 = BCLMP 301

01 33 55.6 +30 45 26

Size 0.5'

 

24" (12/28/13): B324, a highly luminous hypergiant and the brightest individual star in M33, appeared as a 15th magnitude star at the north edge of IC 142.  At 325x, it was not resolved from the general glow, but appeared as a sharp stellar point just within the glow on the north side.  IC 142 is nearly collinear with a mag 13.5 star 2.1' NW and a mag 11 star 2.9' NW.  Globular Cluster U49 lies 3.3' NW.

 

18" (12/10/07): fairly bright, small, contains a bright core and faint extensions SW-NE, ~25"x13".  Forms the south vertex of an equilateral triangle with two mag 11 stars 3' WNW and 3' N.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): fairly faint, very small, round.  Stands out nicely 6' N of the center of M33.  Either contains a stellar spot near the center or a faint star is superimposed.  This "stellar spot" is likely B324, the brightest individual star in M33 excluding Luminous Blue Variables.  B324 is an A-type supergiant with a V magnitude of 15.2. IC 142 is the first of three HII regions in the spiral arm containing IC 142, IC 143 and ending with NGC 604.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 139 = B. 131, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.

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IC 143 = M33-A75 = BCLMP 688/689

01 34 11.2 +30 46 38

 

18" (12/10/07): very faint, small, hazy patch, ~25"x20", situated close west of a mag 13.5 star and 4.5' due west of NGC 604.  Immediately noticed at 225x, though diffuse with an ill-defined outline.  Forms a pair with M33-A71 just 1.5' NW.  A71 appeared very faint, small, low surface brightness patch, ~20" diameter.  It is perhaps slightly fainter than nearby IC 143 (=A75), but with averted vision A71 has a better defined border.  IC 143 is primarily a star cloud (no HII emission), while A71 is an HII region.

 

17.5" (10/25/97): appears as a very faint, hazy patch close WNW of a mag 13.5 star.  This HII region (M31-A75) is located 5' W of NGC 604 and 8' NNE of the center of M33.  M33-A71 is another very faint, 20" knot just 1.3' NW that appeared slightly brighter than IC 143. This is the second of three HII regions along with IC 142 3.5' WSW and NGC 604 5' E in the spiral arm attached at the west side of M33 and winding towards the NE.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 143 = B. 132, along with numerous other HII regions and star clouds in M33, on 28 Oct 1889.

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IC 146 = NGC 648 = ESO 543-006 = MCG -03-05-011 = PGC 6083

01 38 39.8 -17 49 53

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 114d

 

17.5" (12/4/93): faint, slightly elongated, 0.8'x0.6', weak concentration.  A bright uneven double star h2067 = 7.6/11.6 at 34" lies 10' ENE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 146 = J 1-70 on 30 Sep 1892.  His position matches ESO 543-006 = PGC 6083.  This galaxy was probably discovered earlier by Leavenworth at the Leander McCormick Observatory in 1886.  Leavenworth's rough position for J. 1-70 (later IC 146) is 1.6 min of RA east of this galaxy, a typical error.  Because of the poor position, Bigourdan was unable to recover the galaxy and Javelle assume his observation was new.  Herbert Howe reobserved and measured an accurate position for NGC 648 around 1900 (repeated in the IC 2 notes), though neither Howe nor Dreyer noticed the equivalence NGC 648 = IC 146.  ESO states the equivalence NGC 648 = IC 146.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 148 = UGC 1195 = MCG +02-05-011 = CGCG 437-010 = LGG 029-001 = PGC 6292

01 42 27.0 +13 58 37

V = 12.9;  Size 3.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (12/18/89): faint, moderately large, oval SW-NE, low even surface brightness.  Located 22' NNW of NGC 660.  This galaxy is possibly IC 148.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 148 = Sw. X-6 on 30 Sep 1890 and recorded "eeeF; pS; v diff.; np of [NGC] 660.  There is nothing at his postion -- nearly 10' due west of NGC 660.  However, exactly 20' north is UGC 1195 and Harold Corwin identifies this galaxy as UGC 1195.  This galaxy is "np of 660" as in the description and a 20' digit error in declination accounts for the position.  Still, this identification is uncertain and neither the UGC, CGCG, MCG, PGC or HyperLeda identify their entries as IC 148.  NED lists IC 148 as UGC 1195 (loaded by Corwin) as well as SIMBAD.

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IC 149 = MCG -03-05-015 = PGC 6289

01 42 25.4 -16 18 01

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  PA = 81d

 

24" (9/23/17): at 124x and 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 E-W, 40"x20", weak concentration.  Situated just west of the line connecting a mag 11.8 star 1.2' NE and a mag 12.6 star 1.8' SSE.  Located 26' E of mag 8.1 HD 10318 and 32' SW of mag 3.5 Tau Ceti.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 149 = J. 2-533 on 7 Dec 1893 and recorded "faint, elongated E-W, about 40" long, slightly brighter middle."  His position and description matches PGC 6289.  MCG fails to label its MCG -03-05-015 as IC 149.

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IC 153 = UGC 1260? = Mrk 575 = CGCG 437-031 = PGC 6633

01 48 33.1 +12 36 50

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.7'

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 30" diameter.  Weak concentration but appears to have a brighter bar through the center oriented SW-NE [later confirmed on the DSS].  A mag 10.8 star is 2.5' NW.  UGC 1274 (likely IC 157) lies 17' NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 153 = Sw. X-9, along with IC 157, on 25 Sep 1890 and reported "eF, pS, R, sp of 2 [with IC 157]."  There is nothing at his position and Corwin concludes this object is nonexistent.  The nearest galaxy he might have picked up is CGCG 437-018 = PGC 6381, located 12' S of his position, but there is nothing at his relative offset to IC 157 (~21' NE).

 

In 2017, I noticed that exactly 4 minutes of RA east of Swift's position is UGC 1260 (dec matches within 1') and 17' NE of this galaxy is UGC 1274.  Is this pair IC 153 and 157?  Swift's descriptions in this case are not very helpful, but regarding IC 157 he states: "D * and wide D p, nf of 2."  Do these comments apply to UGC 1274?  About 8' northwest of UGC 1274 is a 10th magnitude star (SAO 92644) that has a wide companion, and also 8' southwest is a closer and fainter double star.  So, I think these conditions are met and Corwin concurs this identification is likely.

 

Following my suggestion, Corwin found that IC 151 and IC 152, found by Swift on 11 Aug 1890, might have similar RA errors of 5 minutes, matching UGC 1271 and NGC 677.  The declinations match to within 1' and the RA differences match as well.

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IC 154 = UGC 1229 = MCG +02-05-023 = PGC 6439

01 45 16.4 +10 38 57

V = 14.0;  Size 1.4'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 66d

 

17.5" (12/18/89): very faint, fairly small, appears as a very thin sliver WSW-ENE.  A mag 13.5 star is at the preceding end 40" WSW of center.  Member of the NGC 665 group and forms a pair with IC 156 6' SSE.  NGC 665 lies 14' SSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 154 = J 2-535, along with IC 156, on 15 Dec 1892 and recorded "F, vS, lbM, * 11.5 sp."

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IC 156 = UGC 1231 = MCG +02-05-025 = PGC 6448

01 45 29.3 +10 33 09

V = 13.5;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

17.5" (12/18/89): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE.  A mag 14 star is 0.9' N.  Located 2.5' W of mag 8.7 SAO 92617.  Member of the NGC 665 group with IC 154 6' NNW and NGC 665 11' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 156 = J 2-536, along with IC 154, on 15 Dec 1892 and recorded "pB, R, 30" diameter, mbMN = * 12 mag."

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IC 157 = UGC 1274? = MCG +02-05-043 = CGCG 437-038 = PGC 6670

01 49 11.6 +12 51 12

V = 14.0;  Size 1.5'x0.4';  PA = 108d

 

24" (9/23/17): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, moderately surface brightness, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, ~40"x16", small brighter core.  UGC 1260 (likely IC 153) lies 16' SW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 157 = Sw. X-10, along with IC 153, on 25 Sep 1890.  There are no nearby galaxies he might have picked up and both Corwin and Thomson concluded these numbers were lost.  Looking at the general region, I noticed that if Swift made a 4 minute error in RA, it's possible that IC 153 = UGC 1260 and IC 157 = UGC 1274, though in the latter case the offset in RA is close to 3.5 minutes in RA.  Corwin agrees this is a reasonable hypothesis, and 5 minutes errors in RA also accounts for IC 151 = UGC 1271 and IC 152 = NGC 677, found by Swift a month earlier.

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IC 161 = VV 54a = UGC 1266 = MCG +02-05-036 = CGCG 437-033 = Mrk 1007 = LGG 031-015 = PGC 6644

01 48 43.7 +10 30 28

V = 13.8;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 65d

 

24" (12/28/13): at 375x appeared moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~E-W, 0.4'x0.25', well concentrated with a very bright core than increases to a stellar nucleus.  An extremely faint companion off the SE side (together forming VV 54) was not seen.  Forms a pair with IC 162 = VV 55 = Arp 228 2.5' ENE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 161 = Sw IX-3 on 3 Oct 1889 or 8 Jan 1891, and recorded "eeF; S; cE, between 2 dist star in meridian."  He returned to the field in January 1891 and recorded IC 161 again, as well as IC 162 (list X-11 and X-12).   It's not certain whether his first observation in 1889 refers to the southwest or northeast member of this pair.  To further confuse the situation, the entry for List X-11 is 10' too far south and Dreyer used the erroneous dec for IC 161.

 

UGC, CGCG and MCG all misidentify IC 161 = UGC 1266 as IC 162 and don't assign an IC designation to IC 162 = UGC 1267.  See Corwin's notes on IC 161 and 162 as well as Malcolm's Thomson's IC Corrections.

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IC 162 = Arp 228 = VV 53a = UGC 1267 = MCG +02-05-038 = CGCG 437-034 = LGG 031-009 = PGC 6643

01 48 53.4 +10 31 17

V = 12.7;  Size 1.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

24" (12/28/13): at 375x appeared moderately bright, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, fairly well concentrated with a small bright core.  The halo increases in size to at least 0.8' with averted vision.  In a small group with MCG +02-05-039 = PGC 6653 just 1.0' SE, IC 161 2.5' WSW and UGC 1268 4.0' N.  PGC 6653 appeared very faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 24"x12".

 

Arp placed IC 162 in his category of "concentric rings".  V-V classified this galaxy as an interacting pair (VV 53), but the galaxy looks single on the SDSS.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 162 = Sw X-11 in January 1891 or perhaps earlier on 3 Oct 1889 (list IX-3).  The interpretation depends on which single galaxy he picked up in 1889.  Furthermore, Swift's position for List  XI-11 is 10' too far south.  The UGC, CGCG and MCG misidentify IC 161 (southwestern member of the pair) as IC 162.  See Harold Corwin's notes and Malcolm Thompson's IC Corrections.

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IC 165 = NGC 684 = UGC 1292 = MCG +04-05-017 = CGCG 482-022 = KTG 8C = PGC 6759

01 50 14.0 +27 38 48

V = 12.4;  Size 3.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 90d

 

See observing notes for NGC 684.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' son, found IC 165 = Sw IX-6 on 18 Jan 1890 while "searching for Swift's Comet."  Lewis reported as a new object in list IX-6 with the description "eF; S; lE; vF * close f."  His position is 1' S of NGC 684.  In Astronomische Nachrichten #3429, Isaac Roberts noted the equivalence of IC 165 and NGC 684 and Dreyer repeated this identity in the IC 2 notes.

 

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IC 166 = Tombaugh 3 = OCL-334 = Lund 60

01 52 22 +61 51 18

V = 11.7;  Size 5'

 

18" (12/22/11): easily picked up at 175x though at this power appeared as a faint, fairly small, roundish glow.  At 285x ~10-12 mag 14-15.5 stars are resolved with a couple at the edge of visibility over a mottled background.  Roughly 3.5' diameter.  A brighter mag 12.5 star is at the west edge.

 

17.5" (8/5/97): position identified at 100x using a GSC chart, although only a couple of stars are plotted.  Appears as a very faint circular glow with a couple of faint stars superimposed.  Located 7' E of a wide pair of mag 9/11 stars [at 38" separation].  Does not resemble a cluster in appearance and would have otherwise thought this was a Milky Way patch. At 220x, the glow is ~4' in diameter and there are a sprinkling of ~10 very faint stars, mostly mag 14.5-15.5 with one mag 13 star.  The glow has an irregular surface brightness with a mottled appearance and the periphery is not well defined.

 

William Denning discovered IC 166 around 1890 with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector.  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer.  The IC position corresponds with the faint open cluster Tombaugh 3 = OCL-334 = Lund 60.

 

Clyde Tombaugh independently found IC 166 in Jan/Feb of 1941 while surveying the circumpolar region from Lowell Observatory with the 13-inch Lowell telescope.  He tentatively identified "Tombaugh 3" as an open cluster, though thought is might be a loose globular or "even a midget galaxy just beyond the border of our Milky Way System".

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IC 167 = Arp 31 = UGC 1313 =  MCG +04-05-021 = CGCG 482-025 = Holm 123 = LGG 034-008 = PGC 6833

01 51 08.6 +21 54 46

V = 13.1;  Size 2.9'x1.8';  Surf Br = 14.8;  PA = 95d

 

18" (11/22/03): very faint, elongated 4:3, 0.8'x0.6', low surface brightness.  Located 5.5' SSE of NGC 694 in a NGC 697 group (also called the NGC 691 group) and 3.9' S of a mag 10.5 star.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 167 = Big 133 on 4 Jan 1889.  He noted a mag 10.5 star was at 4' separation in PA 358” (N).

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IC 171 = UGC 1388 = MCG +06-05-050 = CGCG 522-064 = PGC 7139

01 55 10.3 +35 16 52

V = 12.2;  Size 2.5'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (12/19/87): fairly faint, slightly elongated ~E-W, 1.0'x0.8', weak central concentration, stellar nucleus.  A mag 10 star is off the NE edge 45" from center.  Almost collinear with double star mag 12/13 at 18" located 2.5' W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 171 = Sw VIII-1 on 6 Sep 1888 and recorded "pB; pS; cE; * nr nf."  His RA is 10 seconds too large but the identification is certain.

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IC 176 = UGC 1426 = MCG +00-06-004 = CGCG 387-005 = KUG 0154-022 = FGC 216 = RFGC 416 = PGC 7306

01 56 53.4 -02 01 09

V = 14.1;  Size 1.8'x0.35';  PA = 94d

 

24" (12/28/16): at 375x; very faint to faint, very thin edge-on 6:1 or E-W, 60"x10", very slightly brighter core but no central bulge.  Once picked up I could just hold it continuously with careful averted.  Located 17' WNW of mag 6.6 58 Ceti.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 176 = J. 1-74 on 3 Dec 1891 and noted "pretty bright, small".  His position is accurate.

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IC 178 = UGC 1456 = MCG +06-05-070 = CGCG 522-094 = LGG 037-014  = PGC 7488

01 58 54.8 +36 40 30

V = 13.3;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (9/1/02): this member of the AGC 262 cluster appeared faint, small, round, 0.5' diameter, weak concentration.  Located 4.6' NNE of mag 7.3 HD 12007.  A wide pair of mag 11.5/13 stars is 1.5' SE.

 

17.5" (12/19/87): fairly faint, fairly small, round, brighter core.  Located 4.7' NNE of mag 7.2 SAO 55161.  Member of AGC 262 with CGCG 522-098 10' NNE.

 

17.5" (11/14/87): fairly faint, small, round, slightly brighter core. A wide pair (35" separation) of mag 12 and 13 stars is 1.5' SE of center.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 178 = Sf 67 on 8 Nov 1866 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  The discovery list was not published until 1887 so Safford is not credited in the NGC.  His position is 4' south of CGCG 501-066 = PGC 3666.

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IC 179 = UGC 1475 = MCG +06-05-075 = CGCG 522-101 = PGC 7581

02 00 11.5 +38 01 17

V = 12.6;  Size 1.8'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 110d

 

24" (11/24/14): at 375x; moderately bright, fairly small, round, high surface brightness (central region), 25" diameter, weak concentration to the center, possible very low surface brightness halo.

 

UGC 1493 lies 14' NE and appears fairly faint to moderately bright, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 E-W, 0.8'x0.3', fades at tips.  Seems to have a sharper light cut off on the north side. A string of four mag 13-14.5 stars is close NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 179 = Sw X-13 on 28 Jun 1890 with the 16-inch refractor at the Warner Observatory and recorded "pB, S, lE, 9m * near nf."  His position is 8 second of time too far west.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate micrometric position around 1900 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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IC 180 = MCG +04-05-029 = CGCG 482-040 = PGC 7558

02 00 00.4 +23 36 16

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.4'

 

17.5" (12/8/90): very faint, small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE.  In a trio with NGC 776 3' NNW and IC 181 3.0' N.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 180 = J. 2-544, along with IC 181, while observing the field of NGC 776 on 15 Dec 1892. 

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IC 181 = MCG +04-05-030 = CGCG 482-040 = PGC 7559

02 00 02.3 +23 39 31

V = 14.8;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (12/8/90): extremely faint and small, round.  Faintest of a close trio with NGC 776 2' SW and IC 180 3.0' S.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 181 = J. 2-545, along with IC 180, while observing the field of NGC 776 on 15 Dec 1892.  CGCG and the UGC notes to NGC 776 fail to identify this galaxy as IC 181.

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IC 184 = MCG -01-06-021 = PGC 7554

01 59 51.2 -06 50 25

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 177d

 

48" (10/24/14): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 N-S, 0.6'x0.25'.  Contains a bright core and a very bright nucleus.

 

IC 184 is a Seyfert 2 galaxy and the brightest in a small group that includes the three brightest members of HCG 14, located ~13' S.

 

17.5" (12/23/97): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, broad concentration.  Located 2.7' NNW of a mag 10-11 star.  This galaxy was picked up while searching for HCG 14 which is located 14' due south and is brighter than the two primary galaxies in HCG 14.  NGC 788 lies 19' E (also stumbled across in the area).

 

Ormond Stone discovered IC 184 = LM(S) 55 on 15 Oct 1887 and recorded it as #55 in the Leander-McCormick Observatory catalogue of Southern Nebula (1893).  Stone noted mag 15.0 and 0.2' diameter and his micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 187 = UGC 1507 = MCG +04-05-037 = CGCG 482-048 = LGG 041-009 = PGC 7683

02 01 30.7 +26 28 51

V = 12.9;  Size 2.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 70d

 

24" (12/22/14): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, 0.6'x0.25'.  Contains a small, brighter rounder core with fairly low surface brightness extensions that increased in size with averted.  Brighter member of an double system with PGC 2800932 at the east-northeast edge.  The companion was faint, small and barely detached.  An evenly matched 10" pair of mag 12.5-13 stars lies 6' SSW.  NED does not include redshift data on the companion, so this may be either be a merging or overlapping pair.

 

18" (12/22/11): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 0.6'x0.3'.  Broad concentration with a brighter and rounder 15" core.  Forms a double system with PGC 2800932 = MAC 0201+2629.  The fainter companion was at or just off the east end and appeared as very faint, small, roundish glow that was sometimes detached, depending on if the halo (arms) of IC 187 was visible or not.

 

Edward Swift discovered IC 187 = Sw IX-7, along with IC 188, on 18 Jan 1890 while searching for "Swift's Comet".  The RA is 21 sec of time too large, but matches in declination.

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IC 188 = UGC 1510 = MCG +04-05-038 = CGCG 482-049 = LGG 041-010 = PGC 7706

02 01 46.5 +26 32 49

V = 13.8;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 45d

 

24" (12/22/14): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 24"x12", nearly even surface brightness.  Located 5' NE of the double system IC 187.

 

18" (12/22/11): faint to fairly faint, small, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, 20"x15", weak concentration to center but no nucleus.  Located 5' NE of IC 187.  The IC designation (from Corwin) is uncertain due to a poor declination by Swift.

 

Edward Swift discovered IC 188 = Sw IX-8, along with IC 187, on 18 Jan 1890, while searching for "Swift's Comet".  Described as "eeef, vS; R; 2 stars point to it."  There is nothing at his position, but 10 sec of RA west and 30' south is UGC 1510, and there is a pair of 12th magnitude stars to the north-northwest that could fit Swift's description. 

 

But due to the large error in declination Malcolm Thomson rejects UGC 1510 as IC 188.  He argues that no similar error occurred with nearby IC 187, and if he did find this galaxy, the description would have mentioned "sp of 2" and "nf of 2." for the pair.   No modern catalogue identifies UGC 1510 as IC 188.  So this identification is quite uncertain.  See Harold Corwin's IC identification notes as well as Courtney Seligman's summary.

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IC 191 = NGC 794 = UGC 1528 = MCG +03-06-024 = CGCG 461-031 = PGC 7763

02 02 29.3 +18 22 23

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 45d

 

See observing notes for NGC 794.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 191 = Sw IX-9 on 20 Oct 1889 and reported "pB; pL; lE."  His position is at the west edge of NGC 794.  Dreyer perhaps assumed it was new due to Swift's description, which differed significantly from WH's "eF, vS, stellar,240 showed it very plainly." Dreyer added the parenthetical comment "probably = [NGC 794]" in the IC description and certainly NGC 794 = IC 191.

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IC 194 = UGC 1542 = MCG +00-06-026 = CGCG 387-030 = PGC 7812

02 03 05.2 +02 36 51

V = 14.4;  Size 1.6'x0.25';  PA = 13d

 

24" (12/28/16): at 200x and 375x; fairly faint, thin edge-on 5:1 N-S, ~0.9'x0.2', very small brighter nucleus. A mag 10.6 star is 3.8' E. Located 18' SE of mag 4.1 Alpha Psc (Alrescha).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 194 = J. 2-552 on 6 Jan 1894.  He noted "very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, no concentration.  Difficult because of a vicinity of the comparison star."

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IC 195 = Arp 290 NED1 = VV 309b = UGC 1555 = MCG +02-06-017 = CGCG 438-019 = PGC 7846

02 03 44.6 +14 42 33

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 126d

 

48" (10/29/16): at 488x and 610x; fairly bright, moderately large, sharply concentrated with a bright, elongated 2:1 core NNW-SSE and highlighted by a stellar nucleus.  The halo or spiral arms are very low surface brightness and extend 5:2 NW-SE, ~1.0'x0.4'.  A distracting 15" pair of mag 10.4/12.7 stars is 2.3' W.  Forms an interacting pair (Arp 290) with IC 196 2.2' NE.

 

17.5" (11/17/01): faint, small, bright core, faint extensions NW-SE, 0.4'x0.2'.  A mag 12 star lies 1.4' S.  Forms a close pair (Arp 290) with brighter IC 196 2.2' NE.  Preceding by just 2.2' is a nice mag 10.5/12.5 pair at 15" with two additional mag 12 stars to the SSW of the closer pair.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 195 = Sw IX-10, along with IC 196, on 20 Oct 1889 and recorded "eeF; S; R; F * nr south; sp of 2 [with IC 196]."  His position and description is a good match with UGC 1555.

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IC 196 = Arp 290 NED2 = VV 309a = UGC 1556 = MCG +02-06-018 = CGCG 438-020 = PGC 7856

02 03 49.8 +14 44 21

V = 12.9;  Size 2.8'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 5d

 

48" (10/29/16): at 488x and 610x; bright, large, very elongated but irregular 5:1 ~N-S, ~2.0'x0.4', well concentrated with a small, round bright core.  A fairly thin long arm or tail extends due south from the core and then curls southwest towards IC 195.  It appears to spread out and dim on the southwest end [0.9' from center].   A shorter arm extends north from the core ~30" and dims abruptly.  But a very low surface brightness, elongated N-S patch is detached on the northern end (part of an outer tidal tail or loop) ~1' from the center.  A companion (LEDA 212903) is just northeast of this patch, 1.3' NNE of center.  It appeared faint, small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 15"x9".

 

17.5" (11/17/01): fairly faint, fairly small, nearly edge-on 4:1 SSW-NNE, 1.2'x0.3'.  Contains a rounder, bright core and stellar nucleus.  Forms a close pair with IC 195 2.2' SW.  This galaxy is actually an interacting quartet, although only the main galaxy was observed along with IC 195.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 196 = Sw IX-11, along with IC 195, on 20 Oct 1889 and recorded "pF; pS; R; trap with 3 st; nf of 2 [with IC 195]."  His position and description is a good match with UGC 1556, though Howe measured an accurate micrometric position in 1898.

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IC 198 = UGC 1592 = MCG +01-06-040 = CGCG 413-040 = PGC 8011

02 06 03.1 +09 17 44

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 53d

 

24" (12/28/16): at 375x; fairly faint, small, oval 4:3 SW-NE, 30"x22", very weak concentration.  First of 3 IC galaxies (HDCE 117) with IC 199 5.8' SE and IC 202 22.5' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 198 = J. 2-554, along with IC 199, on 15 Dec 1892 and recorded "pretty bright, small, round, 30" diameter, brighter center."

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IC 199 = IC 1778 = UGC 1594 = MCG +01-06-041 = CGCG 413-041 = PGC 8026

02 06 19.4 +09 13 39

V = 14.0;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 24d

 

24" (12/28/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 SSW-NNE, 40"x27", slightly brighter core.  Second in trio (HDCE 117) with IC 198 5.8' NW and IC 202 17.5' ESE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 199 = J. 2-555, along with IC 198, on 15 Dec 1892 and recorded "faint, small, round, bright core."  He recorded the same galaxy a second time on 29 Jan 1897 as J. 3-192 with the desciption "faint, round, 30", gradually brighter middle, similar to a 14th mag star."  He actually made a comment that it was found while measuring IC 198, though apparently didn't realize he had already placed it in his second discovery list along with IC 198.  So, IC 199 = IC 1778.

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IC 200 = UGC 1577 = MCG +05-06-002 = CGCG 503-085 = CGCG 504-007 = LGG 042-008 = PGC 7967

02 05 26.8 +31 10 30

V = 12.9;  Size 2.2'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 85d

 

18" (12/22/11): fairly faint, moderately large, irregularly round, 0.8' diameter, broad concentration with a small brighter core.  Forms the northeast vertex of a right triangle with mag 8.8 SAO 55246 7' W and mag 8.7 SAO 55245 10' SW.  Several additional 11th and 12th magnitude stars are scattered around SAO 55246.  CGCG 504-012 (often identified as IC 200) lies 18' E.  It was logged as faint, small, round, 18" diameter, low even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (11/26/94): faint, fairly small, irregularly round, about 1.5' diameter.  Low but uneven surface brightness, weak concentration with one or two brighter spots near the center.  A mag 14.5 star is just off the west edge 1.1' from the center.  Located 27' NE of NGC 804.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 200 = Sf 71 on 4 Dec 1866 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory and recorded "pB, pL, R, bM."  There is nothing at his position but two minutes west is UGC 1577, which fits his description.  CGCG and PGC likely misidentify CGCG 504-012 = PGC 8064 as IC 200.  This 15th magnitude galaxy is closer to Safford's position -- off by 34 seconds of RA -- though Harold Corwin notes "[this galaxy] is probably too faint to have been seen by Safford, and the description does not match in any case."

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IC 202 = UGC 1610 = MCG +01-06-043 = PGC 8101

02 07 28.7 +09 10 06

V = 14.3;  Size 1.4'x0.25';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 132d

 

24" (12/28/16): at 375x; faint, small, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 25"x10", slightly brighter nucleus.  A mag 14.7 star is just beyond the southeast end, 0.9' from center.  A mag 10.4 star is 4' SSE and two mag 10.5 stars are a similar distance NNE.  IC 202 is the third in a trio (HDCE 117) with IC 199 17.5' WNW and IC 198 22.5' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 202 = J. 2-557, along with IC 201 and IC 203, on 5 Dec 1893 and recorded "very faint, very small, diffuse, without condensation."

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IC 206 = MCG -01-06-053 = Holm 57a = PGC 8238

02 09 30.7 -06 58 06

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 138d

 

18" (11/22/03): second of trio with IC 209 10' SW and IC 207 3.6' NE.  Appears very similar to IC 207: very faint, small, round, 25" diameter (elongated 5:2 on DSS image so probably viewed core only), weak concentration.  The IC positions are incorrect due to a mix-up by Javelle with his offset star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 206 = J 1-77, along with IC 207, on 26 Jan 1892.  There is nothing at his position, but both Harold Corwin and Malcolm Thomson found that Javelle misidentified his reference star.  Applying his offsets to the correct star (SAO 129729) matches this identification.

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IC 207 = MCG -01-06-054 = Holm 57b = PGC 8251

02 09 39.3 -06 55 20

V = 13.9;  Size 2.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 99d

 

18" (11/22/03): third of 3 with IC 206 3.6' SW and IC 209 13' SW.  IC 206 and IC 207 for an equilateral triangle with a mag 11.4 star 3.4' WNW.  Although this galaxy is quite elongated I must have just recorded the brighter core as appeared very faint, small, round, 25", weak concentration.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 207 = J 1-78, along with IC 206, on 26 Jan 1892.  There is nothing at his position, but both Harold Corwin and Malcolm Thomson found that Javelle misidentified his reference star.  Applying his offsets to the correct star (SAO 129729) matches this identification.

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IC 208 = UGC 1635 = MCG +01-06-044 = CGCG 413-045 = LGG 047-002 = PGC 8167

02 08 27.7 +06 23 42

V = 13.8;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.2

 

24" (1/25/14): fairly faint, fairly large, round, 1.5' diameter, very low though irregular surface brightness, no core or nucleus.  Located 4.5' NNW of NGC 825.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 208 = B. 134 on 3 Dec 1888 and recorded "mag 13.4-13.5; very diffuse; 1.0'-1.5' dia; no nucleus."  His position is 1.5' too far south but the description is accurate.

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IC 209 = MCG -01-06-051 = Holm 56a = PGC 8200

02 08 58.7 -07 03 32

V = 13.1;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 60d

 

18" (11/22/03): brightest in trio with IC 206 10' NE and IC 207 13' NE.  Appears moderately bright, fairly small, irregularly round, 1.2'x1.0', weak concentration, irregular surface brightness.  Surprisingly easy for an IC galaxy.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 209 = J. 1-79 on 28 Jan 1892.  His position is accurate.

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IC 210 = MCG -02-06-032 = PGC 8232

02 09 28.3 -09 40 49

V = 13.1;  Size 2.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 66d

 

18" (10/21/06): fairly faint, fairly large, edge-on 6:1 WSW-ENE, 1.8'x0.3', very low even surface brightness.  Located 3.4' SW of a mag 9.3 star (SAO 129724).  MCG -02-06-035 lies 11' E.  Located 27' due north of NGC 835 (HCG 16).

 

Aaron Skinner, an assistant to Truman Safford, discovered IC 210 = Sf 101 on 23 Oct 1867 with the 18.5-inch refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  As the discovery list wasn't published until 1887 (too late for inclusion in the main NGC table), Dreyer credited Safford with the discovery in the IC 1.  The discovery position is just off the north edge of the galaxy, so the identification is certain.

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IC 211 = UGC 1678 = MCG +01-06-053 = CGCG 413-057 = PGC 8360

02 11 08.0 +03 51 09

V = 13.4;  Size 2.3'x1.8';  Surf Br = 14.8;  PA = 50d

 

24" (1/25/14): faint, moderately large, slightly elongated SW-NE, low surface brightness and difficult to estimate diameter, increases in size with averted but at least 1.0'x0.8', slightly brighter core.  Located 4.5' NNW of NGC 851.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 211 = J. II-559 on 5 Dec 1893 and recorded "F, R, 40" dia, vS core."  His position is accurate.

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IC 214 = UGC 1720 = CGCG 413-064 = MCG +01-06-057 = Mrk 1027 = KUG 0211+049 = PGC 1279308 = PGC 8562

02 14 05.6 +05 10 24

V = 14.2;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

24" (9/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small.  The main body is elongated 5:3 NW-SE, ~25"x15".  With averted vision, a very low surface brightness, diffuse extension spreads to the north of the main body.  With careful viewing it appeared attached to the southeast end of the galaxy.  Located 13' NE of mag 6.5 HD 13683.  IC 214 is apparently the disrupted collision or merger of two galaxies with the "main body" catalogued as IC 214 NED1 and the extension to the north is IC 214 NED2 = LEDA 1279289.

 

Forms a pair with LEDA 212941 2.5' WSW.  The companion (B = 16.5, 0.6'x0.25') appeared extremely faint, very small, ~15"x10", low surface brightness.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 214 = J. 2-562 on 29 Dec 1893.  He reported "Pretty bright , diffuse, little extended , gradually condensed; seems mottled".  His position is accurate. 

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IC 217 = IC 1787 = MCG -02-06-046 = 2MFGC 1761 = PGC 8673

02 16 10.4 -11 55 36

V = 13.6;  Size 2.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 35d

 

24" (12/28/16): at 200x and 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, edge-on 6:1 SW-NE, ~1.4'x0.25'.  Fairly low surface brightness but surface seems distinctly irregular or mottled at 375x with some slightly brighter sections [PANSTARRS image shows the galaxy is crossed by multiple dust lanes]. A star is very close to the south end, which somewhat confuses the view (galaxy seems bent).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 217 = J. 2-563 on 7 Dec 1893.  He described it as "faint, a little elongated nearly in the meridian (N-S), spindle 1' x 20", without condensation."  Lewis Swift found the galaxy again on 12 Oct 1896, reported as new in list XI-37 with description "eeF; eeE; a ray bet 2 st p[receding] and f[ollowing]; 8m star near [north-following]."  His position is 1.5' too far south, but a perfect match in description.  Dreyer didn't catch the equivalence, so it also has the designation IC 1787.

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IC 218 = MCG +00-06-061 = CGCG 387-066 = PGC 8716

02 17 07.2 +01 16 56

V = 14.9;  Size 0.8'x0.25';  PA = 75d

 

24" (1/25/14): very faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, 25"x8", low even surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is close off the ENE edge [35" ENE of center].  Located 2.4' NNE of NGC 875

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 218 = J 2-564 on 26 Dec 1893 and recorded "vF, poorly defined, slightly elongated, close to a *13.5."  His position and description is accurate.

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IC 223 = ESO 545-008 = MCG -04-06-031 = KTS 16B = LGG 056-004 = PGC 8998

02 22 01.1 -20 44 45

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 152d

 

24" (10/3/13): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 NW-SE, broad concentration, 30"x20".  Forms the vertex of a triangle with a mag 11.5 star 1.8' N and a mag 12.5 star 2.5' ENE.  Second in a trio (KTS 16) with brighter NGC 899 5' SSW and NGC 907 14' ENE.

 

17.5" (12/4/93): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, broad concentration.  Forms an isosceles triangle with a mag 11.5 star 1.8' N and a mag 12.5 star 2.5' ENE.  Forms a pair with NGC 899 5' SSW. NGC 907 lies 14' ENE.

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 223 = LM(S) 71 = Big. 135 on 19 Nov 1887 with the 26-inch refractor at the Leander McCormick. It was recorded as #71 in the 1893 catalogue of "Southern Nebulae" with the description "iR, sbM, stell nucleus?"  Bigourdan independently discovered it on 1 Dec 1888.  The IC position is accurate.

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IC 226 = UGC 1922 = MCG +05-06-046 = PGC 9373

02 27 45.9 +28 12 32

V = 14.2;  Size 1.7'x1.4';  Surf Br = 15.0

 

24" (2/7/16): fairly faint, fairly small, very sharply concentrated with a small, round bright core embedded in a very low surface halo perhaps 0.6' diameter (no distinct edge).  Two mag 14/15 stars (15" separation) are just off the northwest side.  A mag 9.6 star is 1.8' NNW and mag 8.6 HD 15271 is 6.2' WNW.  The two stars are collinear with the galaxy.  IC 226 forms a 4.4' pair with IC 227 to the southeast.

 

Rudloph Spitaler discovered IC 226 = Spitaler 2, along with IC 227, on 31 Dec 1891 with the 27" refractor at the Wien Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.  His description (summarized in the IC) is "pF, S, R, bM, 2 F st n."

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IC 227 = UGC 1932 = MCG +05-06-048 = CGCG 504-087 = PGC 9383

02 28 03.6 +28 10 31

V = 14.5;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.6;  PA = 70d

 

24" (2/7/16): at 200x; slightly brighter and larger of a pair with IC 226 4.4' NW.  Appears fairly faint or moderately bright (the listed mag may be too faint), fairly large, slightly elongated, ~1.0'x0.8', the diffuse halo fades out gradually so the size is difficult to estimate.  Sharply concentrated with a well defined, relatively large core that gradually increases to the center.  Mag 8.6 HD 15271 lies 4.6' NNE.  I also picked up LEDA 213001 11.5' ESE, but missed nearby UGC 1958, an extremely low surface brightness edge-on.  LEDA 213001 appeared very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.

 

Rudloph Spitaler discovered IC 227 = Spitaler 3, along with IC 226, on 31 Dec 1891 with the 27" refractor at the Wien Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.  His description (summarized in the IC) reads "F, pS, R, lbM."

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IC 228 = NGC 944 = MCG -03-07-016 = PGC 9300

02 26 41.6 -14 30 57

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 15d

 

See observing notes for NGC 944.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 228 = J 1-85 on 7 Dec 1891.  His position corresponds with PGC 9300.  This galaxy was discovered earlier by Leavenworth on 1 Jan 1886, but his rough position for LM I-55 (later NGC 944) was 1.5 minutes too far east so Javelle thought it was a new object.  Corwin verified that Leavenworth's discovery sketch matches PGC 9300.  So, IC 228 = NGC 944.

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IC 230 = MCG -02-07-016 = PGC 9436

02 28 47.3 -10 49 53

V = 14.8;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 87d

 

24" (12/22/14): faint to fairly faint, small, round, 12"-15" diameter.  Easily seen despite a mag 15.7B.  Located 5.5' due west of the double system NGC 942/943.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 230 on 8 Oct 1891 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory while observing the double system NGC 942 and 943.

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IC 239 = UGC 2080 = MCG +06-06-065 = CGCG 523-071 = LGG 070-002 = PGC 9899

02 36 27.9 +38 58 08

V = 11.1;  Size 4.6'x4.2';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 3d

 

18" (11/26/03): at 115x appears as a large, round, low surface brightness glow, ~3.5' with a broad, weak concentration to a slightly brighter 30" core.  With extended viewing the surface brightness is somewhat irregular with a hint of structure.  IC 239 is located just north of a mag 8.6 (2.2' from center) that somewhat hinders viewing.  A distinctive curved string of mag 10-11 stars close west cradles the galaxy.  Member of the NGC 1023 group.

 

17.5" (8/6/02): at 274x appeared faint, fairly large, slightly elongated ~N-S, ~3' diameter.  The galaxy exhibited only a broad, weak concentration with no defined core.  The halo faded at the edge and was ill defined.  Situated between mag 8.6 SAO 55698 just off the south end 2.2' from center and a mag 9.6 star 3.3' N within a distinctive asterism of 5 brighter stars.  Located ~45 due west of NGC 1023.

 

Isaac Roberts discovered IC 239 in 1893 and it was announced in MNRAS 54, 371 (1894), "Photograph of a 'New' Spiral Nebula in Perseus."  He noted "the convolutions of the spiral is very faint, but clearly visible on the negative, and involved in them are four 14-15 mag stars and 6 or 7 stars, or star-like condensations, less bright than 16th mag.  The convolutions are symmetrical, and proceed from a very faint star-like nucleus."

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IC 241 = UGC 2115 = MCG +00-07-058 = CGCG 388-071 = PGC 9969

02 37 54.5 +02 19 40

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 150d

 

18" (11/18/06): fairly faint, small, low surface brightness halo surrounding a very small brighter core.  Located 8' N of a mag 9.5 star and 14' NW of NGC 1016 in a cluster.

 

18" (10/21/06): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, fairly faint stellar nucleus.  Located 12' SE of mag 7.2 HD 16314 in the NW corner of the NGC 1016 cluster.  A fainter galaxy, NGC 1009, lies 6' ESE. 

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Located 6.2' W of NGC 1009 in the NGC 1016 cluster.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 241 = B. 137 on 19 Nov 1886 and recorded "mag 13.3; round, 35"-40" diameter, stellar nucleus."  His position matches UGC 2115.

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IC 248 = UGC 2170 = MCG +03-07-044 = CGCG 462-043 = PGC 10197

02 41 25.8 +17 48 44

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): fairly faint, fairly small, gradually brighter middle, almost round, diffuse halo.  Located 11' WNW of a mag 8.2 SAO 93057 in the NGC 1020 group.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 248 in Sep 1891 while unsuccessfully searching for NGC 1059 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory (Publ of Lick Observatory, II). His position is accurate.

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IC 249 = NGC 1051 = NGC 961 = MCG -01-07-033 = UGCA 40 = PGC 10172

02 41 02.4 -06 56 09

V = 12.6;  Size 2.3'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 45d

 

See observing notes for NGC 1051.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 249 = J. 1-92 on 28 Jan 1892 and recorded "pB, almost round, 20" diameter, uniform appearance."  He added the note "distinct from NGC 1051".  His position corresponds with NGC 1051 despite his comment.  This galaxy was probably first discovered by Ormond Stone in 1886, though Harold Corwin found he made a 10 minute error in RA in LM II-338 (later NGC 961).

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IC 253 = MCG -03-07-058 = PGC 10226

02 42 05.7 -15 02 50

V = 13.5;  Size 0.3'x0.25'

 

17.5" (12/20/95): IC 253 is in a compact group (SCG 19) and forms a pair with NGC 1065 2.7' S.  Fairly faint, fairly small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus, 30" diameter.  Interestingly, IC 253 appeared slightly larger and brighter than NGC 1065!  Located 9' NE of mag 7.6 SAO 48549.  PGC 144985, situated just 1.2' SW, was not seen.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 253 = J. 1-96, along with IC 254, on 5 Dec 1891.  His position is accurate. It seems strange that Swift, who discovered NGC 1065, missed this object.

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IC 254 = LEDA 3642494

02 42 05.0 -15 06 24

PA = 55d

 

17.5" (12/20/95): appears as an extremely faint, round, barely nonstellar spot just 1.0' SSW of NGC 1065 in a small group with IC 253.  It required averted vision to glimpse and appeared less than 10" in diameter.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 254 = J. 1-97, along with IC 253, on 5 Dec 1891.  Despite a good position, the RNGC and LEDA incorrectly equates IC 254 with nearby NGC 1065.

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IC 256 = V Zw 280 = PGC 10737

02 49 40.3 +46 57 17

V = 15.3;  Size 0.3'x0.2'

 

17.5" (10/24/87): extremely faint and small, slightly elongated N-S, ~15"x10".  Located 26" N of an easier mag 15 star.  Requires averted and visible ~50% of the time.  Situated 1.6' SW of IC 257 (2nd in V Zw 280, a trio of three compact ellipticals).  Identification not certain.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 256 = Sw VIII-2, along with IC 257 and IC 260, on 6 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF; lE; S; in vacancy. 1st of 3."  His position is 5 sec of RA west and 0.3' south of IC 257.  The galaxy described here is 1' due south of this offset.  It's possible, though, it's too faint to have been seen by Swift, but it was detected in my scope (knowing the exact location in advance) and Swift has a few other faint discoveries in the same ballpark.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 257 = UGC 2298 = MCG +08-06-011 = CGCG 554-008 = PGC 10729

02 49 45.5 +46 58 34

V = 12.6;  Size 2.2'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 0.8'x0.5'.  The slightly brighter core contains a quasi-stellar nucleus at moments.  A trio of very faint galaxies lies close SW (including IC 256?).  IC 260 lies 13' E.

 

William Herschel discovered IC 257 = Sw VIII-3 on 11 Dec 1786 (sweep 645) and recorded "a few very small stars mixed with very faint seeming nebulosity, in the direction of the meridian [north-south]; most probably only a patch."  He didn't assign this nebula an internal discovery number or H-designation due to his uncertainty so it was never published, but his position is just 2' north of IC 257 and the orientation of the galaxy (PA 155”) is a reasonable match with his description.  Steinicke confirms this observation (email April 2015).

 

Lewis Swift rediscovered this galaxy on 6 Sep 1888 and recorded Sw VIII-3 (later IC 257) as "eF; pS; R; in vacancy; v diff.  2nd of 3 [with IC 256 and IC 260]."  Swift, of course, is credited in the IC.  MCG misidentifies this galaxy as IC 256.

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IC 258 = UGC 2306 = CGCG 539-107 = PGC 10730

02 49 46.1 +41 03 06

V = 14.1;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.5;  PA = 165d

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x fairly faint to faint, slightly elongated N-S, 30"x24", small brighter nucleus.  A mag 10 star is 1.9' ENE and interferes a bit with viewing.  IC 258 is the brighter of a close pair with IC 259 1.0' WNW.

 

Sherburne Burnham discovered IC 258, along with IC 259, on 3 Sep 1891 while observing double stars with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  The identifications of IC 258 and IC 259 are reversed in most modern sources.  See notes on IC 259.

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IC 259 = CGCG 539-106 = PGC 10721

02 49 40.9 +41 03 18

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 126d

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x; faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, stellar nucleus.  A star (close double on the DSS) is at the northwest edge [17" from center]."  Forms a close pair with IC 258 1.0' ESE.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 259, along with IC 258, on 3 Sep 1891 while observing double stars with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He measured the offsets for both objects correctly with respect to 10th magnitude BD +40”608.  But he applied his RA (time) offset in the wrong direction for the western object, which he described as double.  So the computed position for IC 258 is east of IC 259, placing these objects out of RA order in the sky.  As a result, the identifications of IC 258 and IC 259 are reversed in UGC, CGCG, PGC, HyperLeda, WikiSky, etc.  NED has the correct identifications.

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IC 260 = UGC 2325 = MCG +08-06-014 = CGCG 554-011 = PGC 10812

02 51 00.9 +46 57 17

V = 13.1;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (10/2/99): faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, ~30"x24", weak concentration.  A pair of mag 11.5 stars is close southwest (0.7' and 1.4') and collinear with the galaxy.  In a group with IC 257 located 13' W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 260 = Sw VIII-4, along with IC 256 and IC 257, on 6 Sep 1888 and recorded "eeeF; pS; in line with 2 nr faint stars. 3rd of 3."  His position is accurate.

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IC 261 = NGC 1120 = MCG -03-08-028 = PGC 10664

02 49 04.1 -14 28 15

V = 13.2;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (11/18/95): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter.  Even concentration to a bright core and nearly stellar nucleus.  A faint, close double star lies 4.2' SSW and 5' NW is a small group of four mag 13 stars (includes a 30" pair).

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 261 = J. 1-98 on 7 Dec 1891.  His position matches MCG -03-08-028 = PGC 10664.  This galaxy was discovered by Leavenworth on 1 Jan 1886 and catalogued as list 1-72 (later NGC 1120), but Leavenworth's RA (to the nearest minute) is 1 minute too small (common error).  Corwin confirms Leavenworth's sketch matches this galaxy, so it is certain IC 261 = NGC 1120. Some sources, such as the MCG, label this galaxy IC 261 although NGC 1120 should be the primary designation.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 263 = CGCG 389-027 = PGC 10716

02 49 40.0 -00 04 12

Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 167d

 

18" (1/15/07): faint, very small, slightly elongated, 20"x15", even surface brightness, seen with direct vision.  Located 20' NE of NGC 1104 and 105' due east of M77.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 263 = J 1-99 on 9 Nov 1891.  There is nothing at his position, but Malcolm Thomson found that Javelle misidentified his reference star, which should have been GSC 4699-221.  When his offsets are applied to this star, the position lands on this galaxy.  This galaxy is not identified in IC 263 in any of the modern catalogues, except for NED.

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IC 265 = MCG +07-07-006 = CGCG 539-127 = CGCG 540-009 = AWM 7-3 = PGC 10978

02 54 44.0 +41 39 19

V = 14.6;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

18" (11/18/06): faint, small, round, 20" diameter.  Located 5.5' NE of NGC 1129 in the cluster AWM 7 and 4.5' NW of a mag 9.7 star in a cluster.  PGC 10962 lies 3' W.  Appears brighter than the CGCG magnitude of 15.7pg. 

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 265 = Sw VIII-6 on 3 Nov 1888 and recorded "eeF; eS; R; [NGC] 1129 near."  His position is fairly accurate.

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IC 267 = UGC 2368 = MCG +02-08-028 = PGC 10932

02 53 50.2 +12 50 57

V = 13.0;  Size 2.0'x1.6';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 15d

 

24" (12/21/16): at 282x; moderately bright, fairly large, elongated ~4:1 NNW-SSE, ~1.7'x0.4', irregular surface brightness.  This appears to be a central bar (verified on the DSS) rather than an edge-on galaxy.  Either a star is superimposed at the center or the galaxy has a bright stellar nucleus!  Located 10' SSE of NGC 1134.

 

17.5" (10/21/95): faint, moderately large, edge-on 5:1 NNW-SSE, 1.8'x0.3', broad weak concentration.  Located 10.3' SSE of NGC 1134.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 267 = Sw VII-7 = Big 138 and recorded "eeF; pS; E; sf of GC 620 [NGC 1134]."  His RA is 35 seconds too large.  Bigourdan independently found it again on 28 Nov 1888 and measured an accurate position.  Both are credited in the IC.

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IC 270 = MCG -02-08-028 = PGC 11061

02 55 44.1 -14 12 29

Size 1.3'x1.2'

 

17.5" (10/17/98): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 SW-NE, ~0.9'x0.6'.  Forms the northeast vertex of a small trapezium with three mag 12 stars 1.0' SW, 1.5' WNW and 2.2' SW.  Forms a pair with IC 272 5.5' ENE.  NGC 1158, which is a fainter galaxy, lies 24' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 270 = J 1-103, along with IC 272, on 1 Dec 1891 with the 29-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory. His position matches MCG -02-08-028.  IC 270 and IC 272 appear to be the brightest in a cluster of faint galaxies (or superimposed on a more distant cluster).

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IC 272 = MCG -02-08-030 = PGC 11086

02 56 06.4 -14 11 13

Size 0.9'x0.6';  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (10/17/98): extremely faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, ~0.8'x0.6'.  Forms a pair with brighter IC 270 5.5' WSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 272 = J 1-104, along with IC 270, on 1 Dec 1891 with the 29-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory. His position matches MCG -02-08-030.

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IC 277 = UGC 2460 = Mrk 602 = MCG +00-08-064 = CGCG 389-060 = LGG 079-005 = PGC 11336

02 59 59.6 +02 46 17

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 45d

 

24" (1/28/17): at 282x; fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 SW-NE, 36"x24", very small brighter core.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 277 = J. 2-576 on 6 Jan 1894 and recorded "pB, R, 40" diameter, Nucl = 12.5, a little mottled."

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IC 281 = NGC 1177 = MCG +07-07-020 = CGCG 540-033 = PGC 11581

03 04 37.1 +42 21 46

V = 14.5;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

See observing notes for NGC 1177

 

Lewis Swift found IC 281 = Sw VIII-11 on 1 Nov 1888 and recorded "eeeF; vS; * close n; 1175 nr."  His position falls between NGC 1175 and NGC 1177, but the description mentions the star to the north, so IC 281 = NGC 1177.  Surprisingly, Dreyer didn't catch the equivalence. See Corwin's notes.

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IC 282 = NGC 1198 = UGC 2533 = MCG +07-07-024 = CGCG 540-038 = PGC 11648

03 06 13.3 +41 50 56

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 120d

 

See observing notes for NGC 1198.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 282 = Sw. VIII-12 on 27 Oct 1888 and reported "eF; S; R; bet. 2 nr. st."  There is nothing at Swift's position but 1 minute of RA further east is NGC 1198, discovered by Stephan in 1880, and his description applies to this galaxy.  Because of the discrepancy in positions, Dreyer probably assumed IC 282 and NGC 1198 were different objects.  Harold Corwin and Malcolm Thomson agree IC 282 = NGC 1198.  This galaxy is identified  as NGC 1198 only in all sources except NED, which equates the numbers.

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IC 284 = UGC 2531 = MCG +07-07-023 =LGG 082-003 = PGC 11643

03 06 10.2 +42 22 18

V = 11.5;  Size 4.1'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 13d

 

24" (1/25/14): at 200x and 375x appeared moderately bright, large, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, at least 3'x1.5', weak concentration to a brighter core.  Two mag 15 stars are superimposed on the east edge of the core.  V Zw 319 = PGC 11646 is on the southwest edge of the halo, 0.7' SW of center!  The companion appeared very faint, round, only 12" diameter. A 17" pair of mag 11.5 stars lies 2.5' NW.  IC 288 lies 15' E.

 

NED has no distance info on V Zw 319, though there is no indication of interaction on the SDSS and an arm from IC 284 is silhouetted on V Zw 319, indicating it may be a background object.

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, moderately large, diffuse, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, gradually increases to a small bright core.  A mag 11 double at 16" separation is 2.5' NW.  Located 18' E of NGC 1175.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 284 = Sw VIII-13 on 27 Oct 1888 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  He noted "eeF, pL, lE, D * np, bet 2 st".  His position is 12 sec of RA west of UGC 2531 but the comment "D * np" pins down the identification.

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IC 285 = MCG -02-08-044 = PGC 11557

03 04 06.2 -12 00 56

Size 1.1'x0.2'

 

17.5" (10/20/90): very faint, small, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, very low even surface brightness.  Last of four in the NGC 1200 compact group with NGC 1200 3' WNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 285 = J 2-578 on 7 Dec 1893 while viewing NGC 1195, 1196 and 1200.  His position matches PGC 11557.

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IC 288 = UGC 2544 = MCG +07-07-027 = CGCG 540-043 = LGG 088-001 = PGC 11702

03 07 32.9 +42 23 15

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 42d

 

24" (1/31/14): moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.2', sharply concentrated with a very small bright core.  IC 284 lies 15' W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 288 = Sw VIII-14 on 31 Oct 1888 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory and recorded "vF, vS, R, 2 pB st nf point to it, r[esolution] suspected".  His position is 1.6' SW of UGC 2544 = PGC 11702, though the two "pB" stars are south-following.  MCG +07-07-027 does not label their entry as IC 288.  The NGC 2000.0 classifies this galaxy as an open cluster, probably as Dreyer changed "r suspected" to "? S Cl".

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IC 289 = PK 138+2.1 = PN G138.8+02.8 = Hb 1

03 10 19.2 +61 19 01

V = 13.5;  Size 42"x28"

 

48" (10/27/16): at 610x unfiltered; bright, fairly large, slightly elongated NW-SE.  Annular with an irregularly brighter rim that is brightest on the northwest side.  The northern end is slightly brighter in general (less than a 90” arc).  A faint central star was visible most of the time.  We didn't look for the outer halo at lower power.  IC 289 resides in a rich star 1.8' NNW of a mag 10.1 star.

 

48" (10/25/14): at 375x unfiltered; fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 0.6'x0.5'.  Weakly annular with a slightly brighter rim and irregularly lit darker center that contains a very faint central star.  A thin, very low surface brightness outer halo is more elongated along the minor axis, creating a roughly circular halo.

 

18" (11/13/07): at 300x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, ~35"x30" with an irregular surface brightness.  The rim was very slightly brighter than the interior with a strong impression of irregularities.  The rim sometimes appeared slightly brighter along the north side or contained a very faint stellar knot.  At 450x, there was an occasional faint sparkle in the interior, but I was uncertain if it was the central star.  Located 1.8' N of a mag 10 star.  A mag 14 star lies just 45" NE.

 

17.5" (1/16/02): at 140x, IC 289 was seen as a fairly faint, 35" to 40" disc with a modest contrast gain using a UHC filter.  Situated 2' N of a mag 10 star and near the tip of two curving strings of stars which head north and NW from IC 289.  Excellent view at 380x - the planetary is slightly elongated and has a mottled appearance with a marginally brighter rim, particularly on the W or NW side, giving an impression of weak annularity.  At moments, there was a brief sparkle at the center, possibly the central star.  A mag 14 star is 45" NE of center and a mag 13 star lies 1.3' following.

 

13" (12/7/85): at 79x and OIII filter appears faint, small, round.  At 166x and UHC filter can just hold steadily with averted vision, fairly small, almost round.

 

8": at 100x and UHC filter this planetary is very faint, very small.  Situated near the tip of two converging rows of mag 10-12 stars.  Several difficult positive sightings made from poor transparency in El Cerrito!

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 289 = Sw VIII-15 on 2 Sep 1888 and recorded "pB; pL; R; bet 2 vF st."

 

Hubble included this object in a 1921 paper titled "Twelve New Planetary Nebulae" in PASAP, Vol 33, No 193, p. 174 available at http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1921PASP...33..174H. Included in his table are NGC 2818, NGC 6072, NGC 7048, NGC 7635, IC 289, IC 1470, IC 4670, Hb 4, Hb 5, Hb 7, Hb, 8 and Hb 12.

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IC 290 = UGC 2561 = CGCG 540-047 = IC 1884 = PGC 11817

03 09 42.7 +40 58 27

V = 14.6;  Size 1.1'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 131d

 

18" (11/22/03): very faint, very small, appears as a tiny elongated streak, ~25"x8".  Located 5' N of NGC 1212 and 2.8' NNW of mag 8.7 SAO 38614 at the west side of AGC 426.  Two mag 12/13 stars lie 50" E and 1.3' NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 290 = Sw VIII-16, along with IC 292, 293 and 294, on 11 Sep 1888 and recorded "eeeF; S; R: in field with Algol."  His position is just off the northwest edge.  Barnard independently discovered the galaxy (as well as the other Swift discoveries) on 26 Nov 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He communicated the result directly to Dreyer who didn't notice the equivalence with the previous entry.  As a result, IC 290 = IC 1884. See Harold Corwin's notes.

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IC 292 = IC 1887 = UGC 2567 = MCG +07-07-030 = CGCG 540-049 = PGC 11846

03 10 12.9 +40 45 56

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 75d

 

18" (11/22/03): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 0.9'x0.4', very weak concentration.  Located 2.4' S of a mag 10 star at the west edge of AGC 426.  NGC 1212 lies 10' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 292 = Sw VIII-17, along with IC 293, on 11 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF; pS; R; * nr s; bet 2 st.; in field with Algol."  His position is fairly accurate.  E.E. Barnard independently discovered this galaxy (as well as IC 293) on 23 Nov 1888 while sweeping near Algol with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer and he recatalogued it as IC 1887.  So, IC 292 = IC 1887.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 294 = IC 296 = IC 1889 = UGC 2574 = MCG +07-07-033 = LGG 088-012 = PGC 11878

03 11 03.1 +40 37 20

V = 13.8;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  PA = 106d

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 E-W, 24"x18", weak concentration.  Three similar stars are near; a mag 14.5 star is 0.6' NW, a mag 14 star is 1.4' WNW and another mag 14 star is 1.1' WSW.  IC 292 lies 13' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 294 = Sw VIII-19, along with IC 290, 292, 293 and 295, on 11 Sep 1888 and recorded "vF; pS; iR; in finder field with Algol."  Barnard independently found this galaxy (along with IC 292 and 293) while sweeping near Algol on 23 Nov 1888 and noted "faint, moderately size, follows several stars."  Barnard send the discovery notice directly to Dreyer at some point so it also has the designation IC 1889.  Swift placed IC 295 close southeast, but there is nothing there.  IC 296 = Sw VIII-21, discovered by Swift just 3 nights later, is perhaps another observation (position matches and nothing else nearby he might have picked up, except for faint stars).  So, IC 294 = IC 296 = IC 1889 (and perhaps IC 295!).  CGCG labels this galaxy as IC 296 while MCG and RC3 lists it as IC 294.

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IC 296 = IC 294 = IC 1889 = UGC 2574 = MCG +07-07-033 = LGG 088-012 = PGC 11878

03 11 03.1 +40 37 20

V = 13.8;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  PA = 106d

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 E-W, 24"x18", weak concentration.  Three similar stars are near; a mag 14.5 star is 0.6' NW, a mag 14 star is 1.4' WNW and another mag 14 star is 1.1' WSW.  IC 292 lies 13' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 296 = Sw VIII-21 on 14 Sep 1888 and described as "eF, pS, irr R, F D * p."  His position is a good match with UGC 2574.  This galaxy was probably discovered 3 nights earlier by Swift and recorded as VIII-19 (later IC 294).  Some sources identify this galaxy as IC 294, others as IC 296 or both.  IC 1889 is an independent discovery by Barnard a couple of months later.

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IC 298 = Arp 147 = I Zw 11 = VV 787 = UGCA 57 = CGCG 390-016 = MCG +00-09-015 = PGC 1190197 = PGC 11890

03 11 18.9 +01 18 53

V = 14.6;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 126d

 

48" (10/23/11): at 488x both components of this ring system were easily resolved.  The eastern "collider" component (identified as IC 298A in PGC but IC 298B in NED) appeared moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 N-S, 24"x9", very small brighter core.  The ring component (no nucleus) just west is a faint, small, irregularly round glow, ~20" diameter with a low but very uneven surface brightness.  The rim was slightly brighter, creating a weak annular appearance, particularly on the east side.  The system is located 3' NW of a mag 9.3 star.

 

18" (1/26/09): at 285x appeared very faint and small, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, ~18"x9", low even surface brightness.  Located 3' NW of mag 9.3 SAO 111034.  This is a remarkable pair of disrupted galaxies (Arp 147) forming a "10" or "IC" on images.  The fainter western component (collisional Ring), forming the "C" or "0" was not visible.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 298 = J 2-580 on 29 Dec 1893 and recorded "Small, nearly round, 1 'in diameter. It looks like the nebula covers two very small bright spots."  Based on his description, it appears Javelle saw both components described in my observation.  MCG appears to misidentify IC 298 as MCG +00-09-015 instead of MCG +00-09-014.  Although IC 298 applies to both systems, PGC identifies the ring as IC 298 and the eastern component as IC 298A, while NED identifies the ring as IC 298A and the eastern system as IC 298B.

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IC 302 = UGC 2595 = MCG +01-09-002 = CGCG 416-004 = PGC 11972

03 12 51.3 +04 42 25

V = 12.8;  Size 1.9'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 21d

 

24" (12/1/16): at 225x and 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, 0.8' diameter, fairly low nearly even surface brightness.  No distinct core, but occasionally a faint stellar nucleus seen.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 302 = J. 2-581 on 15 Dec 1892 and described "pretty faint, pretty small, round, 40" diameter, stellar nucleus."

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IC 304 = UGC 2609 = MCG +06-08-005 = CGCG 525-010 = LGG 089-001 = PGC 12080

03 15 01.4 +37 52 55

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 27d

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, elongated ~5:3 SSW-NNE, ~25"x15", slightly brighter nucleus.  A mag 14 star is 30" SE and a mag 13 star is 1.2' SE.  Forms a pair with IC 305 1.4' SSE.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 304, along with IC 305, while searching for double stars on 12 Sep 1890 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  The micrometric position (measured by Barnard) is accurate.

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IC 305 = CGCG 525-012 = MCG +06-08-006 = PGC 12083

03 15 03.8 +37 51 36

Size 0.8'x0.6';  PA = 45d

 

24" (1/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, small, round, very small bright nucleus, compact, 15" diameter.  Appears brighter (higher surface brightness) than CGCG mag of 15.7 suggests.  A mag 13 star is 50" NE.  Forms a close pair with IC 304 1.4' NNW.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 305, along with IC 304, while searching for double stars on 12 Sep 1890 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.

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IC 309 = MCG +07-07-043 = CGCG 540-072 = LGG 091-001 = PGC 12141

03 16 06.3 +40 48 16

V = 13.5;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (1/7/89): faint, small, round, even surface brightness.  Situated between two mag 12 stars 1' NW and 1.4' SE.  UGC 2617 lies 5' NNW but was not seen.  Member of AGC 426.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 309 = Sw VIII-26 on 11 Sep 1888 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; bet 2 st."

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IC 310 = UGC 2624 = MCG +07-07-045 = CR 6B = PGC 12171

03 16 43.1 +41 19 29

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (12/19/87): moderately bright, fairly small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with UGC 2626 3.7' NE.  Member of AGC 426.

 

17.5" (12/3/88): fairly faint, fairly small, round, small bright core.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 17 year-old son, discovered IC 310 = Sw VIII-28 on 3 Nov 1888 and recorded "vF; pS; R; [NGC] 1259, 1260 in field."  The position matches UGC 2624, probably the brightest member of AGC 426 that is not in the NGC.

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IC 312 = UGC 2644 = MCG +07-07-051 = CGCG 540-086 = LGG 088-004 = PGC 12279

03 18 08.4 +41 45 16

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 125d

 

24" (1/28/17): at 282x; moderately bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.4', small bright core.  PGC 12288, just 1.9' SE, appeared faint, small, elongated ~3:1 SSW-NNE, ~20"x7".  A mag 14-14.5 star is at the northeast end.  NGC 1265, a low surface brightness galaxy with a bright star superimposed, lies 6' NNE of IC 312.

 

17.5" (1/7/89): faint, small, oval NW-SE.  A mag 13 star is 1.2' E of center.  Forms a pair with PGC 12288 1.9' SE within AGC 426.  The companion appeared very faint, very small, elongated SW-NE.  A mag 15 star is just off the NE edge.

 

17.5" (8/12/88): faint, small, elongated NW-SE, brighter core.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 312 = Sw VIII-29 on 3 Nov 1888 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; nearly bet. 2 stars."  His position is accurate though MCG doesn't doesn't equate MCG +07-07-051 with IC 312.

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IC 313 = UGC 2682 = MCG +07-07-073 = CGCG 540-111 = LGG 097-005 = CR 45 = PGC 12558

03 20 58.1 +41 53 38

V = 14.1;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 42d

 

24" (2/7/16): fairly faint, small, round, 24" diameter, slightly brighter nucleus.  A double star 14.5/14.5 (separation ~6") is 30" SE, just off the southeast edge.  A superimposed star barely south of the nucleus was not noticed.  IC 316 lies 4.6' NE and a mag 10.5 star is 2.5' N.

 

17.5" (1/7/89): very faint, very small, almost round.  A mag 14 star (close double) is off the southeast edge 30" from center.  Forms a pair with IC 316 4.5' NE within AGC 426.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 313 = Sw VIII-33, along with IC 316, on 14 Sep 1888 and recorded "eeF; vS; R; e close D * v near south."

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IC 314 = NGC 1289 = UGC 2666 = MCG +00-09-054 = CGCG 390-055 = PGC 12342

03 18 49.8 -01 58 24

V = 12.6;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 100d

 

See observing notes for NGC 1289.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 314 = Big. 140 on 14 Dec 1887.  His position matches UGC 2666 = PGC 12342.  This galaxy was discovered by Lewis Swift on 1 Sep 1886 and described as "vF; S; R; 4 st following in a row.", but his RA was off by 11 seconds.  Howe measured an accurate micrometric position for NGC 1289 and reported "the "4 st following" are of about mag 10, and are not close together, the farthest being perhaps 10' from the nebula."  It's clear that IC 314 = NGC 1289, although Dreyer didn't make the connection.

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IC 316 = UGC 2688 = MCG +07-07-074 = CGCG 540-112 = PGC 12576 +12578

03 21 19.9 +41 55 50

V = 14.1;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 64d

 

24" (2/7/16): IC 316 is a spectacular interacting/merging pair of spiral galaxies with the nuclei of the two galaxies separated by only 11".  The close duo is embedded in a irregular common halo about 1' across.  At 226x, a single fairly faint glow was seen, slightly elongated ~N-S, ~25" diameter.  At 452x (10mm ZAO + 2x Powermate), I immediately noticed a nearly stellar nucleus [of the northern face-on spiral] offset near the north edge creating an unusual appearance.  Often a very faint "spike" [the southern edge-on spiral] was seen close south of the stellar nucleus, angling towards the southeast, ~15"x5".

 

17.5" (1/7/89): faint, small, oval ~N-S, weak concentration.  Located 5' ENE of IC 313 in AGC 426.  A companion is superimposed 0.2' S, but the merged systems were not resolved.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 316 = Sw VIII-34, along with IC 313, on 14 Sep 1888 and recorded "eeeF; pS; R."  So, Swift did not resolve the two nuclei.

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IC 324 = NGC 1331 = ESO 548-019 = MCG -04-09-012 = IC 324 = PGC 12846

03 26 28.3 -21 21 19

V = 13.4;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

See observing notes for NGC 1331.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 324 on 3 Dec 1888.  His position matches ESO 548-019 = PGC 12846, which was discovered by William Herschel in 1799 and catalogued as H III-959 (later NGC 1331).  His single position on this sweep is 22 seconds of RA too small and happens to fall close to ESO 548-016 = PGC 12827, a galaxy too faint to have been seen by Herschel. In the "Scientific Papers of William Herschel", Dreyer notes for NGC 1331: "This is IC 324, 11 seconds following, 1.2' S of NGC 1332.  NGC 1331 is to be struck out."  The RNGC misidentifies ESO 548-016 as NGC 1331.

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IC 329 = MCG +00-10-001 = CGCG 391-002 = WBL 102-001 = PGC 13109

03 32 01.4 +00 16 46

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 63d

 

24" (12/1/16): at 225x;    First in an trio with IC 331 4.5' E (roughly symmetrically placed on the east side of the bright star) and IC 330 4.7' NNE.  The three galaxies (catalogued as the group WBL 102) form an isosceles triangle.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 329 = J. 1-115, along with IC 330 and IC 331, on 4 Dec 1891.  He reported "faint, very small, round, with slight condensation."

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IC 330 = MCG +00-10-002 = CGCG 391-004 = WBL 102-002 = PGC 13117

03 32 08.0 +00 21 12

V = 14.4;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  PA = 78d

 

24" (12/1/16): at 225x; fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, 30"x10", small brighter core.  A mag 11.8 star is 1.4' NNE.   Situated 3.9' N of mag 8.3 HD 21926 in a trio with IC 329 and IC 330.  These two galaxies lie  ~2' W and 2.5' E of the bright star, respectively, so the trio has a striking arrangement with IC 330 forming the northern vertex of an isosceles triangle.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 330 = J. 1-116, along with IC 329 and IC 331, on 4 Dec 1891.  He reported "faint, roughly round, 15" diameter, slightly brighter center."

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IC 331 = MCG +00-10-003 = CGCG 391-005 = WBL 102-003 = PGC 13119

03 32 19.1 +00 16 57

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.9'

 

24" (12/1/16): at 225x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, very small bright nucleus.  IC 331 lies 2.6' E of mag 8.3 HD 21926 and is the third in a trio with IC 329 (2' WSW of the bright star) and IC 330.  It's slightly brighter and larger than IC 329.  Although none of these galaxies are bright, the arrangement with the bright star is striking.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 331 = J. 2-117, along with IC 329 and IC 330, on 4 Dec 1891.  He reported "mag 13 star surrounded by nebulosity, nebulous character uncertain."

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IC 334 = UGC 2824 = MCG +13-03-007 = CGCG 346-006 = PGC 13759

03 45 16.9 +76 38 17

V = 11.3;  Size 2.5'x1.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 58d

 

17.5" (1/9/99): surprisingly bright for an IC galaxy!  The center is sharply concentrated with a bright 1' core and a much fainter irregular halo at least 2.5' in diameter.  A faint star is superimposed at the south side of the core.  Situated in a starry field with several mag 12/13 stars within a few arcmin.

 

William Denning discovered IC 334 on 30 Sep 1891 with his 10-inch reflector.  He called it "tolerably bright, pretty small" and noted "an extremely faint star involved on the S. side of the nebula.  The latter is fairly conspicuous with a power of 60, and much brighter in the middle."

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IC 335 = IC 1963 = ESO 358-026 = MCG -06-08-031 = LGG 094-008 = PGC 13277

03 35 31.0 -34 26 49

V = 11.9;  Size 2.6'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 84d

 

18" (1/21/04): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated ~E-W, 1.5'x0.4', slightly brighter core, tapering extensions (spindle-shaped).  Located 7.5' E of a mag 11.5 star.  This is one of the brighter non-NGC galaxies in the Fornax I cluster.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 335 = Sw VII-8 on 15 Oct 1887 and recorded "pF pS; eE; east and west."  His position is 30 seconds of RA west of ESO 358-026 = PGC 13277.  Swift found this galaxy again on 7 Sep 1897 and logged "pB; S; eeeE; a hair line 90”.  See note."  The note mentions "these [along with IC 2135] are the most interesting nebulae I have ever seen, especially No. 56 [IC 1963], which is a nebulous hair-line of one uniform size from end to end."  His second position was 37 seconds of RA too far west (both positions have the same declination) though clearly refers to the same edge-on.  Dreyer assumed they were different, but IC 335 = IC 1963.

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IC 342 = UGC 2847 = MCG +11-05-003 = PGC 13826

03 46 48.6 +68 05 47

V = 8.4;  Size 21.4'x20.9';  Surf Br = 14.9

 

17.5" (12/16/95): very unusual galaxy, appears as a very faint, very large glow surrounding a 1' high surface brightness core that increases to a bright stellar nucleus.  The irregular halo is difficult to trace but extends to ~10' diameter with a number of superimposed stars including a striking 6' string of six mag 10.5-12.5 stars oriented NW-SE on the southwest side of the halo.  No arm structure was seen.  The core forms a small triangle with two similar superimposed mag 11 stars 1.0' N and 2.0' NE.  Situated just 10.6” above the galactic plane and suffers from significant dust obscuration.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): at 144x the nucleus is prominent as a mag 12 "fuzzy" star.  At this power the outer halo disappears.

 

8" (10/13/81): very faint, large, very diffuse outer halo, very small prominent 12th magnitude nucleus.  A line of three stars is superimposed.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 342 on 11 Aug 1890 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "with 500x it is quite a bright object, 1/2' dia and quite [?], mbM, not cometary.  Object 1' S of this star [shown on sketch] and following 3s or 4s." His rough position and sketch (showing the superimposed linear strings of stars) is an excellent match.

 

William Denning independently discovered IC 342 on 19 Aug 1892 while comet hunting with his 10-inch reflector.  The discovery was announced in a short note, "New nebula", Astronomy and Astro-Physics, 12, 189 (1893).  As Barnard never published his discovery or informed Dreyer, Denning is credited with the discovery in the IC.

 

In a note by Hubble and Seyfert titled "A Spiral Nebula of Unusually Large Dimensions" (Harvard College Observatory Bulletin No. 899, pp.16-17): "In a letter written to Dr. J. L. Dreyer before 1894, Mr. W. F. Denning, the well known meteor observer of Bristol, included in a short list of new nebulae an object in the position 3h 37m 8s, +67d 46.9' (1900), which was simply described as "pretty bright, very small, star of 12th magnitude close to nucleus."

 

Hubble and Humason (1934), first recognized this object as a spiral galaxy and suggested the possibility that IC 342 was a possible Local Group member (heavily reddened) based on its recessional velocity, though it was later shown to be too distant.  IC 342 is one of the brightest members of the IC 342/Maffei Group that incudes NGC 1560, NGC 1569 and highly obscured Maffei I and 2.

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IC 343 = ESO 548-066 = MCG -03-10-029  = LGG 100-003 = PGC 13495

03 40 07.1 -18 26 37

V = 13.2;  Size 1.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 118d

 

17.5" (12/11/99): faint, small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 30"x20".  Situated between two mag 13 stars 1.6' E and 2.0' SW of center.  Located 8' N of NGC 1407 in a group of 8 NGC galaxies.

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 343 = LM(S) 160 on 14 Oct 1887 and noted "lE 90”, dif."  His micrometric position in the 1893 catalogue of "Southern Nebulae" (#160) matches ESO 548-066.

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IC 344 = MCG -01-10-020 = PGC 13568

03 41 29.5 -04 39 58

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

13.1" (12/7/85): first of three on a line with NGC 1417 and NGC 1418.  Extremely faint, round, very diffuse.  Detectable with averted vision only 20% of time.  Located 7.3' WNW of NGC 1417.

 

John Herschel discovered IC 344 = h305 = LM(S) 163 = Sw IX-13 on 17 Oct 1827 and simply recorded "the first of 3 [with H II-455 and H II-456]".  His position matches MCG -01-10-020 = PGC 13568, although he thought the object was identical with H-III 569 = NGC 1397. So, both the GC (756) and NGC (1397) misidentify h305 as H III-569.  As a result, h305 did not receive a separate NGC designation and IC 344 is JH's only discovery with an IC designation.  This galaxy was also observed at Birr Castle (and missed on several occasions).

 

Lewis Swift independently found the galaxy again on 23 Dec 1889, reported "eeF; pL; R; passed in line with 1417-18; cometary; unable to refind it; seeing good.  Failed also at Harvard College Observatory [during a visit]."  Frank Muller also found it in late 1887 while measuring positions for NGC 1417 and 1418.  Dreyer credited both JH (h305) and Swift in the IC.  Sherburne Burnham measured IC 344 (Publ of Lick Observatory, II) and correctly sorted out the confusion with JH's observation.

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IC 347 = MCG -01-10-024 = PGC 13622

03 42 32.6 -04 17 55

V = 12.7;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 40d

 

13.1" (12/7/85): fairly faint, small, almost round, stellar nucleus.  Surprisingly bright for an IC galaxy.  Located 26' N of NGC 1418 in the NGC 1417 group.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 347 = Sw IX-14 on 25 Dec 1889 and recorded "eF; vS; R; stellar."

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IC 348 = IC 1985 = Cr 41 = OCL-409 = vdB 19 = LBN 758 = Ced 20

03 44 36 +32 10

V = 7.3;  Size 10'x10'

 

17.5" (12/16/95): IC 348 is an unusual object consisting of a scattered group of stars with associated nebulosity situated near a large dark cloud virtually devoid of stars.  The cluster consists of 15 stars of varying magnitudes in a 6' group located 5'-10' S of Omicron = 38 Persei (V = 3.8).  The brightest star in the group is mag 8.4 SAO 56680, which has two nearby companions and the group is clearly encased in a fairly bright reflection nebula, ~3' diameter.  The star at the southwest end of the cluster is a nice close evenly matched double (·437 = 9.8/10 at 11").  The immediate 50' low power field to the south is strangely devoid of almost all stars! (Barnard 3 and 4).  Omicron also has a halo but this appears to be scattered light.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 348 = Sf 70 on 1 Dec 1866 and recorded "vL, pB, vgbM."  He added the footnote "a loose cluster with nebula" and his position is accurate.  E.E. Barnard independently discovered the nebulosity near Omicron Persei (though not a cluster) on a plate taken 6 Dec 1893 at Lick Observatory and Dreyer catalogued it again as IC 1985.

 

The Lynga position for the scattered cluster is about 8' too far north and this error is repeated in the Sky Catalogue 2000.

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IC 349 = Barnard's Nebula = vdB 22 = Ced 19i

03 46 20.1 +23 56 23

Size 0.5'

 

48" (10/31/13):  IC 349 is a reflection knot just 36" SSE of Merope.  We used 813x and carefully placed Merope barely outside the north edge of the field.  The orientation was easy to judge using two 15th magnitude stars 1.8' S and 1.8' SSW of Merope and the elongated glow fell between the diffraction spikes.  Despite the glare from Merope making the observation much more difficult, I was surprised this small reflection nebula was fairly bright and elongated (roughly pointing south from Merope) with a straighter western edge, perhaps 20"x10" in size.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 349, a fan-shaped knot of nebulosity just 0.6' SSE of Merope, visually on 14 Nov 1890 using the Lick 36" refractor.  It was announced in a discovery note in AN 3018.  "On Nov. 14 while examining the cluster, I discovered a new and comparatively bright round cometary nebula close south and following Merope, every precaution was taken to prove that it was not a ghost of Merope by examining the other stars of the group under the same conditions.  I have since seen it several times and on Dec. 8th I could see it with some difficulty in the 12-inch by occulting Merope with a wire in the eyepiece.  With the great telescope the nebula can be seen fairly well with Merope in the field and is conspicuous when the star is placed just outside the north edge of the field.  It is about 30" in diameter, of the 13th mag, gradually brighter in the middle, and very cometary in appearance.  It was examined with powers of 300, 520 and 1500, with all of which it was comparatively easy."

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IC 351 = PK 159-15.1 = PN G159.0-15.1

03 47 33.0 +35 02 49

V = 11.9;  Size 8"x6";  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (3/1/03): swept up at 100x as a fuzzy mag 12 "star".  Nice view at 380x, which reveals a moderate surface brightness 7" disk.  Fairly evenly illuminated but the halo has a slightly irregular surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is 20" WNW of center with a slightly fainter star further north.  Located 3.4' NW of mag 9.5 SAO 56707.  A mag 11 and 13 stars complete a trio to the SE. 

 

17.5" (1/8/00): picked up at 100x as an out of focus mag 11 "star".  At 220x, this high surface brightness PN was clearly nonstellar and slightly oval with a hint of a sparkle (central star) at the center.  At 500x, appeared as a small, well-defined disc, elongated 4:3 SW-NE with dimensions ~7"x5".  The quasi-stellar center was brighter with a small, fainter halo that seemed irregular.  A couple of faint stars are close west and north.  Located 3.5' NW of a distinctive trio of mag 10/11/13 stars.

 

8" (12/4/80): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated SW-NE.  A wide trio of stars is about 3.5' SE consisting of mag 9 SAO 56707, a mag 10.5 star and a mag 12.5 star (separations of 32", 36" and 58").

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 351 on 5 Dec 1890 with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory, while examining the region near Comet Zona.  He estimated a diameter of 4.6" and a magnitude of 10.5-11.  Sherburne Burnham measured a diameter of 10".

 

Based on a Crossley photographs, Curtis (1918) described, "central star can be made out and is perhaps as bright as mag 14.  The nebula shows a minute elliptical disk, which is 8"x6" in PA 10” in a 5 minute exposure.  An elongated brighter patch is in the center."

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IC 356 = Arp 213 = UGC 2953 = MCG +12-04-011 = PGC 14508

04 07 46.5 +69 48 45

V = 10.5;  Size 5.2'x3.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 90d

 

48" (2/18/12): bright, large, oval 3:2 E-W, 3.0'x2.0', large brighter core.  There appears to be a very slightly brighter streak extending from the core to the southwest.  Several stars are superimposed on the halo.  UGC 2955 is 9' SSE and PGC 166486 = 2MASX J04083779+6950160 lies 4.7' NE.

 

17.5" (11/2/91): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated 3:2 E-W, 2.25'x1.5'.  Contains a large brighter core 30" diameter with a fairly faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star is embedded in the NE portion of halo.  Located 3.5' S of mag 8.6 SAO 13024.  This is one of the brightest IC galaxies.

 

8" (11/28/81): very faint, round, diffuse, even surface brightness.  Located south of a mag 9 star.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 356 on 23 Aug 1889 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  His simple eyepiece sketch clearly identifies the neighboring stars.  Barnard didn't publish his discovery until 1892 (AN 3097) in response to an independent discovery by William Denning on 7 Nov 1890 (Observatory, 15, 104 (1892)).  Barnard's article was titled "Two Probably Variable Nebulae".  In the article he mentions "from its brightness it is not possible that it has been so conspicuous for any great length of time, or it would surely have been found by Swift and others."

 

Both Barnard and Denning are credited in the IC.  Denning was a bit peeved about Barnard's late discovery note and wrote "Mr. Barnard claims to have discovered [IC 356] in August 1889 whereas I did not pick it up until Nov 1890.  While admitting this claim, I would venture to remark that anyone who makes a discovery ought to be prompt in announcing it, as a delay of several years is very likely to cause misconception and unnecessary trouble to others.  I think that in ordinary cases priority of announcement ought to be accepted as priority of discovery."  He also questioned Barnard's claim that the nebula had recent brightened, stating "I have picked up this object many times during the last two years  without noticing any change in it other than can be fully accounted for by differences  in atmospheric conditions."

 

But perhaps Barnard wasn't the first to discover this galaxy.  Swift claimed (Astro-Physics, Vol XI, 566) an earlier discovery before 1879 based on marking the object on his Burritt's star atlas, though he didn't record or remember any particulars, stating he thought his early discoveries were all known!

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IC 357 = UGC 2941 = MCG +04-10-016 = CGCG 487-016 = PGC 14384

04 03 44.0 +22 09 33

V = 13.2;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 175d

 

24" (2/14/15): at 375x; fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, contains a very small brighter core.  A mag 12 star lies 1.5' E and two additional stars form an isosceles triangle (sides 2', 2' and 3').  Located 14' WNW of 4.3-magnitude 37 Tauri.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 357 = Sf. 73 on 1 Jan 1867 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  He reported "F, S, R, Nucl = 13.5m".

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IC 359 = UGC 2980 = MCG +05-10-009 = CGCG 508-008 = PGC 14653

04 12 28.4 +27 42 08

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

17.5" (3/1/03): easily swept up at 100x.  At 280x appears faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, weak concentration to a slightly brighter core and nucleus.  A mag 15 star is just off the WSW edge [26" from center].  A mag 15.5 star is ~1.5' ~1' E (other nearby stars surround the galaxy on the DSS).

 

This number is incorrectly applied to the reflection nebula GN 04.15.5 = LBN 782 at 04 19.0 +28 17 (2000) in NGC 2000, Lynds, Neckel and Vehrenberg, etc.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 359 = Sw X-14 on 25 Dec 1891 and recorded "eeF; pL; R; Not no. 29 cat. 2.  That is still missing."  There is nothing at his position but 1 min of RA west is UGC 2980.  This galaxy is not identified as IC 359 in MCG (+05-10-009) and IC 359 is misidentified as the reflection nebula GN 04.15.5 = DG 29 = LBN 782 at 04 19.0 +28 17 (2000) in NGC 2000, Lynds, MOL, Neckel and Vehrenberg, etc (private communication with Corwin on 10/3/94).  LBN 782 is 6.5 min of RA following Swift's position and according to Dave Riddle, is the tail of cometary nebula Ced 30 = Hubble 4 = Hubble's "nebulous star".

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IC 361 = Cr 48 = Mel 24 = OCL-393 = C 0414+581

04 18 51 +58 15 00

V = 11.7;  Size 6'

 

18" (11/26/03): very faint cloud of partially resolved stars, ~4' in diameter.  A number of fairly uniform mag 14-15 stars are just resolved over haze, though it's difficult to tally a total. A brighter 7' string of mag 11-12 stars oriented NW-SE passes along the north edge of the cluster.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 361 on 10 Oct 1890 with the 6 1/2" refractor at Lick Observatory.  He recorded in his logbook, "In 6 1/2 inch it is apparently a very faint nebula between two or three stars.  In 12-inch (175x) it is pL, excessively faint and seems to be an excessively faint cluster or extremely faint stars, with possibly some nebulosity - power too high."  His simple sketch shows the cluster on line with two 6th magnitude stars to the southwest and the identity is certain.   William Denning found it again on 11 Feb 1893 with his 10-inch reflector (see The Observatory, 41, 140) and is credited with the discovery in the IC as Barnard never published his discovery or notified Dreyer.

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IC 362 = MCG -02-11-031= PGC 14782

04 16 42.4 -12 12 00

V = 13.2;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  PA = 3d

 

24" (12/1/16): fairly faint to moderately bright, oval 3:2 N-S, 36"x24", brighter core, very small brighter nucleus with direct vision.  Lies ~2' N of a pair of a wide pair [40" separation] of mag 13 stars.

 

MCG -02-11-030 lies 12' S.  This galaxy appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 NW SE, 30"x18", small bright nucleus.  A mag 12 star is 1.3' ESE of center and mag 9.4 HD 27112 is 3' SW.  This galaxy has an identical redshift, so apparently is a physical companion.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 362 = J. 1-121 on 14 Oct 1891 and reported "pretty bright, round, 10" diameter".  His position is accurate.

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IC 366 = CGCG 393-002 = PGC 14887

04 19 41.5 +02 21 35

Size 0.35'x0.2';  PA = 20d

 

24" (12/28/16): at 282x; faint, very small, round, 12" diameter.  Closest galaxy to NGC 1550 in a large group at z = .012.

 

24" (12/22/14): faint, small, round, 12" diameter.  Located 3.1' SSE of much brighter NGC 1550.

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham discovered IC 366 on 5 Oct 1890, while observing NGC 1550 with the 36" refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "That found by d'Arrest [NGC 1550] is at least six or eight times brighter than the other.  There is a faint star, about 13m, between the two."  His micrometric offset from NGC 1550 is very accurate.

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IC 367 = MCG -02-12-001 = PGC 14917

04 20 41.0 -14 46 52

V = 13.4;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 140d

 

24" (1/28/17): at 282x; fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 45"x15", slightly brighter along the spine of the central part of the major axis.  Located 16' SE of mag 7.8 HD 27499.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 367 = J. 1-122 on 7 Dec 1891 and recorded "pB, pL, diffuse."  His position matches MCG -02-12-001 = PGC 14917.

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IC 368 = MCG -02-12-009 = PGC 14994

04 22 42.7 -12 36 55

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  PA = 169d

 

24" (1/28/17): at 282x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 25"-30" diameter, slightly brighter core, faint stellar nucleus.  A 9' chain of mag 11.5-14 stars oriented SW-NE extends across the east side at 200x (13mm Ethos).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 368 = J. 1-123 on 15 Oct 1891.  His position is accurate.

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IC 373 = MCG -01-12-013 = PGC 15335

04 30 42.7 -04 52 13

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.9'

 

17.5" (12/26/00): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter.  Gradually increases to a brighter core.  In a line of 3 stars oriented N-S and ~2' from two mag 11 stars to the north and south.  Located 19' NW of NGC 1600 in a group.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 373 = J 2-595 on 11 Feb 1893.  His position is accurate.

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IC 374 = MCG +03-12-001 = CGCG 467-001 = PGC 15474

04 32 32.8 +16 38 03

Size 0.8'x0.4';  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (1/31/87): faint, extremely small, round, brighter core, possibly elongated ~E-W.  Visible with direct vision at 220x.  Located 3.2' NE of a mag 9 star.  Two stars mag 11/12 7' E and 9' ENE are collinear with the mag 9 star.  Located 48' W and 7' N Aldebarran.  Appears almost stellar on the POSS.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 374 = Spitaler 4 on 28 Oct 1891 with the 27-inch refractor at the Vienna Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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IC 381 = NGC 1530A = UGC 3130 = MCG +13-04-007 = CGCG 347-006 = PGC 15917

04 44 28.5 +75 38 24

V = 12.3;  Size 2.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (3/1/03): picked up at 100x as a moderately large, low surface brightness galaxy.  Brightens somewhat towards the center.  A mag 13 star is superimposed near the edge of the halo.  At 220x, the star is at the north edge and the galaxy is elongated 4:3 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.6', although the edge of the halo is difficult to define.

 

William Denning discovered IC 381 on 26 Aug 1889 with his 10-inch reflector in England and recorded "F, S, bM, * 12 np."  Harold Corwin comments that IC 381 was called "NGC 1530A" in Philip Keenan's 1935 paper discussing magnitudes of galaxies.

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IC 382 = (R)NGC 1632 = MCG -02-12-049 = PGC 15691

04 37 55.5 -09 31 10

V = 12.2;  Size 2.3'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (1/23/93): fairly faint, moderately large, round, 1.5' diameter, gradually increases to small bright core.  A 10' string of stars extends towards the NW.  Appears brighter and larger than NGC 1632 30' ENE!  Misidentified in the RNGC as NGC 1632.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 382 = J 2-587 on 6 Feb 1893.  His position is accurate.  RNGC and NGC 2000.0 incorrectly equates IC 382 = NGC 1632.  See NGC 1632.

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IC 386 = NGC 1632? = PGC 15769

04 39 58.5 -09 27 23

V = 14.4;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (1/23/93): very faint, small, round, weak concentration, low surface brightness.  Located 3.1' SSW of a mag 10.5 star.  IC 382 lies 30' WSW.  Misidentified in the RNGC as IC 382.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 386 = J 2-601 on 6 Feb 1893.  His position corresponds with PGC 15769.  This galaxy is probably NGC 1632, discovered by Frank Muller in 1886.  Muller's position is 0.8 minutes too far east, a common error in the Leander McCormick positions.  RNGC and NGC 2000.0 identify IC 382 as NGC 1632. Although IC 382 is brighter than IC 386, it is 4' off in declination and so less likely to be Muller's object.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 391 = UGC 3190 = MCG +13-04-011 = CGCG 347-009 = PGC 16402

04 57 21.7 +78 11 25

V = 12.7;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (3/1/03): easily swept up at 100x; fairly faint, moderately large, round, fairly even surface brightness.  At 220x, embedded in the middle of a scattered group of stars, 1' diameter, nearly uniform surface brightness, possibly slightly elongated ~E-W, 1.0'x0.9'.

 

William Denning discovered IC 391 on 7 Nov 1890 with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector from England.  He simply noted "F, S, R." and measured a fairly accurate position.

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IC 392 = UGC 3158 = MCG +01-13-001 = CGCG 420-002 = LGG 120-014 = PGC 15973

04 46 25.9 +03 30 22

V = 12.3;  Size 1.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (2/11/96): faint, fairly small, irregularly round, 1.0' diameter, even concentration to a very small brighter core.  Located 2.3' WNW of a mag 10 star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 392 = J 2-604 on 6 Jan 1894.  His position matches UGC 3158, although neither UGC nor MCG equate their entry with IC 392.

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IC 395 = NGC 1671? = UGC 3178 = MCG +00-13-015 = Holm 80a = PGC 16095

04 49 34.1 +00 15 10

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (2/11/96): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 45" diameter.  At first appeared elongated but this illusion was caused by a mag 14.5 star at the following edge 25" from center.  Another mag 13.5-14 star is 1' W.  This galaxy may be NGC 1671 with a very poor position.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 395 = Sw IX-15 on 20 Oct 1889 and reported "eF; vS; R; F * close f."  His position is 10 seconds west of UGC 3178. Howe measured an accurate position around 1900 and noted the faint star follows by 1.5 seconds of time.  It is possible NGC 1671 = Sw V-63 also refers to this galaxy, though this requires Swift's earlier position to be off by 45 seconds in RA and 1 degree in declination.  His description "pB * nr sp" applies, though, to IC 395.

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IC 396 = UGC 3203 = MCG +11-07-002 = CGCG 306-007 = CGCG 307-001 = PGC 16423

04 57 59.0 +68 19 23

V = 12.0;  Size 2.1'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (3/1/03): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2, 1.2'x0.8', small bright core is extended NNW-SSE.  This galaxy is fairly bright for the IC galaxy and was immediately swept up at 100x.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 396 on 20 Sep 1890 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted a "small, indef, 12 1/2 mag, field marked by 3 or 4 pairs of stars.  The neb = 3/4' diameter, somewhat brighter in the middle [difficult to read]." His rough position is off by 16', but he made an accurate field sketch that clearly identifies this galaxy.  He later computed an accurate position using the coordinates for his offset star (HD 30530). William Denning independently discovered it just a month later (19 Oct 1890), describing "F, S, R< bMN, F double star Sf."  Denning was credited with the discovery in the IC as Barnard never notified Dreyer.

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IC 399 = Mrk 1090 = LGG 123-007 = PGC 16582

05 01 44.1 -04 17 19

V = 14.8;  Size 0.3'x0.3'

 

48" (11/2/13): at 375x appeared moderately bright, fairly small, round, 18", fairly high surface brightness with a very small bright nucleus.  Located 2.3' SE of the HCG 31 quartet.  A mag 11.4 star lies 1.5' NW, between IC 399 and the quartet.

 

17.5" (2/8/97): very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, low even surface brightness.  This galaxy is located just 2.3' SE of NGC 1741 = HCG 31A and 2.5' SE of a mag 12 star on a line, although it was not listed as a group member.  Nevertheless, it is part of the same group, with a similar redshift as HCG 31A, 31B and 31C.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 399 = Spitaler 35 on 25 Feb 1892 with the 27-inch refractor at the Vienna Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.  The MCG and NGC 2000 incorrectly equate IC 399 with NGC 1741.  See Malcolm Thomson's IC identification notes.

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IC 401 = Mrk 1092 = MCG -02-13-040 = LGG 126-002 = PGC 16672

05 04 19.6 -10 04 36

Size 1.6'x0.6';  PA = 56d

 

24" (1/28/17): at 282x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, ~40"x18", sharply concentrated with a small bright nucleus and low surface brightness extensions (arms).  Situated at the midpoint of mag 9.7 HD 32646 4.4' S and a mag 11.6 star 4.2' N.

 

Arp 187 lies 13' SE.  It appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, ~25"x12", weak concentration.  Arp 187, a remnant merger, is a disrupted radio galaxy with radio jets and extremely faint narrow tidal tails to the north and south (not seen).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 401 = J. 2-605 on 9 Feb 1893 and noted "very faint, round, 20" diameter, very small nucleus."  His position matches PGC 16672.

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IC 405 = Flaming Star Nebula = LBN 795 = Sh 2-229 = Ced 42 = vdB 34

05 16 12 +34 16

Size 30'x19'

 

18" (1/20/07): IC 405 was barely visible without filter as a very low surface brightness hazy region mainly to the north of the mag 6 "runaway star" AE Aurigae.  The H-beta filter somewhat increases the contrast of the nebulosity.  The haze is brightest in the region surrounding AE and extends mostly in a broad fan for 10'-15' to the north and northeast.

 

17.5" (2/8/86): the "Flaming Star" nebula is a very faint, large, diffuse nebulosity extending mainly north of AE Aurigae without filter.  Enhanced with an H-beta filter.

 

13.1" (12/7/85): very low surface brightness haze at 62x using an H-beta filter, though nebulosity seen to 15' diameter and extending generally to the north and northeast of AE Aurigae.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): nebulosity highly suspected on east side of AE Aurigae.

 

John Martin SchŠeberle discovered IC 405 photographically on 21 Mar 1892 using the Willard lens strapped to the 6-inch Clark refractor at Lick Observatory.  An announcement ("A Large New Nebula in Auriga") and description was given in PASP, Vol 4, No. 22.  Wolf also photographed it on 25 Sep 1892 (AN 131 [3130], 159) and in 1903 reported this nebula "looks like a burning body from which several enormous curved flames seem to break out like gigantic prominences".  He urged his colleagues to aim their spectroscopes at this "flaming star" - hence the name "Flaming Star Nebula".

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IC 407 = MCG -03-14-013 = PGC 17056

05 17 42.6 -15 31 24

V = 13.5;  Size 1.9'x0.35';  PA = 165d

 

24" (1/28/17): at 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 3:1 ~N-S, 45"x15", fairly low surface brightness, broad concentration but no distinct core or nucleus.  Located 6.7' NNE of mag 8.6 HD 34528.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 407 = J. 1-134 on 7 Dec 1891 and noted "faint, little elongated N-S."  His position matches MCG -03-14-013 = PGC 17056.

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IC 409 = MCG +01-14-024 = CGCG 421-026 = PGC 17105

05 19 33.6 +03 19 06

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  PA = 25d

 

24" (1/28/17): at 450x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated.  A stellar or quasi-stellar nucleus is offset at the SSW end with an occasional second extremely faint stellar nucleus close northeast.  The two nuclei are separated by only 7"!  Situated in a busy star field 7.5' SW of mag 9.9 HD 242763.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 409 = J. 2-607 on 12 Jan 1894 and recorded, "pretty bright, nearly round, the central condensation is possibly double."  His position matches  CGCG 421-026 = PGC 17105.

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IC 410 = LBN 807 = Sh 2-236 = Ced 43

05 22 36 +33 31

Size 40'x30'

 

24" (1/4/14): at 125x unfiltered; emission nebulosity is evident surrounding and beyond the borders of open cluster NGC 1893, but the only a large patch to the northwest of the cluster stands out well.  A UHC filter transformed the nebula to a showpiece and it appeared bright, very large (~30' diameter), very irregular with a large darker patch to the west of the central portion of the cluster.  The brightest section of nebulosity is to the NW of the cluster (as noticed without a filter), though mag 9.0 HD 242908 (a hot 04-type star) at the NW tip of the cluster is at the east edge of this bright, 6' circular patch.  Somewhat fainter nebulosity envelops the entire cluster but an extensive field of nebulosity continuous south of the cluster for an additional 10'.  It was difficult to see a clean edge on the south and west side as the nebulosity seems to gradually fade away, but the entire diameter is at least 25'.

 

The cometary "Tadpoles" nebulae Simeis 130 and 129, which contain recently minted stars, lie on the east end of the cluster.  The "head" of Simeis 130 was immediately picked up at 200x as a very small, fairly high surface brightness knot with at least one star involved.  At 260x and 375, two very close "stars" oriented WSW-ENE were embedded in the glow, with the ENE object quasi-stellar (would not focus to a sharp point) and perhaps a very tight pair. Although impressive on images, there was no sign of the wavy tail extending from the "head" towards the NE.  Mag 9.1 BD+33 1028, 3' E of Simeis 130, along with a 6' group of a half-dozen mag 10-11 stars, were visually detached to the NE of the main cluster.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): very faint nebulosity involved with open cluster NGC 1893.  The brightest portion is at the NW edge of cluster.  A dark "hole" is just south of this nebulosity.  More extensive nebulosity is suspected but difficult to confirm due to the general background haze of the cluster.  Enhanced with UHC and OIII filters.

 

13.1" (2/25/84): nebulosity is evident preceding the NW star of the triangle of stars surrounding the cluster.  Very faint but definite with a filter in poor transparency.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 410 on 25 Sep 1892 on a Heidelberg plate.  In AN 3130, p159, he noted the plate revealed a group of stars and a large nebula surrounding the star BD +33”1023.  His position matches the brightest star (mag 9.0 HD 242908) in the nebula.  NGC 1893 refers only to the open cluster, which was discovered by John Herschel.

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IC 412 = IC 2123 = UGC 3298 = MCG +01-14-034 = CGCG 421-041 = VV 225b = VV 630 = WBL 114-002 = PGC 17180

05 21 56.7 +03 29 11

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 30d

 

24" (1/12/13): both members of this interacting pair (VV 225) are fairly faint, small, roughly 20"-25" in size, and each contains small bright cores.  IC 412, the northwest component, is larger and more elongated , roughly 5:3 SW-NE, 25"x15".  IC 413 is just off the ESE side, 35" between centers. A mag 12.3 star is 30" ENE (at the north edge of IC 413).  The stretched spiral arm or tidal tail to the north was not seen. The pair is 14' WSW of the bright double 23 Ori = STF 696 (5.0/7.2 at 32").  IC 414 lies 8.5' S.

 

Member of a group (WBL 114 = LGG 130) at a distance of ~180 million l.y. with UGC 3294, 34' WNW.  This spiral appeared moderately bright and large, contains a very diffuse, low surface brightness halo perhaps 1.3'x0.6' NW-SE with a small brighter core that increases to a stellar nucleus.  The outer halo changes appearance with averted vision (no sharp edge) based on what part catches my averted vision.  Situated 4' W of mag 6.5 HD 34959 and the glare affects the view -- best with star placed outside the field.

 

17.5" (12/26/00): this is the northwest member of an unusual close pair of interacting galaxies with IC 413 -- just 35" separation (in PA 115”) and both members appearing to extend from a mag 12 star (30" from centers to star)!  Both galaxies are faint, very small, slightly elongated, ~25"x15", with small brighter cores.  IC 412 is elongated SSW-NNE and 30" SW of the mag 12 star - with the NE end just west of the star.  Located 6' SSW of mag 7.6 SAO 112679 and 14' WSW of the (32") mag 5/7 double 23 Orionis.  A third galaxy, IC 414, is in the field 8.5' S, forming the poor galaxy cluster WBL 114.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 412 = IC 2123, along with IC 413 = IC 2124, on 30 Oct 1888 while sweeping with the 12-inch telescope of Lick Observatory.  He noted "the nebulae are very small, roundish, mbM.  Close south of a small star."  His field sketch confirms the identification.  Sherburne Burnham who discovered nearby IC 414, also observed and measured the pair at Lick Observatory (Publ of Lick Observatory, II).  The discovery was communicated at some point directly to Dreyer.

 

Stephane Javelle independently found the pair (J. 608 and 609) on 12 Jan 1894.  These observations became IC 412 and 413 (Javelle's descriptions used), though Barnard is also credited. So IC 412 = IC 2123 and IC 413 = IC 2124.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 413 = IC 2124 = UGC 3299 = MCG +01-14-035 = CGCG 421-042 = VV 225a = VV 630 = WBL 114-003 = PGC 17181

05 21 58.9 +03 28 56

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 135d

 

24" (1/12/13): this is the southeast component of the close interacting pair VV 225.  At 375x it appeared fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, ~22"x17", sharply concentrated with a very small, high surface brightness nucleus.  A mag 12.3 star is just 25" N of center and a mag 16.2 star is 46" SSW. IC 412 is just 35" NW and roughly similar in appearance.  IC 414 lies 8.5' S.

 

17.5" (12/26/00): the southeast member of an unusual interacting pair (tidal tails on DSS image) of similar galaxies with IC 412 just 35" NW and both galaxies straddle a mag 12 star!  IC 413 appears similar to IC 412 - ~25"x15", slightly elongated NW-SE with a small brighter core.  The northwest tip of the galaxy is virtually in contact with the mag 12 star.

 

See notes for IC 412 = IC 2123.

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IC 414 = MCG +01-14-033 = CGCG 421-040 = WBL 114-001 = PGC 17179

05 21 55.0 +03 20 31

Size 0.4'x0.3';  PA = 135d

 

24" (2/5/13): faint to fairly faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 24"x18", weak concentration.  Located 8.5' S of the interacting pair VV 225 = IC 412/413.

 

17.5" (12/26/00): faint, small, round, 25" diameter.  Located 9' S of the IC 412/413 pair and 2' NW of mag 9.4 SAO 112675.

 

Sherbourne Burnham discovered IC 414 on 8 Nov 1891 with the 36" refractor at Lick Observatory while sweeping for IC 412 and 413.  The latter pair was discovered earlier by Barnard using the 12-inch at Lick.

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IC 416 = MCG -03-14-014 = PGC 17229

05 23 56.4 -17 15 37

V = 13.3;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 68d

 

24" (1/28/17): at 375x; fairly faint but easy, elongated ~5:3 WSW-ENE, 0.5'x0.3', fairly low and even brightness.  Located 19' SSW of mag 5.65 HD 35505.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 416 = J. 2-610 on 18 Feb 1893 and recorded, "faint, poorly defined, little elongated, gradually condensed."  His position matches MCG -03-14-014 = PGC 17229.

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IC 417 = LBN 804 = Sh 2-234 = Ced 46

05 28 06 +34 26

Size 13'x10'

 

18" (1/20/07): large, irregular faint haze, ~8'-9' diameter.  Involved with open cluster Stock 8 (35-40 stars at 115x) in the field of 5.2-magnitude Phi Aurigae.  Mild contrast gain with a UHC filter.  NGC 1931 lies 45' ESE and NGC 1907 is 53' N.

 

17.5" (2/9/02): this large HII region encases the open cluster Stock 8 and is situated ~6' SE of 5th magnitude Phi Aurigae.  At 140x, the cluster consists of 40-50 stars including two mag 10 (the brightest is the wide double ·707 = 9.7/11.4 at 18") and numerous mag 12-14 stars.  With a UHC filter (or OIII filter at 100x), the cluster is encased in a moderately bright glow, ~8'x5'.  The nebulosity is brightest in a triangular wedge, tapering towards the south with the two mag 10 stars oriented N-S (2' separation) along the western boundary.  The glow is irregular but has a fairly sharp border along the western edge.

 

8" (12/6/80): faint nebulosity involved with three stars mag 9-11 including ·707 = 9.7/11.4 at 18".  The brightest portion is located 8' SE of Phi Aurigae (V = 5.1).  Embedded in the open cluster Stock 8.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 417 on 25 Sep 1892 on a Heidelberg plate.  In AN 3130 (131), p159, he noted a "vast nebula envelopes the star cluster" and his position is within the cluster.

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IC 418 = PK 215-24.1 =  PN G215.2-24.2 = Spirograph Nebula = Raspberry Nebula

05 27 28.2 -12 41 50

V = 9.3;  Size 12"

 

48" (2/18/12): at 488x, the sharply defined, vivid raspberry annulus appeared relatively thin and extended NNW-SSE, ~14"x12".  The high contrast central dark hole was striking surrounding the bright central star.  Surrounding the annulus is a faint outer halo, increasing the size to roughly 20".

 

48" (4/2/11): truly impressive view at 375x and 488x, which revealed a very high surface brightness, slightly elongated halo, ~14"x12", surrounding the very bright central star.  I was surprised to see the planetary was clearly annular with a very bright, irregular rim that varied slightly in thickness and a fairly high contrast darker hole surrounding the central star.  The ring's outer rim was a shocking, deep raspberry color.  The color was more intense at 375x and slightly more saturated along one-half of the annulus.

 

18" (1/26/09): striking view at 175x with the mag 10.5 central star blazing within a 10" disc with a crisply defined halo.  Excellent contrast gain using an H-beta filter with the central star nearly lost with the high surface brightness disc.  There appears to be a very faint, thin envelope surrounding the main 10" disc extending a few arc seconds.  At 285x, the planetary is slightly oval NNW-SSE with subtle variations in surface brightness; slightly weaker around the central star and slightly brighter along portions of the rim.

 

18" (1/15/07): at 115x, the bright mag 10.5 central star is surrounded by a small 10" disc with a noticeable raspberry tint.

 

17.5" (2/22/03): at 100x, the bright 10.5 magnitude central star was centered in a 10" round halo with a definite rosy or raspberry tint at the outer edge of the halo, though the effect is fairly subtle.  Using an H-beta filter, the central star is strongly dimmed but the halo is significantly enhanced, dramatically changing the view of this planetary.  At 380x, no color was visible but the halo was a bit asymmetrical with a "softer" edge and possible double shell structure.  The center was very slightly darker around the central star.

 

17.5" (12/30/99): at 82x the mag 10.5 central star was enveloped in a very small round halo which appeared to have a slight reddish tinge at its edge.  This is a low-excitation PN and using a H-beta filter, the halo brightened and the central star faded, leaving a more noticeable disc.  At 220x, the prominent central star was surrounded by a well-defined 10" halo that partially "blinked" on and off switching from averted to direct vision.  At 280x, the small halo was possibly surrounded by an extremely faint envelope, but this could not be confirmed.  380x and 500x presented a superb view of the inner disc which appeared weakly annular.

 

17.5" (3/8/97): unusually bright mag 10.5 central star surrounded by a small high surface brightness halo.  At 220x, this planetary has a distinct "blinking" effect; staring at central star partially washes out the halo and with averted the halo is more dominant.  At 82x, an unusual rosy tinge is evident at the edge of the small halo, although the effect is fairly subdued.  The seeing was not steady enough for high power viewing of the outer shell.

 

17.5": high surface brightness planetary, appears very bright at 481x.  Contains a bright "fuzzy" central star with a bright inner portion surrounded by a second fainter shell slightly elongated N-S.

 

13" (10/20/84): very bright, small, takes 350-410x well, bright central star, subtle shell structure.

 

8" (2/5/81): nearly stellar at 100x, bright, appears as a mag 10 star with a small, faint bluish halo.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 418 on 26 Mar 1891 based on a spectrum plate taken at Harvard College Observatory.  In a letter communicated by Pickering in AN 3049, she mentioned the hydrogen spectrum was unusually large for a planetary.  Pickering is attributed with the discovery in the NGC.

 

Based on Crossley photographs, Curtis (1918) reported, "central star of mag 19, surrounded by a bright somewhat elliptical ring 14"x11" in outside diameter, and about 12"x10" along its central line; pa 163”."  Walter Scott Houston may have made the first visual observation in 1945 using a 10" reflector.

 

A star is plotted at this position on the Uranometria 2000.0 Atlas because the BD catalogue included the central star.

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IC 420

05 32 09.5 -04 31

Size 8'

 

18" (2/19/09): large, extremely faint reflection nebula surrounding mag 8.2 HD 36540.  Appears roughly 6' in diameter.  The surrounding field seems weakly luminous, but the glow surrounding the star is slightly more evident and extends roughly to mag 8.8 HD 36559 located 4.5' SE.  Located 45' W of the bright, scattered cluster NGC 1981 and 50' NW of the bright nebulous cluster NGC 1977 (north of M42).

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 420 = HN 63 on 27 Jun 1888 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate.  She noted "very faint nebulosity preceding and a little south of DM -4”1162.  Not confirmed by Plate 2414."  Edward Pickering announced the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).  Photographs taken with the Bache telescope, a photographic 8-inch f/5.5 doublet, covering 10 degrees square, were examined by Fleming with a magnifying glass.

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IC 421 = UGCA 111 = MCG -01-15-001 = PGC 17407

05 32 08.5 -07 55 05

Size 3.2'x2.8';  PA = 80d

 

24" (2/7/16): fairly faint, very large, slightly elongated ~E-W, ~2' diameter, broad fairly weak concentration, so the surface brightness of this reddened galaxy is fairly low.  A wide double star (HJ 2271 = 10/11.5 at 19") is 6.4' NNW.  MCG -01-15-002 = VV 848 is 14' NE.  This disrupted galaxy appeared faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 24"x18", contains a slightly brighter nucleus.  The tidal tail to the southwest was not seen.

 

17.5" (2/14/99): very faint, moderately large low surface brightness glow, ~2' diameter, very weak concentration, ill-defined halo fades into background.  A mag 13 star lies 2.3' ESE of center.  The galaxy is collinear with two wide brighter unequal pairs 6' NNW and 13' NNW.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 421 = HN 66 on 27 Jun 1888 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate of the M42 region.  She described "faint nebulosity about 2' in diameter."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annal publication (1890AnHar..18..113P) and he was credited with the discovery in the IC.  The published position is 10' too far south.

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IC 423 = LBN 913 = Ced 52

05 33 24 -00 37 00

Size 6'x4'

 

17.5" (12/26/00): fairly faint, large, slightly elongated NW-SE, ~5' diameter.  A couple of mag 12.5 stars are superimposed.  The edges fade into the background.  Photographically, this reflection nebula has an irregular ring shape.  Located 28' SE of mag 2.2 Delta Orionis (top star in Orion's Belt).  Nearby IC 424 to the NE was not noted, though observed on 2/19/09.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 423 = HN 58 on 27 Jun 1888 during a photographic survey of the M42 region at the Harvard College Observatory.  She noted a "irregular oval ring having diameters 3' by 5'.  The position angle of the larger axis is about 165”." Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P) and is credited with the discovery in the IC.  Fleming examined photographs taken with the Bache telescope, an 8-inch f/5.5 doublet covering 10 degrees square, with a magnifying glass.

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IC 424

05 33 36 -00 25

Size 2.0'x1.0'

 

18" (2/19/09): faint, fairly small reflection nebula, ~2' in diameter.  Involving 4 or 5 stars with the two brightest at mag 13-14 forming a 35" pair oriented E-W.  Located 3' NE of mag 8.3 HD 36683 and 25' ESE of mag 2.2 Mintaka (Delta Orionis).  IC 423 (observed previously) is located 12' SSW.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 424 = HN 56 on 27 Jun 1888 during a photographic survey of the M42 region at the Harvard College Observatory.  Edward C. Pickering announced the discovery in the 1908 Harvard Annals publication and he is credited with the discovery in the IC.  IC 423 was described as a "Nebula about 2' in diameter, brightest on the following side."

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IC 426 = LBN 921 = Ced 55j

05 36 31 -00 17 54

Size 5'x5'

 

18" (11/22/03): at 115x, surprisingly large reflection nebula just following a mag 8.6 star.  Appears ~7'x5' in diameter and oval E-W, though the outline is ragged.  There are a number of brighter stars nearby and the nebula is situated northeast of a distinctive N-S chain of 5 stars mag 8.6-10.  A distinct border runs E-W just following the mag 8.6 star.  An OIII filter killed the nebula, though I didn't try either a UHC or H-beta filter.  Located 1” NNE of Alnilam (middle star in Orion's belt).

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 426 = HN 57, along with IC 423 and 424, on 27 Jun 1888 during a photographic survey of the M42 region at the Harvard College Observatory.  Edward C. Pickering reported the discovery in the 1908 Harvard Annals publication and he is credited with the discovery in the IC.  IC 423 was described as a "faint nebula about 5' in diameter."

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IC 428 = Bernes 120

05 36 23 -06 27 02

 

18" (2/5/11): at 108x, this difficult reflection nebula appears as a very faint, hazy glow just west of mag 8 HD 37210, which detracts from viewing.  A mag 11 star may be involved.  Located 15' N of NGC 1999.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 428 = HN 64, along with IC 427, on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate on 27 Jun 1888 and noted "perhaps this object should have been included with No. 15 [IC 427]."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).

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IC 429 = PP 37 = V883 Ori

05 38 19.2 -07 02 24

 

18" (1/21/04): this cometary nebula appears as a very weak, small enhancement, ~10" diameter, about 2' NE of a wide pair of mag 13 stars located 13' NW of mag 4.8 49 Orionis.  At moments it appeared stellar or an extremely faint star is involved.  Located at the northwest tip of reflection nebula IC 430, which extends primarily to the northwest of mag 4.8 49 Orionis

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 429 = J 2-612 on 6 Feb 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  Dave Riddle noted the equivalence with Parsamyan-Petrossian 37.

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IC 430 = Ced 55k

05 38 33.2 -07 05 07

Size 11'x11'

 

18" (1/21/04): very faint, fairly large low surface brightness glow to the northwest of mag 4.8 49 Orionis, ~4'.  Extends to a wide pair of mag 13 stars.  This reflection nebula needs to be reconfirmed as the bright star may have confused the observation.   See IC 429, which lies at the northwest tip of IC 430.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 430 = HN 65 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate taken on 27 Jun 1888.  She noted a "nebulous band 3' wide extending 10' north preceding from DM -7” 1142."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P)."

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IC 431 = LBN 944

05 40 13.4 -01 27 45

Size 5'x3'

 

17.5" (12/26/00): very faint, hazy glow surrounding mag 7.7 SAO 132436 and 11' WNW of brighter IC 432, which encases a mag 7.5 star.  Located 30' NNW of Zeta Orionis!

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 431 = HN 61 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate taken on 27 Jun 1888.  She noted "nebulosity surrounding DM -1” 1001."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).

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IC 432 = LBN 946 = Ced 55m

05 40 56.2 -01 30 26

Size 8'x4'

 

13.1" (1/11/86): very faint glow surrounding mag 7.5 SAO 132446, diffuse appearance.  Located 27' N of Zeta Orionis.

 

8" (12/6/80): faint, diffuse, 4' diameter, envelops a mag 8 star.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 432 = HN 60 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate taken on 27 Jun 1888.  She noted "well-marked nebulosity surrounding DM -1” 1005.  Unlike most nebulous stars, the nebulosity does not fade away towards the edges.  It looks rather like an irregular oval nebula on which a star was superimposed."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).

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IC 434 = LBN 953 = Sh 2-277 = Ced 55n

05 41 00 -02 24

Size 60'x10'

 

13.1" (1/11/86): using an H-beta filter IC 434 appears a very faint, very large, very elongated strip of nebulosity running south of Zeta Orionis for almost one degree in a N-S direction.  There is a well-defined sharp edge along the east side while the west side fades off into the background.  Contains the famous dark nebula B33 = "Horsehead Nebula" as a dark "notch".  IC 434 extends beyond NGC 2023 off the east edge and the star density drops off significantly east of IC 434 whereas a number of faint stars are pepper the field to the west of IC 434.  This is one of the few emission nebulae that responds very well to a H-Beta filter.  Extremely difficult without filter.

 

24" (1/21/12): the view of the Horsehead through a 24" f/4.1 Starmaster using a Collins I3 image intensifier mated with a narrowband H-alpha filter at the Mauna Kea visitor center (9300') was absolutely stunning.  The outline stood out in extremely sharp relief like a photograph and the dark cloud was pitch black against the bright background.  I'm not sure of the magnification used but the field was 30' or less and the Horsehead was large enough to show exquisite detail in the outline.

 

17.5" (12/26/00 and 12/28/00): at 100x using an H-beta filter, the huge IC 434 strip was very prominent and easy to follow south from Zeta Orionis throughout the entire 50' field of view.  The boundary was razor-sharp along its eastern edge against a background sky darkened by the H-beta filter.  The Horsehead was very easy to view as a nearly black, semi-circular 4' indentation that protruded into the nebulosity.  With averted vision there was a short extension or knob on the north side.  This forms the snout of the horse and with concentration faint nebulosity is visible just below (east) of the snout.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): easily held with direct vision using the H-beta filter.  The head or snout protrudes to the north.

 

17.5" (9/14/85 and 10/12/85): the Horsehead Nebula appears as a jet black dark nebula using an H-beta filter at 84x superimposed against the fairly prominent emission nebula IC 434.  Appears as a semi-circular indentation or "bite" of 5' diameter along the sharply defined eastern edge of IC 434 "strip" which extends through field in a N-S orientation.  Significant contrast gain with and H-Beta filter which renders the background sky and B33 extremely dark.  Difficult to see the "snout" feature which protrudes to the north but it is detectable.  Mag 8.5 SAO 132451 lies 8' N.

 

13" (1/18/85): visible with direct vision with H-Beta filter and striking with averted.  The snout was suspected.  The contrast between B33 and the sky was high with the background jet black and sharply outlined against the easy glow of IC 434.  Best view with 24mm.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 434 on Harvard College Observatory plates in 1883. Edward Pickering announced the discovery (along with a number of other Orion nebulae) in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).  She also described the dark notch (later dubbed the "Horsehead") as "A large nebulosity extending nearly south the Zeta Orionis for about 60'.  More intense and well marked on the following side with a semicircular indentation 5' in diameter 30' south of Zeta. All good plates of this region show this object, and it has been used here as a test for some time." Dreyer didn't mention the "indentation" in the IC description.

 

Harold Corwin comments that "Some people have suggested that it was actually found by WH.  This is not true; WH's comment (see Latusseck, J. Astron. Data 14, 4, 2008 where it is reprinted) "Wonderful black space included in Nebulosities" refers to NGC 2024, not to IC 434."

 

But Wolfgang notes that on 1 Feb 1786 (sweep 518), WH recorded a large region of nebulosity extending roughly 2” north-south, not far east of IC 434.  He noted "I am pretty sure the places of which these are the boundaries are all full of diffused milky nebulosity; but notwithstanding I used every means of ascertaining it by motion of the telescope, my range was neither far enough, nor sufficiently quick to put it beyond doubt.  He assigned it internal discovery number (1321), which became H. V 35 (first of 4 different fields associated with that designation).  Wolfgang Steinicke feels it may apply to IC 434, though Herschel's RA is about 3 minutes too large, so this identification is very uncertain.

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IC 435 = Ced 55q

05 43 00 -02 19

Size 5'x3'

 

13.1" (1/18/85): at 88x with OIII filter appears as a very faint and difficult circular nebulosity surrounding mag 8.3 SAO 132478.  Located 20' ESE of bright NGC 2023.

 

Williamina Fleming discovered IC 435 = HN 59 on a Harvard College Observatory photographic plate taken on 27 Jun 1888 and noted "Nebulosity surrounding DM -2”1350."  Edward Pickering published the discovery in the 1890 Harvard Annals publication (1890AnHar..18..113P).  Photographs taken with the Bache telescope, a photographic 8-inch f/5.5 doublet, covering 10 degrees square, were examined by Fleming with a magnifying glass.

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IC 438 = ESO 555-009 = MCG -03-15-025 = UGCA 115 = LGG 134-003 = PGC 18047

05 53 00.1 -17 52 34

V = 12.0;  Size 2.8'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (3/8/97): fairly faint, moderately large, nearly 2' diameter.  Appears as a diffuse roundish glow with a very weak, broad concentration.  A mag 14.5 star is attached at the NE end 1.0' from the center.  A 1' pair of mag 10 stars precedes by 3.5'.  Located 8' SSE of mag 8.6 SAO 150914.  Forms a pair with IC 2151 7.7' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 438 = Sw X-15 = Sw XI-88 on 7 Jan 1891 and recorded "eeF; pS; E in meridian; wide D * nr preceding."  He found it again on 7 Oct 1897 and included it in list XI-88 as "vF; pL; R; v wide D * near p[receding]."  Howe noted the equivalence in his survey of IC objects (Monthly Notices, Nov. 1900) and discovered nearby IC 2151.

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IC 442 = UGC 3470 = MCG +14-04-003 = CGCG 362-022 = CGCG 363-005 = PGC 19306

06 36 11.9 +82 58 06

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

24" (2/7/16): IC 442 was picked up at 226x (10mm ZAO) as a fairly faint, fairly small round glow, ~18" diameter.  Adding a 2x Powermate (452x), two extremely close nuclei [separated by 8"] were resolved within the halo!  The nucleus in the south-southwest part of the halo (PGC 2787456) was almost seen continuously in periods of fairly steady seeing, while the north-northeast nucleus (PGC 19306) was a bit more subtle.  Both were stellar or quasi-stellar and towards the outer edges of the halo.

 

William Denning discovered IC 442 on 9 Nov 1890 while comet seeiking in Camelopardus with his 10-inch reflector.  He noted "F, S, R, mbM"

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IC 443 = LBN 844 = Sh 2-248 = Ced 73 = Simeis 40 = SNR G189.1+03.0 = Jellyfish Nebula

06 16 54 +22 47

Size 50'

 

18" (2/23/06): easily visible at 73x and OIII filter.  The brightest portion is a 5' elongated strip that very gently curves WNW-ESE.  Faint haze extends out from this strip towards the south and west.  An extremely faint extension of the strip continues to the SE and curves towards an obtuse triangle of three stars, increasing the length of the edge of the shell to over 10'.

 

17.5" (1/16/02): at 64x and OIII filter, the most prominent section of this supernova remnant is a gently curving band of nebulosity oriented NW-SE, ~10'x3' with a well-defined edge along the eastern (bowed-out) boundary. A larger region of low surface brightness haze, ~20' in size, spreads out to the west of the northern end.  At the SE end, the band dims and seems to hook to the SW towards a small arrowhead of stars.  Located ~2.5 degrees SE of M35 and following mag 3.3 Eta Gem.

 

17.5" (1/20/90): at 82x with OIII filter this supernova remnant appears moderately bright, large, elongated 5:2 NW-SE.  Appears a bit larger and brighter at the NW end.  Much fainter nebulosity is close south off the west end and a couple of mag 10 stars are superimposed. Surprisingly easy to view with an OIII filter.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): at 62x with filter, appears as a very faint elongated strip of nebulosity, perhaps 10' in length.  Not visible without a filter.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 443, along with IC 444, on 25 Sep 1892 with a 2 1/4" lens.  In AN 3130 (1892), he recorded finding "[Two] Very large and bright nebulous masses are visible there [near Mu and Eta Geminorum], which very roughly have their centers at approximately 6h 14m +24” [IC 444] and 6h 08m +22” [IC 443]."

 

E.E. Barnard independently discovered these two nebulae in 1894 and his report appeared in "Astronomy and Astro-Physics", Vol 8, No. 3, page 177, 1894.  Harold Corwin quotes Barnard's description, "On this same plate [taken on 1 Feb 1894 with a 2h 10m exposure] is a faint narrow curved nebulosity in about, 1860.0, 6h 8m + 23” 0'.  It is nearly 1/2” long, extending north and south and convex to the east."

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IC 444 = LBN 840 = Ced 74

06 19 22.5 +23 16 28

Size 8'x4'

 

17.5" (2/11/96): fairly easy, round reflection nebula surrounding mag 7.0 SAO 78225 (12 Gem), ~3' diameter.  Visible without filter in comparison with other nearby comparable stars.  This star forms the southern vertex of an equilateral triangle with mag 7 stars 12' N (SAO 78222 = 11 Gem) and a mag 7.5 star 13' NE.  The illuminating star is at the northwest edge of a large, scattered 15' triangular group of mag 9-13 stars (Cr 89?), with most of the stars forming the outline.

 

See IC 443.

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IC 445 = UGC 3497 = MCG +11-09-001 = PGC 19328

06 37 21.3 +67 51 36

V = 13.4;  Size 0.85'x0.7';  PA = 19d

 

24" (1/28/17): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 24" diameter, weak concentration.  Situated 3.8' SSE of mag 9.1 HD 46146.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 445 = Sw. VIII-42 on 6 Sep 1888 and recorded "eF, S, R, B * sf."  His position is off the northeast side of UGC 3497.  The bright star is northwest of the galaxy, not southeast.

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IC 446 = IC 2167 = LBN 898 = Ced 77

06 31 07 +10 27 18

Size 5'x4'

 

17.5" (1/23/93): fairly faint reflection nebula surrounds a mag 10-11 star. This bi-polar nebula is fairly large, about 2.5' diameter.  Appears to extend further (or is brighter) on the south side.  Bordered by three collinear mag 13 stars on the south side.

 

E.E. Barnard visually discovered IC 446 = IC 2167, along with IC 2169, on 11 Oct 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "a 9 1/2 mag star with largish faint nebula, a little heavier following." 

 

He later found it again photographically on 24 Jan 1894 with the Willard 6" lens and announced it in "Photographic Nebulosities and Star Cluster Connected with the Milky Way" (Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol XIII, No 3).  Based on this discovery note, Dreyer catalogued it as IC 446.  Barnard states, though, he first found it visually around 1888 "while sweep over this region..I also found a 10 mag nebulous star about half a degree north preceding 2245."  His position in this paper is accurate.  Apparently Barnard also sent Dreyer his original visual discovery, hence the two IC designations.  In any case, IC 446 = IC 2167.  This object is a bi-polar reflection nebula. Listed in article on bi-polar nebulae by Ronald Stoyan in Deep Sky Observer #12.

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IC 447 = IC 2169 = LBN 903 = Ced 78 = vdB 76 = vdB 77 = vdB 78

06 31 12 +09 54

Size 25'x20'

 

24" (1/31/14): picked up unfiltered at 200x, though low contrast as the entire field is patchy in faint stars and affected by some dust.  Seems roughly 20'x10, elongated N-S and includes several bright stars (Cr 95) with mag 7.9 HD 46005 near the center (illuminating star), mag 8.9 HD 258853 near the south end, and a mag 9.3 star at or beyond the NW end.  The contrast is significantly improved at 125x using a NPB filter and the outline is better defined, particularly at the southern end.  Although the nebulosity is slightly brighter to the south of HD 46005, there are no high surface brightness sections.

 

18" (2/4/08): at 175x unfiltered, this is a huge, interesting reflection nebula, ~25'x18', elongated N-S with an irregular outline and subtle variations in brightness.  A number of mag 8-10 stars are superimposed, including mag 8 HD 46005 (illuminating star) which is part of a 10' N-S string of four brighter stars on the east side. Nearby reflection nebulae include NGC 2245 ~30' NE, IC 446 35' N and NGC 2247 40' NE (this group forms the association Monoceros R1).

 

IC 2169 is located two degrees due west of the Christmas Tree cluster and the whole region of bright and dark nebulosity is part of the same molecular cloud complex Mon OB1.

 

E.E. Barnard visually discovered IC 447 = IC 2169, along with IC 446 = IC 2167, on 11 Oct 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "1 radius of 80x field [21'] south and 1 radius [21'] preceding the 7 1/2' m star [NGC 2245] is a large nebulosity, faint, that involves several 9 or 9 1/2 mag star.  Nearly 1/2” in size, irregular(?)".  His offset lands in the southern part of the nebula, though clearly he was referring the entire portion.  This discovery was not published but later sent directly to Dreyer.  He picked it up again on 26 Feb 1889 and logged "22' S and 22' p. the neb NGC 2245 is a vL neby, with some bright stars in it.  It is extended N & S nearly, 15 x 12' +/- diam.  There are 3 or 4 9th and 10th mag stars in a curve seemingly connected with it."

 

He found this reflection nebula again photographically on 24 Jan 1894 with the Willard 6" lens though and announced it in "Photographic Nebulosities and Star Cluster Connected with the Milky Way" (Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol XIII, No 3).  Barnard stated he first found it visually around 1888 "while sweep over this region, I found a very large, weak, diffused nebulosity some half a degree south of the nebula NGC 2245. This was mixed up with several considerable stars."  As a result, it was catalogued twice (IC 2169 = IC 447).

 

Barnard retracted his discovery of IC 447 in Lick Publications, Vol 11, incorrectly claiming it to be identical to NGC 2245.  Hubble included this object in his 1922 paper "A general study of diffuse galactic nebula" in Contributions from the Mount Wilson Observatory / Carnegie Institution of Washington, vol. 241, pp.1-38.

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IC 449 = UGC 3515 = MCG +12-07-014 = CGCG 330-012 = PGC 19554

06 45 41.1 +71 20 38

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 70d

 

24" (1/28/17): at 375x; moderately bright and large, slightly elongated E-W, ~45"x35".  Contains a relatively large brighter core.  Situated 4.1' WSW of mag 8.4 HD 47725.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 449 = Sw. VIII-43 on 6 Sep 1888 and recorded "pF, S, R, bM, bet 2 D st."  His position matches IC 449, so there's little doubt about the identification, though I'm surprised he didn't mention the nearby 8.5-magnitude star.

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IC 450 = UGC 3547 = Mrk 6 = MCG +12-07-018 = CGCG 330-017 = PGC 19756

06 52 12.3 +74 25 37

V = 13.9;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 129d

 

24" (1/28/17): at 375x; faint,  small, slightly elongated, 20" diameter, sharp stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with IC 451 4' NE.

 

William Denning discovered IC 450, along with IC 451, around 1890 with his 10-inch reflector.  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer as it was not published.   The IC positions for both galaxies are 6'-7' too far southeast.  Corrected positions were published in the 1937 paper "A study of faint northern galaxies" by Seyfert and Shapley (1937AnHar.105..219S).

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IC 451 = UGC 3550 = MCG +12-07-019 = PGC 19775

06 52 52.0 +74 28 51

V = 13.8;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 144d

 

24" (1/28/17): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 24" diameter, even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with IC 450 4.2' SW.

 

William Denning discovered IC 451, along with IC 450, around 1890 with his 10-inch reflector.  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer as it was not published.   The IC positions for both galaxies are 6'-7' too far southeast.  Corrected positions were published in the 1937 paper "A study of faint northern galaxies" by Seyfert and Shapley (1937AnHar.105..219S).

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IC 452 = NGC 2296 = MCG -03-18-003 = PGC 19643

06 48 39.1 -16 54 06

Size 1.9'x1.4';  PA = 145d

 

See observing notes for NGC 2296.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 452 = Big. 147, along with IC 453 = Big. 148 on 9 Mar 1890 while searching for NGC 2296.  Swift's discovery position was 0.7 min of RA too far east and 1' too far south, so Bigourdan assumed Big. 147 (later IC 452) was new.  Herbert Howe later measured an accurate RA for NGC 2296 in 1898 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes) so, NGC 2296 = IC 452.  His position for Big. 148 (IC 453) points directly to a star, according to Corwin.

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IC 454 = UGC 3570 = MCG +02-18-002 = PGC 19725

06 51 06.3 +12 55 19

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 140d

 

24" (2/7/16): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.3'.  A star (mag 13.5-14?) is superimposed near the northwest end.  Contains a slightly brighter nucleus, which is close southeast of the star.  There may be one or two additional mag 15.5-16 star near the periphery.  Since the galaxy appears to extend from the brighter star it has a comet-like appearance.  Situated in a rich Milky Way star field.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 454 = Sw IX-16 on 21 Jan 1889 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted "a faint nebula, elongated with 13 mag star attached to end N.p."  His rough RA (in his notebook) is about 24 seconds too large, but his small field sketch matches.  The discovery was probably not communicated to Dreyer as Barnard isn't credited in the IC.

 

Lewis Swift independently found this galaxy on 27 Dec 1889 and simply noted "eeF; S; e diff."  Swift's RA is 9 seconds too large and he gets the credit in the IC.  Howe measured an accurate position in 1898 and noted, "One or two stars are involved in this nebula."

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IC 455 = UGC 3815 = MCG +14-04-033 = CGCG 362-044 = CGCG 363-030 = LGG 145-012 = PGC 21334

07 34 57.7 +85 32 14

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 82d

 

18" (8/2/11): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, ~30"x25", fairly sharply concentrated with a small bright core that increases to a stellar nucleus.  Located 11' SSE of NGC 2300 in a group of far northern galaxies near +85” declination.

 

18" (3/13/04): fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter, weak concentration to a slightly brighter core.  With direct vision, a sharp stellar nucleus is intermittently visible.  Located 16' ESE of NGC 2276 and 11' SSE of NGC 2300.  This galaxy is the 5th closest to the celestial pole in the NGC or IC (2nd in the IC) and 3 of these 5 are visible in the same low power field!

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 455 on 20 Sep 1890 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  While comet hunting in the north, Barnard found NGC 2276, 2300 and IC 455.  He was confused on his pointing direction this far north, but made a field sketch including nearby stars and labeled the nebulae A (NGC 2276), B (NGC 2300) and C (IC 455, outside the 150x field).  He noted "C is 10' S and 3' foll B.  A is 2' diameter, faint, vglbM."  The sketch clearly identifies the three galaxies.  William Denning independently discovered IC 455 less than a month later on 17 Oct 1890 with his 10-inch reflector.  Denning is credited with the discovery in the IC as Barnard never published his discovery or notified Dreyer.

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IC 456 = ESO 427-024 = MCG -05-17-002 = PGC 19993

07 00 17.5 -30 09 50

V = 12.0;  Size 2.1'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (3/20/93): fairly faint, fairly small, round, gradually increases to a small bright core.  Located just 1' SW of mag 9 SAO 197461 and 6' SE of mag 7.1 SAO 197448.  Also mag 8.7 SAO 197447 lies 7' WNW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 456 = Sw X-16 on 19 Dec 1890 and recorded "vF; pS; R; B * close nf; B * with pB dist comp np."

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IC 457 = NGC 2330? = MCG +08-13-078 = CGCG 234-074 = WBL 133-001 = PGC 20272

07 09 28.4 +50 09 08

V = 14.7;  Size 0.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.2

 

17.5" (1/20/90): extremely faint and small, round.  A mag 15 star is 1' NE.  Located 2' SW of NGC 2332.  This galaxy is identified as IC 457 in the CGCG and UGC.

 

Hermann Kobold found IC 457 on 4 May 1893, along with 8 galaxies besides NGC 2332 and 2340, with the 18-inch refractor at Strassburg.  His position matches PGC 20272, which was discovered by Bindon Stoney at Birr Castle on 2 Jan 1851.  Although placed fairly accurately on a constructed diagram, no absolute positions were found so Dreyer relied on Bigourdan's measurement.  Unfortunately, Bigourdan's position refers to a faint star so the NGC position for NGC 2330 is erroneous.  Assuming PGC 20272 is the galaxy Dreyer had in mind as NGC 2330 (Malcolm Thomson disagrees), then NGC 2330 = IC 457 = PGC 20272.  UGC and CGCG label this galaxy as IC 457 and don't use the NGC designation.  See RNGC Corrections #5 and Corwin's notes for much more on this complicated story!

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IC 458 = UGC 3713 = MCG +08-13-085 = WBL 133-004 = PGC 20306

07 10 34.3 +50 07 06

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 175d

 

18" (12/18/06): fairly faint, small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 0.6'x0.4', weak concentration to center.  A mag 12.5 star is just off the south edge 0.6' from center.  In a small group with NGC 2340, IC 458, IC 461, IC 464, IC 465.

 

17.5" (1/20/90): very faint, very small, elongated 5:2 N-S, small bright core.  A mag 13 star is off the south end 36" from center.  In a field of four galaxies with NGC 2340 7' ENE, IC 464 5.0' ENE and IC 465 12' NE.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered IC 458, along with IC 459, 461, 464 on 31 Jan 1851 (shown on sketch) with LdR's 72".  The 1861 publication didn't include any details of the Birr Castle discoveries so this nebula was not included in the GC or GC Supplement.  Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 14 Sep 1888 (list VIII-44), as well as Hermann Kobold on 15 Apr 1893 (all 3 are credited in the IC).  Kobold's position (used in the IC) matches UGC 3713.  The MCG misidentifies +08-13-089 as IC 458.

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IC 459 = CGCG 234-082 = PGC 20311

07 10 38.7 +50 10 38

Size 0.5'x0.4'

 

18" (12/18/06): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, low surface brightness, no concentration.  Located 5' due west of NGC 2340 in the core of the cluster and 3.6' N of IC 458.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered IC 459, along with IC 458, 461, 464 on 31 Jan 1851 (shown on sketch).  Hermann Kobold discovered it independently at Strasbourg on 2 Dec 1893 (both Rosse and Kobold are credited in the IC).

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IC 460 = MCG +08-13-089 = CGCG 234-084 = WBL 133-007 = PGC 20318

07 10 44.3 +50 12 09

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.5'

 

18" (12/18/06): extremely faint galaxy in the core of the NGC 2340 group.  Just visible with averted vision and concentration as a 10" knot just off the northeast side of a mag 13 star [only 18" separation].  This star forms a pair with another mag 13 star 44" NW.  Located 4.5' WNW of NGC 2340 and 1.8' NNE of IC 459.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 460 on 2 Dec 1893 with the 18" refractor at Strassburg Observatory.  This galaxy was missed at Birr Castle when the cluster was observed in January 1851.

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IC 461 = MCG +08-13-088 = CGCG 234-083 = WBL 133-006 = PGC 20319

07 10 45.0 +50 04 53

Size 0.6'x0.35';  PA = 35d

 

18" (12/18/06): extremely faint, very small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 0.3'x0.2'.  This small galaxy is just preceding a 1.5' string of 3 mag 12-13 stars angling from SW to NE and 2.8' SE of IC 458 in the NGC 2340 group (second faintest of 7 in the field at 280x).

 

Bindon Stoney discovered IC 461, along with IC 458, 459, 464 on 31 Jan 1851 (shown on sketch) with LdR's 72".  Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 14 Sep 1888 (list VIII-45 and by Kobold on 8 Dec 1893 (all 3 are credited in the IC as Kobold's position was used).

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IC 464 = CGCG 234-087 = MCG +08-13-092 = WBL 133-009 = PGC 20332

07 11 04.8 +50 08 13

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 60d

 

18" (12/18/06): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.35', even concentration but with no defined core of nucleus.  Located 2.5' SSW of NGC 2340 in a rich group of galaxies with NGC 2350, IC 458, IC 459, IC 460, IC 461 and IC 465 in the same 280x field!

 

17.5" (1/20/90): faint, small, oval SW-NE.  Located 2.5' SSW of NGC 2340 in a group with IC 458 5.0' WSW and IC 465 8.1' NE.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered IC 464, along with IC 458, 459, 461 on 31 Jan 1851 (shown on sketch) with LdR's 72".  Lewis Swift probably found this galaxy again on 14 Sep 1888 (list VIII-45)Kobold measured an accurate position on 18 Jan 1893.

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IC 465 = NGC 2334 = MCG +08-13-098 = CGCG 234-095 = WBL 133-012 = PGC 20357

07 11 33.6 +50 14 53

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 70d

 

18" (12/18/06): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.5'x0.4', gradually increases to a very small, brighter core.  Furthest NE in a group of 7 galaxies in the field and 5.8' NE of the brightest member, NGC 2340.  This galaxy is generally identified as IC 465 as the NGC identification is questionable.

 

17.5" (1/20/90): faint, small, round, bright core.  Last of four galaxies in a 20' field and located 5.8' NE of NGC 2340.  Identification as NGC 2334 is uncertain.

 

Hermann Kobold found IC 465 on 4 May 1893, along with 8 galaxies besides NGC 2332 and 2340, with the 18-inch refractor at Strassburg.  His position matches PGC 20357, which was discovered by Bindon Stoney at Birr Castle on 2 Jan 1851.  Although placed fairly accurately on a constructed diagram, no absolute positions were found so Dreyer relied on Bigourdan's measurement.  Unfortunately, Bigourdan's position refers to a faint star so the NGC position for NGC 2334 is erroneous.  Assuming PGC 20357 is the galaxy Dreyer had in mind as NGC 2330 (Malcolm Thomson disagrees), then NGC 2334 = IC 465 = PGC 20357.  MCG, CGCG, PGC, SIMBAD all label this galaxy as IC 465 and not NGC 2334.  NED and HyperLeda give the equivalence.

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IC 466 = Sh 2-288 = LBN 1013 = Ced 92

07 08 36 -04 19

Size 1'x1'

 

17.5" (2/28/87): mag 12.5 star in an easy, very small, round nebulosity.  Located 1.5' SSW of a mag 10.5 star.  A wide pair of mag 10 stars lie 7' SW.  Enhanced with a UHC filter at 220x.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 466 = J 2-616 on 18 Feb 1893 with the 30-inch f/23 refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 467 = UGC 3834 = MCG +13-06-007 = PGC 21164

07 30 17.3 +79 52 21

V = 12.6;  Size 3.2'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (2/22/87): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated ~E-W, weak concentration.  A faint mag 15 star is near the SW end.  Located 20' SSE of NGC 2336.

 

William Denning discovered IC 467 on 7 Nov 1890 with his 10-inch reflector while comet hunting and recorded "vF, pS, 22' ssf of NGC 2336."  Although his position is poor, the identification is certain based on the description.

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IC 469 = UGC 3994 = MCG +14-04-038 = CGCG 362-047 = CGCG 363-035  = CGCG 364-001 = LGG 145-004 = PGC 22213

07 55 59.1 +85 09 32

V = 12.6;  Size 2.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 90d

 

18" (8/1/11): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 E-W, ~2.0'x0.8', broad concentration, brighter core increases to a slightly brighter nucleus.  This galaxy, NGC 2300 and IC 512 are the brightest within 5 degrees of the north celestial pole.  Situated within a triangle formed by mag 9 star 3.8' N, a mag 10 star 4.5' SW and a mag 10.5 star 3.7' SSE.  A 3' group of mag 11-13 stars is close NE.

 

17.5" (3/20/93): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 E-W, 2.0'x1.0', large brighter middle, broad concentration but no nucleus.  Surrounded by three mag 8.5-9.5 stars.  Mag 8.5 SAO 1236 just 3.8' N is at the west edge of a scattered group of 10 stars including a close, faint double (mag 14/14 at 10").  Mag 9.2 SAO 1224 lies 4.4' SW and mag 9.5 SAO 1237 is 3.6' S.  This galaxy is relatively bright for an IC galaxy.  UGC 3993 lies 14' S.

 

William Denning discovered IC 469 on 14 Sep 1890 with his 10-inch reflector while comet hunting and recorded "F, S, E, 46' sf of NGC 2336."

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IC 471 = UGC 3982 = MCG +08-14-035 = CGCG 235-033 = PGC 21659

07 43 36.4 +49 40 03

V = 13.3;  Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

24" (2/7/16): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 20" diameter, well concentrated with a small bright nucleus.  Forms a pair with IC 472 3.9' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 471 = Sw IX-17, along with IC 472, on 20 Apr 1890.  He recorded "eF; pS; R; np of 2 [with IC 472]."  His RA is 15 seconds too small, a similar offset as IC 472.

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IC 472 = UGC 3985 = MCG +08-14-036 = CGCG 235-034 = PGC 21665

07 43 50.3 +49 36 51

V = 13.4;  Size 1.6'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 167d

 

24" (2/7/16): at 260x; fairly faint to moderately bright, slightly elongated ~N-S, 30"x24", well concentrated with a roundish bright core.  Forms a pair with IC 471 3.9' NW.   Double star Es 1082 = 10.1/11.1 at 5.6" lies 4.7' SE and is collinear with the two galaxies.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 472 = Sw IX-18, along with IC 472, on 20 Apr 1890.  He recorded "eeF; pS; R; sf of 2 [with IC 471].  D * nr sf nearly points to both."  His position is 3' too far northwest, a similar offset as IC 471, and the double star is Es 1082.

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IC 476 = MCG +05-19-006 = CGCG 148-018 = WBL 152-002 = PGC 21796

07 47 16.3 +26 57 03

V = 15.0;  Size 0.6'x0.45';  PA = 102d

 

24" (2/16/15): at 300x appeared very faint, small, slightly elongated, 15"x12".  Appeared brighter at Willow Springs 3000 than two nights ago from Lake Sonoma.

 

24" (2/14/15): at 300x and 375x; extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Required averted vision and could not hold steadily.  Located just 1.5' NW of NGC 2449.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 476 = J. I-138 on 30 Jan 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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IC 478 = CGCG 148-055 = PGC 22109

07 53 41.6 +26 29 34

V = 14.7;  Size 0.65'x0.45';  PA = 12d

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; faint to fairly faint, small, round, 15" to 20" diameter, low even surface brightness.  A mag 14.5 star lies 2' W and a similar star is 1.6' NW.  IC 478 is located 4.5' SSW of mag 7.6 HD 64207, which detracts from viewing, and 16.5' SSE of mag 5.0 Phi Gem.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 478 = J. 1-140 on 2 Mar 1892 with the 30" Nice refractor.  He reported "very faint, very small, diffuse and without central condensation" and an accurate position.

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IC 479 = MCG +05-19-020 = CGCG 148-058 = PGC 22138

07 54 22.2 +27 00 32

V = 14.6;  Size 0.6'x0.5'

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, ~22"x18", weak concentration with no zones.  Forms an equilateral triangle with mag 13.5 star 1.4' NW and a mag 14.1 star (unequal double) 1.3' W.  Located 18.5' NE of mag 5.0 Phi Gem.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 479 = J. 1-141, along with IC 478, on 2 Mar 1892 with the 30" Nice refractor.  He reported "pretty faint, round, 20" diameter."

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IC 480 = UGC 4096 = CGCG 148-062 = WBL 160-001 = PGC 22188

07 55 23.2 +26 44 36

V = 14.2;  Size 1.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 168d

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 6:1 NNW-SSE, 0.9'x0.15', slightly brighter core.  Bulges very slightly but no nucleus seen.  Situated in a busy star field with a mag 15.5 star 1.2' S (collinear with the major axis).  A mag 10.9 star lies 2.5' NW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 480 = J. 1-142 on 18 Mar 1892 with the 30" Nice refractor.  He reported "very faint, very pale, fairly large, elongated N-S."

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IC 484 = CGCG 148-084 = WBL 165-003 = PGC 22419

08 00 01.1 +26 39 57

V = 14.5;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  PA = 49d

 

24" (2/7/15): faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~18"x12".  A mag 15.5 star is 0.8' SW.  IC 485 is 4.8' NE and IC 486 is 5.5' SE.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 484 = Spitaler 11, along with IC 485 and IC 486, on 6 Mar 1891 with the 27" refractor at Vienna.  Stephane Javelle independently discovered the galaxy on 30 Jan 1892.  Both measured accurate micrometric positions.

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IC 485 = UGC 4156 = CGCG 148-088 = WBL 165-006 = PGC 22443

08 00 19.8 +26 42 05

V = 14.5;  Size 1.2'x0.3';  PA = 153d

 

24" (2/7/15): at 260x; very faint, small, slightly elongated, 15"x10".  Faintest in a trio forming an equilateral triangle with IC 484 4.7' SW and IC 486 5.3' S.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 485 = Spitaler 12a, along with IC 484 and IC 486, on 6 Mar 1891 with the 27" refractor at Vienna.  He noted it made an equilateral triangle with IC 484 and 486 though didn't measure a position.  Stephane Javelle independently discovered the galaxy on 30 Jan 1892 and measured an accurate position.

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IC 486 = UGC 4155 = MCG +04-19-018 = CGCG 148-087 = WBL 165-005 = PGC 22445

08 00 21.0 +26 36 49

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 139d

 

24" (2/7/15): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 18"x12", small brighter core.  Brightest in a trio with IC 484 5.5' NW and IC 485 5.3' N.  The trio, along with a few CGCG galaxies, from the small group WBL 165, and lies at a distance of ~380 million l.y.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 486 = Spitaler 12, along with IC 484 and IC 485, on 6 Mar 1891 with the 27" refractor at Vienna.  Stephane Javelle independently discovered the galaxy on 2 Mar 1892 and measured an accurate position.

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IC 487 = NGC 2494 = UGC 4141 = MCG +00-21-001 = CGCG 003-002 = PGC 22377

07 59 07.0 -00 38 17

V = 13.1;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 95d

 

17.5" (1/23/88): moderately bright, oval ~E-W, fairly small, bright core.  A nice triple star lies 4' ESE; the closer components are mag 11/12 with separation 19".

 

Lewis Swift found IC 487 = Sw VII-10 on 11 May 1890 and reported "eeF; vS; R".   His position is 2' SE of UGC 4141 = PGC 22377, the only nearby galaxy.  Howe remarked the nebula was elongated at 110” (ESE-WNW).  This galaxy was discovered by Marth in 1864, but his RA for #110 in his discovery list (later NGC 2494) was 1.0 minute too large and neither Swift nor Dreyer connected NGC 2494 with IC 487.  UGC, MCG and CGCG label this galaxy IC 487 because of the positional match but NED, HyperLeda and SIMBAD equate the numbers.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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IC 491 = CGCG 148-106 = PGC 22631

08 03 55.0 +26 31 14

V = 14.9;  Size 0.6'x0.25';  PA = 114d

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x and 520x; very faint to faint, small, round, 12" - 15" diameter, quasi-stellar or stellar nucleus.  Situated within a N-S string of mag 9 to 10.5 star including a mag 10.2 star 1.5' NW.  IC 491 forms a very close pair (non-physical) with PGC 1779405 0.5' NW.   This 16th magnitude galaxy appeared extremely faint and small, 6" diameter, only occasionally pops.  The nearby bright star makes the detection difficult.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 491 = J. 1-149 on 18 Mar 1892 and reported "very faint, very small, round, around 10" diameter."

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IC 492 = UGC 4212 = MCG +04-19-024 = CGCG 118-059 = PGC 22724

08 05 38.7 +26 10 05

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.9'

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, ~30"x20", slightly brighter core.  A mag 14.5 star is close off the southeast edge, 30" from center.  Situated just 3.4' NNE of mag 8 HD 66662.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 492 = Spitaler 15 = J. 1-150 on 5 Feb 1891 with a 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory while searching the Winnecke's Comet.  He reported "13m; R; vgbM; *13.5m 1/4' sf [south-following]." and measured an accurate micrometric position with respect to HD 66662.  Rudolph Spitaler found it again 4 nights later with the 27-inch refractor at Vienna (presumably while also searching for the comet).  He called it a fairly bright comet-like nebula northeast of BD +26”1713.  Finally, Stephane Javelle found it a third time on 2 Mar 1892 (along with several others) with the 30-inch refractor at Nice, France.  All three are credited in the NGC.

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IC 494 = UGC 4224 = MCG +00-21-004 = CGCG 003-010 = PGC 22755

08 06 24.1 +01 02 10

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  PA = 49d

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 45"x30", brighter core (fairly well defined) that gradually increases to a faint stellar nucleus.  Located 9' SSE of mag 7.3 HD 67029 in the southeast corner of Canis Minor.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 494 = Big. 150 on 12 Dec 1888.

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IC 496 = IC 2229 = MCG +04-19-028 = CGCG 188-066 = CGCG 119-001 = LEDA 93095 + PGC 22903

08 09 44.2 +25 52 54

V = 14.6;  Size 0.55'x0.3';  PA = 30d

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; IC 496 was resolved into a close pair (physical), separated by just 19" E-W.  The brighter western component (LEDA 93095) appeared faint, very small, round, 10"-12" diameter. The fainter eastern galaxy (PGC 22903) was very faint, extremely small, round, 6" diameter.  An 18" pair of mag 13.5/14 stars lies 1.5' SSE.  Located 7' WNW of mag 6.4 13 Cancri (K0-type).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 496 = J. 1-152 on 2 Mar 1892 and reported "faint, small, round, little brighter in the middle."  He found it again on 11 Feb 1896 and reported J. 3-1025 (later IC 2229) as "faint, roughly round, 30", granular, avec star of mag 13.5-14.  Both positions are very accurate, so its surprising neither he nor Dreyer noticed IC 496 = IC 2229.

 

NED identifies the western galaxy as IC 496, while HyperLeda identifies the eastern galaxy as IC 496.  Probably the number should apply to the pair (IC 496A and 496B?).  The eastern object is apparently an interacting (merged) double system.

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IC 497 = MCG +04-20-001 = CGCG 118-067 = CGCG 119-002 = KTG 20A = PGC 22918

08 10 06.1 +24 55 19

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  PA = 177d

 

24" (3/22/14): at 375x appeared faint to fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 0.4'x0.2', weak concentration. A 12" double (mag 12.5-13 stars) lies 1' N and a mag 14 star is just off the NNW side [27" from center].  Brightest in the KTG 20 triplet.

 

UGC 4257 = KTG 20C lies 2' SE and appeared as an extremely faint, thin edge-on 6:1 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.1', very low even surface brightness.  A mag 15.5 star is just off the west edge.  CGCG 118-068 = KTG 20B, just 1.0' S, was extremely faint to very faint (slightly higher surface brightness than UGC 4257), round, just 10" diameter.  A mag 13 star is 33" SE of center.

 

24" (1/25/14): at 375x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 24"x12", bright core.  A 12" pair of mag 12.5-13 stars lies 1' N and a mag 14 star is 27" NW of center.  This galaxy is the brightest member of the KTG 20 triplet with UGC 4257 2' SSE and CGCG 118-68 3' SSE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 497 = J. 1-153 on 2 Mar 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 498 = UGC 4255 = VV 526 = CGCG 031-059 = PGC 22895

08 09 30.3 +05 16 51

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  PA = 60d

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter, broad weak concentration but no core/nucleus.  A distinctive group of stars is to the south including E-W and N-S strings.  The N-S string is roughly collinear with the galaxy.  A mag 13.5/14 double at 10" separation is 2' SW.

 

CGCG 031-060, situated 5.6' E, appeared faint, very small, round, 12" diameter (this is the core region), well defined.  A mag 8.3 star is 5' E with CGCG 031-060 nearly at the midpoint of IC 498 and this star.  LEDA 1280679 (B = 16.23), situated 9' ESE, appeared extremely faint and small, round, 6" diameter.  Mag 8.3 HD 67874 is 1.5' NE and greatly detracts from viewing so it had to be kept just outside the edge of the field. A string of stars is close west.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 498 on 11 Nov 1888 with the 27" refractor at the Wein University in Vienna.  His position is accurate.

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IC 499 = UGC 4463 = MCG +14-04-054 = CGCG 363-046 = CGCG 364-005 = LGG 145-006 = PGC 24602

08 45 16.9 +85 44 24

V = 12.5;  Size 2.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 80d

 

18" (8/1/11): moderately bright, moderately large, slightly elongated ~E-W, ~50"x35".  Very low surface brightness outer halo with a fairly bright central region that is sharply concentrated to a very small bright nucleus.  A mag 14 star is superimposed on the SW side and a brighter mag 12 star is off the NE side, 1.2' from center.  Located 5.7' SW of mag 8.5 SAO 1370. UGC 4297 lies 20' SW.  This is the closest IC galaxy to the north celestial pole!

 

William Denning discovered IC 499 on 8 Sep 1890 with his 10-inch reflector while comet hunting and recorded "pF, S, mbM, * nf."

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IC 507 = NGC 2590 = UGC 4392 = MCG +00-22-010 = CGCG 004-020 = PGC 23616

08 25 01.9 -00 35 31

V = 13.1;  Size 2.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 77d

 

See observing notes for NGC 2590.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 507 = Sw. VIII-47 on 3 Feb 1888 and recorded "eeF pS; vlE; bet 2 st; sev pB st nr; driving clock failed."  Despite noting the RA as uncertain, it matches NGC 2590, but is 9' too far north.  Apparently he only picked up the central portion as the outer portions are clearly elongated.  This galaxy was discovered by Stephan in 1878 and his position is accurate.  Corwin notes that Dreyer made an error of 30 seconds in RA in precessing Swift's position to 1860 coordinates and Howe was unable to find IC 507 on 3 nights (MN, Nov. 1900) because of the poor NGC position.

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IC 511 = NGC 2646 = UGC 4604 = MCG +12-09-019 = CGCG 331-069 = CGCG 332-019 = LGG 162-003 = PGC 24838

08 50 22.0 +73 27 46

V = 12.1;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

See observing notes for NGC 2646.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 511 = Sw. VIII-48 on 1 Sep 1888 and reported "vF, S, cE, wide D * nr. sf; sp of 2 [with IC 520]."  His position is fairly close to UGC 4510, the galaxy modern catalogues take as IC 511, though the "wide D[ouble] star nr south-preceding" is north-preceding (NW).  But following up a group email with Harold Corwin and myself in August 2017 about a 10 minute error in RA that Swift made on the discovery night, Courtney Seligman found this correction could be applied to IC 511 and Swift's description is a much better match with NGC 2646.  This galaxy is "sp of 2" [with IC 520], whereas UGC 4510 and IC 520 are nearly a degree apart.

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IC 512 = UGC 4646 = MCG +14-05-002 = CGCG 363-049 = CGCG 364-008 = LGG 145-010 = PGC 25451

09 03 49.8 +85 30 06

V = 12.2;  Size 1.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 175d

 

18" (8/1/11): moderately bright, fairly large, slightly elongated N-S, ~1.5'x1.2'.  Asymmetric appearance with an irregular surface brightness.  Appears to have a brighter "bar" though not centered in the glow.  A faint pair of stars is off the south side and a 10' string of stars oriented NNW to SSE is off the east side.  Located 12' WSW of mag 7.9 HD 75797.  This is the third closest IC galaxy to the north celestial pole.

 

17.5" (3/20/93): fairly faint, moderately large, round, almost even surface brightness.  A 10' string of stars just east is oriented roughly N-S with a mag 9 star at the north end.  Lies 12' W of mag 8.0 SAO 1443.

 

William Denning discovered IC 512 on 23 Aug 1890 with his 10-inch With-Browning reflector while comet hunting and recorded "F, S, R, gbM.  In same field as preceding [IC 499] and sff."

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IC 514 = CGCG 004-066 = WBL 188-001 = PGC 24119

08 35 22.3 -02 02 49

V = 14.9;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  PA = 160d

 

24" (2/5/13): very faint, very small, round, 12" diameter.  A mag 16 star is attached at the south edge.  Located 12' SSW of NGC 2616 in a group (WBL 188) and 3.5' NE of a mag 10.1 star.  Forms a pair with CGCG 004-065 2.4' S.  I'm surprised that Javelle, who discovered IC 514, missed the CGCG as it's similar in brightness and size.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 514 = J 2-621, along with IC 517, on 20 Mar 1893 and recorded "vF, elongated in the meridian [N-S], no central brightening."  The next night he discovered nearby IC 515 and IC 516.

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IC 515 = UGC 4488 = CGCG 004-068 = WBL 188-003 = PGC 24125

08 35 31.3 -01 54 04

V = 14.5;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  PA = 32d

 

24" (2/5/13): faint, very small, slightly elongated, 18"x14", soft even glow.  Located 3.1' SSW of NGC 2616 in a group and 2.6' NE of a mag 11.4 star.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 515 = J 2-622, along with IC 516, on 21 Mar 1893.  He noted it was distinct from NGC 2616, which was also measured.

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IC 516 = CGCG 004-075 = WBL 188-007 = PGC 24155

08 35 50.8 -01 52 16

V = 15.0;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  PA = 65d

 

24" (2/5/13): very faint, extremely small, slightly elongated, 12"x8", stellar nucleus.  Located 4.4' ESE of NGC 2616 in a group (WBL 188) and 5.2' NE of IC 515.  CGCG 004-072 lies 4.5' SSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 516 = J 2-623, along with IC 515, on 21 Mar 1893.  He noted it was distinct from NGC 2616, which was also measured.

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IC 517 = CGCG 004-082 = WBL 188-008 = PGC 24179

08 36 22.1 -02 03 20

V = 15.0;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 29d

 

24" (2/5/13): very faint, very small, round, 12" diameter. A mag 12 star lies 1.7' SW and a mag 14.5 star is closer at 0.9' SW.  Located 17' SE of NGC 2616 in the WBL 188 group (brightest member NGC 2616, along with 4 IC galaxies).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 517 = J 2-624, along with IC 514, on 20 Mar 1893 and recorded "vF, S, irr figure, no central brightening."  The next night he discovered nearby IC 515 and IC 516.

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IC 520 = UGC 4630 = MCG +12-09-026 = PGC 24970

08 53 42.2 +73 29 27

V = 11.7;  Size 1.9'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (3/20/93): this is an unusually bright IC galaxy and appears moderately bright, slightly elongated 4:3 N-S with a prominent small bright core and stellar nucleus.  A mag 13.5 star is at the SE edge 46" from the center.  NGC 2646 lies 14' W.

 

13" (1/11/86): fairly faint, small, round. A faint star is near the south end.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 520 = Sw VIII-49 on 29 Aug 1888 and recorded "pB; pL; R; bM; nearly bet a nr and a distant *; nf of 2 [with IC 511]; another suspected." Swift's position is accurate.  It's unusual that the Herschels, d'Arrest and Tempel examined this area and missed this galaxy.

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IC 523 = UGC 4652 = MCG +02-23-009 = CGCG 061-018 = PGC 24948

08 53 11.3 +09 08 53

V = 13.1;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (2/14/99): extremely faint, small, round, 25" diameter, low surface brightness, very weak concentration.  View perhaps hindered by mag 8.4 SAO 117225 3.3' NW and dew on secondary.  Located 20' NW of giant PN AGC 31.  Nearby are MCG +02-23-008 and CGCG 61-020.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 523 = J. 2-627 on 13 Apr 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His position is a little too far north as the offset star is slightly misplaced in declination.

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IC 527 = UGC 4810 = MCG +06-20-039 = CGCG 180-049 = PGC 25821

09 09 41.9 +37 36 04

V = 13.2;  Size 1.7'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

17.5" (4/5/97): faint, fairly small, round, 1.2' diameter, gradually increases to a slightly brighter core.  On line with mag 12.5 and 10.5 stars to the NW [2.3' and 5.2', respectively].  Located 13' E of NGC 2759. Forms a pair with CGCG 180-050 6.5' NNE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 527 = Sw IX-20 on 19 April 1890 and recorded "eeeF; pL; R; ee dif; 2759 in field sf."  His position is a good match with UGC 4810 although NGC 2759 lies to the west-northwest.

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IC 528 = HCG 36A = UGC 4811 = MCG +03-24-001 = CGCG 091-008 = PGC 25783

09 09 22.6 +15 47 46

V = 14.1;  Size 1.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 163d

 

48" (4/1/11): at 488x appeared bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 1.0'x0.4', sharply concentrated with a small, very bright core.  Brightest of 5 close galaxies in HCG 36 with "C" 50" NW, "B" 1.1' NE, "D" 1.1' S and SDSS J090920.83+154747.3 25" W.  Located 1.8' SE of mag 8.9 HD 78574, which hampers the view of HCG 36B.

 

17.5" (4/5/97): faint, moderately large, elongated ~3:1 NNW-SSE, 1.4'x0.4'.  Contains a brighter core with faint tapering extensions.  View hampered by a mag 9 star (SAO 98393) just 1.8' NE.  This galaxy is the brightest in HCG 36 and the only member viewed.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 528 = J. 2-631 on 12 Dec 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  He recorded "pB, vS, R, mottled, Nucl =13m" and measured an accurate position.  IC 528 lies in the foreground of the other members of HCG 36.

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IC 529 = UGC 4888 = MCG +12-09-035 = CGCG 332-038 = PGC 26295

09 18 32.7 +73 45 37

V = 11.9;  Size 3.6'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (4/5/97): moderately bright, fairly large irregular glow, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, ill-defined halo up to ~2.8'x1.4', broad concentration to an ill-defined core.  A mag 14 star is just north of the SE end [1.2' from center] and a second mag 13.5-14 star is close NE [1.9' from center].  The outer halo increases with averted vision beyond the star off the SE end.

 

William Denning discovered IC 529 around 1890 with his 10-inch reflector and apparently communicated the discovery directly to Dreyer.

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IC 538 = NGC 2885 = UGC 5037 = MCG +04-22-058 = CGCG 121-098 = PGC 26943

09 27 18.5 +23 01 12

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (4/13/91): faint, very small, round, stellar nucleus.  A mag 15 star is 40" E of center and a mag 14 star is 2' NW.  Located 8' NW of mag 8.5 SAO 80841.  Brightest in a trio with CGCG 121-099 1.8' ENE and IC 2474 1.8' NW.  Incorrect identification in RNGC.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 538 = Big. 154 on 21 Mar 1890.  His position (from 4 observations) matches NGC 2885.  This galaxy was discovered by John Herschel on 24 Feb 1827, but his RA (noted as uncertain) was 25 seconds too large and Bigourdan noted "does not appear to be NGC 2885". Dreyer noted the possible equivalence, though, in the IC description. MCG labels NGC 2885 as IC 538 only.  See NGC 2885 for more.

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IC 547 = NGC 2947 = IC 2494 = MCG -02-25-004 = PGC 27309

09 36 05.8 -12 26 13

V = 12.4;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (3/25/95): fairly faint, round, 1.2' diameter, almost even surface brightness, well-defined outer edge to halo.  Two mag 11 stars are off the SE edge 1.6' and 2.1' from the center.  Incorrectly listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 547 = J. 1-165 on 20 Apr 1892 and recorded "pB, small, round, 20" diameter, weak concentration".  His position matches MCG -02-25-004 = PGC 27309.  This galaxy was discovered by Leavenworth on 6 May 1886, but his rough position was 2 minutes of RA too large.  Since NGC 2947 matches in declination, and the Leander McCormick positions are generally 1 to 2 minutes of RA too large, the identification NGC 2947 = IC 547 is likely.  This galaxy was found a third time by Swift and catalogued as IC 2494, with an accurate position from Howe.  Dreyer missed the two IC equivalences.  MCG labels the galaxy as IC 547 only.   Corwin notes "It is, so far as I know now (May 2003), the only object to have an entry in all three of Dreyer's catalogues."

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IC 556 = NGC 2984 = UGC 5200 = MCG +02-25-025 = CGCG 063-053 = PGC 27838

09 43 40.4 +11 03 39

V = 13.4;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

17.5" (4/1/00): faint, small, round, 25" diameter, weak concentration.  The halo, which fades at the edges, increases to ~0.6' with averted vision.  A mag 14.5 star is close SSW (33" from center) and a slightly brighter star lies 0.9' NE.

 

NGC 2984 forms a pair with IC 557 7' SE.  The companion appeared faint, very small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 30"x15", weak concentration, very faint stellar nucleus at moments.  The elongation was not always evident, so often I was just viewing the slightly brighter core.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 556 = J. 1-168 on 22 Apr 1892 and reported "F, vS, R, nucleus = 14th mag".  His position matches UGC 5200.

 

This galaxy was probably discovered by William Herschel on 15 Mar 1784 and catalogued as H III-34 (later h633 and NGC 2984), but his position was unusually poor -- 1 min 19 sec of RA west and 3.5' south of IC 556.  Karl Reinmuth mentioned he couldn't find NGC 2984 in Dreyer's place using Heidelberg plates and questioned if it was equal to IC 556.  This is likely the case as there are no other reasonable candidates for NGC 2984 in the vicinity.  UGC, CGCG and MCG label this galaxy as IC 556 and RNGC calls it NGC 2984.  See Corwin's identification notes.

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IC 557 = MCG +02-25-027 = CGCG 063-055 = PGC 27866

09 44 02.4 +10 59 17

V = 14.1;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (4/1/00): faint, very small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 30"x15", weak concentration, very faint stellar nucleus at moments.  The elongation was not always evident, so often was just viewing the slightly brighter core.  Located 7' SE of NGC 2984.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 557 = J 1-169 on 22 Apr 1892.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 573 = NGC 3058 = MCG -02-25-026 = VV 741 = PGC 28513

09 53 35.7 -12 28 55

V = 12.5;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (4/15/93): faint, fairly small, round, low even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is 1.0' W.  A wide mag 12/13 pair at 45" separation lies 2' SSW and a mag 12/13.5 pair at 30" separation E-W lies 3.5' W.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 573 = J 1-171 on 20 Apr 1892.  His position is a good match with the double system MCG -02-25-026 = PGC 28513.  This galaxy discovered by Leavenworth on 6 May 1886, but his rough RA for LM 1-159 (later NGC 3058) was two minutes too large.  Leavenworth noted it was "double or bi-nuclear", so this identification is secure.  Howe later measured an accurate position for NGC 3058, confirming NGC 3058 = IC 573.  Because of the unambiguous position for IC 573, MCG only uses the IC designation for MCG -02-25-002

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IC 574 = MCG -01-25-056 = PGC 28569

09 54 27.0 -06 57 12

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

18" (4/14/12): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 N-S, 24"x18", small brighter core.  IC 575 = Arp 292 lies 6' NNE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 574 = J 2-655, along with IC 575, on 9 Mar 1893.  He noted "pB, S, R, 20" dia, mbM, * 12 s." and measured an accurate micrometric position

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IC 575 = Arp 292 = VV 111 = MCG -01-25-058 = PGC 28575

09 54 32.9 -06 51 27

V = 13.2;  Size 1.6'x1.1';  PA = 126d

 

48" (2/20/12): this unusual system has a dust lane along the major axis and a polar-ring like disc. The galaxy appears as a fairly bright oval, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.4', with a small bright core.  There was only a hint of the dust lane but narrow extensions or spikes were visible poking out on the NW and SE end, with the SE extension brighter. A mag 15.2 star is 1.3' NNE and two mag 13 and 14.5 stars are 2.3' SE and 1.7' SE, respectively

 

There are two close companions but I only noted 2MASX J09543313-0650143 1.2' N.  The observation was made during a period of fairly poor transparency and seeing so this galaxy would be worth revisiting.  IC 575 is listed as a polar ring candidate in Whitmore et al "New observations and a photographic atlas of polar-ring galaxies" (1990AJ....100.1489W)

 

18" (4/14/12): at 246x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, oval 4:3 NW-SE, ~28"x21", only a very weak broad concentration with no core or zones.  The extensions seen in the 48" were not resolved.  IC 574 lies 6' SSW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 575 = J 2-656, along with IC 574, on 9 Mar 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 580 = NGC 3069 = MCG +02-26-005 = CGCG 064-010 = PGC 28788

09 57 56.7 +10 25 57

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 166d

 

13.1" (4/10/86): very faint, very small.  Located on a line with NGC 3070 5.0' SSE and 30" pair of mag 13/14.5 stars 2' NNW.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 580 = J. 1-175 on 22 Mar 1892 and recorded "pF, vS, irr form."  His position is very close north of NGC 3069.  CGCG labels this galaxy IC 580, but it is clear NGC 3069 = IC 580.  J.L.E. Dreyer discovered NGC 3069 on 15 Mar 1877 as LdR's assistant.  While observing NGC 3070 he noted "5' nnp is an object which I have little doubt is a vF, vS, neb, perhaps lE.  Clouds."

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IC 585 = UGC 5371 = MCG +02-26-014 = PGC 28897

09 59 44.2 +12 59 18

V = 13.4;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (3/29/97): faint, small, round, bright core, 40" diameter.  Located 4.4' SW of NGC 3080 and 2.9' SSW of a mag 13.5 star (mentioned in observation of NGC 3080).  Very similar size and magnitude as NGC 3080 and surprisingly, possibly easier visually due a brighter core.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 585 = Big. 157 on 18 Mar 1890.  His Comptes Rendus position is about 2' too far north (but matches in RA) and there is no mention of nearby N3080.

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IC 591 = UGC 5458 = MCG +02-26-025 = Todd 22 = PGC 29435

10 07 27.8 +12 16 26

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (2/13/88): faint, small, slightly elongated, even surface brightness.  Located 15' W of dwarf galaxy Leo I in the same 140x field (35')!

 

David Todd discovered IC 591 = Todd 22 = J 1-177 on 6 Feb 1878 during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet using the 26-inch Clark refractor at USNO.  It was not assigned an NGC designation as no position was given.  But Harold Corwin found his sketch is a good match with UGC 5458 (specifically a mag 13 star 86 seconds of time west).  Javelle independently discovered this galaxy on 31 Mar 1892, so the IC position for 591is accurate.  UGC doesn't label UGC 5458 as IC 591.

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IC 600 = VV 97 = MCG +00-26-034 = CGCG 008-085 = UGCA 209 = PGC 30041

10 17 10.9 -03 29 52

V = 12.5;  Size 2.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (3/25/95): faint, moderately large, 1.5' diameter, irregularly round, broad concentration, low surface brightness.  Forms the vertex of an obtuse isosceles triangle with a nice double star 5' N (mag 11/12 at 18" separation) and a mag 9 star (SAO 118106) 5.6' SE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 600 = J 2-671 on 3 May 1893. His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 601 = MCG +01-26-033 = CGCG 036-087 = Holm 176b = PGC 30086

10 18 15.3 +07 02 19

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 41d

 

17.5" (3/25/00): extremely faint, very small streak, ~20"x5".  Visible with averted vision only and could not hold continuously.  Located 1.3' SW of brighter IC 602.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 601 = J 2-672, along with IC 602, on 10 Apr 1893.

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IC 602 = UGC 5561 = MCG +01-26-034 = CGCG 036-089 = Arak 237 = Holm 176a = PGC 30090

10 18 19.7 +07 02 57

V = 13.1;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 177d

 

17.5" (3/25/00): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 0.8'x0.4', small bright core.  A mag 12 star is just off the SW end.  A group of 4 stars (trapezoid outline) is 4' NE.  Forms a pair with much fainter IC 601 1.3' SW (see notes).  MCG +01-26-032 (identified as NGC 3186 in RNGC) lies 11' SW.

 

17.5" (3/22/96): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, 0.8'x0.6'.  A mag 12.5-13 star is just off the SW side 35" from center.  A nearly square asterism of mag 11.5-14 stars with sides ~1.5' lies 4' NE.  Forms a pair with IC 601 1.3' SW (not seen).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 602 = J 2-673, along with IC 601, on 10 Apr 1893.  IC 602 may be identical to NGC 3186.  See that number for the story.

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IC 604 = NGC 3220 = UGC 5614 = MCG +10-15-073 = CGCG 290-034 = Holm 182b = WBL 265-004 = PGC 30462

10 23 45.2 +57 01 38

V = 13.0;  Size 1.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 96d

 

See observing notes for NGC 3220.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 604 = Sw. IX-22 on 8 Aug 1890 and reported "eeeF; vS; eeE; spindle; ? several eeF st[ars] in a line."  His position and description matches NGC 3220 = UGC 5614.  William Herschel discovered this galaxy on 8 Apr 1793 and also recorded an accurate position (offset).  Dreyer apparently missed the match in position, but NGC 3220 = IC 604.

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IC 606 = NGC 3217 = MCG +02-27-006 = CGCG 065-017 = Mrk 721 = VIII Zw 074 = Todd 29 = PGC 30448

10 23 32.6 +10 57 35

V = 14.5;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 30d

 

18" (3/11/07): faint, small, slightly elongated, 0.4'x0.3', weak concentration.  Situated in a small group of mag 13-14 stars and a mag 11.6 star 2.6' SE.  Discovered by David Todd in his search for a trans-Neptunian planet and equivalent to IC 606.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 606 = J. 2-676 on 18 Apr 1893.  His position matches CGCG 065-017 = PGC 30448.  David Todd discovered this galaxy on 4 Mar 1878 using the 26-inch Clark refractor at the US Naval Observatory during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet.  His position for Todd 29 (later NGC 3217) was 2.1 minutes of RA too far west and 4' too far south, but his sketch shows two nearby stars that match this galaxy.  So NGC 3217 = IC 606.  PGC, MCG, CGCG and SIMBAD (and amateur software such as Megastar) use the IC designation only and RNGC misclassifies NGC 3217 as nonexistent.  NED and HyperLeda equate the two identities.

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IC 607 = Arp 43 = UGC 5628 = MCG +03-27-018 = CGCG 094-030 = PGC 30496

10 24 08.6 +16 44 31

V = 13.2;  Size 1.8'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 110d

 

24" (3/28/17): at 260x; fairly faint, moderately large, round, low surface brightness, ~50" diameter, slightly brighter core, very faint nucleus (possibly stellar).  A mag 14.3 star is 45" SW. A 1' pair of mag 12/12.5 stars 3'-4' SE is collinear with the galaxy.  Located 28' SW of NGC 3239 = Arp 263.

 

CGCG 094-033 lies 6' ESE.  It appeared extremely faint, very small, seems elongated (difficult to confirm) NW-SE, 15"x10", requires averted.  A mag 12 star is 1.9' due west.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 607 = Sw. VIII-52 on 29 Mar 1889 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; * near sp; 2 near sf point to it; ee difficult."  His position is 2' too far north, but the description is a perfect match with Arp 43.

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IC 609 = Arp 44 = VV 354a = UGC 5641 = MCG +00-27-009 = CGCG 009-026 = PGC 30600

10 25 35.5 -02 12 56

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (3/29/97): faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 1.2'x0.8', very weak concentration.  An unequal pair of mag 13/14.5 stars [at 36" separation] lies 3.5' W.  The nearby companion PGC 1097822 (not a physical pair) was not seen.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 609 = J 2-678 on 21 Mar 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 612 = MCG +02-27-019 = CGCG 065-039 = PGC 30729

10 27 05.8 +11 03 17

V = 14.6;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (5/19/01): extremely faint and small, round, 15" diameter.  Forms the northern vertex of a small triangle with two mag 13 stars 40" SSW and 46" SE.  Located in the core of AGC 1016 with IC 613 lies 2.7' S and IC 615 4.2' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 612 = J 2-679, along with IC 613 and 615 on 18 Apr 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 613 = MCG +02-27-018 = CGCG 065-038 = PGC 30728

10 27 07.8 +11 00 39

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.8'

 

17.5" (5/19/01): faint, small, round, 0.6', low surface brightness.  A mag 11 star lies 1.9' W.  In the core of AGC 1016 with IC 612 2.7' N and IC 615 5.4' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 613 = J 2-680, along with IC 612 and 615 on 18 Apr 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 614 = MCG +00-27-015 = CGCG 009-039 = WBL 272-002 = PGC 30699

10 26 51.9 -03 27 53

Size 0.75'x0.5';  PA = 17d

 

48" (4/18/15): at 697x; this Ring galaxy appeared moderately bright, round, sharply concentrated with a small bright core about 12" diameter and a low surface brightness halo ~30" diameter.  The ring feature (brighter rim) was not seen.

 

IC 614 is classified as a Collisional Ring Galaxy in Madore's 2009 "Atlas and Catalogue of Collisional Ring Galaxies".  The collider is supposedly on the north side of the ring, but there is no distinct object at this position on the SDSS.  The nucleus is a Sy2.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 614 = J. 2-681 on 3 May 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 615 = UGC 5665 = MCG +02-27-020 = CGCG 065-041 = PGC 30751

10 27 22.1 +11 04 47

V = 14.3;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  PA = 143d

 

17.5" (5/19/01): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, low even surface brightness.  Extended towards a mag 13 star 2' SE of center.  Brightest of trio in core of AGC 1016 with IC 613 4.2' SW and IC 612 5.4' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 615 = J 2-682, along with IC 612 and 613 on 18 Apr 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 617 = NGC 3280 = NGC 3295 = MCG -02-27-006/007 = PGC 31153/31156

10 32 43.7 -12 38 15

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

See observing notes for NGC 3280.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 617 = J. 1-179 on 19 Apr 1892.  His position matches MCG -02-27-006/007 = PGC 31153/31156 (a third component may have been too faint).  This galaxy was discovered earlier by both Andrew Ainsley Common in 1880 and Francis Leavenworth in 1886 and catalogued as NGC 3280 and 3295, respectively.  Both of the earlier positions were very poor, so Javelle assumed this was a new discovery, but NGC 3280 = NGC 3295 = IC 617.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes and Malcolm Thomson's IC Research Database for more.

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IC 618 = NGC 3296 = PGC 31155

10 32 45.4 -12 43 03

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

See observing notes for NGC 3296.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 618 = J 1-180 on 19 Apr 1892 and reported "faint, small, elongated E-W, slightly brighter center."  His position matches PGC 31155.  This galaxy was discovered by Leavenworth on 26 Feb 1886, but his rough RA for LM 1-174 (later NGC 3296) is 2.7 minutes too large.  Howe measured a corrected position for NGC 3296 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes section), which clearly establishes NGC 3296 = IC 618. See Corwin's notes.

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IC 622 = NGC 3279 = UGC 5741 = MCG +02-27-027 = CGCG 065-059 = FGC 1100 = Todd 30 = Holm 201a = PGC 31302

10 34 42.8 +11 11 50

V = 13.4;  Size 2.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 152d

 

17.5" (4/13/91): faint, moderately large, edge-on 6:1 NW-SE, low even surface brightness. UGC 5737 lies 12' W.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 622 = Sw. IX-23 on 29 Jan 1890 and reported "vF pS; E; 9m * s[outh]."   His position is 2' W of UGC 5741 = PGC 31302 and the identification is certain, though the bright star is north, not south.  This galaxy was discovered by David Todd on 5 Mar 1878 during his search for a trans-Neptunian planet with the 26-inch Clark refractor at the USNO and listed as object #30 (later NGC 3279) in his search results.  His position is roughly 2 minutes of RA west of UGC 5741 (not an unusual error) but his sketch shows a very elongated galaxy surrounded by stars matching the sky, so the identification NGC 3279 = IC 622 is certain.  UGC and MCG label this galaxy as IC 622 and don't apply the NGC designation.

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IC 629 = NGC 3312 = ESO 501-043 = MCG -04-25-039 = LGG 210-002 = PGC 31513

10 37 02.5 -27 33 55

V = 11.9;  Size 3.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 175d

 

See observing notes for NGC 3312.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 629 = Big. 158 on 26 Feb 1887.  His position matches NGC 3312, discovered by John Herschel in 1835.   Apparently neither Bigourdan nor Dreyer questioned the equivalence of IC 629 with NGC 3312, though there is no doubt.

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IC 632 = UGC 5792 = MCG +00-27-035 = PGC 31673

10 39 11.9 -00 24 35

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (3/22/96): faint, small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 0.8'x0.5', weak concentration.  Forms a pair with IC 632 3.3' NE.  Located 13' SSW of NGC 3325.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 632 = J 2-691, along with IC 633, on 9 May 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 633 = UGC 5796 = MCG +00-27-037 = PGC 31691

10 39 24.1 -00 23 22

V = 14.2;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.0;  PA = 102d

 

17.5" (3/22/96): very faint, small, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, 0.6'x0.2', low even surface brightness.  A mag 11 star is 1.0' NNE of center.  Forms a pair with IC 632 3.3' SW.  Located 11' S of NGC 3325.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 633 = J 2-692, along with IC 632, on 9 May 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 644 = NGC 3398 = UGC 5954 = MCG +09-18-038 = CGCG 267-018 = PGC 32564

10 51 31.5 +55 23 27

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 78d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): brighter of a pair of galaxies oriented N-S.  NGC 3398 is a faint, narrow edge-on streak 4:1 E-W, 1.0'x0.25'.  IC 646, 4.6' NNE, is very faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 0.5'x0.4'.  Located 4.7' NW of mag 8.1 SAO 27802.

 

Some catalogues refer to this galaxy as IC 644.  UGC 5976 (identified as NGC 3398 in CGCG and UGC) lies 13' NNE (see observation).

 

Lewis Swift found IC 644 = Sw. IX-24 on 8 May 1890 and reported "eeeF; pS; lE; B * sf; sp of 2."  His position is ~1' E of UGC 5954 and the description fits so the identification is certain.  This galaxy was discovered by William Herschel on 17 Apr 1789 and catalogued as H. III-792 (later NGC 3398). UGC, CGCG and RC3 label this galaxy IC 644.  See NGC 3398 for more.

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IC 646 = MCG +09-18-039 = CGCG 267-019 = PGC 32568

10 51 35.2 +55 27 57

V = 14.4;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

17.5" (4/22/95): very faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 0.5'x0.4'.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 3398 4.6' SSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 646 = Sw IX-25 on 8 May 1890 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; nf of 2 [with IC 644 = NGC 3398]."  Swift's RA is 12 seconds too large.  PGC and RC3 (as well as Megastar) misidentify IC 646 as NGC 3398.  See NGC 3398 for more.

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IC 647 = PGC 946616

10 50 34.4 -12 51 16

Size 0.3'x0.2'

 

18" (3/29/03): at 300x this tiny companion to NGC 3411 appeared very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, required averted vision.  Located 2.1' ESE of NGC 3411.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 647 = J 1-184 on 21 Apr 1892 and noted it was distinct from NGC 3411.  The HyperLeda listing for PGC 946616 doesn't list IC 647 as an identity.

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IC 656

10 55 07.9 +17 36 48

V = 14.9/15.5;  Size 12"

 

24" (2/22/14): at 260x a 12" pair of mag 15 stars were resolved.  The SDSS shows a third fainter star, as well as a very faint galaxy (not seen).  Located 4.4' E of NGC 3457 = NGC 3460.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 656 on 15 Mar 1887 with the 12" refractor at the Paris Observatory.  At his position is a triple star plus PGC 1537008, an extremely faint galaxy on the southeast side.  I think the galaxy is probably too faint too have been seen by Bigourdan, but the stars certainly could have appeared nebulous.  Corwin notes that NGC 3467 = h793, observed by JH and guest Francis Bailey, *may* apply to IC 656 as the description "Stellar. 2 or 3 stars with a nebulous blur observed by Mr. Bailey", applies better to IC 656 than to the fairly bright galaxy 4.4' W.  But the galaxy is close to JH's position and much brighter, of course.  See Corwin's and Thomson's IC notes.

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IC 663 = CGCG 066-087 = PGC 33182

11 00 37.3 +10 26 14

V = 14.6;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (4/25/98): extremely faint and small, round, 15" diameter, required averted vision.  This is the third brightest of four galaxies viewed in the core of AGC 1142.  Located 6.4' SW of NGC 3492, midway between a mag 10.5 star 3.2' N and a mag 13 star 2.2' S.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 20 year-old son, discovered IC 663 = Sw X-18, along with IC 664, on 29 Mar 1891.  The description reads "eeF; pS; R; triangle with 2 F st; 1st of 3; NGC 3492 in field."  Stephane Javelle independently found this galaxy again at the Nice Observatory on 1 Mar 1892 and reported it in list 1-190.

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IC 664 = MCG +02-28-042 = CGCG 066-091 = PGC 33191

11 00 45.3 +10 33 11

V = 13.0;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (4/25/98): this is the second brightest of four viewed in AGC 1142, located 4.1' NW of NGC 3492.  Appeared faint, small, slightly elongated [SW-NE], 30" diameter, stellar nucleus at moments with direct vision.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 20 year-old son, discovered IC 664 = Sw X-19 (along with IC 663) on 29 Mar 1891.  The description reads "eF; pS; R; 2nd of 3; NGC 3492 near."  Stephane Javelle independently found it at the Nice Observatory on 22 Mar 1892.

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IC 666 = CGCG 066-097 = Mrk 1276 = PGC 33232

11 01 14.8 +10 28 52

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.3

 

17.5" (4/25/98): extremely faint and small, round, 15" diameter.  Last and most difficult of four found in AGC 1142 and observation confused by a mag 15 star 40" following. Difficult to view both simultaneously.  Located 4.6' SE of NGC 3492.  Viewed hampered by hazy sky conditions due to smoke.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 666 = J 1-192 = Sw (X)-2 on 1 Apr 1892.  Lewis Swift independently found it two weeks later on 16 Apr 1892 and logged "eeF, vS, ee diff.  NGC 3492 near.  4th of 4."

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IC 676 = UGC 6245 = MCG +02-29-009 = CGCG 067-032 = PGC 34107

11 12 39.9 +09 03 21

V = 11.8;  Size 2.1'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 10d

 

18" (3/5/05): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, 1.2'x0.8'.  Contains an elongated brighter core and brighter along the major axis.  At low power, collinear with a mag 10 star 9' WNW and a mag 10 star 14' ESE.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 20 year-old son, discovered IC 676 = Sw X-20 on 8 Apr 1891 and reported "vF; pS: lE; bet 2 distant stars."  The position matches UGC 6245.

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IC 682 = NGC 3649? = UGC 6386 = MCG +03-29-038 = CGCG 096-036 = PGC 34883

11 22 14.8 +20 12 30

V = 13.7;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 140d

 

See observing notes for NGC 3649.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 682 = Sw. VIII-56 on 22 Apr 1889 and reported "eF; eS; R; vF * close np."  There is nothing at his position but 1 minute of RA is NGC 3649.  Arguing against this identification is there is no "vF * close np" of NGC 3649, but there is a very faint star at the south edge.  So, this identification is questionable.

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IC 684 = NGC 3644 = UGC 6373 = MCG +01-29-037 = CGCG 039-139 = PGC 34814

11 21 32.9 +02 48 37

V = 13.7;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 63d

 

See observing notes for NGC 3644.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 684 = Big. 163 on 14 Apr 1888 and recorded a "small nebula with a mag 12.8 situated in PA 214” at 0.5'." His position and description matches NGC 3644.  So, NGC 3644 = IC 684.  See Harold Corwin's notes for more.

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IC 689 = NGC 3661 = MCG -02-29-022 = PGC 34986

11 23 38.4 -13 49 51

V = 14.0;  Size 1.7'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 137d

 

See observing notes for NGC 3661.

 

Ormond Stone found IC 689 on 1 Jan 1889 with the 26-inch at the Leander-McCormick Observatory.  His micrometric offsets (#421 in the LM Southern Nebulae list) matches NGC 3661, although both he and Dreyer matched the equivalent position. So, IC 689 = NGC 3661.

 

 

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IC 691 = UGC 6447 = Mrk 169 = PGC 35206

11 26 44.4 +59 09 20

V = 13.9;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 150d

 

17.5" (3/19/88): fairly faint, very small, bright core, slightly elongated.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 691 = Sw. VII-17 on 17 Apr 1888 and recorded "pF; pS; R; forms right angle with 2 st."  His position is 1.5' too far west (within his usual errors) and the description is a perfect match.

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IC 694 = Arp 299 NED1 = VV 118c = MCG +10-17-002a = PGC 35325

11 28 27.3 +58 34 43

V = 15.8;  Size 0.3'x0.25'

 

48" (5/12/12): IC 694, roughly 1' NW of the interacting pair NGC 3690, was easily visible as a fairly faint, slightly elongated glow, 15"x12", weak concentration.

 

17.5" (4/1/95): this threshold object was barely glimpsed 1.1' NW of the interacting double system NGC 3690.  It was just visible momentarily as an extremely small knot with averted vision but observation verified several times.  This object is probably IC 694 although the identification is not 100% certain.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered IC 694 = Sw. (X)-3 at Birr Castle on 27 Jan 1852 and described an "appendage about one object diameter northwest [of NGC 3690]."  Lewis Swift apparently found this galaxy on 18 Apr 1892 and noted "vS, close D[ouble] with 3690, suspected with 132, verified with 200x.  His position is -7 seconds of RA, +30'' of Dec with respect to NGC 3690, close to an extremely faint and small galaxy 1.1' NW of the interacting double system NGC 3690.

 

Modern catalogues apply IC 694 to one component of the brighter double system.  Despite the good match in position with PGC 35325, its possible that Swift noted the second component of NGC 3690, which is much more obvious in the eyepiece.

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IC 696 = UGC 6477 = MCG +02-29-034 = Holm 257a = PGC 35332

11 28 39.9 +09 05 55

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

18" (5/3/11): faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, fairly low surface brightness, weak concentration.  In a group of IC galaxies with much fainter IC 2857 2.3' W and slightly brighter IC 698 6' ENE.  This galaxy is a face-on Sc or Sd with a very small nucleus.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly faint, fairly small, diffuse, only a weak concentration.  This is the 2nd brightest in the IC 698 group with IC 698 6.0' ENE.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 696 = Spitaler 38, along with IC 698 and 699, on 31 Mar 1892 with the 27-inch refractor at Wien University Observatory.  Spitaler missed nearby IC 2857, which was discovered later by Wolf on a photographic plate of the region.

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IC 698 = UGC 6482 = MCG +02-29-035 = Holm 257b = PGC 35364

11 29 03.9 +09 06 42

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 147d

 

18" (5/3/11): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated nearly 2:1 NNW-SSE, ~35"x20", broad concentration to a brighter, elongated core that increases to a faint nucleus with direct vision.  Initially seen as slightly elongated, but then the outer extensions were noticed.  This is probably the highest surface brightness member of a 16' group of 6 IC galaxies including IC 696, 699, 2850, 2853 and 2857.  The nearest is IC 696, 6' WSW.  IC 698 is located 18.5' SW of NGC 3705.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): fairly faint, fairly small, oval NW-SE, brighter core.  Brightest in the IC 698 group and 3rd of 4 brighter galaxies with IC 696 6.0' WSW.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 698 = Spitaler 39, along with IC 696 and 699, on 31 Mar 1892.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 699 = UGC 6485 = MCG +02-29-036 = Holm 257d = PGC 35365

11 29 06.6 +08 59 18

V = 13.9;  Size 1.2'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 12d

 

18" (5/3/11): faint to fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 40"x20".  The halo is broadly concentrated then increases suddenly to a small brighter nucleus.  Located 7.5' S of IC 698 in a small group of 6 IC galaxies (unrelated to nearby NGC 3692 and NGC 3705).  The SDSS image shows a very compact, bright nucleus surrounded by a smooth ring.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): faint, small, bright core, stellar nucleus, faint extensions SSW-NNE.  Fourth brightest in the IC 698 group with IC 698 7.5' N.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 699 = Spitaler 40, along with IC 696 and 698, on 31 Mar 1892.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 700 = HCG 54A = UGC 6487 NED2 = VV 498 NED2 = Rose 27 NED2 = MCG +04-27-047 NED2 = UGC 126-067 NED2 = PGC 35382

11 29 15.3 +20 35 00

V = 13.0;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.1

 

48" (4/16/15): at 610x, the main (central) component of HCG 54 = Rose 27 appeared moderately bright and large, elongated 5:3 WSW-ENE, ~30"x18", fairly even surface brightness. The three fainter components flank HCG 54A and together nearly merge to create an irregular extended glow ~50"x18", bending to the north on the east end.

 

HCG 54B, at the southwest end, is faint to fairly faint (B = 16.2), very small, round, ~8"-10" diameter. This is the second brightest of the 4 members.  On the SDSS, HCG 54B appears as a very compact, bright blue knot just 15" SW of center of IC 700.

 

HCG 54C was easily seen as a faint (B = 17.2), small, round, 10" knot.  HCG 54C is squeezed between fainter HCG 54D and HCG 54A (18" NE of the center of HCG 54A).

 

HCG 54D was not noticed at 613x.  At 813x it appeared very faint (B = 18.5), round, only a 6" knot.  HCG 54D is the faintest member of the quartet and sits at the northeast end of the chain.

 

17.5" (3/8/97): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, 1.0'x0.4', low (but probably irregular) surface brightness.  A mag 14 star lies 1' S. At a couple of moments there appeared to be an extremely faint "star" at the west edge (this is probably HCG 54B).  Located ~15' SE of HCG 53!

 

17.5" (4/1/95): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, 1.0'x0.4', even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is 1.1' S of center.  Located 4.8' NE of a mag 10 star.  NGC 3697 (brightest in HCG 53) lies 14' NNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 700 = J. 1-198 on 28 Apr 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at Nice.  His position matches HCG 54A = UGC 6487.  Harold Corwin notes that "his description "Nearly round, about 40 arcsec in diameter, a little brighter toward the middle" suggests he saw at least the brightest three of the objects, blended into a single image."  HCG 54 is considered a post-merger of 2 or more galaxies.

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IC 701 = Arp 197 NED1 = VV 3a = UGC 6503 = MCG +04-27-051 = CGCG 126-074 = PGC 35494 = LEDA 86632

11 31 00.7 +20 28 08

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 105d

 

48" (5/12/12): at 488x, IC 701 = Arp 197 appeared fairly bright, oval 2:1 WNW-ESE, 0.6'x0.3', contains a small bright core.  A very low surface brightness hazy plume extends to the NE about 30".  Occasionally VV 3b, an extremely faint hazy spot, was glimpsed at the northeast tip of the tail.  In Arp's class "galaxies with material ejected from nuclei".  CGCG 126-073, a thin edge-on described by Arp as a shred of IC 701, lies 2.5' SSW.  It appeared as a faint, extremely thin streak, 8:1 WNW-ESE, ~40"x5", fairly low surface brightness.  Situated very close west of a mag 13-14 star.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 701 = Sw VIII-57 on 22 Apr 1889 and recorded "eF; vS; R; 2 pB stars south following."

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IC 708 = Papillon Galaxy = UGC 6549 = MCG +08-21-056 = PGC 35720

11 33 59.4 +49 03 42

V = 13.0;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 95d

 

17.5" (4/22/95): brightest in AGC 1314 cluster.  Fairly faint, slightly elongated, 0.8' diameter.  Fairly high surface brightness, well concentrated with a bright core.  Forms a pair with IC 709 2.7' SE.  Nearby are IC 712 8.2' E and IC 711 9.9' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 708 = Sw IX-28 on 11 May 1890 and recorded "eF; S; R.  1st of 4 [with IC 709, 711 and 712]."

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IC 709 = MCG +08-21-057 = CGCG 242-049 = PGC 35736

11 34 14.5 +49 02 35

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.6'

 

17.5" (4/22/95): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, very small brighter core.  A mag 15 star is just 23" NW of center.  Located 2.7' SW of IC 708 in the core of AGC 1314.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 709 = Sw IX-29 on 11 May 1890 and recorded "eeF; S; R.  2nd of 4 [with IC 708, 711 and 712]."

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IC 711 = MCG +08-21-062 = CGCG 242-053 = PGC 35780

11 34 46.6 +48 57 22

V = 14.1;  Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

17.5" (4/22/95): very faint, extremely small, round, 15" diameter.  Located 1.0' NE of a mag 14.5/15.5 double star in the core of AGC 1314. On the DSS the fainter "star" is a compact galaxy, IC 712 lies 7.3' N and brightest member IC 708 is 10' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 711 = Sw IX-30 on 11 May 1890 and recorded "eeeF; pS; R; F * close sp.  3rd of 4 [with IC 708, 709 and 712]."

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IC 712 = MCG +08-21-063 = CGCG 242-054 = PGC 35785

11 34 49.3 +49 04 39

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (4/22/95): fairly faint, small, round, 0.6' diameter.  Even concentration to a small bright core and stellar nucleus.  Located 1.9' SSW of mag 8.4 SAO 43812.  Located in the core of galaxy cluster AGC 1314 with IC 711 7.3' S and IC 709 6.1' SW and brightest member IC 708 8.2' WSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 712 = Sw IX-31 on 11 May 1890 and recorded "eeF; S; R; pB * nr nf.  4th of 4 [with IC 708, 709 and 711]."

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IC 714 = NGC 3763 = MCG -02-30-009 = PGC 35907

11 36 30.3 -09 50 48

V = 12.7;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

See observing notes for NGC 3763

 

Francis Leavenworth found IC 714 = LM 3-430 on 25 Feb 1887.  His micrometric position with respect to Theta Crateris matches NGC 3763 = PGC 35907.  This galaxy was discovered by Andrew Common in 1880 and placed fairly accurately but neither Common nor Dreyer noticed the possible equivalence. So, NGC 3763 = IC 714.

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IC 717 = NGC 3779 = MCG -02-30-013 = PGC 36084

11 38 51.3 -10 35 01

V = 13.7;  Size 2.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 85d

 

See observing notes for NGC 3779.

 

Frank Muller found IC 717 on 14 Feb 1888 with the 26-inch refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and described it as "1.0'x0.8', E 90”, dif."  With respect to NGC 3775, he measured an offset of +53.92 seconds in RA but no delta for declination.  Apparently he made a 30 second error as NGC 3779 follows by +24 seconds in RA.  His description "E 90” [E-W]" seems to clinch the identification IC 717 = NGC 3779.

 

Andrew Common discovered NGC 3779 in 1860 with his 36" reflector.  With respect to NGC 3775, he noted "another 5' nf ".  Close to this offset is MCG -02-30-013 = PGC 36084.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position, that was repeated in the IC 2 notes.

 

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IC 730 = NGC 3849 = MCG +01-30-013 = CGCG 040-040 = Todd 10 = PGC 36658

11 45 35.2 +03 13 54

V = 13.7;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 35d

 

48" (4/16/15): at 488x; moderately bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 or 5:3 SW-NE, 0.5'x0.3', small bright core, fairly high surface brightness.  A mag 16.3 star is off the southeast side [27" from center].  An extremely faint "star" was noted off the northwest side [25" from center].  After later checking the SDSS, I discovered this is a compact galaxy (SDSS J114534.52+031417.8) with V = 17.8.  An extremely faint edge-on poking out of the east side of IC 730 was not seen.

 

17.5" (4/9/99): faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 25" diameter, no concentration.  Visible steadily with direct vision.  A mag 15 star lies 1.6' SSW.  This is a Todd discovery and due to a poor position is listed as nonexistent in RNGC.  This galaxy is listed as IC 730 (good position from Javelle) in modern catalogues.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 730 = J. 2-728 on 22 Mar 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His position matches CGCG 040-040.  This galaxy was first discovered by David Todd on 11 Feb 1878 in his search for trans-Neptunian planets with the 26-inch refractor at the Naval Observatory and reported as Todd 10 (later NGC 3849).  Todd noted a "large and nebulous" object with a star 2' in PA ~210” (SSW).  There is nothing at his rough position, but using Todd's discovery sketch, Harold Corwin identified Todd 10 as CGCG 040-040.  So, IC 730 = NGC 3849.

 

Most modern catalogues label this galaxy as IC 730 due to the poor NGC position, though Deep Sky Field Guide and Uranometria Sky Atlas use NGC 3849.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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IC 732 = MCG +04-28-050 = CGCG 127-051 = Holm 290a/b = PGC 36688 + 83488

11 45 59.8 +20 26 20

Size 0.8'x0.5+0.5'x0.2'

 

17.5" (2/20/88): very faint, very small, very elongated.  Located 4' NW of brighter NGC 3884 in AGC 1367.  This system is a contact pair (not resolved).

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 732 = Big. 165 on 29 Mar 1886.  Harold Corwin notes there are two galaxies very near Bigourdan's position and he may have glimpsed both of them.

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IC 736 = HCG 59B = MCG +02-30-037 = CGCG 068-068 = [Rose 7] = WBL 358-001 = PGC 36853

11 48 20.1 +12 42 59

V = 14.6;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

48" (4/19/15): at 488x; HCG 59B is moderately bright, fairly small, round, 24" diameter, contains a small bright nucleus.  PGC 1415034 (not a member of HCG 59, but part of the group) lies 0.8' NW.  Using 697x, this 17.5-18 magnitude companion appeared extremely faint and small, very low surface brightness.  It was visible only ~1/3 of the time.  Slightly brighter IC 737 = HCG 59A lies 1.9' ENE.

 

17.5" (3/8/97): HCG 59B is the fainter of two visible in HCG 59 and located 1.9' WSW of IC 737 = HCG 59A.  Very faint, small, round, 20" diameter.  With averted vision, the halo is closer to 30" (similar to IC 736) but the surface brightness is slightly lower.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 736 = J. 1-203, along with IC 737, on 23 Apr 1892 with the 30" refractor at the Nice Observatory.  His micrometric position correspond with HCG 59B = CGCG 068-068 and HCG 59A = CGCG 068-070, respectively.  Several catalogues (including RC3, MCG and CGCG) misidentify HCG 59A as IC 736 and HCG 59D = MCG +02-30-040 = CGCG 068-072 as IC 737.  When I took a look at this group, this immediately seemed odd as the brightest pair of galaxies are clearly HCG 59A and HCG 59B and I missed HCG 59D.  The correct identifications are

 

IC 736 = HCG 59B = MCG +02-30-037 = CGCG 068-068 = PGC 36853

IC 737 = HCG 59A = MCG +02-30-039 = CGCG 068-070 = PGC 36861

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IC 737 = HCG 59A = MCG +02-30-039 = CGCG 068-070 = [Rose 7] = WBL 358-002 = PGC 36861

11 48 27.5 +12 43 38

V = 14.0;  Size 0.6'x0.5'

 

48" (4/19/15): at 488x; moderately bright, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 0.5'x0. 4', contains a small bright core.  IC 737 = HCG 59A is the brightest member of HCG 59 with IC 736 = HCG 59B 1.9' WSW, MCG +02-30-040 = HCG 59D 0.8' E, CGCG 068-073 = HCG 59C 1.8' SE and HCG 59E 2.7' NW.  A mag 13.5-14 star is 1.4' E.

 

HCG 59D = MCG +02-30-040 (often misidentified as IC 737) is faint, fairly small, diffuse, no core or zones, very low surface brightness.  It is squeezed between HCG 59A 0.8' W and a mag 13.5-14 star 0.6' SE.  HCG 59C is the largest member of the quintet.  It appeared fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 E-W, ~48"x16", slightly brighter core.  HCG 59E is the faintest in the quintet and appeared very faint, small, elongated 3:2 or 2:1 SW-NE, ~15"x8", even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (3/8/97): faint, small, elongated 4:3 ~WNW-ESE (difficult to pin down orientation).  Appears slightly brighter than similar HCG 59B 1.9' WSW.  A mag 13.5 star follows by 1.3'.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 737 = J. 1-204, along with IC 736, on 23 Apr 1892.  See identification notes for IC 736.

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IC 740 = NGC 3913 = UGC 6813 = MCG +09-20-001 = CGCG 268-092 = CGCG 269-004 = PGC 37024

11 50 38.9 +55 21 13

V = 12.6;  Size 2.6'x2.6';  Surf Br = 14.5

 

See observing notes for NGC 3913.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 740 = Sw. IX-33 on 8 May 1890 and reported "eeF; pL; iR; 3916-3921 in field."  This galaxy was discovered by William Herschel in 1789.  Both positions are close enough to each other, that I'm surprised neither Swift nor Dreyer noted the possible equivalence.

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IC 749 = UGC 6962 = MCG +07-25-008 = KTG 40A = Holm 313a = PGC 37692

11 58 34.0 +42 44 03

V = 12.4;  Size 2.3'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 150d

 

24" (5/11/13): moderately bright, large, slightly elongated ~N-S, 1.3'x1.1', diffuse appearance with an ill-defined halo due to low surface brightness around periphery.  But the surface brightness is irregular or mottled with a very small, slightly brighter nucleus and an impression of spiral structure.  Forms a contrasting pair with IC 750 3.4' ESE.  The SDSS image resolves the spiral arms into numerous blue HII regions and that probably contributed to the visual impression of mottling. Mag 8.9 HD 103954 lies 3.1' SW.

 

13.1" (3/17/86): fairly faint, moderately large, diffuse glow, no central brightening, slightly elongated NNW-SSE.  Forms a pretty pair with IC 750 3.3' E.  Located 3.0' NE of mag 8.6 SAO 43979.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 749 = Spitaler 46, along with IC 750, on 22 Apr 1892 using the 27-inch Grubb refractor at the Vienna Observatory. A month later he found (or first measured) IC 751 and 752 (just south).

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IC 750 = UGC 6973 = MCG +07-25-010 = KTG 40B = Holm 313b = PGC 37719

11 58 52.2 +42 43 21

V = 11.9;  Size 2.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 41d

 

24" (5/11/13): bright, fairly large, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 1.5'x0.5', well concentrated with a bright, elongated core that gradually increases to the center.  A mag 16 star lies 1' S of center.  Forms an usual 3.4' pair with IC 749, which is a Sc face-on with a much lower surface brightness.  Mag 8.9 HD 103954 lies 5.5' WSW.  IC 751 lies 9' due S.

 

13.1" (3/17/86): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, brighter along the major axis.  Higher surface brightness than IC 749 3.3' W.  Mag 8.6 SAO 43979 lies 5.6' WSW.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 750 = Spitaler 47, along with IC 749, on 22 Apr 1892 using the 27-inch Grubb refractor at Vienna Observatory.

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IC 751 = UGC 6972 = MCG +07-25-011 = CGCG 215-011 = KTG 40C = PGC 37721

11 58 52.6 +42 34 13

V = 14.1;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 30d

 

24" (5/11/13): fairly faint to moderately bright, very elongated 7:2 SSW-NNE, 40"x12".  Sharply concentrated with a very small bright nucleus.  Forms a pair with IC 752 4.1' E.  Brighter IC 749 and 750 lie 9' N.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 751 = Spitaler 48, along with IC 752, on 18 May 1892 with the 27-inch Grubb refractor at Vienna Observatory.

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IC 752 = CGCG 215-014 = PGC 37747

11 59 15.0 +42 34 01

V = 15.0;  Size 0.6'x0.45'

 

24" (5/11/13): faint to fairly faint, small, round, fairly low even surface brightness, 20" diameter.  Fainter of a pair with IC 751 4.1' W.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 752 = Spitaler 49, along with IC 751, on 18 May 1892 with the 27-inch Grubb refractor at Vienna Observatory.

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IC 755 = NGC 4019? = UGC 7001 = MCG +02-31-014 = CGCG 069-024 = FGC 1347 = PGC 37912

12 01 10.3 +14 06 16

V = 13.2;  Size 2.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 145d

 

18" (4/9/05): fairly faint, edge-on NW-SE, 1.0'x0.2', low even surface brightness.  A mag 10 star is 5.5' SE and 2' ENE of this star is CGCG 069-029.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 755 = Sw. VIII-61 on 20 Apr 1889 and reported "eeF; S; E; bet. the n 2 of 3 st. forming a large triangle."  His position and description matches this edge-on.  Harold Corwin identifies NGC 4019, discovered by John Herschel, as IC 755, though this galaxy is 2 min 16 sec of RA east and 6' south of Herschel's position.  But there is a mag 10 star 5.5' southeast matching his description.  Still, this identification is uncertain.

 

 

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IC 757 = NGC 4068 = UGC 7047 = MCG +09-20-079 = CGCG 269-031 = PGC 38148

12 04 00.8 +52 35 18

V = 12.5;  Size 3.3'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 30d

 

See observing notes for NGC 4068.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 757 = Big. 166 on 11 Mar 1886.  According to Harold Corwin, Bigourdan misidentified a star as NGC 4068 on two nights and "rediscovered" NGC 4068 on 11 Mar 1886, though reversed the direction of his offsets.  Dreyer assumed Big. 166 was new, and it was catalogued again as IC 757.  But once the error is corrected, IC 757 = NGC 4068.

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IC 760 = ESO 440-052 = MCG -05-29-010 = LGG 271-006 = PGC 38345

12 05 53.5 -29 17 32

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 148d

 

18" (5/28/06): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 0.8'x0.3', broad concentration to a slightly bulging center.  A group of faint stars lies ~5' N and another group with a couple of brighter mag 11 stars is SW.  A faint 20" pair of mag 14/15 stars is 1.5' SW.

 

Ormond Stone discovered IC 760 = LM(S) 464 on 3 Jan 1889 with the 26-inch refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "rr, bM, stellar N, mag 15.0, 0.2' dia."  The discovery was published in the observatory's catalogue of Southern Nebulae (Vol 1, Part 6, 1893).  Howe, in his visual survey of IC objects, noted there was "either a star of mag 14 at 150”, or the nebula is elongated in that direction."  The latter is correct.

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IC 773 = MCG +01-31-044 = CGCG 041-073 = PGC 39493

12 18 08.1 +06 08 22

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  PA = 0d

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 20" diameter, gradually incr to the center.  Located 19' WNW of NGC 4260.  IC 3136 lies 12.5' ENE and a mag 9.5 star is 4.4' S.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 773 = J 2-744 on 4 May 1893 with the 30" refractor at the Nice Observatory and recorded "F, vS, dif, 2 vF st inv."  His position is accurate.

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IC 776 = UGC 7352 = MCG +02-31-088 = PGC 39613

12 19 03.2 +08 51 20

V = 13.8;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 98d

 

17.5" (5/14/88): faint, moderately large, diffuse, slightly elongated.  Forms the northern vertex of two stars mag 10/11 to south.  Pair with IC 3134 6.6' NNW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 776 = J. 2-746 on 4 May 1893.

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IC 777 = UGC 7363 = MCG +05-29-052 = CGCG 158-064 = PGC 39663

12 19 23.8 +28 18 36

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (4/9/99): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 0.9'x0.4', little if any concentration.  The compact cluster Shkh 202 is ~8' NE!  (six faint members close to a mag 6.7 located 11' NE viewed).

 

17.5" (5/23/98): faint, small, round, 30" diameter.  Picked up 9' N of 9 Com (V = 6.3).  At 280x, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, PA ~160”, 0.8'x0.5', very weak concentration.  Located 18' NE of NGC 4251.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 777 = Sf 18 on 14 May 1866 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory and simply noted "vF". His RA is 9 seconds too large.

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IC 778 = NGC 4198 = UGC 7246 = MCG +09-20-123 = CGCG 269-045 = PGC 39090

12 14 22.0 +56 00 42

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 130d

 

See observing notes for NGC 4198.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 778 = Sw. VII-19 on 3 Apr 1888 and noted "eF, pS, R, bet 2 st in meridian [N-S], n. one = 13 mag."  There is nothing at his position.  It's possible IC 778 = MCG +09-20-146, though this galaxy is 10' north of Swift's position and 40 seconds of RA east, so off in both directions.  This galaxy lies between two stars, but they are oriented SW-NE, and not close to being "in meridian".  So, a third discrepancy.

 

But Harold Corwin found that if Swift made an error of exactly 5 minutes in RA (too large), then his position matches NGC 4198, which also is bracketed by two stars (oriented NNW-SSE).  The only question is why did Swift mention the "north one = 13 mag", when the southern star is the brighter one?  Still, this identification is more likely than MCG +09-20-146.

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IC 780 = UGC 7381 = MCG +04-29-064 = CGCG 128-077 = PGC 39745

12 19 58.4 +25 46 18

V = 13.5;  Size 1.6'x1.2';  PA = 7d

 

24" (5/30/16): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:3 N-S, ~35"x20", brighter along the major axis.  Located 10' W of HJ 517 = 9.1/12.5 at 20", 14' SSW of mag 6.1 HD 107326 and 35' WSW of mag 4.8 12 Com.  IC 3171 lies 14' SSE.

 

William Herschel discovered IC 780 on 6 Apr 1785 (sweep 393) and recorded "suspected, but probably a deception of two close stars."  CH's reduction is 1.3' northeast of this galaxy, so the identification is certain, although he didn't confirm the observation and it wasn't included in his published catalogues.  Wolfgang Steinicke included this observation of IC 780 in his "Herschel Special" objects file.

 

Stephane Javelle found the galaxy again on 13 Apr 1893 and recorded it in list II-747. Dreyer, assuming it was new, catalogued it as IC 780 with credit to Javelle.

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IC 781 = MCG +03-32-002 = CGCG 099-017 = PGC 39754

12 20 03.3 +14 57 41

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (5/23/87): very faint, small, round, diffuse, very weakly concentrated core.  A mag 15 star is off the north end 30" from center.  Located 2.0' ESE of a mag 10 star.  Form a pair with NGC 4262 9' SW.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 781 = Big. 172 on 10 May 1888.

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IC 782 = MCG +01-32-020 = CGCG 042-043 = PGC 39962

12 21 36.9 +05 45 56

V = 13.6;  Size 1.4'x0.6';  PA = 59d

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly faint, small, round, 18" (core), weak concentration to center.  I missed the low surface brightness outer extensions WSW-ENE.  A mag 13.4 star is 0.6' S of center.  This galaxy is a little brighter than NGC 4287, which lies 14' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 782 = J 1-212 on 17 Mar 1892 with the 30" refractor at the Nice Observatory and recorded "eF, S, R."  His position is just off the west side of CGCG 042-043 = PGC 39962.

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IC 787 = MCG +03-32-031 = CGCG 099-043 = Holm 395b = PGC 40517

12 25 25.1 +16 07 27

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (5/23/87): very faint, small, round.  Located 3' S of a mag 10 star and 11' WSW of NGC 4405.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 787 = Sw VII-21 on 7 Apr 1888 and logged "eF; pS; R; B * n; 4405 following."

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IC 788 = NGC 4405 = UGC 7529 = MCG +03-32-036 = CGCG 099-050 = LGG 289-059 = PGC 40643

12 26 07.1 +16 10 52

V = 12.0;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 20d

 

See observing notes for NGC 4405.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 788 = J. 2-748 on 19 May 1893.  His offsets point directly to NGC 4405.  The IC description mentions "II. 88 [NGC 4405] south", but Javelle doesn't mention NGC 4405 in his description, so as Harold Corwin notes, this must have been added by Dreyer based on the position.

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IC 790 = NGC 4410C = MCG +02-32-051 = CGCG 070-075 = WBL 408-005 = PGC 40713

12 26 35.5 +09 02 07

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 94d

 

24" (6/4/16): at 225x; fairly faint, small, elonagated 3:2 E-W, 24"x16", very small brighter nucleus.  Third of three in an interconnected quartet with CGCG 070-079 2.3' ENE and NGC 4410A/B contact pair 1.8' WSW.  CGCG 070-079 appeared faint, small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, 24"x12".

 

17.5" (3/24/90): very faint, very small, elongated E-W.  Forms a pair with NGC 4410 2' SW.  CGCG 070-079, 2.3' NE, was not noticed.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 790 = Big. 173 on 6 Apr 1888, very near NGC 4410.

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IC 793 = NGC 4445 = UGC 7587 = MCG +02-32-072 = CGCG 070-104 = LGG 288-013 = PGC 40987

12 28 16.0 +09 26 11

V = 12.8;  Size 2.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 106d

 

See observing notes for NGC 4445.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 793 = Sw. VIII-63 on 6 May 1888 and recorded "eF; S; eE; 3 others in field."  His position lands 15 seconds of RA west of NGC 4445, and the description "extremely elongated" fits.  The "3 others in field" might apply to NGC 4417, NGC 4424 and NGC 4442.  NED equates IC 793 with NGC 4445 (from Corwin), but not most catalogues.

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IC 797 = UGC 7676 = MCG +03-32-058 = PGC 41504

12 31 54.9 +15 07 25

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 108d

 

17.5" (5/23/87): faint, small, slightly elongated ~E-W, weak concentration.  Located 42' N of M88.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 797 = J 1-217 on 22 Apr 1892 and recorded "faint, almost round, 30" diameter, gradually bM."

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IC 799 = NGC 4520 = PGC 41748

12 33 49.9 -07 22 32

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 101d

 

See observing notes for NGC 4520.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 799 = Sw. VIII-64 on 21 Apr 1889 and reported "eF; eS; R; ? eF * is in contact on p[receding] side."  His position is just off the east edge of NGC 4520 and his description fits.  William Herschel discovered NGC 4520 = H III-757 on 20 Mar 1789 (sweep 913) and logged "2 vF stars involved in nebulosity, vF, S."  Apparently their positions were just far enough off that neither Swift nor Dreyer realized that IC 799 = NGC 4520.

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IC 800 = UGC 7716 = MCG +03-32-069 = PGC 41763

12 33 56.8 +15 21 16

V = 13.4;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 148d

 

17.5" (5/23/87): very faint, diffuse, almost round, even surface brightness.  Forms the west vertex of an 8' equilateral triangle with two mag 11-12 stars to the SE and NE.  NGC 4540 lies 18' NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 800 = J 1-219 on 22 Apr 1892 and recorded "faint, almost round, 30" diameter, gradually bM."

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IC 803 = Arp 149 = VV 564 = MCG +03-32-080 = CGCG 099-105 = Holm 435a/b = PGC 42367 + PGC 215034

12 39 37.5 +16 35 17

Size 0.8'x0.15';  PA = 124d

 

48" (4/19/15): at 488x and 697x; the core of the eastern component of this interacting double system appeared fairly faint, small, round.  A very faint, thin spike (tidal plume or jet) was visible extending ~15" SE.  Occasionally a second, very faint stubby tidal tail extended ~10" north-northwest .  The entire length of this chaotic galaxy was ~30".

 

The nucleus of the western component (PGC 215034) is just 25" W.  It was moderately bright but appeared stellar.  At 697x, A very low surface brightness, very small halo was visible, but the tidal plume or jet extending southwest was not seen.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 803 = J. 1-220 on 25 Apr 1892 with the 30-inch f/23 refractor at Nice, France.  His position is accurate.

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IC 804 = PGC 42549

12 41 16.0 -05 00 33

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.5'

 

17.5" (1/31/87): fairly faint, very small, round, small bright core, slightly elongated.  Fourth of four in a low power field 12' NE of NGC 4602 and 30' NE of NGC 4593.

 

17.5" (2/28/87): appears slightly elongated.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 804 = Sw. VII-22 on 3 Apr 1888 and logged "vF; vS; R."

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IC 805 = NGC 4611 = UGC 7849 = MCG +02-32-179 = CGCG 070-218 = PGC 42564

12 41 25.4 +13 43 46

V = 14.3;  Size 1.2'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 126d

 

See observing notes for NGC 4611.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 805 = Sw. VIII-65 on 20 Apr 1889 and reported "vF; pL; R; 2 pB stars n and nf."  His position is about 8 sec of RA west of NGC 4611 = UGC 7849, but close enough that I'm surprised that neither Swift nor Dreyer noticed the equivalence.  Dorothy Carlson and Roger Sinnott's NGC 2000.0 equate NGC 4611= IC 805 although UGC, MCG, CGCG, PGC and HyperLeda only use the NGC 4611 designation.

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IC 809 = IC 3672 = UGC 7863 = MCG +02-32-184 = CGCG 070-225 = PGC 42638

12 42 08.7 +11 45 15

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.9'

 

48" (4/19/17): at 697x; moderately to fairly bright, fairly large, slightly elongated 5:4 NW-SE, contains a large brighter core but no nucleus, and a low surface brightness outer halo ~50"x40".  A mag 10.9 star is 1.2' SSW.  Picked up 6.6' NNE of M59.

 

24" (5/22/17): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, fairly even surface brightness.  Situated 1.2' NNE of an 11th magnitude star and 6.5' NNE of M59.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 809 = Sw. VII-23 on 6 May 1888 and recorded "eF; pS; R; bet. 2 st.; all 3 point to 4621 [M59]."  His position is 1' SW of UGC 7863 and his description clinches this identification.   It was found againin 1900 by Schwassmann on a plate take by Max Wolf with a 6-inch lens at the Heidelberg Observatory.  Schwassmann's position is accurate (measured on 2 plates) and clearly IC 809 = IC 3672.  The CGCG, UGC and MCG all identify this galaxy as IC 3672, although by precedence the primary identification should be IC 809.

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IC 811 = NGC 4663 = MCG -02-33-002 = PGC 42946

12 44 47.1 -10 11 52

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 170d

 

See observing notes for NGC 4663.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 811 = Big. 176 on 13 May 1888.  His position matches NGC 4663, discovered by Tempel in 1883.  Tempel's position was only roughly placed 8' south-following NGC 4658, so Bigourdan apparently thought his object was new.  Corwin comments that Bigourdan later measured the position of NGC 4658 and didn't notice these matched those of IC 811.  Modern sources equates these numbers. See Corwin's identification notes.

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IC 819 = NGC 4676A = The Mice = Arp 242 NED1 = VV 224a = UGC 7938 = MCG +05-30-076 = CGCG 159-072N = Holm 459b = PGC 43062

12 46 10.1 +30 43 55

V = 13.7;  Size 2.3'x0.5';  PA = 179d

 

24" (5/22/17): IC 819 = NGC 4676A is the slightly fainter northwest component of the interacting "Mice" duo.  At 375x it appeared faint to fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, 15" diameter.  The tidal tail was easily seen as a straight thin extension due north, so the combined galaxy/tail extended ~60"x10".  The tail has only a slightly lower surface brightness than the "head" (core of the galaxy).

 

48" (4/6/13): IC 819 is the NNW component of a fascinating interacting pair with IC 820 (slightly brighter SSE component), separated by 40" between centers.  At 375x and 488x in soft seeing, IC 819 appeared fairly bright, small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 24"x16", high surface brightness. IC 820 was bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 30"x20", high surface brightness, increased to a small, very bright nucleus.  The two galaxies are connected or surrounded by a low surface brightness bridge.  IC 819 has a remarkable bright, long thin tidal tail shooting due north!  The tail has a high surface brightness (brightest feature of this type I've observed in any galaxy) and extends roughly 80"x8", dimming at the north end and ending just east of a mag 17.3 star.

 

17.5": the northwest member (IC 819) of the interacting pair "The Mice" appeared faint, small, low surface brightness, elongated N-S.

 

Rudolph Spitaler resolved IC 819 and 820, the two components of the "Mice", on 20 Mar 1892 using the 27" Grubb refractor at Vienna.  His position is exactly 1 min of RA too far east, so he made a digit error in computing or copying the position.

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IC 820 = NGC 4676B = The Mice = Arp 242 NED2 = VV 224b = UGC 7939 = MCG +05-30-077 = CGCG 159-072S = Holm 459a = PGC 43065

12 46 11.2 +30 43 22

V = 13.6;  Size 2.0'x0.8';  PA = 2d

 

24" (5/22/17): at 375x; IC 820 = NGC 4676 is the slightly brighter southeast member of the interacting Mice duo.  It appeared fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, very small brighter nucleus, 20" diameter.  With averted vision the there was a strong hint of haze on the south side, but its tidal tail wasn't seen.  The core of IC 819 is close northwest [38" between centers].

 

48" (4/6/13): IC 820 is the slightly brighter SSE component of NGC 4676, a fascinating interacting system with IC 819 (NNW component) separated by 40" between centers.  At 375x and 488x in soft seeing, IC 820 appeared bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 30"x20", high surface brightness, increased to a small, very bright nucleus.  The two galaxies are connected or surrounded by a low surface brightness bridge.  IC 820 has a small, low surface brightness halo on its south side, but its tail to the south was not visible.  See notes for IC 819 for the bright tail.

 

17.5": this is the southeast member of the interacting pair dubbed "The Mice".  This object is the brighter of the pair and appears faint, small, round with a small bright core.  In contact with NGC 4676A at the northwest edge.

 

Rudolph Spitaler resolved IC 819 and 820, the two components of the "Mice", on 20 Mar 1892 using the 27" Grubb refractor at Vienna.  His position is exactly 1 min of RA too far east, so he made a digit error in computing the position.

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IC 824 = NGC 4678 = MCG -01-33-018 = PGC 43385

12 49 41.9 -04 34 46

V = 14.2;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  PA = 85d

 

18" (4/30/11): faint, but easily picked as a small glow, elongated 3:2 E-W, 25"x15".  A mag 15 star lies 30" ESE of center.  I kept having the impression that I was resolving a very faint star or nearly stellar galaxy that was attached and the SDDS image reveals this is a double system (oreinted E-W) with two nuclei encased in a common halo, comfirming my impression.

 

Stephane Javelle found IC 824 = J. 2-754 on 15 May 1893 and reported, "pB, elongated E-W, moderately large, appears to have two centers of condensation."  This galaxy appears to be a merged system and Javelle noticed the twin nuclei.  Leavenworth's position for NGC 4678 is 3 minutes of RA further west, but likely refers to IC 824.  See that number.

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IC 829 = MCG -02-33-037 = PGC 43675

12 52 27.4 -15 31 07

V = 13.7;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 11.9

 

18" (5/28/06): very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  This member of AGC 1631 is in a very tight trio with MCG -02-33-036 at the west edge (difficult to resolve) and MCG -02-33-038 1.4' E.  MCG -02-33-038 appeared very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Located 8' SW of NGC 4756.

 

18" (4/29/06): brightest in small trio within AGC 1631.  Appeared fairly faint, fairly small, small bright core.  Initially appeared elongated 2:1 E-W though in moments of better seeing in poor conditions, it appeared double with a knot (MCG -02-33-036) resolved at the west edge.  Located 8.8' SW of NGC 4756.  In a close trio with MCG -02-33-038 1.4' E, which appeared very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  With the addition of MCG -02-33-35 this quartet would satisfy the criteria of a Hickson group.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 829 = Big. 178 on 13 May 1888.  MCG and PGC misidentify MCG -02-33-038 as IC 829.

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IC 833 = NGC 4813? = MCG -01-33-055 = Holm 385a = PGC 44160

12 56 36.1 -06 49 04

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (5/17/90): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 11' NE of a mag 9.5 star.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 833 = Sw. VIII-66 on 25 Mar 1889 and reported "vF; S; R."  Close to his position is an extremely faint galaxy (LEDA 158287), that is not listed in MCG or PGC.  But 5' S of Swift's position is NGC 4813, which would have been nearby in Swift's wide field view, yet wasn't mentioned.  Corwin lists both galaxies as candidates but assigns the PGC as more likely due to the positional match.  Based on the DSS image, I feel this galaxy is probably too faint to have been seen by Swift -- or at least would have been called "eeF" or "eeeF", and his observation more likely applies to NGC 4813.  See Corwin's notes.

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IC 838 = NGC 4849A = Ho 495b = MCG +05-31-043 = PGC 44444

12 58 13.6 +26 25 37

V = 15.0;  Size 0.7'x0.55'

 

24" (5/22/17): at 375x; extremely faint, very small, round, 10" diameter [core region only].  This faint galaxy forms a double with NGC 4849 just 1.8' S.

 

Rudolph Spitaler discovered IC 838 on 24 Feb 1892 with the 27-inch refractor at Vienna, although he confused the main object he reported as new.  His description for Nova 61 (actually NGC 4849) reads, "Brightness and appearance like Nova 58.  Probably identical with Nova d'Arrest [NGC 4849].  Northeast of this nebula, at 1.5', there is still another nebula, but much fainter; Both together form a pretty double nebula."  Dreyer realized that Spitaler 61 refers to NGC 4849, but added the northeast nebula as IC 838.

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IC 842 = UGC 8118 = MCG +05-31-087 = CGCG 160-088 = PGC 44795

13 00 39.6 +29 01 11

V = 13.9;  Size 1.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 57d

 

18" (4/30/11): faint, fairly small, oval 4:3 SW-NE, 0.7'x0.45', broad weak concentration with no distinct core or nucleus. Located 13' SW of NGC 4913 = IC 843 and 14' WSW of IC 4088.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 842 = Sf 2 on 3 May 1866 with the 18.5-inch refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.

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IC 843 = NGC 4913 = UGC 8137 = MCG +05-31-100 = CGCG 160-099 = PGC 44908

13 01 33.6 +29 07 50

V = 13.6;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 134d

 

18" (4/30/11): fairly faint, very elongated 7:2 NW-SE, 45"x12", contains a very small brighter nucleus.  IC 4088 lies 5.6' SSE, NGC 4916 is 10' NE and NGC 4922 is 11' NNW.  This galaxy is identified as IC 843 in all modern catalogues.  See identification notes for NGC 4912.

 

Truman Safford found IC 843 = Sf. 3, along with IC 842, on 3 May 1866.  This galaxy was probably originally discovered by Lawrence Parsons, the 4th Earl of Rosse on 24 Apr 1865 and catalogued as NGC 4913.  On the same observation he discovered NGC 4912, NGC 4916 and IC 4088.  Parsons assumed he was observing the NGC 4914 field, but the discovery sketch that shows 4 nebulae (and one suspected neb) is a reasonably good match with a field 8” further south.  NGC 4913, labeled as Gamma in the diagram, matches IC 843.  Sue French originally suggested this identification.

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IC 844 = MCG -05-31-024 = ESO 443-040 = LGG 317-006 = PGC 45086

13 03 18.2 -30 31 16

V = 12.8;  Size 1.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 100d

 

18" (5/3/11): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, elongated ~2:1 E-W, 30"x15", slightly brighter core.  Located 13' W of NGC 4936 and 6' NW of B 240 (9.3/11.3 at 6"), which was barely resolved.

 

18" (3/17/07): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 ~E-W, 0.8'x0.3', slightly brighter core.  In a group with NGC 4936 12' E.  A mag 9 star (HD 113397) lies 6' SE.

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 844 = LM(S) 585 on 13 May 1887 with the 26-inch refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His filar micrometer offset matches ESO 443-040.

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IC 847 = NGC 4973 = MCG +09-22-006 = CGCG 270-049 = CGCG 271-005 = PGC 45280 = PGC 45299

13 05 32.2 +53 41 07

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

18" (6/27/03): faint, small, slightly elongated, 25"x20", weak concentration to a slightly brighter core and a ver faint stellar nucleus.  In a small, rich group with MCG +09-21-101 4.7' WSW and NGC 4974 3.8' SE  Located 2.6' E of a mag 11 star.  A mag 13 star lies 2' SE midway between NGC 4973 and NGC 4974.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 847 = Sw. IX-36 on 11 May 1890 and recorded "vF; S; R; bet 2 star.  His position matches NGC 4973 and the two stars are 2.6' W and 2' SE.  So, NGC 4973 = IC 847.  Herbert Howe found NGC 4973 again on 29 Jun 1900 and included it in his 3rd list of new nebulae (#19), assuming NGC 4973 and 4974 were further east.  He stated in his notes that 3-19 was near IC 847, so Corwin concludes Howe probably misidentified NGC 4974 as IC 847.

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IC 864 = LEDA 1633794

13 17 08.5 +20 41 30

V = 15.3;  Size 0.55'x0.25';  PA = 23d

 

48" (4/21/17): at 488x; fairly faint to moderately bright, small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, ~20"x10".  First in a group of 7 IC galaxies with IC 866 1.9' E. 

 

LEDA 1634204, situated just 1.4' NE, appeared extremely faint, very small, 8" diameter.  Both IC 864 and LEDA 1634204 lie in the background of the IC group (WBL 438), with a light-travel time of 530-550 million years.

 

Lewis Swift probably discovered IC 864 = Sw. VIII-68 on 22 Apr 1889 and recorded "eeF; pS R; 1st of 5 [with IC 866, 867, 868 and 870]."  His position is 2' SSE of LEDA 1633794 and 2' due south of his position for Sw. VIII-69 = IC 866.  But these two galaxies are actually separated by 2' due E-W, so clearly an error was made or only a single galaxy was actually observed.  In any case, Javelle independently discovered the group on 11 Jun 1891 (adding IC 869) and measured pretty accurate positions that were used in the IC.  Although the identification of IC 864 is certain based on Javelle's position, HyperLeda doesn't recognize LEDA 1633794 as IC 864.

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IC 866 = UGC 8354 = MCG +04-31-019 = CGCG 130-027 = WBL 438-002 = PGC 46279

13 17 16.7 +20 41 28

V = 14.5;  Size 1.1'x0.35';  PA = 33d

 

48" (4/21/17): at 488x; moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, 20" diameter, weak core/nucleus.  In this quick observation I didn't look for the low surface brightness arm to the southwest.  A mag 15.8 star is 0.9' E.  Second in a group of 7 IC galaxies (10 total) with IC 964 1.9' W.  LEDA 1634204 lies 1.7' NW.  Five of the galaxies (IC 866, 867, 868, 870, LEDA 1632104) are part of a physical group (WBL 438 = RSCG 69).

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 866 = Sw. VIII-69 on 22 Apr 1889 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; 2nd of 5 [with IC 864, 867, 868, 870]."  His position is 1.2' W of UGC 8354.  Javelle independently discovered the group on 11 Jun 1891 (adding one additional galaxy) and measured pretty accurate positions that were used in the IC.

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IC 867 = UGC 8353 = MCG +04-31-020 = CGCG 130-026 = WBL 438-001 = PGC 46283

13 17 19.8 +20 38 17

V = 13.9;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 18d

 

48" (4/21/17): at 488x; fairly bright, round, moderately large , ~0.8' diameter.  Contains a faint stellar nucleus embedded in an elongated core or bar oriented NW-SE.  This is the largest galaxy in the group (WBL 438 = RSCG 69), although the halo has a very low surface brightness.  IC 866 lies 3.3' N, IC 868 is 2.6' SE and IC 870 is 3.5' SE.

 

Forms a close pair with LEDA 1632295, just 45" SW of center.  It appeared very faint, very small, ~6" diameter, elongated NW-SE.  This small galaxy forms a 5" or 6" pair with a mag 17.6 star and they were not resolved in soft seeing.

 

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 867 = Sw. VIII-70 on 22 Apr 1889 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; 3rd of 5."  He also noted in his description of IC 870 that "4 pB st. in a curve sf points to the 1st, 3rd, 4th and 5th."  His position is 1.3' S of UGC 8353, but this galaxy is roughly collinear with IC 868 and 870 (4th and 5th), so the identification is certain.   Javelle independently discovered the group on 11 Jun 1891 and measured pretty accurate positions that were used in the IC.

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IC 868 = MCG +04-31-021 = CGCG 130-028 = WBL 438-003 = PGC 46281

13 17 28.5 +20 36 44

V = 14.0;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  PA = 10d

 

48" (4/21/17): at 488x; fairly bright, fairly small, 18" diameter, contains a very small bright core with a stellar nucleus.  In a group with IC 870 0.9' SE and LEDA 1632104 0.6' NE.  IC 867, 2.6' NW, is collinear with IC 868 and 870.  LEDA 1632104 appeared faint, very small, slightly elongated, ~10"x7".

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 868 = Sw. VIII-71 on 22 Apr 1889 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; 4th of 5; D[ouble] with 5th [IC 869]."  His position is 2' too far SW, but the comment "double with IC 869" as well as his description for IC 869 clearly points to CGCG 130-028 as IC 868.  Javelle independently discovered the group on 11 Jun 1891 and measured pretty accurate positions that were used in the IC.

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IC 869 = LEDA 1633609

13 17 29.9 +20 41 03

V = 15.0;  Size 0.5'x0.4'

 

48" (4/21/17): at 488x; IC 869 was resolved into a very close pair of galaxies (33" separation NW-SE).  IC 869 NED1, the brighter northwest component, appeared fairly faint to moderately bright (V = 15.0), fairly small, round, 15" diameter.  IC 869 NED2, the fainter southeast component, appeared fairly faint, small, round, 10" diameter.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 869 = J. 1-239 on 11 Jun 1891.  A faint pair of galaxies, separated by 34" NW-SE, is at his position.  The position here is on the brighter NW galaxy.  HyperLeda doesn't recognize either of these galaxies as IC 869.  Both Malcolm Thomson and Wolfgang Steinicke misclassify this object as a star, although it is clearly nonstellar on the SDSS.

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IC 870 = MCG +04-31-022 = CGCG 130-029 = WBL 438-004 = PGC 46286

13 17 30.9 +20 36 01

V = 14.6;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  PA = 50d

 

48" (4/21/17): at 488x; fairly bright, fairly small, elongated 5:3 SW-NE, at least 0.5'x0.3', small bright core.  Last in a group of IC galaxies with IC 868 0.9' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 870 = Sw. VIII-72 on 22 Apr 1889 and recorded "eeeF; vS; R; 5th of 5; 4 pB st. in a curve sf point to the 1st, 3rd, 4th and 5th."  Although his position was 2' too far WSW, the identification with CGCG 130-029 is certain based on this description; the close two stars to the south point directly to IC 870.  Javelle independently discovered the group on 11 Jun 1891 (adding one additional galaxy) and measured pretty accurate positions that were used in the IC.

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IC 871 = UGC 8358 = MCG +01-34-016 = CGCG 044-058 = KTG 46A = 46321

13 17 58.7 +04 24 12

V = 13.4;  Size 1.7'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 70d

 

24" (5/11/13): first and largest in a trio (KTG 46) with IC 873 5.7' NE and IC 876 10' NE.  At 375x appeared fairly faint, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 0.8'x0.4', sharply concentrated with a bright core and diffuse halo.  A mag 12 star lies 1.3' E.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 871 = J 2-761, along with IC 873 and 876, on 5 Jun 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 873 = CGCG 044-059 = KTG 46B = PGC 46345

13 18 16.3 +04 27 52

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.7'

 

24" (5/11/13): at 375x appeared fairly faint, small, round, 18", weak concentration.  Compact galaxy with a moderately high surface brightness. Second of three (KTG 46) with IC 871 5.7' SW and IC 876 4.8' ENE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 873 = J 2-762, along with IC 871 and 876, on 5 Jun 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 874 = ESO 508-042 = MCG -04-31-050 = PGC 46410

13 19 00.5 -27 37 44

V = 12.4;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 17d

 

24" (5/25/14): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 4:3 E-W, 40"x30", well concentrated with a small bright core that increases to the center.  Located 17' SW of NGC 5078.  A wide 45" pair of mag 10.7 stars lies 3' NNW.

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 874 = LM(S) 599 on 14 Mar 1888 with the 26" refractor at Leander-McCormick Observatory.  His two micrometric offsets (in RA) matches ESO 508-042.

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IC 876 = MCG +01-34-017 = CGCG 044-061 = KTG 46C = PGC 46370

13 18 34.6 +04 29 11

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.7'

 

24" (5/11/13): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 N-S, 24"x18", weak concentration, small brighter nucleus.  Third in trio with IC 871 and 873, spanning 10' SW to NE.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 876 = J 2-763, along with IC 871 and 873, on 5 Jun 1893.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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IC 879 = IC 4222 = ESO 508-047 = MCG -04-31-052 = LGG 341-003 = PGC 46479

13 19 40.6 -27 25 44

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 102d

 

24" (5/25/14): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 50"x25", slightly brighter 20" core, fairly low surface brightness.  Forms a pair with much brighter NGC 5078 2' NE.

 

Frank Muller discovered IC 879 = LM(S) 602 = Sw XI-154 on 16 Feb 1888 with the 26" refractor at Leander-McCormick Observatory.  His two micrometric offsets (in RA) matches ESO 508-047.  Lewis Swift independently found the galaxy on 28 Mar 1898, near the end of his discoveries at Lowe Observatory in southern California.  His position is exactly one degree too far south, but he mentions "5078 near north-following", clinching the identification.  So, IC 879 = IC 4222 with IC 879 the primary designation.

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IC 888 = NGC 5136? = MCG +02-34-015 = CGCG 072-070 = PGC 46905

13 24 51.4 +13 44 16

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.8'

 

See observing notes for NGC 5136.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 888 = Sw. VIII-74 on 3 May 1889 and reported "eeeF; pS; R."  There is nothing at Swift's position but exactly 1.0 min of RA west is NGC 5136.  Dreyer, of course, assumed it was a new object but Harold Corwin suggests IC 888 = NGC 5136.

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IC 895 = NGC 5273 = UGC 8675 = MCG +06-30-072 = CGCG 190-041 = Holm 535a = PGC 48521

13 42 08.4 +35 39 16

V = 11.6;  Size 2.8'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 10d

 

See observing notes for NGC 5273.

 

Lewis Swift found IC 895 = Sw. VIII-75 on 1 Sep 1888 and reported "vF; pL; R; * in center ? D[ouble]."  There is nothing near his position.  The closest galaxy he might have picked up is NGC 5240, but his position is well off in RA (3 minutes 40 sec) and over 4' in declination.  Without finding a suitable candidate, Harold Corwin listed this number as lost.  But in August 2017, I noticed that if I added 10 minutes of RA to Swift's position, this landed just off the northeast edge of NGC 5273 (discovered by William Herschel), and Swift's description is a good match with his galaxy.  This assumes he missed nearby, but much fainter, NGC 5276.

 

When I contacted Corwin about this find, he noticed that the same 10 minutes of RA correction applied to IC 1028 and IC 1045, discovered on the same night!  This results in IC 1028 = NGC 5739 and IC 1045 = UGC 9559, instead of the identifications IC 1028 = UGC 9368 in modern catalogues 15' SE of Swift's position and IC 1045 = NGC 5731?, from Corwin.  Finally, Courtney Seligman found that IC 511, the 4th and last object discovered that night, shares the same 10 minute error (see that number).  So, due to the common error of all 4 objects, these new identifications are secure.

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IC 897 = CGCG 102-020 = PGC 47816

13 34 19.5 +17 50 53

V = 15.0;  Size 0.6'x0.15';  PA = 75d

 

17.5" (5/30/92): extremely faint, very small.  I could only glimpse this object for moments with averted vision but it appeared very elongated 3:1 SW-NE and extremely thin.  Forms a pair with NGC 5217 3' WNW.  Observation verified on the POSS.

 

All modern sources (except for NED) misidentify IC 897 as UGC 8544, a thin edge-on located 10' SW.  Bigourdan, who discovered IC 897, unfortunately misidentified his offset star and when his offsets are applied to the star he noted, the position falls close to UGC 8544.  But when the correct offset star is used, the identification of IC 897 = CGCG 102-20 is matched.  This identification also agrees with his offsets for IC 897 from NGC 5217.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 897 = Big. 180 on 20 May 1890 and noted "Magnitude 13.5; situated from NGC 5217 at a PA of 105, Dist. = 3.5 arcmins."  His published position in Comptes Rendus (used by Dreyer in the IC) happens to fall near UGC 8544 = CGCG 102-016 and modern catalogues have taken this galaxy as IC 897.  Malcolm Thomson sorted out the correct identification (see "The True Identity of IC 897" in Deep Sky Observer #136) as well as Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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IC 904 = UGC 8628 = CGCG 017-047 = MCG +00-35-014 = KTG 47B = PGC 48217

13 38 32.2 +00 32 25

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  PA = 127d

 

24" (5/11/13): moderately bright and large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 40"x20", fairly high surface brightness, brighter nucleus.  Brightest in a trio (KTG 47) with UGC 8631 1.9' E and CGCG 17-46 2.0' SSW.  A mag 9.5 star lies 4.7' SW.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 904 = J 2-761 on 8 Jun 1893 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 958 = NGC 5360? = UGC 8838 = MCG +01-36-001 = CGCG 046-003 = Holm 557b = PGC 49513

13 55 38.8 +04 59 05

V = 13.3;  Size 2.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 70d

 

See observing notes for NGC 5360.  Identification uncertain and probably should be classified as not found.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 958 = Sw. IX-39 on 19 Apr 1890 and reported "eeeF; pS; iR; seen only by glimpses."  His position is 3.5' NE of NGC 5360 and this is the favored identification by Harold Corwin.   There are two question marks about this identification; there is no mention of brighter NGC 5364 8' ENE, which would have been in the same field.  Also his description implies a marginally visible object and NGC 5360 should have been more evident to Swift.  Yann Pothier CGCG 046-033 = PGC 49845 could be Swift's object.  This would imply a 5.5 minute error in RA.  His argument is this galaxy is fainter than NGC 5360 (and more appropriate to be called "eeeF") and is isolated, as opposed to NGC 5360.  As an alternative, Yann suggests a faint double star 22 seconds of RA due west of Swift's position.  So, the identification has plenty of uncertainty in the identification of IC 958.

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IC 960 = UGC 8849 = VV 335 = M+03-36-003/004 = CGCG 103-013 = PGC 49535/49536 = LEDA 3167744

13 55 59.6 +17 30 21

Size 1.5'x0.8'

 

24" (7/1/16): at 375x; IC 960 = VV 335 is an interacting pair with a separation of 0.8' SSW-NNE.  The brighter NNE component (VV 335a) is faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 SSW-NNE, 0.5'x0.3', low surface brightness.  The SSW galaxy (VV 335b) is extremely faint/very faint, small, round, 15" diameter, very low surface brightness.  On the SDSS this is a disrupted system (possibly a merged pair) with tidal tails that were not detected.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 960 = J. 1-265 on 17 Jun 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory. He noted "faint, diffuse, rather extended with a little bit of condensation."  According to Harold Corwin, his recomputed position corresponds with the northern (brighter) nucleus.

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IC 962 = UGC 8868 = MCG +02-36-003 = CGCG 074-015 = KTG 51A = PGC 49626

13 57 13.2 +12 01 17

V = 13.3;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

24" (5/11/13): fairly bright, fairly small, round, 24", small bright nucleus, high surface brightness.  First in the KTG 51 triplet with CGCG 74-14 1.4' S and CGCG 74-16 3.1' SE.  Located 8.7' NW of mag 7.7 HD 121845.

 

CGCG 74-14 appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 0.4'x0.25', sharply concentrated with a very small bright nucleus and a diffuse halo. CGCG 74-16 lies 1.8' SE and appeared faint to fairly faint, small, round, weak concentration, 18" diameter, small slightly brighter core.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 962 = Sw VIII-80 on 7 Apr 1889 and logged "pF, vS, R, bM."  He apparently missed the two fainter galaxies just south.

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IC 964 = MCG +03-36-010 = CGCG 103-024 = Ark 433 = WBL 480-002 = PGC 49661

13 57 41.3 +17 30 31

V = 14.8;  Size 0.6'x0.5'

 

24" (7/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 20" diameter, low nearly even surface brightness.  Brighter of a pair with IC 965 1.5' E.  Part of a group (WBL 480) at a distance of 300 million l.y.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 964 = J. 1-268, along with IC 965, on 23 Jun 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory. He noted "extremely faint, very small, round, 10" diameter, uniformly faint."  His position is accurate.

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IC 965 = MCG +03-36-011 = CGCG 103-026 = WBL 480-003 = PGC 49667

13 57 47.5 +17 30 38

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  PA = 64d

 

24" (7/1/16): at 375x; fairly faint, small, round, high surface brightness, 12"-15" diameter, very small bright nucleus.  Forms a pair with IC 964 1.5' W.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 965 = J. 1-269, along with IC 964, on 23 Jun 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory. He noted "very faint, very small, round, 10" diameter, with a very small nucleus."  His position is accurate.

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IC 968 = CGCG 018-019 = MCG +00-36-007 = PGC 4986 + PGC 1080186

14 00 37.2 -02 54 27

V = 14.7/15.0;  Size 0.7'x0.4'

 

48" (5/16/12): this pair is at the south end of a chain of 6 galaxies with dominant member NGC 5400 3' N.  At 488x the western component (MCG +00-36-007 = PGC 49866 at V = 14.7) appeared fairly faint to moderately bright, small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 24"x16", small bright core.  The eastern component  (PGC 1080186 = SDSS J140037.96-025422.7 at V = 15.0), just 22" NE, appeared fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, 18"x14', small bright core.

 

18" (6/30/11): this small double system lies 3' S of NGC 5400, a cD galaxy in the center of the poor group MKW 5.  At 285x appeared as a very faint, very small pair oriented SW-NE, each ~10" diameter and virtually tangent.  The NE component appeared slightly brighter.  A mag 11 star lies 3.2' WSW.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 968 = Big. 181 on 6 May 1888.  His position is off by 2' in declination due to an error in the position of the offset star.  Harold Corwin notes that Bigourdan has two measurements and his position is closer to the brighter member of the pair.

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IC 971 = MCG -02-36-005 = PGC 50120

14 03 52.8 -10 08 26

V = 12.8;  Size 2.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

24" (6/15/15): at 260x; moderately bright and large, slightly elongated ~N-S, broad weak concentration.  Brightest in a group including IC 4358 4.6' WSW, IC 4634 11' NE and MCG -02-36-011 11.5' SE.

 

MCG -02-36-011 appeared fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, 0.6'x0.5' [core region], small bright nucleus.  Occasionally extremely faint extensions were seen north and south.

 

Truman Safford discovered IC 971 = Sf 105 on 20 May 1868 with the 18.5-inch refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  In a note in 1905 "Ein schoner Spiralnebel" ("A Beautiful Spiral Nebula"), Max Wolf described IC 971 as a "rare pure S-shape spiral with a mag 14 core." (AN 168, 75).

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IC 972 = PK 326+42.1 = Abell 37 = PN G326.7+42.2

14 04 26.0 -17 13 41

V = 13.6;  Size 43"x40"

 

18" (6/11/07): picked up unfiltered at 115x as a fairly small, round disc of ~40" diameter with no additional structure.  Good contrast gain with the OIII filter and appears as a moderately bright, crisp-edged disc with an even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (5/11/96): faint but easily picked up at 100x without filter as a moderately large, round disc less than 1' diameter.  Nicely enhanced with OIII filter and appears moderately bright, crisp-edged and slightly elongated N-S, 45"x40".  Also nice view at 100x with UHC filter.  Located 6.7' S of mag 9.4 SAO 158326.

 

13" (4/10/86): at 79x and OIII filter appears fairly faint, fairly small, round, with an even surface brightness and sharp edges.  Faint but visible without filter.  Easily takes 166x with a UHC filter.  No central star seen with or without a filter.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 972 = J 1-272 on 25 May 1892 with the 30" refractor at the Nice Observatory.  Although the IC position is accurate, Abell assumed it was new and included it as #37 in his list of new planetary nebulae found by inspection of the POSS.  So, IC 972 = Abell 37.

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IC 973 = NGC 5467 = Holm 585d

14 06 29.4 -05 28 55

V = 14.5

 

=*, Carlson and Corwin.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found IC 973 = Big. 182, along with IC 974, on 21 May 1890 while search for Wilhelm Tempel's NGC 5467 and 5465.  According to Harold Corwin he confused the field and reported this single star (identical to Tempel's NGC 5467) as possibly nebulous.  Corwin notes that "he caught the identity later when he was preparing his complete observations for publication."  Assuming the same star fooled both Tempel and Bigourdan, this is the only known case where a single star has both an NGC and IC designation!  Bigourdan's IC 974 is another nearby star he thought to be nebulous.

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IC 982 = Arp 117 NED1 = UGC 9059 = MCG +03-36-066= CGCG 103-096 = WBL 493-004 = LGG 376-002 = PGC 50560

14 09 59.1 +17 41 46

V = 13.0;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

18" (5/3/08): fairly faint, fairly small, round, weak concentration, 35" diameter. Forms the SW member of an Arp pair with IC 983 2.5' NNE.  Located 2.7' SW of a mag 9 star that detracts from viewing.  NGC 5490 lies 9' S and other fainter galaxies are in the field (see notes for NGC 5490).

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 982 = J 1-274, along with IC 983, on 27 May 1891.

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IC 983 = Arp 117 NED2 = UGC 9061 = MCG +03-36-068 = CGCG 103-098 = WBL 493-006 = PGC 50577

14 10 04.3 +17 44 01

V = 11.7;  Size 5.4'x4.7';  Surf Br = 15.1;  PA = 120d

 

18" (5/3/08): moderately bright but fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, ~25"x20", weak concentration to a very faint stellar nucleus.  Located 1.5' NW of mag 9 HD 123930.  The bright star overwhelms a much larger fainter halo that was not seen.  Forms a close interacting pair (Arp 117) with IC 982 2.5' SW.  NGC 5490C = Arp 79 lies 7' S and bright NGC 5490 is 11' S.  Arp 79 is very faint, fairly small, 25" diameter, irregularly round, low even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (5/23/98): not seen initially as I was looking for a large object, but at 280x I picked up a small 20" glow just 1.5' NW of mag 8.6 SAO 100889.  This was the small core -- the large, low surface brightness halo was overpowered by the nearby bright star.  I started to look for nearby IC 982 2.6' SW but the skies began to cloud over and observing was cut short.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 983 = J 1-275, along with IC 982, on 27 May 1891.

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IC 984 = UGC 9062 = MCG +03-36-070 = CGCG 103-099 = Holm 596a = PGC 50580

14 10 07.7 +18 21 53

V = 13.6;  Size 1.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (6/2/00): very faint, small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 1.0'x0.3', smooth surface brightness.  Located 1.5” SE of Arcturus!

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 984 = J 1-276 on 27 May 1891.  CGCG misidentified CGCG 103-094 as IC 984, instead of CGCG 103-099.

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IC 986 = MCG +00-36-025 = CGCG 018-073 = PGC 50662

14 11 26.2 +01 17 11

V = 14.0;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (5/11/02): faint, very small, round, 0.4' diameter, compact appearance. Located 4.7' SSW of mag 6.4 SAO 120334 and 13' W of NGC 5501.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 986 = J 2-781 on 8 Jun 1893.

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IC 997 = MCG -01-37-001 = PGC 51220

14 19 59.3 -04 27 05

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 23d

 

18" (6/18/04): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 or 5:3 ~N-S. Contains a small, brighter, roundish core and the extensions are a much lower surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is just 0.8' N of center. A striking equilateral triangle of mag 11-12 stars is close northeast with the nearest star 1' N of center.  IC 997 is an (unresolved) interacting pair with companion PGC 1057935 and the brightest of a trio with IC 4401 9' WSW and IC 998 5' ENE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 997 = Sw (X)-4 = Sw XI-168, along with IC 998, on 16 May 1892 and recorded "vF; S; R; * with distant companion near north; p of 2 [with IC 998]." His description of a "* with distant companion near north" applies to the two stars immediately north of the interacting pair PGC 51220 and LEDA 1057935.  But Malcolm Thomson argues that IC 997 is identical to IC 4401 = PGC 51173 and IC 998 is PGC 51220 (the galaxy listed here), as these are the brightest two galaxies (of 4) in the region.  Harold Corwin comments, though, that the separations and descriptions are a better fit with IC 997 = PGC 51220 and IC 998 = LEDA 1058483, which is the faintest of the 4.  See Harold Corwin's and Malcolm Thompson's identification notes for a full analysis.

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IC 998 = LEDA 1058483

14 20 19.3 -04 24 59

Size 0.9'x0.3';  PA = 60d

 

18" (6/18/04): faint, very small, round. The view is a bit confused by a very faint star which is close south (~20") so these objects could initially appear to be a faint, close double. The galaxy appeared only 10" or so in diameter. Barely visible with direct vision though only a faint stellar nucleus remained. Faintest of trio with IC 997 and IC 4401 and situated 5' ENE of IC 997.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 998 = Sw (X)-5 = Sw XI-169, along with IC 997, on 16 May 1892 and recorded "eeF; S; R; following of 2 [with IC 997]."  This galaxy is the faintest of a quartet, but Swift's offset from IC 997 points directly to this galaxy.  Howe identified this galaxy as IC 998 when he observed the field carefull around 1900 and discovered IC 4401. But Malcolm Thomson argues against the identification listed here (PGC 1058483).  See his detailed analysis in IC identifications.  Also see Corwin's comments on IC 997/998.

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